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Sample records for accidental toxic release

  1. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  2. Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

    1991-09-01

    Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using

  3. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and

  4. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  5. Consequence analysis for accidental releases of toxic substances in a complex terrain with shoreline in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y.S.; Oh, H.S.; Moon, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    Offsite consequences resulting from various scenarios involving release of toxic substances in the Yochon Industrial Estate located in the Yosu Peninsula with complex terrain and intricate shorelines are estimated using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). ALOHA analyses by assuming the worst-case release scenarios for selected chemicals in the worst-case and alternative meteorological conditions indicate the impact on several thousand people in the nearby area. RAMS simulation is performed in order to consider the influence of terrain and shoreline. Receptors behind the terrain, 5 to 6 km distant from the source, also show high concentration when the wind blows to the terrain as well as receptors in front of the terrain in the nearby area. With considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables, it is predicted that complicated wind patterns with low speeds could cause high concentration over the entire area adjacent to the Estate.

  6. Estimating emissions from accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have an objective sources of air emissions through programs such as Title III, which is aimed at reducing hazardous air pollutant emissions. However, under Section 112(r) of the CAAA of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also developed requirements for owners and operators of facilities regulated for hazardous substances to implement accidental release prevention programs for non-continuous emissions. Provisions of 112(r) include programs for release prevention, emergency planning and risk management. This paper examines methodologies available to regulated facilities for estimating accidental release emissions and determining off-site impacts.

  7. Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, Z.C.

    1995-05-01

    Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

  8. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  9. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO sub x Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  10. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO{sub x} Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  11. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  13. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  16. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  17. Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

  18. [Prognosis of inhalation-related injuries in accidental release of ammonium and chlorine by the method of dynamic concentration].

    PubMed

    Litvinov, N N; Kazachkov, V I; Grigorevskaia, Z P; Tsygankov, S S; Iagund, G K; Bodanskiĭ, M D; Ivanov, A Iu; Shmelev, K V

    2000-01-01

    The article deals with new approaches to evaluate casualty effect of accidental chemical release exemplified by common and dangerous industrial chemicals ammonium and chlorine. Dynamic concentration method considers effects of high concentrations inducing instant reflex cardiac and respiratory arrest as well as lesions caused by variable toxic doses. PMID:11019541

  19. Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.; Galt, J.

    1991-08-01

    The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked upon a program to provide chemical dispersion models to local HAZMAT groups. Greater public awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals will likely mandate greater involvement by a number of government agencies, including the National Weather Service (NWS). HAZMAT personnel have not yet fully utilized the services of NWS meteorologists. In the future, NWS meteorologists and meteorological technicians may be asked to provide weather data as well as initial and short range weather forecasts (including trajectory forecasts) to emergency response managers responsible for protecting people from accidental releases of toxic spills. While a wide number of dispersion models exist, many are very similar when it comes to the type of meteorological input required to run them. The paper focuses on the input so that meteorologists may be better informed when they are called upon to provide assistance during a hazardous chemical spill in their area.

  20. Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

  1. [Toxicity of cyproheptadine. Side effects and accidental overdosage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    von Mühlendahl, K E; Krienke, E G

    1978-03-01

    113 cases of accidental ingestion of cyproheptadine (Nuran) by children have been evaluated. Life threatening alterations have not been observed after doses ranging from 0.3-6.15 (x:1.89) mg per kg of body weight. Somnolence, excitation, hallucinations, ataxia, tachycardia, and muscle twitchings were observed frequently, and occasionally gastric pain, dry mucuous surfaces, mydriasis, and rubeosis of the face were present. Symptoms appeared rapidly after ingestion and generally did not last longer than 6-12 h. When given in therapeutic doses, cyproheptadine reduces the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone, lowers blood glucose concentrations, and raises the levels of unesterified free fatty acids. Parents frequently complain about unsatisfactory eating habits of their children, but chronic lack of appetite needing therapeutical attention, in healthy children, is the rare exception. Cyproheptadine is an agent with considerable side effects, and it should be prescribed to children only after very careful deliberation.

  2. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  3. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  4. Atmospheric Dispersion Code System for Evaluating Accidental Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power Stations.

    1983-06-28

    Version: 00 PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features.

  5. Dynamic fugacity model for accidental oil release during Arctic shipping.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-15

    Improved understanding of ecological risk associated with Arctic shipping would help advance effective oil spill prevention, control, and mitigation strategies. Ecological risk assessment involves analysis of a release (oil), its fate, and dispersion, and the exposure and intake of the contaminant to different receptors. Exposure analysis is a key step of the detailed ecological risk assessment, which involves the evaluation of the concentration and persistence of released pollutants in the media of contact. In the present study, a multimedia fate and transport model is presented, which is developed using a fugacity-based approach. This model considers four media: air, water, sediment, and ice. The output of the model is the concentration of oil (surrogate hydrocarbons-naphthalene) in these four media, which constitutes the potential exposure to receptors. The concentration profiles can subsequently be used to estimate ecological risk thereby providing guidance to policies for Arctic shipping operations, ship design, and ecological response measures.

  6. Dynamic fugacity model for accidental oil release during Arctic shipping.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-15

    Improved understanding of ecological risk associated with Arctic shipping would help advance effective oil spill prevention, control, and mitigation strategies. Ecological risk assessment involves analysis of a release (oil), its fate, and dispersion, and the exposure and intake of the contaminant to different receptors. Exposure analysis is a key step of the detailed ecological risk assessment, which involves the evaluation of the concentration and persistence of released pollutants in the media of contact. In the present study, a multimedia fate and transport model is presented, which is developed using a fugacity-based approach. This model considers four media: air, water, sediment, and ice. The output of the model is the concentration of oil (surrogate hydrocarbons-naphthalene) in these four media, which constitutes the potential exposure to receptors. The concentration profiles can subsequently be used to estimate ecological risk thereby providing guidance to policies for Arctic shipping operations, ship design, and ecological response measures. PMID:27377002

  7. Spill behaviour using REACTPOOL. Part I. Results for accidental releases of chlorosulphonic acid (HSO(3)Cl).

    PubMed

    Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F

    2001-01-29

    Chlorosulphonic acid is a toxic, highly reactive and corrosive substance that exists in its liquid form at ambient conditions. Its major hazardous potential comes from the clouds of hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid mist produced whenever this chemical escapes from containment and is exposed to moisture. It decomposes violently and sometimes explosively in the presence of water, liberating heat. On spillage it creates liquid pools that can either boil or evaporate. There are three sources of water available for reaction: free ground water, substrate water and atmospheric moisture. Hydrogen chloride gas or aqueous solution and sulphuric acid liquid are produced by the hydrolysis reaction. This paper describes the dangers involved in cases of accidental releases of chlorosulphonic acid, referring to its properties, toxicity data and mitigation tests. It also reports results of pool behaviour using REACTPOOL [T. Kapias, R.F. Griffiths, C. Stefanidis, J. Haz. Mat., submitted for publication]. These results indicate that the pool behaviour is governed mainly by the amount of water available for reaction. Surface roughness and wind speed also have a significant effect on the results. A discussion of the results in comparison with those for other water reactive substances is presented in Part III of this series of papers [T. Kapias, R.F. Griffiths, J. Haz. Mat., submitted for publication]. The generated cloud will initially contain chlorosulphonic acid, hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid with numerous processes taking place. Initially, it is usually denser than air. Although chlorosulphonic acid has been involved in major hazard incidents, there are no experimental data relevant to the modelling requirements. Use of REACTPOOL provides insights into the major hazard role of this substance.

  8. Accidental benzene release risk assessment in an urban area using an atmospheric dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Son C. H.; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Ganghan; Kim, Dongmin; Park, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-11-01

    This study applied the American Meteorological Society and Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) to assess the risk caused by an accidental release and dispersion of the toxic chemical benzene in the vicinity of a highly populated urban area. The modeling domain encompasses the Korean megacity of Ulsan, which includes two national industrial complexes and is characterized by a complex coastal terrain. Multiple AERMOD simulations were conducted for an assumed emission scenario using background wind data from August between 2009 and 2013. The series of experiments produced the spatial accident probability patterns for different concentration levels during daytime and nighttime scenarios based on the corresponding dominant wind patterns. This study further quantifies the potential accident risk based on the number of affected individuals by combining the accident probability with the indoor and outdoor population estimates. The chemical gas dispersion characteristics depend on various local meteorological conditions, such as the land-sea breeze direction, which alternates between daytime and nighttime, and the atmospheric stability. The results reveal that benzene dispersion affects a much larger area during the nighttime owing to the presence of a nocturnal stable boundary layer with significant temperature stratification. The affected area is smaller during the daytime owing to decreased stability and enhanced vertical mixing in the boundary layer. The results include a high degree of uncertainty during the nighttime owing to weak wind speeds and the lack of a prevailing wind direction, which impact the vulnerable area. However, vulnerable areas are more effectively identified during the daytime, when more consistent meteorological conditions exist. However, the potential risk becomes much lower during the nighttime owing to a substantial reduction of the outdoor population.

  9. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system.

  10. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  11. Forecasting consequences of accidental release: how reliable are current assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on uncertainties in model output used to assess accidents. We begin by reviewing the historical development of assessment models and the associated interest in uncertainties as these evolutionary processes occurred in the United States. This is followed by a description of the sources of uncertainties in assessment calculations. Types of models appropriate for assessment of accidents are identified. A summary of results from our analysis of uncertainty is provided in results obtained with current methodology for assessing routine and accidental radionuclide releases to the environment. We conclude with discussion of preferred procedures and suggested future directions to improve the state-of-the-art of radiological assessments.

  12. Toxics Release Inventory indicates big increases in releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 4 billion pounds of tracked toxic chemicals were released into the environment throughout the United States during 2010, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the agency announced on 5 January. This is a 16% increase above 2009. The agency said the increase is mainly due to changes in the metal-mining sector, where differences in the chemical composition of ore being mined can result in significant changes in the amount of toxic chemicals. The chemical and primary metals industries were other sectors with increases in toxic releases in 2010, the latest year for which data collection is complete. EPA also noted that although releases in 2010 were higher than during the previous 2 years, they were lower than in 2007 and in prior years.

  13. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  14. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm.

  15. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  16. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  17. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

  18. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  20. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  1. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. . Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  2. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  3. Spill behaviour using REACTPOOL. Part II. Results for accidental releases of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl(4)).

    PubMed

    Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F; Stefanidis, C

    2001-02-16

    Silicon tetrachloride is a toxic, corrosive water reactive substance that is used widely in the process industries. On spillage from containment it creates liquid pools that can either boil or evaporate. The main feature of the pool behaviour is the exothermic reaction with water. There are three sources of water available for reaction: free ground water, substrate water and atmospheric moisture. Hydrogen chloride gas and ortho-silicic acid solid (or silica gel) are produced by the hydrolysis reaction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the dangers involved in cases of accidental releases of silicon tetrachloride, to report its properties, referring to toxicity data, major accidents and mitigation tests. It also describes pool behaviour using REACTPOOL [1]. Model results indicate that the pool behaviour is governed mainly by the amount of water available for reaction. Surface roughness and wind speed also have a significant effect on the results. Results are compared with those for other water reactive chemicals in Part III of this series of papers [3]. The generated cloud will initially contain silicon tetrachloride and hydrogen chloride with numerous processes taking place. Although silicon tetrachloride has been involved in many major hazard incidents, there are no experimental data relevant to the modelling requirements. PMID:11163688

  4. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  5. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements

  6. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.

    PubMed

    Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

    2003-01-01

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

  7. Wind tunnel modeling of toxic gas releases at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Government agencies and the petroleum, chemical and gas industries in the US and abroad have become increasingly concerned about the issues of toxic gas dispersal. Because of this concern, research programs have been sponsored by these various groups to improve the capabilities in hazard mitigation and response. Present computer models used to predict pollutant concentrations at industrial facilities do not properly account for the effects of structures. Structures can act to trap or deflect the cloud and modify the cloud dimensions, thereby possibly increasing or reducing downwind concentrations. The main purpose of this evaluation was to develop a hybrid modeling approach, which combines wind tunnel and dispersion modeling, to obtain more accurate concentration estimates when buildings or structures affect the dispersion of hazardous chemical vapors. To meet the study objectives, wind tunnel testing was performed on a building cluster typical of two industrial settings where accidental releases of toxic gases might occur. This data set was used to test the validity of the AFTOX and SLAB models for estimating concentrations and was used to develop and test two hybrid models. Two accident scenarios were simulated, an evaporating pool of a gas slightly heavier than air (Hydrazine-N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and a liquid jet release of Nitrogen Tetroxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) where dense gas dispersion effects would be significant. Tests were conducted for a range of wind directions and wind speeds for two different building configurations (low rise and high rise structures).

  8. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  9. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  10. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  11. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.; Harvill, T.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid rates of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W. ); Koopman, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 6 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  14. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  15. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  16. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  17. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  18. ALARA approach to the radiological control of foodstuffs following an accidental release

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, J.; Coulon, R.; Despres, A.

    1988-06-01

    This article presents a methodology based on two complementary approaches, thus allowing a selection of maximal concentration in foodstuffs for determining appropriate countermeasures. The first approach is based on a minimal and maximal per capita intervention level and takes into account the annual intake of each product. The second one is based on a cost-benefit analysis, comparing the advantages of a countermeasure concerning those products presenting a contamination higher than a given maximal concentration (in terms of reduction of cost of the detriment associated with the risk), with its drawbacks (in terms of cost of the products) in order to select the ''ALARA'' maximal concentration. This second approach is used as a complement to the first one. The results obtained through these two approaches are given for four products (milk, meat, fresh vegetables, and corn) and two nuclides (Cs-137 and I-131). These are presented for various scenarios: one or various products contaminated by one or various radionuclides. It is concluded that these two approaches are complementary, the first one being related to individual risk and the second to collective risk. Therefore, these approaches are both of interest in the context of the elaboration of modalities for the radiological control of foodstuffs following an accidental release and both methods may be useful for determining appropriate countermeasures.

  19. Exposure analysis of accidental release of mercury from compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Karakitsios, S P; Antonakopoulou, M P; Gotti, A

    2012-10-01

    Mercury release after breakage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) has recently become an issue of public health concern, especially in the case of early life infants. Preliminary, screening type calculations have indicated that there is potential for increased intake of mercury vapor by inhalation after breakage of a CFL. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that, when modeling the breakage of a CFL, the room space must be segregated into different zones, according to the potential of mercury vapor to accumulate in them after accidental release. In this study, a detailed two-zone model that captures the physicochemical processes that govern mercury vapor formation and dispersion in the indoor environment was developed. The mercury fate model was coupled to a population exposure model that accounts for age and gender-related differences in time-activity patterns, as well as country differences in body weight and age distribution. The parameters above are used to determine the intake through inhalation (gas phase and particles) and non-dietary ingestion (settled dust) for each age, gender group and ethnicity. Results showed that the critical period for intake covers the first 4h after the CFL breaks and that room air temperature significantly affects the intake rate. Indoor air concentration of mercury vapor may exceed toxicological thresholds of concern such as the acute Reference Exposure Limit (REL) for mercury vapor set by the Environmental Protection Agency of California. Ingestion intake through hand-to-mouth behavior is significant for infants and toddlers, counting for about 20% of the overall intake. Simple risk reduction measures including increased indoor ventilation followed by careful clean-up of the accident site, may limit dramatically the estimated health risk.

  20. Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Saltbones, J.; Foss, A.; Bartnicki, J.

    1996-12-31

    The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s{sup -1}) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users.

  1. Toxic release inventory, (TRI), 1991. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad-based user audience including industry, state and local environmental agencies, emergency planning committees, the Federal Government and other regulatory groups.

  2. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  3. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  4. Release, transport and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soni, Deepika; Naoghare, Pravin K; Saravanadevi, Sivanesan; Pandey, Ram Avatar

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have facilitated the synthesis of novel engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) that possess new and different physicochemical properties. These ENPs have been ex tensive ly used in various commercial sectors to achieve both social and economic benefits. However. the increasing production and consumption of ENPs by many different industries has raised concerns about their possible release and accumulation in the environment. Released EN Ps may either remain suspended in the atmosphere for several years or may accumulate and eventually be modified int o other substances. Settled nanoparticles can he easily washed away during ra in s. and therefore may easily enter the food chain via water and so il. Thus. EN Ps can contaminate air. water and soil and can subsequently pose adverse risks to the health of different organisms. Studies to date indicate that ENP transport to and within the ecosystem depend on their chemical and physical properties (viz .. size. shape and solubility) . Therefore. the EN Ps display variable behavior in the environment because of their individual properties th at affect their tendency for adsorption, absorption, diffusional and colloidal interaction. The transport of EN Ps also influences their fate and chemical transformation in ecosystems. The adsorption, absorption and colloidal interaction of ENPs affect their capacity to be degraded or transformed, whereas the tendency of ENPs to agglomerate fosters their sedimentation. How widely ENPs are transported and their environmental fate influence how tox ic they may become to environmental organisms. One barrier to fully understanding how EN Ps are transformed in the environment and how best to characterize their toxicity, is related to the nature of their ultrafine structure. Experiments with different animals, pl ants, and cell lines have revealed that ENPs induce toxicity via several cellular pathways that is linked to the size. shape. surface area

  5. An integrated decision model for the application of airborne sensors for improved response to accidental and terrorist chemical vapor releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitan, Loginn

    This research created a new model which provides an integrated approach to planning the effective selection and employment of airborne sensor systems in response to accidental or intentional chemical vapor releases. The approach taken was to use systems engineering and decision analysis methods to construct a model architecture which produced a modular structure for integrating both new and existing components into a logical procedure to assess the application of airborne sensor systems to address chemical vapor hazards. The resulting integrated process model includes an internal aggregation model which allowed differentiation among alternative airborne sensor systems. Both models were developed and validated by experts and demonstrated using appropriate hazardous chemical release scenarios. The resultant prototype integrated process model or system fills a current gap in capability allowing improved planning, training and exercise for HAZMAT teams and first responders when considering the selection and employment of airborne sensor systems. Through the research process, insights into the current response structure and how current airborne capability may be most effectively used were generated. Furthermore, the resultant prototype system is tailorable for local, state, and federal application, and can potentially be modified to help evaluate investments in new airborne sensor technology and systems. Better planning, training and preparedness exercising holds the prospect for the effective application of airborne assets for improved response to large scale chemical release incidents. Improved response will result in fewer casualties and lives lost, reduced economic impact, and increased protection of critical infrastructure when faced with accidental and intentional terrorist release of hazardous industrial chemicals. With the prospect of more airborne sensor systems becoming available, this prototype system integrates existing and new tools into an effective

  6. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  7. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  8. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  9. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  10. Spill behaviour using REACTPOOL. Part III. Results for accidental releases of phosphorus trichloride (PCl(3)) and oxychloride (POCl(3)) and general discussion.

    PubMed

    Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F

    2001-02-16

    Phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride are aggressive materials, widely used in the process industries. On escape to the atmosphere they create toxic clouds that may cause serious damage to people and to the environment. When spilled onto the ground they create liquid pools that can boil, evaporate or even solidify. The main feature of the pool behaviour is the exothermic reaction of these chemicals with water, which is complicated and depends heavily on the amount of water available for reaction, and as result of which the pool has changing composition and properties. The purpose of this paper is to describe the dangers involved in cases of accidental releases of phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, to report their properties, referring to toxicity data and major accidents. The spill behaviour of phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride has been incorporated into REACTPOOL [R.F. Kapias, C. Griffiths, J. Haz. Mater.]. Model results indicate that the pool behaviour is strongly affected by the amount of water available for reaction. Surface roughness and wind speed, also have a strong effect on the results. Although there are no experimental data for model validation, it is shown that REACTPOOL gives useful insights into the behaviour of such spills. The paper concludes with a discussion comparing the behaviour for several water reactive chemicals to which REACTPOOL has been applied.

  11. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release. PMID:26710163

  12. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release.

  13. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  14. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-26

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  15. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

  16. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  17. Model Testing Using Data from Accidental Releases of 131I and 137Cs: 1: Model Testing Using Data on 131I Released from Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Napier, Bruce A.; Filistovic, Vitold; Homma, Toshimitsu; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander I.; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana G.; Tveten, Ulf; Sjoblom, Kirsti-Liisa; Robinson, Carol

    2002-09-01

    Two major areas of emphasis in the BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Methods) programme were the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and the improvement of modelling procedures within the general area of environmental assessment. Theme 2 of BIOMASS, Environmental Releases, focused specifically on issues of dose reconstruction and remediation assessment. Within Theme 2, the Dose Reconstruction Working Group was concerned with the evaluation of the reliability of methods and models used for dose reconstruction for specific individuals and members of specific population subgroups. The Dose Reconstruction Working Group of BIOMASS carried out model testing exercises. The present paper describes the first one, which was based on an accidental release of 131I from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant in the northwestern United States in September 1963 (BIOMASS, 1999). The scenario made use of monitoring data originally collected during the two months following the release (Soldat, 1965) and further evaluated as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project in the 1990s (Farris et al., 1994). Radioiodine releases are important for many radiation accidents, and because data on the results of these releases are often incomplete, models for estimating 131I transport and exposure are essential in dose reconstruction efforts. The Hanford scenario therefore provided a valuable opportunity to intercompare modelling approaches and model predictions among several assessors, to compare model predictions with data, and to identify the most important sources of bias and uncertainty in the model results.

  18. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure Resulting from Accidental Radioactive Releases to the Hydrosphere.

    1982-11-18

    Version 00 LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) tomore » body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.« less

  19. The medical effects of postulated accidental release of radioactive material from Heysham Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a postulated reactor accident at one of the four AGRs at Heysham, NW England, have been studied, assuming a 10% release of the radioactive core. Methods used are a computer program TIRION, analysis of the radiation doses from the Chernobyl release of 1986 and the Windscale fire of 1957. Fatal cases predicted are 200 on-site, 3000 within 30 km and 250,000 in the cloud paths over Northern England. The results would suggest the incidence of fatal cancer would increase from roughly 20% to 27% in the postulated exposed population of 3.6 million.

  20. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The potential damage to electrical equipment caused by the release of carbon fibers from burning commercial airliners is assessed in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence. A materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials for aircraft structures is reviewed.

  1. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  2. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases by mesoscale forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Mobley, R.L.; Pace, J.C.; Hodur, R.A.; Lion, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    Modeling atmospheric releases even during fair weather can present a sever challenge to diagnostic, observed-data-driven, models. Such schemes are often handicapped by sparse input data from meteorological surface stations and soundings. Forecasting by persistence is only acceptable for a few hours and cannot predict important changes in the diurnal cycle or from synoptic evolution. Many accident scenarios are data-sparse in space and/or time. Here we describe the potential value of limited-area, mesoscale, forecast models for real-time emergency response. Simulated wind-fields will be passed to ARAC`s operational models to produce improved forecasts of dispersion following accidents.

  3. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  4. The European experience on developing and communicating worst-case scenarios for accidental releases of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.T.; Wicks, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Europe has a large chemical industry and a high population density. The differing legislative contexts of risk analysis in the countries of Europe provide a rich source for comparing different approaches. In this paper, the authors draw on the European experience to consider the advantages and disadvantages of a worst case scenario approach. The escape of the total contents of a large storage vessel of hazardous materials can cause effects over a large distance. Typically, a large flammable release could cause deaths over a distance of hundreds of meters and damage over a number of kilometers. For toxic releases the situation is even worse, since whereas flammable releases may be considered non-hazardous when they have diluted below their lower flammable limit, toxic gases can disable or kill concentrations of less than 1%. Generally, the complete failure of a large storage vessel of ammonia, chlorine or hydrogen fluoride instable atmospheric conditions could travel many kilometers before being diluted sufficiently not to be a health risk.

  5. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

    2006-09-01

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies.

  6. Analysis of explosion-induced releases of toxic materials at an environmental restoration project

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, S.G.; Moon, W.H. Jr.

    1993-06-21

    Prior to 1988, a variety of materials were buried on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Records of the disposal operations are incomplete and toxic materials may have been placed adjacent to potential explosives. One of the safety concerns in conducting an environmental restoration project at the burial sites, is the possibility of an explosion which could release toxic materials to the atmosphere. A safety analysis examined the consequences of such releases by first postulating an upper bound for the strength of an explosive. A correlation, developed by Steindler and Seefeldt of Argonne National Laboratory, was then used to estimate the amount and particle-size distribution of the material that could become airborne from the explosion. The estimated amount of airborne material was the source term in an atmospheric dispersion model which was used to calculate infinite-time, concentration-time integrals and 5-minute, time- weighted average concentrations at locations down-wind from the explosion. The dispersion model includes particle deposition as a function of particle-size distribution class. The concentration-time integrals and average concentrations were compared to published guidelines to assess the consequences of an accidental explosion.

  7. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... EPA--U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA--Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR... ``Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data'' (March 5, 2012; 77 FR 13061). These comments are... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 2677) that the Agency was considering requiring TRI facilities...

  8. Study of the effects of accidentally released carbon/graphite fibers on electric power equipment. Program final report, June 5, 1978-June 5, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, S.F.; Bankoske, J.W.; Cooper, J.H.; Davies, D.G.; Eichler, C.H.; Hileman, A.R.; Mousseau, T.E. Jr.; Rackliffe, G.B.

    1980-06-05

    The program to study the effect of accidentally released carbon fibers on electrical power equipment consisted of determining the vulnerability of system outage rates to carbon fiber contamination, and performing tests to quantitize the contamination required to cause flashover of external insulation. Part One of this final report describes an assessment of the vulnerability of power systems to accidentally released fibers from a composite burn. The assessment describes the effect of carbon fibers on individual component failure rates and discusses the effect the change in component failure rates has on the power system reliability. Part Two describes in detail testing performed to determine the vulnerability of external insulation to carbon fiber contamination. Testing consisted of airborne contamination tests on distribution insulators, limited tests on suspension insulators which are commonly used for transmission class voltages, and various tests to quantify the influence of fiber length, voltage stress, etc. on flashover characteristics. The data obtained and analysis performed during this project show that the change of system reliability due to an accidental release from burned carbon fiber composite is negligible.

  9. Toxics Release Inventory data currently available to the general public

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.K.; Jensen, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reporting requirements mandate that covered industries report annually to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) releases of some 650 substances. Releases include actual releases, transfers, and waste generated. Weights of releases of the specific substances to all media are reported, provided the facilities exceed certain thresholds for the substances. The combined weight of all releases is often reported in the press, regardless of the mode of release, likelihood of exposure, or toxicity. EPA, local agencies, environmental groups, and others analyze and combine the data using statistical techniques, and present the data at state-level, by geographical regions, by industry sector, and in other combinations. Recent regulatory action expanded the list of covered industries, and will cause the total reported releases to increase significantly, even though actual emissions by the reporting sources may in fact have decreased. As the TRI data are made available to the general public, EPA, the states, and the newly reporting industries will communicate with the public the significance of the new reported quantities. In preparation for these communication programs, reporting industries need to be cognizant of existing communication sources and vehicles. In an earlier time, government and corporate direct communications and press coverage constituted the majority of information flow. Today, many data sources are available on the Internet to anyone who is interested. Communication plans to discuss TRI releases need to consider the types of information already available to the average citizen. This paper describes some of the data and interpretive information currently available to the public and examines the type of data which is likely to become available in the near future.

  10. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  11. Laccase oxidation and removal of toxicants released during combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Semlitsch, Stefan; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Lemmouchi, Yahia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    This study reports for the first time the ability of laccases adsorbed on cellulose acetate to eliminate toxicants released during combustion processes. Laccases directly oxidized and eliminated more than 40% w/v of 14 mM of 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone); 2-methyl-1,4-benzenediol (methylhydroquinone); 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3,5-trimethylbenzene (trimethylhydroquinone); 3-methylphenol (m-cresol); 4-methylphenol (p-cresol); 2-methylphenol (o-cresol); 1,3-benzenediol (resorcinol); 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol); 3,4-dihydroxytoluene (4-methylcatechol) and 2-naphthylamine. Further, laccase oxidized 2-naphthylamine, hydroquinone, catechol, methylhydroquinone and methylcatechol were also able to in turn mediate the elimination of >90% w/v of toxicants which are per-se non-laccase substrates such as 3-aminobiphenyl; 4-aminobiphenyl; benz[a]anthracene; 3-(1-nitrosopyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine (NNN); formaldehyde; 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde); nitric oxide and vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile). These studies demonstrate the potential of laccase immobilized on solid supports to remove many structurally different toxicants released during combustion processes. This system has great potential application for in situ removal of toxicants in the manufacturing, food processing and food service industries. PMID:26408262

  12. Accidental release of chlorine in Chicago: Coupling of an exposure model with a Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.

  13. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.; Fellers, H.L.

    1997-12-31

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  14. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  15. Human toxicity potentials for life-cycle assessment and toxics release inventory risk screening.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, E G; Mateles, S F; Pease, W S; McKone, T E

    2001-04-01

    The human toxicity potential (HTP), a calculated index that reflects the potential harm of a unit of chemical released into the environment, is based on both the inherent toxicity of a compound and its potential dose. It is used to weight emissions inventoried as part of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) or in the toxics release inventory (TRI) and to aggregate emissions in terms of a reference compound. Total emissions can be evaluated in terms of benzene equivalence (carcinogens) and toluene equivalents (noncarcinogens). The potential dose is calculated using a generic fate and exposure model, CalTOX, which determines the distribution of a chemical in a model environment and accounts for a number of exposure routes, including inhalation, ingestion of produce, fish, and meat, and dermal contact with water and soil. Toxicity is represented by the cancer potency q1* for carcinogens and the safe dose (RfD, RfC) for noncarcinogens. This article presents cancer and noncancer HTP values for air and surface-water emissions of 330 compounds. This list covers 258 chemicals listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency TRI, or 79 weight-% of the TRI releases to air reported in 1997.

  16. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1988 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  17. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1989 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  18. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1992 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  19. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1993 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  20. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1987 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  1. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1991 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  2. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1990 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  3. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  4. Estimation of exposure to toxic releases using spatial interaction modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data are frequently used to estimate a community's exposure to pollution. However, this estimation process often uses underdeveloped geographic theory. Spatial interaction modeling provides a more realistic approach to this estimation process. This paper uses four sets of data: lung cancer age-adjusted mortality rates from the years 1990 through 2006 inclusive from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, TRI releases of carcinogens from 1987 to 1996, covariates associated with lung cancer, and the EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. Results The impact of the volume of carcinogenic TRI releases on each county's lung cancer mortality rates was calculated using six spatial interaction functions (containment, buffer, power decay, exponential decay, quadratic decay, and RSEI estimates) and evaluated with four multivariate regression methods (linear, generalized linear, spatial lag, and spatial error). Akaike Information Criterion values and P values of spatial interaction terms were computed. The impacts calculated from the interaction models were also mapped. Buffer and quadratic interaction functions had the lowest AIC values (22298 and 22525 respectively), although the gains from including the spatial interaction terms were diminished with spatial error and spatial lag regression. Conclusions The use of different methods for estimating the spatial risk posed by pollution from TRI sites can give different results about the impact of those sites on health outcomes. The most reliable estimates did not always come from the most complex methods. PMID:21418644

  5. Accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Corneli, Howard M

    2012-05-01

    Accidental hypothermia has produced many cases of intact survival even after prolonged cardiac arrest, but it is also often fatal. In recent years, alterations in resuscitation care that sometimes confused or discouraged resuscitation teams have largely been supplanted by an emphasis on safe, rapid, effective rewarming. Rewarming decisions and even the simple recognition of hypothermia remain challenging. This review seeks to update and demystify some of these challenges. PMID:22561323

  6. Calculation of External Gamma-Ray and Beta-Ray Doses from Accidental Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    1981-02-25

    SUBDOSA-II calculates submersion doses from an acute release of radionuclides to the atmosphere, as did SUBDOSA. Doses are calculated as a function of distance from release point, atmospheric stability, and wind speed for a specified radionuclide inventory. Contributions from both beta and gamma radiation are included as a function of tissue depth.

  7. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K; Watson, E C

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  8. Method for estimating ingestion doses to the public near the Savannah River site following an accidental atmospheric release.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, A A

    2005-02-01

    At the Savannah River Site, emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding Savannah River Site area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  9. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    PubMed

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  10. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    PubMed

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  11. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  12. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  13. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  14. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  15. The arsenic for phosphorus swap is accidental, rather than a facultative one, and the question whether arsenic is nonessential or toxic is quantitative, not a qualitative one.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio U

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic shares many physicochemical properties with phosphorus, so that arsenic can be taken up inadvertently by cells through the pathways for phosphorus. As a phosphate analog, arsenate competes with phosphate and enters cells via phosphate transporters. In the cell, arsenate can be recognized as a substrate by enzymes that usually use phosphate as a substrate. The phosphate for arsenate swap results in wasteful 'futile cycles' in metabolic pathways, uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation and extreme DNA instability. The disrupting metabolic effects of arsenic have an evolutionary meaning, so that all living organisms-from chemoautotrophic organisms that grow by reducing or oxidizing arsenic to metazoan--carry highly conserved arsenic resistance genes. Arsenic resistance can result from different strategies including selective transport to maximize phosphate uptake and minimize entry of arsenate, active transport to export arsenate, arsenic storage in specialized compartments, enzyme selectivity toward phosphate, and increased efficiency of DNA repair systems. None of these strategies is infallible, though, and susceptibility to arsenic toxicity varies between taxa in many orders of magnitude. Even arsenic-hypertolerant organisms will stop to grow and will eventually die when exposed to arsenic over species-specific resistance limits. The arsenic for phosphorus swap is an accidental one, it does not warrant a conclusion in favor of the essentiality of arsenic to life as we know it.

  16. [Accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Soteras Martínez, Iñigo; Subirats Bayego, Enric; Reisten, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an infrequent and under-diagnosed pathology, which causes fatalities every year. Its management requires thermometers to measure core temperature. An esophageal probe may be used in a hospital situation, although in moderate hypothermia victims epitympanic measurement is sufficient. Initial management involves advance life support and body rewarming. Vigorous movements can trigger arrhythmia which does not use to respond to medication or defibrillation until the body reaches 30°C. External, passive rewarming is the method of choice for mild hypothermia and a supplementary method for moderate or severe hypothermia. Active external rewarming is indicated for moderate or severe hypothermia or mild hypothermia that has not responded to passive rewarming. Active internal rewarming is indicated for hemodynamically stable patients suffering moderate or severe hypothermia. Patients with severe hypothermia, cardiac arrest or with a potassium level below 12 mmol/l may require cardiopulmonary bypass treatment.

  17. Toxic Releases from Paper Made with Recovered Wastepaper versus Virgin Wood Fiber: A Research Note

    PubMed

    Press

    1996-09-01

    Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data were used to compare average releases (kilograms per metric ton) of paper mills using primarily recovered wastepaper versus mills using primarily virgin wood fiber. Annual releases, for 79 mills, of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloroform, acids (hydrochloric and sulfuric), volatile organics (methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, and acetone), and ammonia were compared over the years 1987-1992. Both types of mills reported generally lower toxic releases in 1992 than in 1987; however, toxic releases in all categories were significantly lower from mills using recovered wastepaper than from mills using virgin wood fiber, strongly demonstrating that recycling has added benefits beyond reduced resource consumption. These results suggest that environmental policy should concentrate as much on increasing demand for recycled paper and developing wastepaper collection infrastructure as it does on end-of-pipe pollution abatement.KEY WORDS: Recycled paper; Toxic Release Inventory

  18. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  19. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or

  20. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  1. 48 CFR 52.223-14 - Toxic Chemical Release Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not manufacture, process, or otherwise use any toxic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 372.65; (2) The... established under section 313(f) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(f) (including the alternate thresholds at 40 CFR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxic Chemical...

  2. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9494125

  3. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located.

  4. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located. PMID:9494125

  5. Accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Paton, B C

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of hypothermia has increased greatly over the past 25 yr. Thousands of patients have been cooled intentionally in the operating room, and hundreds of thousands of living hearts have been temporarily stopped by cold cardioplegia and restarted without difficulty or apparent ill-effect. Yet in spite of the acquisition of this vast body of clinical experience an aura of mystery stills surrounds the patient who becomes hypothermic accidentally. The best treatment in any particular case is not always clear, and published accounts do not always give the impression that the hypothermic patient is treated with the same rational approach with which other sick and comatose patients are treated. In summarizing, therefore, conclusions that might be reached from reviewing past experience several important points emerge. The severely hypothermic patient should be treated in an intensive care unit where appropriate monitoring of temperature, cardiovascular function and respiratory function are available, and where full respiratory support including assisted ventilation can be given. The final outcome depends upon the etiology. The young healthy victim of exposure has a good chance of surviving. The patient poisoned by alcohol or barbiturates has a good chance of surviving provided the level of intoxication is not itself lethal. The elderly without severe underlying disease have a good chance of surviving. The patient with severe underlying disease of the endocrine, cardiovascular or neurologic system probably has, at best, a 50% chance of surviving and, at worst, a chance of only 10-20%, depending upon the associated disease. There is no statistical evidence that any one method of rewarming is significantly better than any other. But there is anecdotal evidence that in the absence of full monitoring and support systems slow rewarming is safer than over-energetic external rewarming. Internal rewarming, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, inhalation of warmed

  6. Effects of a Community Toxic Release on the Psychological Status of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Stickle, Timothy R.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Doane, Bridget M.; Thompson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the emotional effects of a major community toxic release on children in the exposed community while controlling for the potential effects of response bias. Controlling for the response bias inherent in litigated contexts is an advance over previous studies of toxic exposure in children. A randomly selected…

  7. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  8. Codes and regulations governing handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmen, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    To control the hazards associated with the handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases in the manufacturing process, a number of codes and regulations have been promulgated. At the forefront of these regulations are the Uniform Fire Code (UFC), Article 51, ``Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities Using Hazardous Production Materials,'' 1985 Edition; UFC Article 80, ``Hazardous Materials,'' 1987 Revision; and the Toxic Gas Model Ordinance, California Assembly Bill 1021. Article 51 of the UFC is specific for semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities and regulates the storage, handling and use of hazardous production materials. Article 80 of the UFC has a much broader scope and incorporates requirements for prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to hazardous materials. As it applies to toxic gases, Article 80 incorporates Article 51 requirements and in addition requires treatment systems to reduce discharge concentrations and mitigate unauthorized releases of toxic gases. The Toxic Gas Model Ordinance is specific to toxic gases and regulates storage, handling and use of toxic gases at new and existing facilities incorporating monitoring and treatment systems should an unauthorized release occur. This paper will focus on these regulations as they apply to toxic gases used by the semiconductor and photovoltaics industries.

  9. Accidental poisoning in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

    1982-01-01

    Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

  10. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  11. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases. PMID:26477531

  12. Potentially toxic element release by fenton oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J P; Asaadi, M; Clarke, B; Ouki, S

    2006-01-01

    The presence, in sewage sludge, of excess levels of the potentially toxic elements (PTE) copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury, could impact on our ability to recycle these residues in the future. Far stricter limits on the levels of PTEs are likely in proposed legislation. A method involving the dosing of Fenton's reagent, a mixture of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide, under acidic conditions was evaluated for its potential to reduce metal levels. The [Fe]:[H2O2] (w/w) ratio was found to give a good indication of the percentage copper and zinc elution obtainable. Sites with no iron dosing as part of wastewater treatment required extra iron to be added in order to initiate the Fenton's reaction. A significant reduction, in excess of 70%, of the copper and zinc was eluted from both raw primary and activated sludge solid fractions. Cadmium and nickel could be reduced to below detection limits but elution of mercury, lead and chromium was less than 40%. The iron catalyst concentration was found to be a crucial parameter. This process has the potential to reduce the heavy metal content of the sludge and allow the recycling of sludge to continue in a sustainable manner. PMID:17087386

  13. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory -- Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, D.E.

    1998-06-30

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid.

  14. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-13 - Certification of Toxic Chemical Release Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacture, process, or otherwise use any toxic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 372.65; □ (ii) The facility does... under section 313(f) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(f) (including the alternate thresholds at 40 CFR 372.27... Chemical Release Reporting. 52.223-13 Section 52.223-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  16. Toxic chemical release inventory at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) submits an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (Form R) as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). The Site uses a multi-step process for completing the Form R which includes developing a written procedure, determine thresholds, collection of chemical use and fate information, and peer review.

  17. Medical planning for toxic releases into the community: the example of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Davies, P C; Murray, V

    1989-01-01

    Emergency planning for a major accidental release of chlorine gas from industrial installations into the community is outlined for emergency services and hospitals. Realistic planning has been made possible with the advent of computer models for gas dispersion which may be used to estimate the numbers of deaths and casualties, according to their severity. For most purposes sufficient accuracy may be obtained by using a small number of computer analyses for the most serious reasonably foreseeable events under typical day and night weather conditions, and allowing for the emergency response to be scaled up or down according to the size of an actual release. In highly populated areas triage should be preplanned to deal with a large number of victims; field stations will be needed for the treatment and observation of minor casualties. The management and treatment of casualties is summarised. The best protection against a gas cloud is afforded by buildings whose windows, doors, and ventilation systems have been closed. Hospitals in the vicinity of an installation should draw up plans to protect patients and staff. Coordination in a disaster will require toxicological and epidemiological expertise and hospital plans should allow for this. PMID:2713283

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Released from an Epoxy-Based Nanocomposite: Quantification and Particle Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Studies combining both the quantification of free nanoparticle release and the toxicological investigations of the released particles from actual nanoproducts in a real-life exposure scenario are urgently needed, yet very rare. Here, a new measurement method was established to quantify the amount of free-standing and protruding multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the respirable fraction of particles abraded from a MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite. The quantification approach involves the prelabeling of MWCNTs with lead ions, nanocomposite production, abrasion and collection of the inhalable particle fraction, and quantification of free-standing and protruding MWCNTs by measuring the concentration of released lead ions. In vitro toxicity studies for genotoxicity, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell viability were performed using A549 human alveolar epithelial cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The quantification experiment revealed that in the respirable fraction of the abraded particles, approximately 4000 ppm of the MWCNTs were released as exposed MWCNTs (which could contact lung cells upon inhalation) and approximately 40 ppm as free-standing MWCNTs in the worst-case scenario. The release of exposed MWCNTs was lower for nanocomposites containing agglomerated MWCNTs. The toxicity tests revealed that the abraded particles did not induce any acute cytotoxic effects.

  19. Taking stock of toxic releases: When power plants file Form R

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Platisha, S.B.; Ulman, P.

    1997-07-01

    On June 27, 1996, EPA proposed to add seven industry categories, including power plants, to the list of industries subject to the annual Toxic Release Reporting requirements, authorized in SARA Title DI, the Emergency Planning and Community Right tot Know Act (EPCRA). The proposed rule will require power plants to submit a Toxic Release Inventory or {open_quote}Form R{close_quotes} to report annual releases. As of this writing, the proposal is undergoing review at the Office of Management and Budget and is expected to be finalized in the second quarter of 1997. Under the TRI reporting requirement a completed Form R must be submitted for each toxic chemical, including chemicals and chemical compounds routinely used at power plants. Submittal of Form R will require review, tabulation and evaluation of numerous plant records. Annual chemical and fuel consumption, as well as emission data, must be summarized for each toxic chemical by Chemical Abstract Services Number (CAS No.) to evaluate a plant`s chemical usage against three threshold quantities. To complete Form R, a facility must quantify all releases to land, water and soil (permitted and unpermitted) and quantify the pounds of chemical treated, recycled, burned for energy recovery or transferred offsite for treatment or disposal. Finally, all Form R`s must be certified by an owner, operator or corporate{open_quote}responsible official{close_quotes} stating that the information is true and accurate based on reasonable estimates. This regulatory assessment is organized in four sections. Section I describes the scope of the proposed TRI expansion. Section II describes the key steps to comply with EPCRA. Section M discusses the impacts and benefits, including compliance costs, pollution prevention and public relations. Section IV suggests implementation strategies for electric industry.

  20. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  1. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  2. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. An approach for estimating toxic releases of H2S-containing natural gas.

    PubMed

    Jianwen, Zhang; Da, Lei; Wenxing, Feng

    2014-01-15

    China is well known being rich in sulfurous natural gas with huge deposits widely distributed all over the country. Due to the toxic nature, the release of hydrogen sulfide-containing natural gas from the pipelines intends to impose serious threats to the human, society and environment around the release sources. CFD algorithm is adopted to simulate the dispersion process of gas, and the results prove that Gaussian plume model is suitable for determining the affected region of the well blowout of sulfide hydrogen-containing natural gas. In accordance with the analysis of release scenarios, the present study proposes a new approach for estimating the risk of hydrogen sulfide poisoning hazards, as caused by sulfide-hydrogen-containing natural gas releases. Historical accident-statistical data from the EGIG (European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group) and the Britain Gas Transco are integrated into the approach. Also, the dose-load effect is introduced to exploit the hazards' effects by two essential parameters - toxic concentration and exposure time. The approach was applied to three release scenarios occurring on the East-Sichuan Gas Transportation Project, and the individual risk and societal risk are classified and discussed. Results show that societal risk varies significantly with different factors, including population density, distance from pipeline, operating conditions and so on. Concerning the dispersion process of hazardous gas, available safe egress time was studied from the perspective of individual fatality risks. The present approach can provide reliable support for the safety management and maintenance of natural gas pipelines as well as evacuations that may occur after release incidents.

  4. Will Toxic Amounts of Lead be Released from Astronauts' Bones During Long Duration Missions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contaminants in the air, water, or food are a source of concern, both on Earth and in spacecraft. In microgravity, however, another source of potential toxicants can be introduced: astronauts' bones. Space toxicologists have been concerned about the possibility that crew members of long duration missions could suffer from lead poisoning due to the release of lead into their blood from stores of lead in their bones. If this occurs, NASA would be unable to set a Spacecraft Water Exposure Guideline (SWEG) for permissible lead concentrations in spacecraft drinking water that would be protective of astronaut health. Lead ingested earlier in life is stored in the bones where it can remain for many years without causing toxicity unless something happens to cause the release of lead into the blood. Microgravity is known to accelerate bone resorption, leading to the release of calcium and lead from bones into the blood. Relatively small increases in the concentration of lead in the blood can cause toxic effects in a variety of organ systems including the brain and kidneys. One mathematical model [1] of the rate of release of lead from bones in microgravity predicts that blood lead levels (BLLs) exceeding the current level of concern for adults (25 µg/dL) could be achieved within about 100 days in microgravity in some astronauts. Another, more complex mathematical model [2], however, predicts a much more limited release of lead, such that clinically significant concentrations of lead in the blood are not achieved. To determine which of these predictions is more accurate, BLL measurements were taken in a sample of astronauts before and after stays of at least 150 days on the International Space Station. BLLs measured before flight and compared to BLLs upon landing confirmed that no measurable increases in BLLs are observed in crew members of long-duration missions. In all astronauts tested, BLLs were below the U.S. population average of about 2 μg/dL both before and

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987-1994 (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad based user audience.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987-1993 (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  7. Toxic chemical release inventory reporting: Questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    On September 22, 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Department to participate in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program and to initiate Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) issued interim guidance on March 4, 1993, entitled ``Toxic Chemical Release Inventory and 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program`` that provided instructions on implementing the Secretarial directive. As stated in the interim guidance, all DOE sites not currently reporting under EPCRA Section 313, which meet the criteria for DOE TRI reporting, will initiate reporting of all TRI chemical releases and transfers for the 1993 calendar year with the annual report due to EPA, States and a courtesy copy to EH-20 by July 1, 1994. All other DOE sites which currently report under EPCRA Section 313 will also follow the criteria for DOE TRI reporting.

  8. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed.

  9. Toxic Chemical System (TCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Del Gandio, P.

    1994-09-01

    The Toxic Chemical System (TCS) will have the capacity to process chemical data, calculate chemical formulas, and format the data into the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form R of Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), hereafter be referred to as ``Form R.`` The filing of this form is required of all industries which manufacture, process or otherwise use any EPA listed chemicals in quantities in excess of their threshold planning quantities (TPQ). Facilities required to file the Form R must report the quantities of both routine and accidental releases of listed toxic chemicals on-site during the calendar year and the amount contained in waste products transferred off-site. This paper describes a specialized computer system designed for regulatory compliance.

  10. Drug Toxicity Deaths after Release from Incarceration in Ontario, 2006-2013: Review of Coroner’s Cases

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Emily; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Kiefer, Lori; Madadi, Parvaz; Gross, Jeremy; Prevost, Brittany; Jhirad, Reuven; Huyer, Dirk; Snowdon, Victoria; Persaud, Navindra

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of death due to drug toxicity after release from incarceration. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing, rate and circumstances of drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. This information can be used to help design potential preventive interventions. Methods and Findings We reviewed coroner’s files to identify deaths in adults in Ontario between 2006 and 2013 caused by drug toxicity (n = 6,978) and these records were matched with provincial correctional records to identify individuals who died within one year of being released from incarceration (n = 702). Twenty percent (n = 137) of the 702 deaths occurred within one week of release. The majority (77%, n = 538) of deaths after release involved one or more opioids. Of the deaths involving opioids, intervention by another person may have been possible in 318 cases. Conclusions Between 2006 and 2013 in Ontario, one in ten drug toxicity deaths in adults occurred within one year of release from provincial incarceration. These findings may help to inform the implemention and assessment of interventions aimed at reducing drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. PMID:27384044

  11. Results from field applications of controlled release bactericides on toxic mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorn, M.A.; Sobek, A.A.; Rastogi, V.

    1985-12-09

    Controlled release system employing batericides inhibitory to iron oxidizing bacteria (acidophilic Thiobacillus) can reduce acid generation in toxic mine waste for prolonged period of time. Designing systems to remain active for a number of years can allow the development of beneficial heterotrophic bacteria, enzymes, and mycorrhizae to establish a natural cycle mitigating acid generation. Field sites have been installed in Ohio and West Virginia using controlled release systems as part of reclamation. Refuse water quality, bacterial enumerations, and vegetation have been continuously monitored to establish time spans necessary for a natural cycle to take over. Described are the methods used and results obtained so far on the two oldest sites. Comparisons of various bactericides and their site-specific character are presented for use in reclamation projects and active mining operations. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000–$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010–1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  13. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000-$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010-1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  14. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H

    2016-07-23

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000-$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010-1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed.

  15. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  16. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-04-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 ..mu..g/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T/sub 4/, T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 ..mu..M Pb/sup 2 +/ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity.

  17. Code System for Real-Time Prediction of Radiation Dose to the Public Due to an Accidental Release from a Nuclear Power Plant.

    1987-01-20

    Version 00 The suite of computer codes, SPEEDI, predicts the dose to the public from a plume released from a nuclear power plant. The main codes comprising SPEEDI are: WIND04, PRWDA, and CIDE. WIND04 calculates three-dimensional mass-conservative windfields. PRWDA calculates concentration distributions, and CIDE estimates the external and internal doses. These models can take into account the spatial and temporal variation of wind, variable topography, deposition and variable source intensity for use in real-time assessment.more » We recommend that you also review the emergency response supporting system CCC-661/ EXPRESS documentation.« less

  18. Drug Release Kinetics, Cell Uptake, and Tumor Toxicity of Hybrid VVVVVVKK Peptide-Assembled Polylactide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Yang, Xiaoming; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong

    2013-01-01

    An exciting approach to tumor delivery is encapsulation of the drug in self-assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles. The objective of this work was to synthesize a conjugate of low molecular weight polylactide (LMW PLA) and V6K2 peptide, and investigate self-assembly, drug release kinetics, cell uptake and toxicity, drug pharmacokinetics, and tumor cell invasion with Doxorubicin (DOX) or paclitaxel (PTX). The results for PLA-V6K2 self-assembled NPs were compared with those of polyethylene glycol stabilized PLA (PLA-EG) NPs. The size of PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs were 100±20 and 130±50 nm, respectively, with polydispersity index of 1.04 and 1.14. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 44±9% and 55±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was >90 for both NP types. The release of DOX and PTX from PLA-V6K2 was slower than that of PLA-EG and the release rate was relatively constant with time. Based on molecular dynamic simulation, the less hydrophobic DOX was distributed in the lactide core as well as the peptide shell while the hydrophobic PTX was localized mainly to the lactide core. PLA-V6K2 NPs had significantly higher cell uptake by 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma cells compared to PLA-EG NPs, which was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the peptide and negatively charged moieties on the cell membrane. PLA-V6K2 NPs showed no toxicity to marrow stromal cells. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs showed higher toxicity to 4T1 cells and the DNA damage response and apoptosis was delayed compared to the free DOX. DOX or PTX encapsulated in PLA-V6K2 NPs significantly reduced invasion of 4T1 cells compared to those cells treated with the drug in PLA-EG NPs. Invasion of 4T1 cells treated with DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 5±1% and 30±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was 11±2% and 40±7%. The AUC of DOX in PLA-V6K2 NPs was 67% and 21% higher than those of free DOX and PLA-EG NPs, respectively. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs injected in C3He

  19. Doctor Ward's Accidental Terrarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the story of the accidental invention of the Wardian case, or terrarium, by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward. Advocates the use of this story in teaching precollege biology as an illustration of how a chance event can lead to a major scientific advancement and as an example of the common occurrence of multiple discovery in botany. Contains 34…

  20. Modeling dispersion from toxic gas released after a train collision in Graniteville, SC.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Robert L; Hunter, Charles H; Addis, Robert P; Parker, Matthew J

    2007-03-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Weather Information and Display System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies after the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for 9 fatalities and caused injuries to more than 500 others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing 2 days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Savannah River Site (SRS) Emergency Operations Center, Department of Energy headquarters, and hazard material teams dispatched from the SRS. Operational model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response. High-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration in greater detail. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 m. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher-resolution winds indicated agreement with

  1. The role of silver and vanadium release in the toxicity of silver vanadate nanowires toward Daphnia similis.

    PubMed

    Artal, Mariana Coletty; Holtz, Raphael Dias; Kummrow, Fábio; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2013-04-01

    Nanomaterials are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including nanowires that are objects with at least one of its dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nm. Recently, a new type of silver vanadate nanowire decorated with silver nanoparticles (SVSN-LQES1) with promising antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria was described. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of silver and vanadium release in the acute toxicity of this material using Daphnia similis. To verify the effect of the presence of the nanowires in the test solution, tests were performed before and after filtration. Total silver release to the testing media was determined using the method of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles (SVSN-LQES1) are acutely toxic to D. similis. The release of silver from the nanomaterial trapped in the gut along with the silver released to the test media seems to be responsible for the observed toxicity. Although toxic to Daphnia, vanadium does not contribute to the toxicity of SVSN-LQES1. The observed increase in lipid droplets appears to be related to the exposure of the organisms to the nanomaterials, but the significance of this response needs further investigation. PMID:23341191

  2. The role of silver and vanadium release in the toxicity of silver vanadate nanowires toward Daphnia similis.

    PubMed

    Artal, Mariana Coletty; Holtz, Raphael Dias; Kummrow, Fábio; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2013-04-01

    Nanomaterials are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including nanowires that are objects with at least one of its dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nm. Recently, a new type of silver vanadate nanowire decorated with silver nanoparticles (SVSN-LQES1) with promising antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria was described. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of silver and vanadium release in the acute toxicity of this material using Daphnia similis. To verify the effect of the presence of the nanowires in the test solution, tests were performed before and after filtration. Total silver release to the testing media was determined using the method of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles (SVSN-LQES1) are acutely toxic to D. similis. The release of silver from the nanomaterial trapped in the gut along with the silver released to the test media seems to be responsible for the observed toxicity. Although toxic to Daphnia, vanadium does not contribute to the toxicity of SVSN-LQES1. The observed increase in lipid droplets appears to be related to the exposure of the organisms to the nanomaterials, but the significance of this response needs further investigation.

  3. Environmental justice implications of reduced reporting requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H; Edwards, Sharon E

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1, 3, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales.

  4. Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

  5. 1992 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The following document is the July 1993 submittal of the EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R). Included is a Form R for chlorine and for lead, the two chemicals used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during calendar year 1992.

  6. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  7. GIS modeling of air toxics releases from TRI-reporting and non-TRI-reporting facilities: impacts for environmental justice.

    PubMed

    Dolinoy, Dana C; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2004-12-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) requires facilities with 10 or more full-time employees that process > 25,000 pounds in aggregate or use > 10,000 pounds of any one TRI chemical to report releases annually. However, little is known about releases from non-TRI-reporting facilities, nor has attention been given to the very localized equity impacts associated with air toxics releases. Using geographic information systems and industrial source complex dispersion modeling, we developed methods for characterizing air releases from TRI-reporting as well as non-TRI-reporting facilities at four levels of geographic resolution. We characterized the spatial distribution and concentration of air releases from one representative industry in Durham County, North Carolina (USA). Inclusive modeling of all facilities rather than modeling of TRI sites alone significantly alters the magnitude and spatial distribution of modeled air concentrations. Modeling exposure receptors at more refined levels of geographic resolution reveals localized, neighborhood-level exposure hot spots that are not apparent at coarser geographic scales. Multivariate analysis indicates that inclusive facility modeling at fine levels of geographic resolution reveals exposure disparities by income and race. These new methods significantly enhance the ability to model air toxics, perform equity analysis, and clarify conflicts in the literature regarding environmental justice findings. This work has substantial implications for how to structure TRI reporting requirements, as well as methods and types of analysis that will successfully elucidate the spatial distribution of exposure potentials across geographic, income, and racial lines. PMID:15579419

  8. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H; Madrid, Rodolfo; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PC(Na)), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Na(v)) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1(G93A). These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1(G93A) on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  9. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    PubMed

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling.

  10. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    PubMed

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. PMID:22840636

  11. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  12. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  13. The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.

    PubMed

    Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

    2009-11-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making. PMID:19732394

  14. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  15. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  16. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  17. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  18. Nanospheres Encapsulating Anti-Leishmanial Drugs for Their Specific Macrophage Targeting, Reduced Toxicity, and Deliberate Intracellular Release

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anil Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current work focuses on the study of polymeric, biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) for the encapsulation of doxorubicin and mitomycin C (anti-leishmanial drugs), and their efficient delivery to macrophages, the parasite's home. The biodegradable polymer methoxypoly-(ethylene glycol)-b-poly (lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) was used to prepare polymeric NPs encapsulating doxorubicin and mitomycin C. The morphology, mean diameter, and surface area of spherical NPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and BET surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction was performed to validate drug encapsulation. An in vitro release profile of the drugs suggested a fairly slow release. These polymeric NPs were efficiently capable of releasing drug inside macrophages at a slower pace than the free drug, which was monitored by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Encapsulation of doxorubicin and mitomycin C into NPs also decreases cellular toxicity in mouse macrophages (J774.1A). PMID:22925019

  19. A toxic extract of the marine phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum induces calcium-dependent release of glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Nelson, George Nicholas; Fonnum, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Blooms of the marine phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum produced mass mortality of fish in Norway and many other parts of the world. The effects of a purified algae extract of P. parvum on transmitter release from rat brain synaptosomes were studied to characterize its toxic action. Synaptosomes are detached nerve terminals and represent a simple system that has retained the machinery for uptake, synthesis, storage, and release of neurotransmitters. A crude methanol extract of P. parvum was purified by reverse-phase column for fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The purified extract stimulated Ca2+-dependent spontaneous release of glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. The release was increased by addition of extracellular Ca2+. The release of glutamate was suppressed by the Ca2+-channel blockers flunarizine (10 microM), diltiazem (10 microM), and verapamil (10 microM). The stimulation of release of glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes induced by the toxin may be due to an ionophorelike property of the algae extract such as previously reported for the potent algal toxin maitotoxin. At high concentrations the toxin primarily acts as a powerful lytic agent. PMID:15739805

  20. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  1. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  2. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  3. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of total releases in pounds (except for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, which shall be reported in...) Underground injection on site. (E) Releases to land on site. (ii) Additional Reporting for the dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category. (A) For reports pertaining to a reporting year ending on or...

  4. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of total releases in pounds (except for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, which shall be reported in...) Underground injection on site. (E) Releases to land on site. (ii) Additional Reporting for the dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category. (A) For reports pertaining to a reporting year ending on or...

  5. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of total releases in pounds (except for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, which shall be reported in...) Underground injection on site. (E) Releases to land on site. (ii) Additional Reporting for the dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category. (A) For reports pertaining to a reporting year ending on or...

  6. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ..., and risk in listing decisions under EPCRA section 313. EPA will consider exposure factors when making... low toxicity, EPA will consider the potential for exposure in making a listing decision. Conversely... exposure analysis in EPCRA section 313 listing decisions. Although the final rule listing hydrogen...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... table I417-2 falls into the category of unique or uncommon propellants, such as those identified in... conditions: (i) Surface wind speed of 2.9 knots with a wind speed increase of 1.0 knot per 1000 feet of... distances such that any potentially affected populated area is outside the toxic hazard area. A...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... table I417-2 falls into the category of unique or uncommon propellants, such as those identified in... conditions: (i) Surface wind speed of 2.9 knots with a wind speed increase of 1.0 knot per 1000 feet of... distances such that any potentially affected populated area is outside the toxic hazard area. A...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... table I417-2 falls into the category of unique or uncommon propellants, such as those identified in... conditions: (i) Surface wind speed of 2.9 knots with a wind speed increase of 1.0 knot per 1000 feet of... distances such that any potentially affected populated area is outside the toxic hazard area. A...

  10. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... toxic chemicals as part of a 1993 final rule (December 1, 1993, 58 FR 63500). Hydrogen sulfide was... Federal Register of February 4, 1987 (52 FR 3479) to provide guidance regarding the recommended content... Federal Register of May 23, 1991 (56 FR 23703) regarding the recommended content of petitions to...

  11. 1993 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency. The following document is the July 1994 submittal of the Hanford site EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) Report. Included is a Form R for chlorine, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1993. Only those facilities that fall within the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code range of 20 through 39 are subject to mandatory reporting under EPCRA, Section 313. However, on August 3, 1993, Executive Order 12856 was signed, requiring all federal agencies and facilities to comply with pollution prevention and emergency planning and community right-to-know provisions established by Section 313 of EPCRA and Section 6607 of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, without restriction to the specified SIC Codes. The report format requires identification of the facility SIC Code in the TRI Report. Application of definitions and requirements provided in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations Part 372.22 has led to the adoption of SIC Code 9999, Nonclassifiable Establishments, as the primary Hanford Site SIC Code for EPCRA regulatory assessments. The SIC Code 9999 determination is based on a broad analysis of the current mission of the Hanford Site which includes environmental and waste management, demonstration and application of advanced remediation technologies, and environmental restoration.

  12. Huntingtin proteolysis releases non-polyQ fragments that cause toxicity through dynamin 1 dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    El-Daher, Marie-Thérèse; Hangen, Emilie; Bruyère, Julie; Poizat, Ghislaine; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Pardo, Raul; Bourg, Nicolas; Souquere, Sylvie; Mayet, Céline; Pierron, Gérard; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Botas, Juan; Humbert, Sandrine; Saudou, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cleavage of mutant huntingtin (HTT) is an essential process in Huntington’s disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Cleavage generates N-ter fragments that contain the polyQ stretch and whose nuclear toxicity is well established. However, the functional defects induced by cleavage of full-length HTT remain elusive. Moreover, the contribution of non-polyQ C-terminal fragments is unknown. Using time- and site-specific control of full-length HTT proteolysis, we show that specific cleavages are required to disrupt intramolecular interactions within HTT and to cause toxicity in cells and flies. Surprisingly, in addition to the canonical pathogenic N-ter fragments, the C-ter fragments generated, that do not contain the polyQ stretch, induced toxicity via dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and increased ER stress. C-ter HTT bound to dynamin 1 and subsequently impaired its activity at ER membranes. Our findings support a role for HTT on dynamin 1 function and ER homoeostasis. Proteolysis-induced alteration of this function may be relevant to disease. PMID:26165689

  13. [Accidental hypothermia (a case report)].

    PubMed

    Erkalp, Kerem; Yangin, Zehra; Başaranoğlu, Gökçen; Erden, Veysel

    2006-07-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia (core body temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. We report a 70-year-old male patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 28 degrees C). The homeless man was found in the street. He died, in spite of all resuscitation efforts and rewarming methods. In this case report reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of accidental hypothermia. PMID:16850366

  14. Evaluation of effect of galvanic corrosion between nickel-chromium metal and titanium on ion release and cell toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell toxicity due to ion release caused by galvanic corrosion as a result of contact between base metal and titanium. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was hypothesized that Nickel (Ni)-Chromium (Cr) alloys with different compositions possess different corrosion resistances when contacted with titanium abutment, and therefore in this study, specimens (10×10×1.5 mm) were fabricated using commercial pure titanium and 3 different types of Ni-Cr alloys (T3, Tilite, Bella bond plus) commonly used for metal ceramic restorations. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to the composition of Ni-Cr alloy and contact with titanium. The experimental groups were in direct contact with titanium and the control groups were not. After the samples were immersed in the culture medium - Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium[DMEM] for 48 hours, the released metal ions were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test (P<.05). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cells were used for cell toxicity evaluation. The cell toxicity of specimens was measured by the 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results of MTT assay were statistically analyzed by the two-way ANOVA test (P<.05). Post-hoc multiple comparisons were conducted using Tukey's tests. RESULTS The amount of metal ions released by galvanic corrosion due to contact between the base metal alloy and titanium was increased in all of the specimens. In the cytotoxicity test, the two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of the alloy type and galvanic corrosion for cytotoxicity (P<.001). The relative cell growth rate (RGR) was decreased further on the groups in contact with titanium (P<.05). CONCLUSION The release of metal ions was increased by galvanic corrosion due to contact between base metal and titanium, and it can cause adverse effects on the tissue around the implant by inducing

  15. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... release reporting. A facility that meets all of the following criteria for a calendar year is a covered... meets one of the following criteria: (1) The facility is an establishment with a primary SIC major group....23(b) or § 372.23(c). (2) The facility is a multi-establishment complex where all establishments...

  16. Thermosensitive hydrogel for periodontal application: in vitro drug release, antibacterial activity and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Yousef; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    Injectable thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel is an attractive temperature-induced sol-gel solution that is widely used in drug delivery and biomedical applications. In this study, an injectable antimicrobial delivery system for periodontal treatment based on chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate solution has been developed. The result of thermal and mechanical evaluations of chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate hydrogel showed that adding gelatin to chitosan/β-glycerolphosphate solution significantly decreased gelling time and increased gel strength at 37℃. The antimicrobial agents chosen for release studies were metronidazole with a low molecular weight and vancomycin hydrochloride with a high molecular weight. The initial burst and total in vitro drug release for metronidazole was 13% and 67%, respectively. The initial burst and total drug release for vancomycin hydrochloride was relatively low at 3% and 23%, respectively. The momentary and total percentage of metronidazole accumulated in the phosphate buffer revealed that chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate can develop and maintain sustained release of metronidazole in concentrations that are effective for eliminating pathogenic bacteria over time. Cytotoxicity evaluations show that chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate thermosensitive hydrogel is a drug carrier with no cytotoxic effects. PMID:26686586

  17. Sediment pore-water toxicity test results and preliminary toxicity identification of post-landfall pore-water samples collected following the Deepwater Horizon oil release, Gulf of Mexico, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.; Carr, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Pore water from coastal beach and marsh sediments from the northern Gulf of Mexico, pre- and post-landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil release, were collected and evaluated for toxicity with the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. There were 17 pre-landfall samples and 49 post-landfall samples tested using both assays. Toxicity was determined in four pre-landfall sites and in seven post-landfall sites in one or both assays as compared to a known reference sediment pore-water sample collected in Aransas Bay, Texas. Further analysis and testing of five of the post-landfall toxic samples utilizing Toxicity Identification Evaluation techniques indicated that ammonia, and to a lesser extent metals, contributed to most, if not all, of the observed toxicity in four of the five samples. Results of one sample (MS-39) indicated evidence that ammonia, metals, and non-ionic organics were contributing to the observed toxicity.

  18. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa.

  19. Influence of inorganic anions on metals release from oil sands coke and on toxicity of nickel and vanadium to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study it was shown that pH significantly influences the release of metals from oil sands coke, particularly Ni and V which were identified as the cause of coke leachate toxicity. Coke comes in contact with oil sands process water (OSPW) during its transport to and long term storage in reclamation landscapes. However, the influence of dominant inorganic anions present in OSPW (i.e. HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)) on metals release from coke and on speciation and toxicity of Ni and V, has not been characterized before. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at four levels of HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) to determine the influence on metals release and speciation. Further, the effects of each of the three anions on Ni and V toxicity, as well as the mixture toxicity of Ni and V, were assessed using the three-brood Ceriodaphnia dubia test. Inorganic anions had a significant influence on the type and amount of metals released from coke. Specifically, sulfate increased the mobilization of cationic metals (e.g. Ni, Fe, Mn and Zn), whereas bicarbonate enhanced the release of oxyanion forming metals (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V) from coke. Chloride had no particular effect on the type and amount of metals released. With respect to toxicity, elevated bicarbonate levels decreased the 7-d Ni IC50 from 6.3 to 2.3 μg L(-1), whereas sulfate showed an ameliorative effect against V toxicity to C. dubia. In combination, Ni and V acted additively at their highest sub-lethal concentrations. Aqueous chemistry and toxicity of Ni and V are discussed with the goal of informing reclamation efforts at the Athabasca oil sands.

  20. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  1. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  2. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, release kinetics and toxicity profile of drug-loaded starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; El-Rafie, M H; El-sheikh, M A; El-Feky, Gina S; Hebeish, A

    2015-11-01

    The current research work focuses on the medical application of the cost-effective cross-linked starch nanoparticles, for the transdermal delivery using Diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug. The prepared DS-cross-linked starch nanoparticles were synthesized using nanoprecipitation technique at different concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in the presence of Tween 80 as a surfactant. The resultant cross-linked starch nanoparticles loaded with DS were characterized using world-class facilities such as TEM, DLS, FT-IR, XRD, and DSc. The efficiency of DS loading was also evaluated via entrapment efficiency as well as in vitro release and histopathological study on rat skin. The optimum nanoparticles formulation selected by the JMP(®) software was the formula that composed of 5% maize starch, 57.7mg DS and 0.5% STPP and 0.4% Tween 80, with particle diameter of about 21.04nm, polydispersity index of 0.2 and zeta potential of -35.3mV. It is also worth noting that this selected formula shows an average entrapment efficiency of 95.01 and sustained DS release up to 6h. The histophathological studies using the best formula on rat skin advocate the use of designed transdermal DS loaded cross-linked starch nanoparticles as it is safe and non-irritant to rat skin. The overall results indicate that, the starch nanoparticles could be considered as a good carrier for DS drug regarding the enhancement in its controlled release and successful permeation, thus, offering a promising nanoparticulate system for the transdermal delivery non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

  4. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  5. Assessment of the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory Facilities in Metropolitan Charleston: An Environmental Justice Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Rahim, Herb; Williams, Edith; Zhang, Hongmei; Rice, LaShanta; Svendsen, Erik; Abara, Winston

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed spatial disparities in the distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities in Charleston, SC. Methods. We used spatial methods and regression to assess burden disparities in the study area at the block and census-tract levels by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Results revealed an inverse relationship between distance to TRI facilities and race/ethnicity and SES at the block and census-tract levels. Results of regression analyses showed a positive association between presence of TRI facilities and high percentage non-White and a negative association between number of TRI facilities and high SES. Conclusions. There are burden disparities in the distribution of TRI facilities in Charleston at the block and census-tract level by race/ethnicity and SES. Additional research is needed to understand cumulative risk in the region. PMID:22897529

  6. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  7. Waterpipe smoking: the role of humectants in the release of toxic carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jens; Heinke, Volkmar; Bewersdorff, Jana; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the number of waterpipe smokers has increased substantially worldwide. Here, we present a study on the identification and quantification of seven carbonylic compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein in the mainstream smoke of the waterpipe. Smoking was conducted with a smoking machine, and carbonyls were scavenged from the smoke with two impingers containing an acidic solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The derivatives were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For instance, during one waterpipe smoking session, up to 111 ± 12 μg formaldehyde could be detected. This value is about 5 times higher when compared to one 2R4F reference cigarette. We also found a distinct filter effect of the bowl water for all carbonyls investigated. Our data further demonstrate that increasing amounts of humectants in the unburned tobacco lowers the temperature in the waterpipe head during smoking, thereby resulting in decreasing levels of carbonyls in the smoke produced. Altogether, considerable amounts of toxic carbonyls are present in the waterpipe smoke, thus conferring a health risk to waterpipe smokers.

  8. Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Stec, A A; Readman, J; Blomqvist, P; Gylestam, D; Karlsson, D; Wojtalewicz, D; Dlugogorski, B Z

    2013-01-01

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires. This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported. Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires. PMID:22960058

  9. Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Stec, A A; Readman, J; Blomqvist, P; Gylestam, D; Karlsson, D; Wojtalewicz, D; Dlugogorski, B Z

    2013-01-01

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires. This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported. Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires.

  10. [Management of severe accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M

    2012-04-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation.

  11. The big chill: accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Allan

    2012-01-01

    A potential cause of such emergent issues as cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and fluid and electrolyte shifts, accidental hypothermia can be deadly, is common among trauma patients, and is often difficult to recognize. The author discusses predisposing conditions, the classic presentation, and the effects on normal thermoregulatory processes; explains how to conduct a systems assessment of the hypothermic patient; and describes crucial management strategies. PMID:22186703

  12. Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration.

  13. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the conversion of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422758

  14. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  15. 1997 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Heather McBride

    1997-07-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCIL4), Title III, Section 313 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires all federal facilities to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators of manufacturing, processing, or production facilities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), nitric acid was the only toxic chemical used in 1997 that met the reportable threshold limit of 10,000 lb. Form R is the only documentation required by the Environmental Protection Agency, and it is included in the appendix of this report. This report, as requested by DOE, is provided for documentation purposes. In addition, a detailed description of the evaluation and reporting process for chemicals and processes at LANL has been included.

  16. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  17. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions.

  18. Glucose deprivation stimulates Cu(2+) toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons and Cu(2+)-dependent zinc release.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Aleksandrova, Olga P; Zelenova, Elena A; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2016-05-27

    Copper chloride (0.01mM, 2h) did not have significant influence on the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) incubated in balanced salt solution. However, CuCl2 caused severe neuronal damage by glucose deprivation (GD). The glutamate NMDA-receptors blocker MK-801 partially and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or Zn(2+) chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) almost entirely protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Measurements of intracellular calcium ions using Fluo-4 AM, or zinc ions with FluoZin-3 AM demonstrated that 1 h-exposure to GD induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence in neurons. The supplementation of solution with CuCl2 caused an increase of FluoZin-3, Fluo-4 and CellROX Green (reactive oxygen species probe) fluorescence by GD. The stimulation of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence by copper could be prevented partially by MK-801 and as well as CellROX Green fluorescence by NAC at GD. This data imply that during GD copper ions induce intense displacement zinc ions from intracellular stores, in addition free radical production, glutamate release and Ca(2+) overload of CGNs, that causes death of neurons as a result. PMID:27063646

  19. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Ma, W C; Chen, L M

    2009-09-15

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10(-4), 10(-5)-10(-4) and 10(-6)-10(-5) per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10(-6) per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment. PMID:19345011

  20. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    SciTech Connect

    Marjorie B. Stockton

    1999-11-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

  1. NC-6301, a polymeric micelle rationally optimized for effective release of docetaxel, is potent but is less toxic than native docetaxel in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Mitsunori; Iwata, Caname; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenta; Hayashi, Tatsuyuki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Miyazono, Kohei; Kato, Yasuki; Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2012-01-01

    Drug release rate is an important factor in determining efficacy and toxicity of nanoscale drug delivery systems. However, optimization of the release rate in polymeric micellar nanoscale drug delivery systems has not been fully investigated. In this study NC-6301, a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymer with docetaxel (DTX) covalently bound via ester link, was synthesized with various numbers of DTX molecules bound to the polymer backbone. The number of DTX molecules was determined up to 14 to achieve an optimal release rate, based upon the authors’ own pharmacokinetic model using known patient data. Efficacy and toxicity of the formulation was then tested in animals. When administered three times at 4-day intervals, the maximum tolerated doses of NC-6301 and native DTX were 50 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, in nude mice. Tissue distribution studies of NC-6301 in mice at 50 mg/kg revealed prolonged release of free DTX in the tumor for at least 120 hours, thus supporting its effectiveness. Furthermore, in cynomolgus monkeys, NC-6301 at 6 mg/kg three times at 2-week intervals showed marginal toxicity, whereas native DTX, at 3 mg/kg with the same schedule, induced significant decrease of food consumption and neutrophil count. NC-6301 at 50 mg/kg in mice also regressed a xenografted tumor of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer. Native DTX, on the other hand, produced only transient and slight regression of the same tumor xenograft. NC-6301 also significantly inhibited growth of OCUM-2MLN human scirrhous gastric carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model. Total weight of metastatic lymph nodes was also reduced. In conclusion, NC-6301 with an optimized release rate improved the potency of DTX while reducing its toxicity. PMID:22745540

  2. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  3. Integration of in vivo and in vitro approaches to characterize the toxicity of Antalarmin, a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Thomas L.; Harder, J. Brooks; Johnson, William D.; Curry, Patrick T.; Parchment, Ralph E.; Morrissey, Robert L.; Mellick, Paul W.; Calis, Karim A.; Gold, Philip W.; Rice, Kenner C.; Contoreggi, Carlo; Charney, Dennis S.; Cizza, Giovanni; Glaze, Elizabeth R.; Tomaszewski, Joseph E.; McCormick, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Non-clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Antalarmin, a corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor antagonist being developed for therapy of stress-related pathologies. Antalarmin was not genotoxic in bacterial mutagenesis assays, mammalian cell mutagenesis assays, or in vivo DNA damage assays. In a 14-day range-finding study in rats, Antalarmin doses ≥ 500 mg/kg/day (3000 mg/m2/day) induced mortality. In a 90-day toxicity study in rats, no gross toxicity was seen at doses of 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day (180, 600, or 1800 mg/m2/day, respectively). Antalarmin (300 mg/kg/day) induced mild anemia, increases in serum γ-glutamyl transferase activity, and microscopic hepatic pathology (bile duct hyperplasia and epithelial necrosis, periportal inflammation). Microscopic renal changes (cortical necrosis, inflammation, hypertrophy, nephropathy) were observed in rats at all Antalarmin doses. In a 14-day range-finding study in dogs, Antalarmin doses ≥ 50 mg/kg/day (1000 mg/m2/day) induced repeated emesis and bone marrow suppression. In a 90-day toxicity study in dogs, Antalarmin (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day [80, 160, or 320 mg/m2/day, respectively]) induced bone marrow and lymphoid depletion, but no gross toxicity. Comparative in vitro studies using rat, dog, and human neutrophil progenitors demonstrated that canine bone marrow cells are highly sensitive to Antalarmin cytotoxicity, while rat and human bone marrow cells are relatively insensitive. As such, the bone marrow toxicity observed in dogs is considered likely to over-predict Antalarmin toxicity in humans. The hepatic and renal toxicities seen in rats exposed to Antalarmin identify those tissues as the most likely targets for Antalarmin toxicity in humans. PMID:18423834

  4. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    Şanlıdağ, Burçin; Derinöz, Okşan; Yıldız, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported. PMID:25341608

  5. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  6. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  7. Non-accidental salt poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features of 12 children who incurred non-accidental salt poisoning are reported. The children usually presented to hospital in the first six months of life with unexplained hypernatraemia and associated illness. Most of the children suffered repetitive poisoning before detection. The perpetrator was believed to the mother for 10 children, the father for one, and either parent for one. Four children had serum sodium concentrations above 200 mmol/l. Seven children had incurred other fabricated illness, drug ingestion, physical abuse, or failure to thrive/neglect. Two children died; the other 10 remained healthy in alternative care. Features are described that should lead to earlier detection of salt poisoning; the importance of checking urine sodium excretion, whenever hypernatraemia occurs, is stressed. PMID:8503665

  8. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  9. Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A

    2014-01-01

    Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms.

  10. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278).

  11. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

  12. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  13. Challenge to assess the toxic contribution of metal cation released from nanomaterials for nanotoxicology - the case of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jie; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Su, Huanxing; Chen, Hongzheng; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-05-01

    The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The toxic contribution of released Zn2+ ions to the A549 cell lines was estimated to be only about 10%. We conclude that the cytotoxicity associated with ZnO NPs is not a function of the Zn concentration, suggesting that other factors play an important role in the toxic effect of ZnO NPs.The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The

  14. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  15. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  16. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  17. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2003-11-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  18. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  19. Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II)-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alesha N.; Hinojosa, Barbara R.; Chavious, Montaleé D.; Petros, Robby A.

    2011-07-01

    The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.%) and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy.

  20. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  1. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  2. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  3. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  4. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives.

  5. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... requirements for hydrogen sulfide (75 FR 8889). B. Why and for How Long Is EPA Extending the Comment Period... Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR 8889). The purpose of today's action is to inform interested parties... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

  6. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability emergency response model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Freis, R.P.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1993-10-07

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a modeling system to calculate the impact of accidental radiological or toxic releases to the atmosphere anywhere in the world. Operated for the US Departments of Energy and Defense, ARAC has responded to over 60 incidents in the past 18 years, and conducts over 100 exercises each year. Explosions are one of the most common mechanisms by which toxic particulates are injected into the atmosphere during accidents. Automated algorithms with default assumptions have been developed to estimate the source geometry and the amount of toxic material aerosolized. The paper examines the sensitivity of ARAC`s dispersion model to the range of input values for explosive sources, and analyzes the model`s accuracy using two field measurement programs.

  7. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  8. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian

    2007-03-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values<0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p<0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it

  9. Toxicity of jet fuel aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on human epidermal keratinocytes: evaluation based on in vitro cytotoxicity and interleukin-8 release.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jen-Hung; Lee, Chia-Hue; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Riviere, Jim E; Tsang, Chau-Loong; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2006-08-01

    Jet fuels are complex mixtures of aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbons that vary significantly in individual cytotoxicity and proinflammatory activity in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In order to delineate the toxicological interactions among individual hydrocarbons in a mixture and their contributions to cutaneous toxicity, nine ALI and five ARO hydrocarbons were each divided into five (high/medium/low cytotoxic and strong/weak IL-8 induction) groups and intra/inter-mixed to assess for their mixture effects on HEK mortality and IL-8 release. Addition of single hydrocarbon to JP-8 fuel was also evaluated for their changes in fuel dermatotoxicity. The results indicated that when hydrocarbons were mixed, HEK mortality and IL-8 release were not all predictable by their individual ability affecting these two parameters. The lowest HEK mortality (7%) and the highest IL-8 production were induced with mixtures including high cytotoxic and weak IL-8 inductive ARO hydrocarbons. Antagonistic reactions not consistently correlated with ALI carbon chain length and ARO structure were evident and carried different weight in the overall mixture toxicities. Single addition of benzene, toluene, xylene or ethylbenzene for up to tenfold in JP-8 did not increase HEK mortality while single addition of ALI hydrocarbons exhibited dose-related differential response in IL-8. In an all ALI environment, no single hydrocarbon is the dominating factor in the determination of HEK cytotoxicity while deletion of hexadecane resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in IL-8 production. Overall, decane, undecane and dodecane were the major hydrocarbons associated with high cytotoxicity while tetradecane, pentadecane and hexadecane were those which had the greatest buffering effect attenuating dermatotoxicity. The mixture effects must be considered when evaluating jet fuel toxicity to HEK.

  10. Form and toxicity of copper released into aquatic systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, such as lumber treated with micronized copper. Micronized copper tre...

  11. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed.

  12. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  13. Comparison of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, Dexamethasone and Temozolomide: Treatment Efficacy and Toxicity in U87 and C6 Intracranial Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Maxim A.; Huang, Ruimin; Kochetkov, Tatiana; Shi, Weiji; Thaler, Howard; de Stanchina, Elisa; Gamez, Idoia; Ryan, Robert P.; Blasberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of cerebral tumors and peritumoral brain edema remains a clinical challenge and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dexamethasone (DEX) is an effective drug to treat brain edema, but is associated with well-described side effects. Corticorelin acetate (Xerecept) or human corticotrophin releasing factor (hCRF) is a comparatively new drug and was evaluated in two orthotopic glioma models (U87 and C6), by a direct comparison with dexamethasone and temozolomide. In vitro mono- and combination-treatments showed a variable response in 6 different glioma cell lines. In vivo studies showed a dose-dependent effect of hCRF (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/q12h) on survival of U87 intracranial xenograft-bearing animals [median survival: control 41 days (95% CI 25–61 d); “low-hCRF” 74.5 d (95% CI 41–88 d); “high-hCRF” >130 d (95% CI not reached)]. Dexamethasone treatment had no effect on survival, but significant toxicity was observed. A survival benefit was observed with TMZ and TMZ + hCRF - treated animals, but with significant TMZ toxicity. C6-bearing animals showed no survival benefit, but similar treatment toxicities. The difference in hCRF-treatment response between U87- and C6-intracranial gliomas can be explained by a difference in receptor expression. RT-PCR identified CRF2r mRNA in U87-xenografts; no CRF-receptors were identified in C6-xenografts. HCRF was more effective than either dexamethasone or temozolomide in the treatment of U87 xenografts, with long-term survivors and only mild toxicity. HCRF therapeutic efficacy appears to be dependent on tumor hCRF-receptor expression. These results support further clinical assessment hCRF therapeutic efficacy and levels of CRFr expression in different human gliomas. PMID:21385926

  14. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  15. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  16. Risk analysis approach. [of carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of the carbon fiber hazard is outlined. Program objectives, requirements of the risk analysis, and elements associated with the physical phenomena of the accidental release are described.

  17. The development of non-toxic ionic-crosslinked chitosan-based microspheres as carriers for the controlled release of silk sericin.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Ekasit, Sanong; Yamdech, Rungnapha

    2015-10-01

    Silk sericin is recently shown to possess various biological activities for biomedical applications. While various sericin carriers were developed for drug delivery system, very few researches considered sericin as a bioactive molecule itself. In this study, sericin incorporated in the chitosan-based microspheres was introduced as a bioactive molecule and bioactive carrier at the same time. The chitosan/sericin (CH/SS) microspheres at different composition (80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50) were successfully fabricated using anhydroustri-polyphosphate (TPP) as a polyanionic crosslinker. The microspheres with an average size of 1-4 μm and narrow size distribution were obtained. From FT-IR spectra, the presence of both chitosan and sericin in the microspheres confirmed the occurrence of ionic interaction that crosslink them within the microspheres. We also found that the CH/SS microspheres prepared at 50/50 could encapsulate sericin at the highest percentage (37.28%) and release sericin in the most sustained behavior, possibly due to the strong ionic interaction of the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged sericin. On the other hand, the composition of CH/SS had no effect on the degradation rate of microspheres. All microspheres continuously degraded and remained around 20% after 14 days of enzymatic degradation. This explained that the ionic crosslinkings between chitosan and sericin could be demolished by the enzyme and hydrolysis. Furthermore, we have verified that all CH/SS microspheres at any concentrations showed non-toxicity to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Therefore, we suggested that the non-toxic ionic-crosslinked CH/SS microspheres could be incorporated in wound dressing material to achieve the sustained release of sericin for accelerated wound healing. PMID:26233725

  18. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion. PMID:27079409

  19. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  20. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  2. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  3. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  4. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  5. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  6. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870..., accidental death benefits are equal to the amount of Option A. (c)(1) Under Basic insurance, accidental... automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  7. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity.

  8. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  9. A Tale of two Cities: Causes of Different Toxic Lead Releases From Lead and Brass Plumbing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, J. B.; Mast, D.; Hart, P.

    2006-05-01

    High lead (Pb) levels in drinking water have become a major health issue for many water distribution systems, especially Washington DC. This Pb comes from the dissolution of Pb minerals that coat lead service lines and Pb-containing brasses and solders. Using a variety of spectroscopic techniques (XRF, XRD, FTIR, laser micro-Raman), we studied pipe samples from Washington DC and from a similar utility system that has not had Pb releases. Both utilities use surface water and until recently both used chlorine as a disinfectant. DC switched to choramine disinfection, whereas the second utility did not. We found that both utilities have a similar array of Pb minerals present in their pipes, and that these minerals occur in distinct layers. From the pipe surface towards the water the sequence is litharge (PbO), cerussite (PbCO3), plattnerite (PbO2) and pyromorphite (Pb5[PO4]3F). We have also seen that the surface layer for DC is more discontinuous than in the pipes from utility 2 and the litharge from deeper layers is exposed. This mineral is especially soluble and may contribute to the extra Pb found in the DC water. We speculate that the switch to chloramine disinfection produced a lowering of the Eh at the scale surface with consequent dissolution of PbO2 followed by physical disruption of the pipe scales. Phosphate addition is now being practiced by both utilities for Pb control, and the PO4 content of the DC scales is increasing. XRD analysis shows a decrease in litharge and a corresponding increase in pyromorphite. For both utilities, we found that by far the most severe corrosion and scale buildup occurs at the junctions between brass and lead pipes. We attribute this to a galvanic corrosion of the brass by the adjacent lead sections. A consequence is that a portion of the Pb detected at customer's taps is coming not from the Pb service branches but from accelerated corrosion of Pb-containing brasses. Further reductions in Pb levels will require that releases

  10. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  11. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  12. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  13. Toxic responses in rat embryonic cells to silver nanoparticles and released silver ions as analyzed via gene expression profiles and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liming; Shi, Chang; Shao, Anliang; Li, Xuefei; Cheng, Xiang; Ding, Rigao; Wu, Gang; Chou, Laisheng Lee

    2015-05-01

    After exposing rat embryonic cells to 20 μg/mL of silver nanoparticle (NP) suspension and their released ions for different time periods, silver nanoparticles were found in cellular nuclei, mitochondria, cytoplasm and lysosomes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also observed mitochondrial destruction, distension of endoplasmic reticulum and apoptotic bodies. Global gene expression analysis showed a total of 279 genes that were up-regulated and 389 genes that were down-regulated in the silver-NP suspension exposure group, while 3 genes were up-regulated and 41 genes were down-regulated in the silver ion exposure group. Further, the GO pathway analysis suggested that these differentially expressed genes are involved in several biological processes, such as energy metabolism, oxygen transport, enzyme activities, molecular binding, etc. It is possible that inhibition of oxygen transport is mediated by the significant down-regulation of genes of the globin family, which might play an important role in silver ion-induced toxicity. KEGG pathway analysis showed that there were 23 signal pathways that were affected in the cells after exposure to silver-NP suspension, but not silver ion alone. The most significant change concerned inflammatory signal pathways, which were only found in silver-NP suspension exposed cells, indicating that inflammatory response might play an important role in the mechanism(s) of silver-NP-induced toxicity. The significant up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9 suggests that silver NPs could induce extracellular matrix degradation via an inflammatory signaling pathway. The significant up-regulation of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor and serine protease inhibitor 2c was considered to be an embryonic cellular defense mechanism in response to silver-NP-induced inflammation.

  14. In vitro effects of coal fly ashes: hydroxyl radical generation, iron release, and DNA damage and toxicity in rat lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    van Maanen, J.M.; Borm, P.J.; Knaapen, A; van Herwijnen, M.; Schilderman, P.A.; Smith, K.R.; Aust, A.E.; Tomatis, M.; Fubini, B.

    1999-12-15

    The authors measured iron release, acellular generation of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidative DNA damage and cytotoxicity in rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells by different coal fly ashes (CFA) that contain both quartz and iron. Seven samples of CFA with different particle size and quartz content (up to 14.1%) were tested along with silica (alpha-quartz), ground coal, and coal mine dust (respirable) as positive control particles, and fine TiO{sub 2} (anatase) as a negative control. Five test samples were pulverized fuel ashes (PFA), two samples were coal gasification (SCG) ashes (quartz content {lt} 0.1%), and one sample was a ground coal. No marked differences between SCG and PFA fly ashes were observed, and toxicity did not correlate with physicochemical characteristics or effect parameters. Stable surface radicals were only detected in the reference particles silica and coal mine dust, but not in CFA. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical generation by all fly ashes was observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also a relationship between acellular hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative DNA damage in RLE cells by CFA was observed. The respirable ashes (MAT023, 38, and 41) showed an extensive level of hydroxyl radical generation in comparison to nonrespirable fly ashes and respirable references. This was related to the iron mobilization from these particles. Themechanisms by which CFA and the positive references (silica, coal mine dust) affect rat lung epithelial cells seem to be different, and the data suggest that quartz in CFA does not act the same as quartz in silica or coal mine dust. However, the results indicate an important role for size and iron release in generation and subsequent effects of reactive oxygen species caused by CFA.

  15. Exposure of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients to Toxic Elements Released during Orthodontic Treatment in the Study of Non-Invasive Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Kachniarz, Krzysztof; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The Objective The aim of the study was evaluation of metal ions (nickel and chromium) released from orthodontic appliances in cleft lip and palate patients and the usefulness of non-invasive matrices (saliva and hair). Materials and Methods The material studied consisted of 100 individuals, including 59 females and 41 males of 5 to 16 years of age, which were divided into 3 groups: experimental–patients with cleft lip and palate (36 individuals, the average treatment time 5.74 years); control group–patients without cleft lip and palate, during orthodontic treatment (32 individuals, the average treatment time 1.78 years) and the control group patients without cleft lip and palate, without any orthodontic appliances (32 individuals). Samples (saliva, hair) were collected and subjects underwent a survey by questionnaire. Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES. The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva. Results The concentration of Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu ions in saliva of cleft lip and palate patients were several times higher as compared with not treated orthodontically control groups and higher than in the group with orthodontic appliances. Among the assessed matrices, hair of cleft lip and palate patients seem to be not a meaningful biomarker. Conclusion It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions. PMID:26544176

  16. Determination of toxic α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, released to the headspace of lipid commodities upon heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaping; Hengel, Matt; Pan, Canping; Seiber, James N; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-02-01

    Toxic α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, 2-methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, released from the headspace from butter, margarine, safflower oil, beef fat, and cheese heated at 100 and 200 °C were analyzed by gas chromatography as quinoxaline derivatives. Total amounts of α-dicarbonyl compounds ranged from 40.5 ng/g (butter) to 331.2 ng/g (beef fat) at 100 °C and from 302.4 ng/g (safflower oil) to 4521.5 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C. The total amount of α-dicarbonyl compounds increased approximately 55- and 15-fold in the headspace of heated butter and margarine, respectively, when the temperature was increased from 100 to 200 °C. However, only slight differences associated with temperature variation were observed in the cases of safflower oil and beef fat (1.3- and 1.1-fold, respectively). Diacetyl was found in the highest amounts among all samples, ranging from 13.9 ± 0.3 ng/g (butter) to 2835.7 ng/g (cheese) at 100 °C and from 112.5 ± 102 ng/g (safflower oil) to 2274.5 ± 442.6 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C, followed by methylglyoxal, ranging from 13.0 ± 0.5 to 112.7 ± 10.1 ng/g (cheese) at 100 °C and from 34.7 ± 5.0 ng/g (safflower oil) to 1790 ± 372.3 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C. Much less glyoxal formed, in amounts ranging from 13.6 ± 0.7 ng/g (butter) to 53.4 ± 11.2 ng/g (beef fat) at both temperatures. The amounts of α-dicarbonyl compounds released into the vapor phase from lipid commodities during heating were satisfactorily analyzed.

  17. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  18. Modelling absorption and dilution of unconfined releases of hazardous gases by water curtains or monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Blewitt, D.N.; Hague, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    OSHA Process Safety Management guidelines suggest that a facility operator investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain, or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such analysis. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation and describes some recent enhancements of the HGSPRAY model: (1) Adding algorithms for modeling NH{sub 3} and LNG mitigation; (2) Modeling spraying of releases with fire water monitors encircling the point of release; (3) Combining wind tunnel modeling with mathematical modeling; and (4) Linking HGSPRAY and BEGADAS. Case cases are presented as examples of how HGSPRAY can aid the design of water spray systems for initiation of toxic gases (e.g., BF, NH,) or dilution/dispersion of flammable vapors (e.g., LNG).

  19. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  20. Accidental firearm fatalities. Forensic and preventive implications.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Billeb, E; Koops, E

    2002-12-01

    Out of a total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from Münster and Hamburg, Germany, 32 cases (5.1%) were accidental. The accidents were self-inflicted in 3 cases while another person fired the gun in the remaining 29 cases. More than half of the victims were younger than 25 years and 75% were male. A single gunshot injury was present in all cases and the head was struck in 47% but a detailed analysis of the entrance wound sites did not show any preferential anatomical sites. A surprising finding was the presence of five contact or near contact gunshots (16%). The reasons for these and most other accidents were extreme carelessness when handling a firearm, the involvement of children or adolescents or a foolish behaviour with a gun intended to impress others. Gun-cleaning accidents occurred rarely and there were no major technical defects of the weapons. Preventive measures should concentrate on strict inaccessibility of guns to children and on increased educational efforts to subgroups at risk such as hunters and members of the armed forces. A single non-contact gunshot injury from a long-barrelled firearm can be considered typical for an accident but the great variety and the possible presence of "disguised" suicides and homicides requires a careful forensic investigation including inspection of the scene and reconstruction of the events. It is recommended that a case should always be considered to be non-accidental in the beginning of an investigation. PMID:12461643

  1. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  2. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bipin T; Thomas, Shaji; Nair, Balakrishnan; Mathew, P C; Sebastian, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL) flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions. PMID:21321664

  3. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  4. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  5. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  6. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  7. Civilian exposure to toxic agents: emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Baker, David

    2004-01-01

    Civilian populations are at risk from exposure to toxic materials as a result of accidental or deliberate exposure. In addition to industrial hazards, toxic agents designed for use in warfare now are a potential hazard in everyday life through terrorist action. Civil emergency medical responders should be able to adapt their plans for dealing with casualties from hazardous materials (HazMat) to deal with the new threat. Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) and HazMat agents can be viewed as a continuous spectrum. Each of these hazards is characterized by qualities of toxicity, latency of action, persistency, and transmissibility. The incident and medical responses to release of any agent is determined by these characteristics. Chemical and biological wardare agents usually are classified as weapons of mass destruction, but strictly, they are agents of mass injury. The relationship between mass injury and major loss of life depends very much on the protection, organization, and emergency care provided. Detection of a civil toxic agent release where signs and symptoms in casualties may be the first indicator of exposure is different from the military situation where intelligence information and tuned detection systems generally will be available. It is important that emergency medical care should be given in the context of a specific action plan. Within an organized and protected perimeter, triage and decontamination (if the agent is persistent) can proceed while emergency medical care is provided at the same time. The provision of advanced life support (TOXALS) in this zone by protected and trained medical responders now is technically feasible using specially designed ventilation equipment. Leaving life support until after decontamination may have fatal consequences. Casualties from terrorist attacks also may suffer physical as well as toxic trauma and the medical response also should be capable of dealing with mixed injuries. PMID:15506255

  8. Will safety release cords on children's cameras prevent strangulation?

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Marcella V

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the automatic safety release mechanisms on neck cords for children's cameras. The purpose of the safety release mechanism is to reduce accidental strangulation associated with children's toys that have neck cords. The horizontal pull forces that activate the automatic safety release mechanism were measured for two different styles of release mechanisms for neck cords. When these forces were compared to forces associated with child strangulation, the automatic safety mechanisms released at higher forces than the forces associated with accidental strangulation or death, which is contrary to what was intended and creates a false sense of security for parents who select a toy camera with such a device. PMID:14738371

  9. Will safety release cords on children's cameras prevent strangulation?

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Marcella V

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the automatic safety release mechanisms on neck cords for children's cameras. The purpose of the safety release mechanism is to reduce accidental strangulation associated with children's toys that have neck cords. The horizontal pull forces that activate the automatic safety release mechanism were measured for two different styles of release mechanisms for neck cords. When these forces were compared to forces associated with child strangulation, the automatic safety mechanisms released at higher forces than the forces associated with accidental strangulation or death, which is contrary to what was intended and creates a false sense of security for parents who select a toy camera with such a device.

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation Enhances the Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon Oil to Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Embryos.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Matthew; Baxter, David; Stieglitz, John; Mager, Edward; Hoenig, Ronald; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron

    2016-02-16

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photoinduced toxicity following coexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), an important fishery resource, have positively buoyant, transparent eggs. These characteristics may result in mahi-mahi embryos being at particular risk from photoinduced toxicity. The goal of this study was to determine whether exposure to ultraviolet radiation as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to embryonic mahi-mahi. Mahi-mahi embryos were exposed to several dilutions of water accommodated fractions (WAF) from slick oil collected during the 2010 spill and gradations of natural sunlight in a fully factorial design. Here, we report that coexposure to natural sunlight and WAF significantly reduced percent hatch in mahi-mahi embryos. Effect concentrations of PAH in WAF were within the range of surface PAH concentrations reported in the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon spill. These data suggest that laboratory toxicity tests that do not include UV may underestimate the toxicity of oil spills to early lifestage fish species. PMID:26784438

  11. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  12. Toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in Domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T; Jurgelski, W; Posner, H S; Vouk, V B; Bernheim, N J; Guthrie, J; Luster, M; Falk, H L

    1982-01-01

    The composition, environmental fate, and effects of the polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster BP-6 or FF-1) involved in the accidental contamination of cattle feed in Michigan in 1973 are reviewed. Toxic effects referred to in this report are limited to those occurring in domestic and laboratory animals and include general toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of these polybrominated biphenyls are discussed along with the interactions with other chemicals and drugs. PMID:6282577

  13. Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2004-06-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

  14. Pinellas Plant Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-07-01

    This Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan is in accordance with the requirements of Pinellas County Code, Chapter 126, and 40 CFR 403.8(f)(2)(v), Pretreatment Program Requirements. The plan provides guidance for the prevention of accidental slug discharges and for emergency response and cleanup measures in the event of accidental slug discharges. The plan also specifies procedures for the discharge of other substances regulated by Pinellas Plant Industrial Wastewater Permit, 153-IE, issued by the Pinellas County Utilities (PCU).

  15. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  16. Ninety-Day Oral Toxicity Assessment of an Alternative Biopolymer for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems Obtained from Cassava Starch Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Douglas Rossi; Barbosa, Lorena Neris; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Gasparotto, Francielli; Guedes, Karla Moraes Rocha; Dragunski, Douglas Cardoso; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    The large consumption of biodegradable films from cassava starch acetate (FCSA) as ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products requires the assessment of the possible toxicity of these products. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of biodegradable film from cassava starch acetate after oral exposure of Wistar rats for 90 days. The amount of food consumed and the body weight were weekly monitored. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the assessment of serum parameters and renal function. Histopathological analyses in target organs were also performed. No evidence of clinical toxicity in hematological, biochemical, or renal parameters in the FCSA-treated animals was found. In addition, relative organ weight and histopathological evaluations did not differ between groups treated with FCSA and control. Data obtained suggest that the subchronic exposure to FCSA does not cause obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats, indicating possible safety of this biofilm. PMID:26451154

  17. A review of dioxin releases to land and water in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dyke, P H; Foan, C; Wenborn, M; Coleman, P J

    1997-11-27

    UK government policy is to identify and control the sources of some chlorinated organic compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), often known collectively as dioxins. This requires the gathering of information on the scale of releases of PCDD/PCDFs to all environmental media. While a number of recent studies have produced inventories of PCDD/PCDF emissions to air, this study, commissioned by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP--now part of the Environment Agency), is the first attempt at producing a comprehensive UK inventory of emissions of dioxins to land and water from industrial and non-industrial processes. Release of PCDD/PCDFs in wastes taken to landfill are included under the definitions or releases to land used by the Environment Agency. Assembly of the inventory, particularly for releases to water, was severely hampered by lack of data from the UK or overseas; further work is required to remedy the data gaps and deficiencies revealed. The inventory puts total quantified releases to land at 1500-12,000 g toxic equivalent quantities (TEQ) per year--significantly more than releases to air or water. This is as expected, given the nature of the processes that form PCDD/PCDFs and their propensity to bind tightly to solid materials. The bulk of releases to land are to landfills rather than the open environment. From the data available, the open use of chemicals (including the disposal of wood treated with PCP), the manufacture of pesticides, the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and accidental fires appear to be the largest contributors. The processes with greatest potential for releases to water appear to be the open use of chemicals, sewage treatment, disposal of waste oil, accidental fires, production of pesticides and chlorophenols and chemical waste incineration. In addition, the run-off from roads may be a significant source of releases as this is untreated. For the majority

  18. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Kyung; Johari, Seyed Ali; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a "Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test," "Fish, acute toxicity test," and "freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test." Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as "category acute 1" for Daphnia magna, "category acute 2" for Oryzias latipes, and "category acute 1" for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as "category acute 1" for Daphnia magna, "category acute 2" for Oryzias latipes, and "category acute 2" for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments. PMID:26125025

  19. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a “Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test,” “Fish, acute toxicity test,” and “freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test.” Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 1” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 2” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments. PMID:26125025

  20. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, B.J.; Allen, M.D.; Rebar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the acute inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols were undertaken to aid in evaluating the health hazards associated with the proposed use of lithium metal in fusion reactors. Male and female F344/Lov rats, 9-12 wk of age, were exposed once for 4 h to concentrations of 2600, 2300, 1400, or 620 mg/m/sup 3/ of aerosol (MMAD = 0.69 ..mu..m, sigma/sub g/ = 1.45) that was approximately 80% lithium carbonate and 20% lithium hydroxide to determine the acute toxic effects. Fourteen-day LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of 1700 (1300-2000) mg/m/sup 3/ for the male rats and 2000 (1700-2400) mg/m/sup 3/ for the female rate were calculated. Clinical signs of anorexia, dehydration, respiratory difficulty, and perioral and perinasal encrustation were observed. Body weights were decreased the first day after exposure in relation to the exposure concentration. In animals observed for an additional 2 wk, body weights, organ weights, and clinical signs began to return to pre-exposure values. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tracts from the animals revealed ulcerative or necrotic laryngitis, focal to segmental ulcerative rhinitis often accompanied by areas of squamous metaplasia, and, in some cases, a suppurative bronchopneumonia or aspiration pneumonia, probably secondary to the laryngeal lesions. The results of these studies indicate the moderate acute toxicity of lithium carbonate aerosols and will aid in the risk analysis of accidental releases of lithium combustion aerosols.

  1. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  2. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper.

  3. Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

  4. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  5. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000. PMID:8813872

  6. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  7. Photo-induced toxicity of Deepwater Horizon slick oil to blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Matthew M; Boube, Idrissa; Griffitt, Robert J; Oris, James T; Roberts, Aaron P

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of approximately 700 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity after co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Blue crab are an important commercial and ecological resource in the Gulf of Mexico, and their largely transparent larvae may make them sensitive to PAH photo-induced toxicity. The goal of the present study was to examine the sensitivity of early lifestage blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) zoea to slick oil collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. Blue crab zoea were exposed to 1 of several dilutions of water accommodated fractions from 1 of 2 sources of oil and gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Two 7-h solar exposures were carried out with a recovery period (dark) in between. Survival was found to be UV- and PAH-dependent. Toxicity was observed within the range of surface PAH concentrations reported in the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon spill. These findings indicate that early lifestage blue crab are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity from Deepwater Horizon slick oil. PMID:26198885

  8. Photo-induced toxicity of Deepwater Horizon slick oil to blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Matthew M; Boube, Idrissa; Griffitt, Robert J; Oris, James T; Roberts, Aaron P

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of approximately 700 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity after co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Blue crab are an important commercial and ecological resource in the Gulf of Mexico, and their largely transparent larvae may make them sensitive to PAH photo-induced toxicity. The goal of the present study was to examine the sensitivity of early lifestage blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) zoea to slick oil collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. Blue crab zoea were exposed to 1 of several dilutions of water accommodated fractions from 1 of 2 sources of oil and gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Two 7-h solar exposures were carried out with a recovery period (dark) in between. Survival was found to be UV- and PAH-dependent. Toxicity was observed within the range of surface PAH concentrations reported in the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon spill. These findings indicate that early lifestage blue crab are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity from Deepwater Horizon slick oil.

  9. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    PubMed

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  10. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon ... people with an inflamed colon due to: Ulcerative colitis , or Crohn disease that is not well controlled ...

  11. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ragan, H A; Mast, T J

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.

  12. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p < 0.05) as conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  13. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p < 0.05) as conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species. PMID:24764004

  14. Effects of synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analogs on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha-independent release of arachidonic acid and cell toxicity in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaya; Muramatsu, Yuki; Tada, Eiko; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Yamaura, Erika; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Houjyo, Yuuya; Miyasaka, Yuri; Koide, Yuuki; Nishida, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylated products [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate] regulate cell functions including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell death. The development of analogs of S1P may be useful for regulating these mediator-induced cellular responses. We synthesized new analogs of S1P and examined their effects on the release of AA and cell death in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Among the analogs tested, several compounds including DMB-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMB-mC9S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-nonyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] released AA within 1 h and caused cell death 6 h after treatment. The release of AA was observed in C12 cells [a L929 variant lacking a type alpha cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha)] and L929-cPLAalpha-siRNA cells (L929 cells treated with small interference RNA for cPLA(2)alpha). Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s decreased the DMB-mC11S-induced release of AA. The effect of the S1P analogs tested on the release of AA was comparable to that on cell death in L929 cells, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. Two analogs lacking a butoxycarbonyl moiety [DMAc-mC11S (dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-acetamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMAm-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate)] had inhibitory effects on the release of AA and cell toxicity induced by DMB-mC11S. Synthetic phosphorylated lipid analogs may be useful for studying PLA(2) activity and its toxicity in cells. [Supplementary Fig. 1: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08284FP].

  15. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  16. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P < 0.05) were performed. The prevalence of dental injury was 22% (n = 85). Dental trauma was more prevalent in boys (P = 0.001) and individuals with overjet >3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P < 0.001) and in an environment with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  17. Assessment of war and accidental nerve injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Barisić, N; Perović, D; Mitrović, Z; Jurenić, D; Zagar, M

    1999-07-01

    Eleven children with war-related peripheral nerve injury and 16 children with accident-related nerve injury between the ages of 3 and 15 years were assessed clinically and electromyoneurographically for 1-15 months. Lesions of 32 peripheral nerves were registered in children with war injuries. Children with accidentally acquired injuries had lesions of 27 peripheral nerves. A complete loss of voluntary motor unit potentials and signs of total axonal damage were recorded in the upper arms of seven of 11 children with war injuries and in five of 16 children with accidental injuries. There was a diminished number of motor unit potentials and a reduction in compound muscle action potential amplitudes, indicating partial nerve lesions, in 11 of 16 children with accidental injuries (mostly after humeral fracture) and in three of 11 children with brachial plexus war injuries. Reinnervation signs first occurred after 5-9 months (mean = 6.2 months) in war-injured children receiving conservative treatment and after 2-7 months (mean = 3.4 months) in children with accidentally acquired injuries. War-related peripheral nerve injuries in children are more frequently associated with complete denervation followed by slower or delayed nerve regeneration. In children with accidentally acquired nerve injuries the course is significantly better.

  18. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  19. Release Behavior and Toxicity Profiles towards Leukemia (WEHI-3B) Cell Lines of 6-Mercaptopurine-PEG-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2014-01-01

    The coating of an active drug, 6-mercaptopurine, into the iron oxide nanoparticles-polyethylene glycol (FNPs-PEG) in order to form a new nanocomposite, FPEGMP-2, was accomplished using coprecipitation technique. The resulting nanosized with a narrow size distribution magnetic polymeric particles show the superparamagnetic properties with 38.6 emu/g saturation magnetization at room temperature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the thermal analysis study supported the formation of the nanocomposite and the enhancement of thermal stability in the resulting nanocomposite comparing with its counterpart in free state. The loading of 6-mercaptopurine (MP) in the FPEGMP-2 nanocomposite was estimated to be about 5.6% and the kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the pseudo-second order model. Also, the release of MP from the FPEGMP-2 nanocomposite shows the sustained release manner which is remarkably lower in phosphate buffered solution at pH 7.4 than pH 4.8, due to different release mechanism. The maximum percentage release of MP from the nanocomposite reached about 60% and 97% within about 92 and 74 hours when exposed to pH 7.4 and 4.8, respectively. PMID:24895684

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles show no toxicity in the comet assay in lymphocytes: A promising vehicle as a nitric oxide releasing nanocarrier in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, R.; Oliveira, J. L.; Murakami, P. S. K.; Molina, M. A. M.; Itri, R.; Haddad, P.; Seabra, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis and toxicological evaluation of surface modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as vehicles to carry and deliver nitric oxide (NO). The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was coated with two thiol-containing hydrophilic ligands: mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), leading to thiolated MNPs. Free thiols groups on the surface of MSA- or DMSA-MNPs were nitrosated leading to NO-releasing MNPs. The genotoxicity of thiolated-coated MNPs was evaluated towards human lymphocyte cells by the comet assay. No genotoxicity was observed due to exposure of human lymphocytes to MSA- or DMSA-MNPs, indicating that these nanovectors can be used as inert vehicles in drug delivery, in biomedical applications. On the other hand, NO-releasing MPNs showed genotoxicity and apoptotic activities towards human lymphocyte cell cultures. These results indicate that NO-releasing MNPs may result in important biomedical applications, such as the treatment of tumors, in which MNPs can be guided to the target site through the application of an external magnetic field, and release NO directly to the desired site of action.

  1. Overview of toxicity data and risk assessment methods for evaluating the chemical effects of depleted uranium compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H. M.; Monette, F. A.; Avci, H. I.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-10-01

    In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium metal for military applications). Human exposure can occur as a result of handling these compounds, routine low-level effluent releases to the environment from processing facilities, or materials being accidentally released from storage locations or during processing or transportation. Exposure to uranium can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity, but in most instances chemical toxicity is of greater concern. This article discusses the chemical toxic effects from human exposure to depleted uranium compounds that are likely to be handled during the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) inventories in the United States. It also reviews representative publications in the toxicological literature to establish appropriate reference values for risk assessments. Methods are described for evaluating chemical toxicity caused by chronic low-level exposure and acute exposure. Example risk evaluations are provided for illustration. Preliminary results indicate that chemical effects of chronic exposure to uranium compounds under normal operating conditions would be negligibly small. Results also show that acute exposures under certain accident conditions could cause adverse chemical effects among the populations exposed.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in accidentally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongbiao; Wang, Ji; Wu, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-03-01

    This study examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in 180 accidentally injured patients of mainland China in their convalescence stage, investigating its relationships with demographic and accidental injury variables, personality, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping styles. Our results showed that posttraumatic growth (PTG) presented mostly in the domain of Relating to Others and indicated that PTG was significantly related to marital status, educational level, personality, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Avoidance of PTSD symptoms, Openness to experience, and positive coping were significant predictors of PTG. The findings emphasize that when promoting PTG of accidentally injured patients, healthcare providers should facilitate patients utilizing personal resources, understand PTG coexists with PTSD symptoms, and adjust interventions based on the coping styles the patients have adopted.

  3. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  5. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  6. A potent, non-toxic insulin-releasing peptide isolated from an extract of the skin of the Asian frog, Hylarana guntheri (Anura:Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Power, Gavin J; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; Jiansheng, Hu; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert

    2008-11-29

    Peptides in extract of the skin of the Asian frog Hylarana guntheri Boulenger,1882 were purified by reversed-phase HPLC and individual components analysed for their ability to release insulin from the rat BRIN-BD11 clonal beta cell line. The most potent peptide identified in the extract belonged to the brevinin-2 family (brevinin-2GUb; GVIIDTLKGAAKTVAAELLRKAHCKLTNSC). Other peptides with weaker insulin-releasing activity belonged to the brevinin-1 (2 peptides), brevinin-2 (2 peptides) and temporin (3 peptides) families. Only the brevinin-1 peptides showed cytolytic activity against the BRIN-BD11 cells, as demonstrated by an increased rate of release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase. A synthetic replicate of brevinin-2GUb produced a significant stimulation of insulin release (139% of basal rate; P<0.05) at a concentration of 100 nM with a maximum response of 373% of basal rate at a concentration of 3 microM) by a mechanism that did not involve mobilization of intracellular calcium. Brevinin-2GUb also inhibited the growth of microorganisms (MIC against Escherichia coli=32 microM, Staphylococcus aureus=64 microM, and Candida albicans=64 microM) but had only weak hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50)=700 microM). Administration of brevinin-2GUb (75 nmol/kg body weight) into mice significantly (P<0.05) improved glucose tolerance following a intraperitoneal injection of glucose, thereby demonstrating that the peptide shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

  7. Acute toxicity and biodegradation of endosulfan by the polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis in an indoor culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Zhang, Litao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sui, Zhenghong; Hur, Junwook

    2013-01-01

    The polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, a key species in estuarine ecosystems, can improve the culture condition of sediment. Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used globally to control insects and mites; however, it is a source of pollution in aquaculture as a result of runoff or accidental release. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of endosulfan to polychaeta and its ability to improve polluted sediment. Specifically, the effects of a series of endosulfan concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) were investigated, and the results indicated that the 24-h median lethal concentration (24-h LC50) was 55.57 mg/L, while the 48-h median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) was 15.56 mg/L, and the safe concentration was about 1.556 mg/L. In a 30-d exposure experiment, the animal specimen could decompose endosulfan effectively while improving endosulfan-polluted aquatic sediment.

  8. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  9. [Case of upper airway stenosis after accidental ingestion of neutral detergent containing cationic surfactant (HDQ Neutral)].

    PubMed

    Nagae, Masaharu; Naito, Hiromichi; Okahara, Shuji; Hikasa, Yukiko; Okada, Daisuke; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    We had a case of upper airway stenosis after accidental ingestion of neutral detergent containing cationic surfactant (HDQ Neutral). An 85-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 50 mL of HDQ Neutral. On arrival, he had an edematous buccopharyngeal membrane with bleeding. Laryngeal edema was observed by laryngoscopy, and severe upper airway stenosis occurred. He also had hypoxemia and was therefore intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. After admission, his respiratory condition was stable. On day 3, upper airway edema had improved and extubation was performed. He was cured without other complications. Surfactants generally have low toxicity but can cause damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, immediate evaluation and treatment are needed for intoxication with them. They can also cause harm to circulation dynamics or the central nerve system, and careful follow-up is therefore needed.

  10. Advanced radiometric complex for detection of radioactive release from Siberian chemical combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, Gennady A.; Penin, Sergei T.

    2015-11-01

    The paper states limited availability of the use of the automated radiation situation monitoring system and proposes radiometric complex as more reliable system in the case of an accidental release of the Siberian Chemical Enterprises.

  11. Improved Meteorological Input for Atmospheric Release Decision support Systems and an Integrated LES Modeling System for Atmospheric Dispersion of Toxic Agents: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E; Simpson, M; Larsen, S; Gash, J; Aluzzi, F; Lundquist, J; Sugiyama, G

    2010-04-26

    When hazardous material is accidently or intentionally released into the atmosphere, emergency response organizations look to decision support systems (DSSs) to translate contaminant information provided by atmospheric models into effective decisions to protect the public and emergency responders and to mitigate subsequent consequences. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-led Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC) is one of the primary DSSs utilized by emergency management organizations. IMAAC is responsible for providing 'a single piont for the coordination and dissemination of Federal dispersion modeling and hazard prediction products that represent the Federal position' during actual or potential incidents under the National Response Plan. The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), locatec at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), serves as the primary operations center of the IMAAC. A key component of atmospheric release decision support systems is meteorological information - models and data of winds, turbulence, and other atmospheric boundary-layer parameters. The accuracy of contaminant predictions is strongly dependent on the quality of this information. Therefore, the effectiveness of DSSs can be enhanced by improving the meteorological options available to drive atmospheric transport and fate models. The overall goal of this project was to develop and evaluate new meteorological modeling capabilities for DSSs based on the use of NASA Earth-science data sets in order to enhance the atmospheric-hazard information provided to emergency managers and responders. The final report describes the LLNL contributions to this multi-institutional effort. LLNL developed an approach to utilize NCAR meteorological predictions using NASA MODIS data for the New York City (NYC) region and demonstrated the potential impact of the use of different data sources and data parameterizations on

  12. Environmental release of chemicals and reproductive ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, J S; Misra, A; Rajalakshmi, M; Madan, R

    1993-01-01

    Reproductive ecology is defined as "the study of causes and mechanisms of the effects of environmental risk factors on reproductive health and the methods of their prevention and management." Major areas of concern, within the purview of this paper, relate to adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects on target tissues in the male and the female, and alterations in the control and regulatory mechanisms of reproductive processes. Teratogenic potential of chemicals, released as a result of accidents and catastrophes, is of critical significance. Congenital Minamata disease is due to transplacental fetal toxicity caused by accidental ingestion of methyl mercury. Generalized disorders of ectodermal tissue following prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls have been reported in Taiwan and Japan. The Bhopal gas disaster, a catastrophic industrial accident, was due to a leak of toxic gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), in the pesticide manufacturing process. The outcome of pregnancy was studied in female survivors of MIC exposure. The spontaneous abortion rate was nearly four times more common in the affected areas as compared to the control area (24.2% versus 5.6%; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, while stillbirth rate was found to be similar in the affected and control areas, the perinatal and neonatal mortality rates were observed to be higher in the affected area. The rate of congenital malformations in the affected and control areas did not show any significant difference. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were investigated in human survivors of exposure. The observed SCE frequencies in control and exposed groups indicated that mutagenesis has been induced. Strategies for the management, prediction, and preventability of such disasters are outlined. PMID:8243381

  13. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health. PMID:21674160

  14. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health.

  15. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  16. Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, K. C.

    1966-01-01

    Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

  17. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information.

  18. The accidental transgressor: morally-relevant theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Killen, Melanie; Lynn Mulvey, Kelly; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-05-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a morally-relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind.

  19. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  20. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  1. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure.

  2. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  3. CFD analysis of the influence of meteorological conditions on motion of gas ammonia in the case of emergency release in urban development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavila, O.; Bojko, M.; Kozubková, M.; Danihelka, P.; Maléřová, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ammonia in all physical states is a toxic substance that can endanger people's health. It is used in various industrial technologies, including freezing of ice surfaces in ice stadiums. There exist advanced ammonia-free technologies but in many places liquid ammonia is still used in large volumes. It is no exception that objects using ammonia cooling and freezing technologies are placed in densely populated urban areas or in their immediate vicinities. An accidental ammonia release can pose a risk to health and lives of humans located in the release source immediate vicinity. The article presents the results of a numerical CFD model of gas ammonia plume motion and dispersion after an accidental release from a real ice stadium situated in an urban area. The CFD analysis was performed using the ANSYS Fluent 14.0 for two seasons and eight wind directions. Sixteen tasks emerged, the results of which can define the influence of meteorological conditions (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, etc.) and surrounding buildings on the motion and dispersion of pollutant plume. The simulation was performed with real local meteorological data. The numerical model had been verified by tasks performed in a low-speed wind tunnel. The results show that the influence of meteorological conditions, especially the influence of calendar seasons, on the pollutant plume propagation can be very pronounced. Principles and conclusions drawn from this and similar analyses may have great benefits for emergency planning in complex urban areas.

  4. Pinellas Plant accidental discharge protection/slug control plan. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-01

    This plan provides guidance for the prevention of accidental slug discharges and for emergency response and cleanup measures in the event of accidental slug discharges. The plan also specifies procedures for the discharge of other substances.

  5. Poloxamer-based binary hydrogels for delivering tramadol hydrochloride: sol-gel transition studies, dissolution-release kinetics, in vitro toxicity, and pharmacological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ana Claudia Mendonça; Akkari, Alessandra Cristina Santos; Ferreira, Iasmin Rosanne Silva; Maruyama, Cintia Rodrigues; Pascoli, Monica; Guilherme, Viviane Aparecida; de Paula, Eneida; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; de Lima, Renata; Melo, Patrícia da Silva; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    In this work, poloxamer (PL)-based binary hydrogels, composed of PL 407 and PL 188, were studied with regard to the physicochemical aspects of sol-gel transition and pharmaceutical formulation issues such as dissolution-release profiles. In particular, we evaluated the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacological performance of PL 407 and PL 407–PL 188 hydrogels containing tramadol (TR) to analyze its potential treatment of acute pain. Drug–micelle interaction studies showed the formation of PL 407–PL 188 binary systems and the drug partitioning into the micelles. Characterization of the sol-gel transition phase showed an increase on enthalpy variation values that were induced by the presence of TR hydrochloride within the PL 407 or PL 407–PL 188 systems. Hydrogel dissolution occurred rapidly, with approximately 30%–45% of the gel dissolved, reaching ~80%–90% up to 24 hours. For in vitro release assays, formulations followed the diffusion Higuchi model and lower Krel values were observed for PL 407 (20%, Krel =112.9±10.6 μg·h−1/2) and its binary systems PL 407–PL 188 (25%–5% and 25%–10%, Krel =80.8±6.1 and 103.4±8.3 μg·h−1/2, respectively) in relation to TR solution (Krel =417.9±47.5 μg·h−1/2, P<0.001). In addition, the reduced cytotoxicity (V79 fibroblasts and hepatocytes) and genotoxicity (V79 fibroblasts), as well as the prolonged analgesic effects (>72 hours) pointed to PL-based hydrogels as a potential treatment, by subcutaneous injection, for acute pain. PMID:25848258

  6. Poloxamer-based binary hydrogels for delivering tramadol hydrochloride: sol-gel transition studies, dissolution-release kinetics, in vitro toxicity, and pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ana Claudia Mendonça; Akkari, Alessandra Cristina Santos; Ferreira, Iasmin Rosanne Silva; Maruyama, Cintia Rodrigues; Pascoli, Monica; Guilherme, Viviane Aparecida; de Paula, Eneida; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; de Lima, Renata; Melo, Patrícia da Silva; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    In this work, poloxamer (PL)-based binary hydrogels, composed of PL 407 and PL 188, were studied with regard to the physicochemical aspects of sol-gel transition and pharmaceutical formulation issues such as dissolution-release profiles. In particular, we evaluated the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacological performance of PL 407 and PL 407-PL 188 hydrogels containing tramadol (TR) to analyze its potential treatment of acute pain. Drug-micelle interaction studies showed the formation of PL 407-PL 188 binary systems and the drug partitioning into the micelles. Characterization of the sol-gel transition phase showed an increase on enthalpy variation values that were induced by the presence of TR hydrochloride within the PL 407 or PL 407-PL 188 systems. Hydrogel dissolution occurred rapidly, with approximately 30%-45% of the gel dissolved, reaching ~80%-90% up to 24 hours. For in vitro release assays, formulations followed the diffusion Higuchi model and lower K(rel) values were observed for PL 407 (20%, K(rel) = 112.9 ± 10.6 μg · h(-1/2)) and its binary systems PL 407-PL 188 (25%-5% and 25%-10%, K(rel) =80.8 ± 6.1 and 103.4 ± 8.3 μg · h(-1/2), respectively) in relation to TR solution (K(rel) =417.9 ± 47.5 μg · h(-1/2), P<0.001). In addition, the reduced cytotoxicity (V79 fibroblasts and hepatocytes) and genotoxicity (V79 fibroblasts), as well as the prolonged analgesic effects (>72 hours) pointed to PL-based hydrogels as a potential treatment, by subcutaneous injection, for acute pain.

  7. 18-Methoxycoronaridine, a non-toxic iboga alkaloid congener: effects on morphine and cocaine self-administration and on mesolimbic dopamine release in rats.

    PubMed

    Glick, S D; Kuehne, M E; Maisonneuve, I M; Bandarage, U K; Molinari, H H

    1996-05-01

    Ibogaine, a naturally occurring iboga alkaloid, has been claimed to be effective in treating addiction to opioids and stimulants, and has been reported to inhibit morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats. However, ibogaine also has acute nonspecific side effects (e.g. tremors, decreased motivated behavior in general) as well as neurotoxic effects (Purkinje cell loss) manifested in the vermis of the cerebellum. 18-Methoxycoronaridine (MC) is a novel, synthetic iboga alkaloid congener that mimics ibogaine's effects on drug self-administration without appearing to have ibogaine's other adverse effects. Acutely, in rats, MC decreased morphine and cocaine self-administration but did not affect bar-press responding for water. In some rats, treatment with MC (40 mg/kg) induced prolonged decreases in morphine or cocaine intake lasting several days or weeks. MC had no apparent tremorigenic effect, and there was no evidence of cerebellar toxicity after a high dose (100 mg/kg) of MC. Similar to the effects of ibogaine and other iboga alkaloids that inhibit drug self-administration, MC (40 mg/kg) decreased extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. MC therefore appears to be a safer, ibogaine-like agent that might be useful in the treatment of addictive disorders. PMID:8782860

  8. Methotrexate Locally Released from Poly(e-Caprolactone) Implants: Inhibition of the Inflammatory Angiogenesis Response in a Murine Sponge Model and the Absence of Systemic Toxicity.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Leandro Gonzaga; Figueiredo, Letîcia Aparecida; Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella Maria; Marina Barcelos, De Miranda; Machado, Laser Antonio; Dasilva, Gisele Rodrigues; Sandra Aparecida Lima, De Moura

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the methotrexate (MTX) was incorporated into the poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) to design implants (MTX PCL implants) aiming the local treatment of inflammatory angiogenesis diseases without causing systemic side effects. Sponges were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of mice as a framework for fibrovascular tissue growth. After 4days, MTX PCL implants were also introduced, and anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and antifibrogenic activities of the MTX were determined. MTX reduced the vascularization (hemoglobin content), the neutrophil, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration (MPO and NAG activities, respectively), and the collagen deposition in sponges. MTX reduced tumor necrosis factor-a and IL-6 levels, demonstrating its local antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity, which could be induced by the drug, were evaluated. However, MTX did not promote toxicity to these organs, as the levels of AST and ALT (hepatic markers) and creatinine and urea (renal markers) were not increased, and the complete blood count was not decreased. In conclusion, MTX PCL implants demonstrated to be effective in regulating the components of the inflammatory angiogenesis locally established, and presented an acceptable safety profile. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3731-3742, 2015. PMID:27524686

  9. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  10. Hematite nanoparticles larger than 90 nm show no sign of toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase release, nitric oxide generation, apoptosis, and comet assay in murine alveolar macrophages and human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Bonelli, Barbara; Tomatis, Maura; Ghiazza, Mara; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Garrone, Edoardo; Fubini, Bice

    2012-04-16

    Three hematite samples were synthesized by precipitation from a FeCl₃ solution under controlled pH and temperature conditions in different morphology and dimensions: (i) microsized (average diameter 1.2 μm); (ii) submicrosized (250 nm); and (iii) nanosized (90 nm). To gain insight into reactions potentially occurring in vivo at the particle-lung interface following dust inhalation, several physicochemical features relevant to pathogenicity were measured (free radical generation in cell-free tests, metal release, and antioxidant depletion), and cellular toxicity assays on human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) were carried out (LDH release, apoptosis detection, DNA damage, and nitric oxide synthesis). The decrease in particles size, from 1.2 μm to 90 nm, only caused a slight increase in structural defects (disorder of the hematite phase and the presence of surface ferrous ions) without enhancing surface reactivity or cellular responses in the concentration range between 20 and 100 μg cm⁻².

  11. Hematite nanoparticles larger than 90 nm show no sign of toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase release, nitric oxide generation, apoptosis, and comet assay in murine alveolar macrophages and human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Bonelli, Barbara; Tomatis, Maura; Ghiazza, Mara; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Garrone, Edoardo; Fubini, Bice

    2012-04-16

    Three hematite samples were synthesized by precipitation from a FeCl₃ solution under controlled pH and temperature conditions in different morphology and dimensions: (i) microsized (average diameter 1.2 μm); (ii) submicrosized (250 nm); and (iii) nanosized (90 nm). To gain insight into reactions potentially occurring in vivo at the particle-lung interface following dust inhalation, several physicochemical features relevant to pathogenicity were measured (free radical generation in cell-free tests, metal release, and antioxidant depletion), and cellular toxicity assays on human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) were carried out (LDH release, apoptosis detection, DNA damage, and nitric oxide synthesis). The decrease in particles size, from 1.2 μm to 90 nm, only caused a slight increase in structural defects (disorder of the hematite phase and the presence of surface ferrous ions) without enhancing surface reactivity or cellular responses in the concentration range between 20 and 100 μg cm⁻². PMID:22324577

  12. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  13. [Preclinical management of accidental methadone intoxication of a 4-year-old girl. Antagonist or intubation?].

    PubMed

    Hainer, C; Bernhard, M; Gries, A

    2004-10-01

    We report on the preclinical management of a 4-year-old child who was found in a comatose condition with respiratory failure after accidental ingestion of methadone. Emergency airway management was carried out with endotracheal intubation instead of administering the antagonist naloxone. The child could be extubated 12 h later and was released from hospital after 3 days with no neurological symptoms. The authors attempt to formulate an algorithm for the preclinical management of opioid intoxication with reference to the literature and own experience. Endotracheal intubation seems to be superior to the use of the antagonist naloxone, especially in a critical situation. This is the only way to ensure a rapid oxygenation with adequate airway protection and with the simultaneous avoidance of the side-effects of naloxone. A restrictive and critical administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone is recommended when there is suspicion of opioid ingestion but no signs of intoxication. PMID:15278196

  14. Keeping tabs on toxics.

    PubMed

    Young, J E

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) is a list of all chemicals released by over 22,000 manufacturing sites across the US. The TRI was established by the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986. The TRI is managed by the Environmental Protection Agency. It was opposed by the Reagan administration and many industry groups because it was seen as an increase in government paper work and regulation. It has turned out to be an easy-to-manage stimulate to change. Industry leaders have even proclaimed its ability to help raise awareness of pollution in the industry. The TRI is accessible through computers with modems on the TOXNET system at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda for about 25$-35$/hour. It is also available through RTK NET which is operated jointly by OMB Watch and the Unison Institute. TRI is by no means complete. It covers an estimated 5% of the total toxic release in the US. It monitors the release of only 330 toxic chemicals leaving about 500 more out. It does not count releases from sites that process less then 25,000 pounds or that use less than 10,000 pounds of a listed chemical. It also only monitors steel, paper, chemical, petroleum refining activities. It does not monitor the releases from other manufacturing like oil and gas extraction, warehousing, transportation, hazardous waste disposal, incineration, and mining.

  15. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  16. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  17. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  18. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  19. Accidental burials in sand: a potentially fatal summertime hazard.

    PubMed

    Zarroug, Abdalla E; Stavlo, Penny L; Kays, Greg A; Rodeberg, David A; Moir, Christopher R

    2004-06-01

    Accidental burial in sand is a tragically unrecognized risk associated with a popular childhood recreational activity. We describe 4 boys, aged 10 to 13 years, who were accidentally buried by sand. One boy died after his self-made tunnel in a sandbox collapsed. In a separate incident at a construction site, 1 boy died, and 2 were injured after a 30-foot sandpile collapsed as they ran down the embankment; all 3 were buried by the sand. In both incidents, play was unsupervised, and burial was sudden and complete. The calculated weight of the sand exceeded the expected maximal muscle effort of the chest, leading to traumatic asphyxiation secondary to restrictive compression of the chest. Only 15 accidental burials have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing children who died of respiratory asphyxia due to overwhelming thoracic compression after sand burial. Greater awareness by public health and safety officials at beaches, sandboxes, sandpiles, and natural play areas may prevent potentially lethal accidents.

  20. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  1. Ipecac-induced emesis and reduction of plasma concentrations of drugs following accidental overdose in children.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Y; Mitchell, A A; McGuigan, M A; Lovejoy, F H

    1987-09-01

    Syrup of ipecac is widely used following accidental drug overdosage in children. Proof of its efficacy, however, in reducing the risk of poisoning is limited. We prospectively studied the effect of early v late induction of emesis by ipecac in 50 children younger than 5 years of age with accidental acetaminophen poisoning. The mean estimated ingested dose was 165 mg/kg, and all patients vomited within 15 to 255 (mean 78) minutes postingestion. Although the predicted four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 97 +/- 4 micrograms/mL (mean +/- SEM, calculated on the basis of the estimated ingested dose), the measured four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 34 +/- 5 micrograms/mL (P less than .01). To assess the efficacy of early v late ipecac-induced emesis, we used the ratio of measured to predicted four-hour acetaminophen plasma concentration. The ratio of the measured to predicted four-hour level increased as the delay in time to vomiting increased (r = .60, P less than .001). Ipecac syrup was administered more promptly when available in the home than when obtained from a pharmacy or a medical facility (26 +/- 8 v 83 +/- 13 minutes postingestion, respectively; P less than .001) and vomiting occurred earlier (49 +/- 9 v 103 +/- 12 minutes postingestion; P less than .01). Although the mean estimated doses ingested were greater in patients who received ipecac syrup at home, their four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentrations were lower. These data suggest that prompt administration of ipecac syrup results in a greater reduction in plasma acetaminophen concentrations in potentially toxic overdosages in children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2888073

  2. Fatal and non-fatal outcome by accidental intoxication with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Dolapsakis, G; Troulakis, G; Christodoulou, P; Relakis, K; Trikilis, N; Michalodimitrakis, M N

    1997-09-01

    Although poisonings (fatal and non-fatal) due to intentional or accidental acute exposure to toluene or toluene mixture fumes have been previously reported in the literature, several issues concerning lethal doses or lasting post-exposure neuropathological impairments still remain unclear. Two male painters (18 and 30 years old) were accidentally exposed to toxic concentrations of paint diluent fumes containing toluene (TL), acetone (ACT) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (60:15:15 w/w/w respectively) during their work in an underground reservoir. Both workers were found unresponsive by colleagues and were immediately transferred to the regional hospital. On admission, the younger man was pronounced dead, while the other remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then 4 days in the internal medicine ward. TL, ACT and MEK concentrations in blood samples taken from the survivor on admission were 6.3, 30.6 and 40.5 microg/mL. Postmortem toxicology of the dead worker revealed TL, ACT and MEK blood levels of 12.4, 90.8 and 80.4 microg/mL respectively. The solvent levels in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, testis and gland were also quantified and showed a somewhat similar distribution of the chemicals among these tissues with the highest levels found in the brain and the liver. The fatal and the non-fatal outcome that resulted despite similar intoxication conditions, most probably demonstrates the interindividual tolerance among the painters who also had similar body weights. The surviving painter did not develop any neuropsychological impairment in post-exposure time. The reported case strongly emphasizes the necessity to take precautions when using paint diluents in enclosed spaces. PMID:15335573

  3. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-04-21

    Following a request from the States of South Carolina and Georgia, downstream radiological consequences from postulated accidental aqueous releases at the three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be examined. This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the accidents to be used in the future study.

  4. Bulgarian emergency responce system for release of hazardous pollutants - design and first test of the preparedness mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, Kostadin; Todorova, Angelina; Jordanov, Georgi; Gadzhev, Georgi; Syrakov, Dimiter; Miloshev, Nikolai; Prodanova, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The NATO SfP N 981393 project aims at developing of a unified Balkan region oriented modelling system for operational response to accidental releases of harmful gases in the atmosphere, which would be able to: 1.Perform highly acurate and reliable risk analysis and assessment for selected "hot spots"; 2.Support the emergency fast decisions with short-term regional scale forecast of the propagation of harmful gasesin case of accidental release; 3.Perform, in an off-line mode, a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of the possible longer-term impacts on the environment and human health and make the results available to the authorities and the public. The present paper describes the set up and the testing of the system, mainly focusing on the risk analysis mode. The modeling tool used in the system is the US EPA Models-3 System: WRF, CMAQ and SMOKE (partly). The CB05 toxic chemical mechanism, including chlorine reactions, is employed. The emission input exploits the high-resolution TNO emission inventory. The meteorological pre-processor WRF is driven by NCAR Final Reanalysis data and performs calculations in 3 nested domains, covering respectively the regions of South-Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, and the area surrounding the particular site. The risk assessment for the region of "Vereja Him" factory, Jambol, Bulgaria is performed on the basis of one-year long model calculations. The calculations with CMAQ chemical transport model are performed for the two inner domains. An ammount of 25 tons of chlorine is released two times daily in the innermost domain, and sepаrate calculations are performed for every release. The results are averaged over one year in order to evaluate the probability of exceeding some regulatory treshold value in each grid point. The completion of this task in a relatively short period of time was made possible by using the newly developed Grid computational environment, which allows for shared use of facilities in the research community.

  5. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  6. Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil.

  7. Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571

  8. Self-locking double retention redundant pull pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, Thomas O. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A double-retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral-threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidental release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  9. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  10. Lindane toxicity to one year old calves

    SciTech Connect

    Venant, A.; Borrel, S.; Mallet, J. ); Sery, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Lindane (the gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexachlorocyclohexane) is still recommended and used as seed treatment and for control of pests especially against lice and ticks on sheep and cattle (but not on dairy cattle and laying hens). Unlike others organochlorine pesticides, lindane does not persist in the environment or in living animals. Multitest data have established that is not a highly toxic pesticide. About domestic animals toxicity, no exact data is available and LD50 is not exactly known. Values obtained after an accidental intoxication allow the authors to have some data on toxicity levels and on toxic origin symptoms. During the last year, one case of intoxication of calves was investigated on 30 calves (sprayed against ectoparasite with lindane) in which 5 died. Results are reported in the present work.

  11. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  12. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  13. Burns caused by accidental overdose of photochemotherapy (PUVA).

    PubMed

    Herr, Hwan; Cho, Hee Jin; Yu, Seongcheol

    2007-05-01

    This study was aimed to alert the hazard of accidental adverse reactions of photochemotherapy (Psoralen-UVA or PUVA) that has been used in the treatment for some skin diseases and commercially for cosmetic tanning. Aside from the predictable side effects of PUVA such as erythema and itching, the accidental adverse reactions such as extensive burns could occasionally occur. Our observations indicated that six cases resulted from mistakes of medical personnel, and six other cases resulted from unsupervised mistakes of patients. The conditions that needed photochemotherapy were seven cases of vitiligo, three cases of psoriasis and two cases of tanning. The accidental overdose of UV radiation was about 3-10 times the empirically normal dose. Five of our patients were supposed to undergo topical PUVA, but they were irradiated at the dose of oral PUVA. One patient applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) cream together with taking 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) tablets for oral PUVA. Three other patients enjoyed sunbathing 1-3h shortly after finishing PUVA. A young couple chose 5-MOP to enhance tanning and sunbathed about 1h later. When another patient resumed PUVA in a 6-month cessation, he was exposed at a previous dose instead of a starting dose. Erythema and blisters of second degree burns developed in all our cases, 36-72h after PUVA, with 5-25% of body surface involved. Among the 12 patients, 3 were admitted and 9 were treated on an outpatient basis. All patients recovered in 1-3 weeks with no skin graft or no significant sequelae except post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  14. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-01-01

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  15. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... basis. (3) Procedures for reviewing risk management plans and providing technical assistance to... chapter; and (ii) A requirement that any source subject to the State's part 68 program submit a Risk Management Plan (RMP) that reports at least the same information in the same format as required under part...

  16. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... basis. (3) Procedures for reviewing risk management plans and providing technical assistance to... chapter; and (ii) A requirement that any source subject to the State's part 68 program submit a Risk Management Plan (RMP) that reports at least the same information in the same format as required under part...

  17. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... the next revision of RG 1.206 and NUREG-0800. On February 24, 2010 (75 FR 8411 and 75 FR 8412), the... adequately evaluate applicants' approach in modeling the movement of radioactivity and in assessing the... radioactivity to reach groundwater or surface water, while ISG-014 focuses on characterizing the...

  18. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions. PMID:25910926

  19. 78 FR 66321 - Approval of North Dakota Request for Partial Delegation of Prevention of Accidental Release...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... initials FR mean Federal Register. (vii) The initials CAS mean Chemical Abstract Service. (viii) The.... 61 FR 31668. These regulations require owners and operators of stationary sources subject to the... anhydrous ammonia storage capacity of ten thousand pounds or more that is intended to be used as...

  20. 78 FR 79317 - Approval of Request for Delegation of Authority for Prevention of Accidental Release, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... that is intended to be used as fertilizer or in the manufacturing of a fertilizer (``agricultural... mean Code of Federal Regulations (vi) The initials FR mean Federal Register (vii) The initials NDCC... (61 FR 31668, June 20, 1996). These regulations require owners and operators of stationary...

  1. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions.

  2. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed. PMID:22966472

  3. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Vinayagam, Stalin; Vajifdar, Homay

    2012-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB), but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning. PMID:22557834

  4. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant. PMID:25466782

  5. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel. PMID:21146334

  6. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Wortham, G.R.

    1991-12-19

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release.

  7. Relocation Impacts of a Major Release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-05-17

    The relocation impacts of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3 , are evaluated for the Savannah River Technology Center. The extent of the area potentially contaminated to a level that would result in doses exceeding the relocation protective action guide is calculated.

  8. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  9. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  10. Psychosocial aspects of accidental injuries--an overview.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U; Buddeberg, C

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the current "state of the art" with regard to psycho-traumatological issues in accidentally injured patients. A MEDLINE search (1985-1995) yielded a total of 135 references, out of which 60 publications were selected and reviewed. The body of knowledge about the psycho-social effects of serious injuries caused by accidents seems to be still limited. There are indications that accidents leave many patients suffering from not only the physical consequences but also considerable psychological problems. A frequent clinical manifestation of such problems is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but depression, anxiety and the somatoform disorder have also been observed, possibly even more frequently. There have been substantial discrepancies in epidemiological data in the literature, partially because the samples analyzed so far have not been homogeneous enough. It is also obvious that studies have been devoted almost exclusively to disorders and handicaps following (and occasionally prior to) the traumatic event. Seldom has the study focused on patient resources: practically no studies exist on the effects of protective psycho-social factors on the healing process following accidental injuries. More research is needed in order to be able to make predictions on the expected healing of patients during the acute stage of treatment following an accident. These future studies should deliver information on identifying high-risk patients who would require specific psycho-social intervention.

  11. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail.

  12. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Rajesh Kumar; Sinnathamby, Vellan

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and muscular pains. However, these massage oils may be toxic when taken orally. Early recognition of the salicylate toxicity is very important in producing a good patient outcome. PMID:22922924

  13. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bennetto, Luke; Powter, Louise; Scolding, Neil J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method. PMID:18430228

  14. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  15. Radiological Assessment Code System - Meteorological Evaluation of Routine Effluent Releases at Nuclear Power Stations.

    1989-07-31

    Version 00 XOQDOQ-82 evaluates the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents released to the atmosphere. Since the program uses meteorological data averaged over long periods of time, it is appropriate for use in environmental impact studies rather than in the analyses of accidental releases.

  16. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  17. Comparison of Diluted Bitumen (Dilbit) and Conventional Crude Oil Toxicity to Developing Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Danielle A; Philibert, Clara P; Lewis, Carlie; Tierney, Keith B

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate pipeline transport of bitumen, it is diluted with natural gas condensate, and the resulting mixture, "dilbit", differs greatly in chemical composition to conventional crude oil. Despite the risk of accidental dilbit release, the effects of dilbit on aquatic animals are largely unknown. In this study, we compared the toxicity of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of dilbit and two conventional crude oils, medium sour composite and mixed sweet blend, to developing zebrafish. Mortality and pericardial edema was lowest in dilbit WAF-exposed embryonic zebrafish but yolk sac edema was similar in all exposures. Shelter-seeking behavior was decreased by dilbit and conventional crude WAF exposures, and continuous swimming behavior was affected by all tested WAF exposures. Regardless of WAF type, monoaromatic hydrocarbon content (largely made up of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)) was a more accurate predictor of lethality and pericardial edema than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Our results suggest that the toxicity of dilbit to a model fish is less than or similar to that of conventional crudes.

  18. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  19. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  20. Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control. PMID:21614335

  1. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  2. [Clinical characteristics of renal damage in patients with accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, S; Tomonari, H; Numata, M; Imasawa, T; Hosoya, T

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated the clinical characteristics of renal damage and associated complications of 79 patients with accidental hypothermia whom we encountered over the last 5 years. All patients were male, with an average age of 58.9 +/- 9.2 years. Most of these patients were homeless. Body temperature on admission was 29.3 +/- 3.0 degrees C. The most common clinical manifestations on admission were consciousness disturbance and severe hypotension. Complications, including increase in serum transaminase, alcoholism, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, sepsis, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, acidosis, and an increased level of serum CPK and amylase were found frequently on admission. Death within 48 hours after admission occurred in 23 cases (the death rate; 23/79 = 29%). Renal damage was found in 36 cases (36/79 = 46%), consisting of acute renal failure (ARF) in 27, and acute on chronic in 6. Urinary diagnostic indices suggested that the etiological factor for ARF was pre-renal, which responded well to passive rewarming and an appropriate fluid replacement therapy, resulting in full recovery in most of the cases (the recovery rate; 25/27 = 93%). Among patients with renal damage, there were no cases requiring dialysis. The present data suggest that accidental hypothermia is a fatal condition with an extremely high death rate. It also is associated with multiple complications including ARF. The main cause for ARF is pre-renal, possibly caused by cold diuresis or dehydration superimposed on the underlying diseases such as alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis. Such complications, independent of renal damage, determine the patient's prognosis. PMID:10502943

  3. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  4. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  5. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  6. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  7. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  8. [Accidental ingestions of paracetamol in the form of EFFERALGAN pediatric syrup: experience of the Marseille Anti-poison Center during 1998].

    PubMed

    de Haro, L; Tichadou, L; Prost, N; Perringue, C; Drouet, G; Rodor, F; Valli, M; Arditti, J

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, 77 cases of accidental ingestion of paracetamol paediatric syrup (Efferalgan) in children were notified to the Marseille Poison Centre. In a quarter of them, the alleged dose taken was greater than the toxic dose. Ingestion was mainly due to the child opening the bottle. The proximate marketing of a product with a child-proof top, which should allow the number of accidents to be reduced. Doctors and pharmacists should be informed rapidly, so that they can warn the families who still have the old type of bottle. PMID:10709457

  9. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  10. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Wortham, G.R.

    1997-10-13

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. The concentration data is supported by climatological data taken during and immediately after the releases. In six cases, the release data is supplemented with meteorological data taken at seven towers scattered throughout the immediate area of the releases and data from a single television tower instrumented at eight heights. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04 percent of the natural background dose to the population in the path of the release.

  11. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, or slow and irregular. An ECG is done to check for irregular heartbeats. Blood ... A. Digitalis toxicity. In: Goldberger AL, ed. Clinical Electrocardiography : A Simplified Approach, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  13. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  14. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  15. Cryptostegia grandiflora Toxicity Manifesting as Hyperkalemia, Complete Heart Block and Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Sangle, Shashikala A; Inamdar, Sonali; Deshmukh, Vikrant

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac glycosides are widely available in botanic products and other naturally occurring substances worldwide. Accidental consumption of it leads to digitalis toxicity with varied systemic manifestations. We describe a case of consumption of extract of leaves of the Indian rubber vine plant (Crytostegia grandiflora) which led to gastrointestinal, cardiac, electrolyte, and hematological disturbances.

  16. Mechanism of action of toxic halogenated aromatics.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, A E; Sloop, T C; Lucier, G W

    1985-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are a highly toxic class of environmental contaminants, as evidenced by numerous cases of accidental poisonings of human and animal populations and their extreme toxic potency in laboratory animals. The proposed model for the mechanism of action of TCDD and related compounds is analogous to that of the steroid hormones, which modulate gene expression through a receptor mechanism. In the steroid receptor model, the compound enters the cell cytoplasm where it acts as a specific ligand, binding selectively to a high affinity receptor protein. Bound to the appropriate ligand, the receptor concentrates in the nucleus where its increased association with chromatin leads to altered gene expression. This model has been useful in characterizing the Ah receptor; however, it does not provide a unifying hypothesis for all biochemical and toxic effects associated with exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Several findings suggest that a primary factor in determining TCDD toxicity might be tissue and species specific factors that control the actions of Ah receptor(s) in target tissues. Furthermore, numerous mechanisms might be involved. Clarifying the mechanism(s) for TCDD toxicity would enhance our ability to predict human health consequences to toxic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and would provide a more rational basis for risk analysis. PMID:2985378

  17. Accidental inhalation of mercury vapour: respiratory and toxicologic consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lien, D. C.; Todoruk, D. N.; Rajani, H. R.; Cook, D. A.; Herbert, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Four adults, including a pregnant woman, and three children were admitted to hospital following accidental exposure to mercury vapour produced by heating mercury-gold amalgam. Initial symptoms and signs included a paroxysmal cough, dyspnea, chest pain, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, fever and leukocytosis. Pulmonary function testing performed on the second day after exposure revealed air-flow obstruction and minor restrictive defects in three patients. The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was reduced in two of these patients. The mean initial blood mercury level (+/- one standard deviation) for the seven patients was 30.8 +/- 1.5 micrograms/dl. A computer analysis showed mercury to behave as a two-compartment system, the compartments having half-lives of 2 and 8 days. The four adults received chelation therapy with D-penicillamine, which did not affect the urinary excretion of mercury. The pregnant woman's infant, born 26 days after exposure, had no detectable clinical abnormalities. The levels of mercury in the blood of the mother and infant at birth and 6 days later were comparable, indicating free transfer of the metal across the placenta. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:6883261

  18. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  19. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed. PMID:26109896

  20. Accidental contamination from uranium compounds through contact with ceramic dinnerware.

    PubMed

    Sheets, R W; Thompson, C C

    1995-12-01

    Examination of orange-colored dinnerware samples purchased in antique stores and flea markets has revealed the occasional presence of surface uranium compounds that are readily transferred to the hands and clothing. We have further been able to produce soluble uranium compounds on the surfaces of clean dishes by exposing them to household vinegar or bleach. We estimate that handling of a contaminated dish can transfer up to 1-2 becquerels or more of uranium compounds to the hands. Uranium contamination is of concern because the element is not only an alpha emitter but also a chemical nephrotoxin. Although the amount of uranium likely to be ingested as a result of casual handling may be small, it could still exceed by several times the amount occurring in the average diet (about 40 mBq/day). Furthermore, since fresh surface compounds are readily formed, it is possible that a person who regularly handles or eats from uranium-glazed dinnerware can accidentally ingest significant amounts of uranium. PMID:8560240

  1. Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-11-14

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure.

  2. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  3. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  4. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  5. Toxic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2009-01-01

    Toxic neuropathies generally result in length dependent axonal neuropathy with the exception of diphtheria and a few toxic neuropathies. In spite of occurrence of diphtheria in India there is paucity of published reports on diphtheritic neuropathy. Arsenic neuropathy commonly occurs in Bengal and Bangladesh because of ground water contamination whereas in Punjab it is due to contamination of opium. Lead neuropathy is rare and has been reported in battery workers and silver refining workers. It produces motor neuropathy resulting in foot drop and wrist drop. Organophosphates are used as pesticides, industrial chemicals and food adulterant. Certain organophosphates such as triorthocresyl phosphate used for or oil adulteration inhibit neurotoxic esterase and result in a delayed type of axonal neuropathy. Alcohol related neuropathy is a controversial issue whether it is due to alcohol related toxicity or due to nutritional deficiencies. Indian studies have revealed that neuropathy occurs both in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Hexane neuropathy is reported in screen printers and these cases highlight the need for better preventive and occupational measures. Iatrogenic toxic neuropathies have been reported with cisplatin and vincristine. Because of geographical, occupational and health related conditions toxic neuropathies are likely to be more common than reported and greater awareness is needed.

  6. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  7. Instrument adjustment knob locks to prevent accidental maladjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    A device, incorporating a collar with a hexagonal opening which fits snugly over a hexagonal nut used to engage instrument panel components, keeps the adjustment knob locked. A quick release mechanism frees the knob for rotational adjustment.

  8. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    McShan, Danielle; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O(2) and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag(+), a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag(+). In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag(+) inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione), binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1) the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2) key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3) effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  9. Toxic myopathies.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2014-08-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, because they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and possible underlying cellular mechanisms.

  10. Toxic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, as they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features and possible underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:25037083

  11. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialysis (machine) Medicines to treat symptoms Whole bowel irrigation with a special solution taken by mouth or through a tube through the nose into the stomach (to flush sustained-release lithium quickly through the stomach and intestines)

  12. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM HARD CHROMIUM PLATING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Central Florida Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is investigating methods for improved estimation of chemical releases which require reporting under provisions of SARA Title III (Toxic Release Inventory, Form R). This paper describes results fr...

  13. Relocation impacts of a major release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, E.A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1999-06-01

    The relocation impacts of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3 , are evaluated for the Savannah River Technology Center. The extent of the area potentially contaminated to a level that would result in doses exceeding the relocation protective action guide(PAG)is calculated. The maximum calculated distance downwind from the accident at which the relocation PAG is exceeded is also determined. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated using the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet. The consequences of the tritium release are evaluated using UFOTRI.

  14. Accidental infusion leakage at subgalea in infants: report of 6 cases

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Ning, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration remains the commonest iatrogenic injury within infants care. We report a series of 6 infants affected by accidental infusion leakage occurring in subgalea. They were applied wet-hot compresses by sterile gauze, and topically administrated mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) cream following hot compress. There was no skin impairment in all cases. Early recognition and appropriate care for topical skin are essential to minimize the extent of accidental infusion leakage. PMID:26550108

  15. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  16. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  17. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  18. Some food toxic for pets

    PubMed Central

    Kovalkovičová, Natália; Šutiaková, Irena; Pistl, Juraj; Šutiak, Václav

    2009-01-01

    According to world statistics, dogs and cats are the species that owners most frequently seek assistance with potential poisonings, accounting 95–98% of all reported animal cases. Exposures occur more commonly in the summer and in December that is associated with the holiday season. The majority (>90%) of animal poisonings are accidental and acute in nature and occur near or at the animal owner's home. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may also prove dangerous for their health. The aim of this review was to present common food items that should not be fed (intentionally or unintentionally) to dogs, i.e. chocolate, caffeine, and other methylxanthines, grapes, raisins, onion, garlic, avocado, alcohol, nuts, xylitol contained in chewing gum and candies, etc. Onion and avocado are toxic for cats, too. The clinical effects of individual toxicants and possible therapy are also mentioned. Knowing what human food has the potential to be involved in serious toxicoses should allow veterinarians to better educate their clients on means of preventing pet poisonings. It can be concluded that the best advice must surely be to give animal fodder or treats specifically developed for their diets. PMID:21217849

  19. Release of oxide-bound toxic metals by naturally-occurring and contaminant-derived organic compounds: The role of complexant, reductant, and adsorptive characteristics. Final report, July 1, 1994--June 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, A.T.

    1997-12-31

    Natural organic compounds and contaminant-derived organic compounds can substantially alter the speciation and geochemical behavior of contaminant metals in subsurface environments. The goal, as part of the Co-Contaminant Subprogram, was to: (1) develop analytical methods for identifying and quantifying organic compounds affecting toxic metal speciation; (2) evaluate their reductant, complexant, and adsorptive characteristics of organic compounds with regards to important contaminant metals; (3) determine reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and energetics for metal-organic interactions; and (4) provide the basis for predicting toxic metal oxidation state, speciation, and mobility.

  20. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner.

  1. Beyond toxicity

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide’s role in signaling. PMID:24398435

  2. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  3. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  4. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan’s Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product’s life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity. PMID:22170510

  5. The toxicity of inhaled particles of sup 238 PuO sub 2 in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gillett, N.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5{mu}m and 72 inhaled 3.0 {mu}m activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of {sup 238}Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 {mu}m and 3.0 {mu}, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, 800 liver cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10{sup 4} Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from {sup 238}Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.

    PubMed

    Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

    2012-04-10

    Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 μg/L to 5 μg/L, 631 μg/L to 129 μg/L and 3512 μg/g to 10 μg/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells. PMID:22024652

  7. Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing.

    PubMed

    Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José

    2007-05-25

    In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH

  8. Approach to the assessment of the hazard. [fire released carbon fiber electrical effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the carbon fiber hazard assessment is presented. The potential risk to the civil sector associated with the accidental release of carbon fibers from aircraft having composite structures was assessed along with the need for protection of civil aircraft from carbon fibers.

  9. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  10. What toxicity may result from the xenobiotic responsible for the finding on this plain film? Answer: reduced iron, found in heating pads and instant hand warmers, may result in elevated serum iron concentrations and subsequent iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Lintner, Christian P

    2011-12-01

    Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations. PMID:21818692

  11. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Yang, Robert Alexander (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a pyrotechnic actuated release mechanism which is mechanically two fault tolerant for effecting release. It is particularly well suited for releasably connecting structures to be used in the space environment or in other aerospace applications. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each attachable to either one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and the body are fastenable by a toggle supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end, which is received in a central opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein, the toggle is restrained by three retractable latching pins. Each pin is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge. While retraction of all three pins releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt is mounted on the fastener plate as a support for the socket mounting of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for pre-loading the toggle.

  12. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  13. Nanoscale copper in the soil–plant system – toxicity and underlying potential mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Anjum, Naser A.; Adam, Vojtech; Iqbal, Muhammad; Lukatkin, Alexander S.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-04-15

    Nanoscale copper particles (nano-Cu) are used in many antimicrobial formulations and products for their antimicrobial activity. They may enter deliberately and/or accidentally into terrestrial environments including soils. Being the major ‘eco-receptors’ of nanoscale particles in the terrestrial ecosystem, soil–microbiota and plants (the soil–plant system) have been used as a model to dissect the potential impact of these particles on the environmental and human health. In the soil–plant system, the plant can be an indirect non-target organism of the soil-associated nano-Cu that may in turn affect plant-based products and their consumers. By all accounts, information pertaining to nano-Cu toxicity and the underlying potential mechanisms in the soil–plant system remains scanty, deficient and little discussed. Therefore, based on some recent reports from (bio)chemical, molecular and genetic studies of nano-Cu versus soil–plant system, this article: (i) overviews the status, chemistry and toxicity of nano-Cu in soil and plants, (ii) discusses critically the poorly understood potential mechanisms of nano-Cu toxicity and tolerance both in soil–microbiota and plants, and (iii) proposes future research directions. It appears from studies hitherto made that the uncontrolled generation and inefficient metabolism of reactive oxygen species through different reactions are the major factors underpinning the overall nano-Cu consequences in both the systems. However, it is not clear whether the nano-Cu or the ion released from it is the cause of the toxicity. We advocate to intensify the multi-approach studies focused at a complete characterization of the nano-Cu, its toxicity (during life cycles of the least-explored soil–microbiota and plants), and behavior in an environmentally relevant terrestrial exposure setting. Such studies may help to obtain a deeper insight into nano-Cu actions and address adequately the nano-Cu-associated safety concerns in the

  14. Title III and toxic torts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodnehausen, G.A.

    1989-07-01

    In July the second annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) report under Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the computerized, national TRI data-base will be issued. Although the Environmental Protection Agency will not be able to aggregate the July, 1989 reports and issue its own annual report until early next year, we can expect political attention to focus quickly on whether total releases to air, land and water, and in particular total emissions to the air, have increased or decreased from 1987 to 1988. Because the reporting threshold for chemical manufacturing and processing facilities will drop from 75,000 to 50,000 pounds per year, the number of facilities reporting and number of chemicals reported should increase significantly, forcing up total releases. Bringing the totals down will be waste and release reduction efforts already underway in the chemical industry and elsewhere, and perhaps improved accuracy in measurement and estimation of releases. Additions to and deletions from the list of reportable chemicals will also have an effect. Nevertheless, any significant increase in aggregate totals, no matter what the explanation, will be bound to have a political impact on air toxics legislation, and spur public concern with the health risks of air pollution.

  15. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    SciTech Connect

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-12-31

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  17. Language and motor cortex response to comprehending accidental and intentional action sentences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Ammons, Carla J; Doss, Constance F; Waite, Megan E; Kana, Bhumika; Herringshaw, Abbey J; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the meaning of others' actions involves mentally simulating those actions by oneself. Embodied theories of language espouse a prominent role for motor simulation in reading comprehension, especially when words, sentences, or narratives portray everyday actions. Inherent in these actions is the level of agency of the actor. Motor cortex activity in response to processing action verbs has been relatively well-established. What has been less explored, however, are: (1) the neural bases of determining whether an action is intentional or accidental (agency); and (2) whether agency influences level of motor simulation. This functional MRI study investigated how language and motor areas of the brain respond to sentences depicting intentional versus accidental action. 25 healthy adults read a series of sentences in the MRI scanner and determined whether the actions described were accidental or intentional. The main results include: (1) left hemisphere language areas (left inferior frontal gyrus, LIFG; left superior temporal gyrus, LSTG), premotor cortex (PM), and presupplementary motor area (pSMA) were strongly activated by both sentence types; (2) processing accidental action, relative to intentional action, elicited greater activity in LIFG, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and left amygdala; no statistically significant activity was found in the opposite contrast; and (3) greater percent signal change was observed in LIFG while processing accidental action and in right precentral gyrus for intentional action. The results of this study support language and motor region involvement in action sentence comprehension in accordance with embodiment theories. Additionally, it provides new insight into the linguistic, integrative, and emotional demands of comprehending accidental action, its underlying neural circuitry, and its relationship to intentionality bias: the predisposition to ascribe purpose to action. PMID:26300387

  18. Self-locking double retention redundant full pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A double retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidential release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of diethylene glycol and its combined effects with produced waters of off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): bioassays with marine/estuarine species.

    PubMed

    Tornambè, Andrea; Manfra, Loredana; Mariani, Livia; Faraponova, Olga; Onorati, Fulvio; Savorelli, Federica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Virno Lamberti, Claudia; Magaletti, Erika

    2012-06-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable.

  20. [Accidental hypothermia in the household environment. Importance of preclinical temperature measurement].

    PubMed

    Russo, S; Timmermann, A; Radke, O; Kerren, T; Bräuer, A

    2005-12-01

    In emergency medicine accidental hypothermia in non-traumatized patients is a rare situation. To emphasize the need for a precise preclinical temperature measurement, two cases of accidental hypothermia (28.2 degrees C and 29.3 degrees C core temperature) are presented which occurred under conditions that did not give a direct suspicion of hypothermia. In one case the immediate diagnosis lead to complete convalescence, the other patient died of multiple organ failure. The primary diagnosis, diagnostic methods and therapy as well as the primary treatment are discussed. PMID:16228151

  1. Was the rocket invented or accidentally discovered? Some new observations on its origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Frank H.; Neufeld, Michael J.; Dougherty, Kerrie

    2012-08-01

    The history of spaceflight would not have been possible without a single object, the rocket—one of the most complex engineering feats in human history. However, a closer examination of the earliest history of the basic rocket, a gunpowder-propelled device developed in China around 900 years ago, suggests that it originated as an accidental discovery rather than as a deliberately planned invention. This paper will examine the evidence in support of the idea of accidental discovery, including new observations on the earliest concepts of rocket motion, not only in China but also in the West.

  2. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  3. [Accidental ingestion of paracetamol in the for of the pediatric syrup EFFERALGAN: case studies during the six months following the institution of the child-proof top].

    PubMed

    de Haro, L; Tichadou, L; Prost, N; Sourdet, B; Perringue, C; Drouet, G; Rodor, F; Valli, M; Arditti, J

    2000-01-01

    During the 6 months following the child-proof top commercialisation for the paediatric syrup EFFERALGAN in France, 51 cases of accidental ingestion were collected by the Marseilles Poison Centre. For 21 pour cent of them, the alleged dose taken was greater than the toxic dose. For 2 cases only, the responsible bottle had a child-proof top and was open on the table. For all other cases, it was simple-opening bottles (old bottles still present in houses, or bottles without a special top but sold in order to get rid of stocks). This study proves that such a preventive measure (modification of the top of the syrup bottles) is only fully effective if additional measures are undertaken such as return of unsold stocks or the provision of information to pharmacists and physicians. PMID:11234467

  4. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  5. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  6. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  7. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  8. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is... destruction, removal, alteration or defacement of records; (c) Implement and disseminate policies and... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records?...

  9. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M. J. A.; Purushotham, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  10. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  11. The Costs of Cultural Change: Accidental Injury and Modernization among the Papago Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Robert A.; Gallagher, Mary M.

    1972-01-01

    Several theories are examined suggesting that stress associated with modernization is responsible for excesses of accidental injuries among American Indians. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 1971. (FF)

  12. [Accidental poisoning with liquid or solid caustic soda for domestic use: circumstances and cost (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Furon, D; Leveque, G; Desurmont-Deveugle, M

    1982-04-22

    524 records of patients seen in French anti-poison centers in 1978-1979 for accidental poisoning with caustic soda were reviewed. The accidents were usually due to liquid agents. The digestive lesions were particularly serious in children who were affected in more than two-thirds of the cases. The accident usually occurred while the caustic agent was being used.

  13. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly.

  14. [Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

    1998-11-01

    We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature.

  15. Frequency and outcomes of accidental ingestion of tobacco products in young children.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Scott

    2011-11-01

    This review assesses published literature related to frequency and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Twenty-seven years of annual reports by American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) were analyzed for occurrence and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion events involving tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Over a 27-year period, and of >50 million contacts for all categories combined, 217,340 contacts involving ingestion of tobacco products were reported. Approximately 89% involved children <6 years old. One fatality was reported, however the co-ingestion of both cigarettes and diazepam complicates an assessment of a contributory role of tobacco. The rate of major, non-fatal, outcomes was <0.1%. Data from AAPCC reports and other sources indicate the frequency of accidental poisoning events is relatively low for tobacco products compared with other products such as drugs, dietary supplements, cleaning products, and personal care products. These findings, along with those for pharmaceutical nicotine products, are consistent with published case reports and reviews, indicating that the frequency and severity of outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco products by young children appear to be relatively low. However, adults should keep tobacco products out of the reach of children.

  16. Accidental deaths occurring in bed: review of cases and proposal of preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-ichiro

    2011-09-01

    The bed is thought to be a safe place, but posses a number of risks that can cause deaths. To identify the causes of accidental death in bed and propose strategies for the prevention of further accidents, we surveyed and analyzed the literature on accidental deaths in bed from Japan and abroad, as well as legal cases related to accidental death in bed in Japan. A search of the medical literature in Japan (1983-2007), abroad (1976-2007), and Japan's legal cases (1989-2007) located 39 cases. The vast majority of accidental deaths in bed occur among infants and elderly individuals with neurologic disorders. The main causes of death within these two groups are head injuries caused by falls from a bed and asphyxia caused by pressure to the neck when wedged against a bed rail. It is necessary to focus on prevention of falls from bed and prevention of asphyxia caused by bed rails in the case of infants and elderly individuals with neurologic disorders. Infants should be placed to sleep in beds designed for their ages and placed on their back. Elderly individuals need to sleep in beds with properly fitting bed rails to reduce wedging.

  17. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  18. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  19. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  20. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  1. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  2. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  3. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  4. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  5. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  6. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  7. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  8. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  9. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  10. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from wood preserving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in wood preserving operations may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist facilities engaged in wood preserving operations in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  11. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  12. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels. PMID:24874358

  13. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels.

  14. Radiation monitoring systems as a tool for assessment of accidental releases at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershakov, Vjacheslav; Bulgakov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The experience gained during mitigation of the consequences of the accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs has shown that what makes different the decision-making in case of nuclear accidents is that the greatest benefit from decision-making can be achieved in the early phase of an accident. Support to such process can be provided only by a real-time decision-making support system. In case of a nuclear accident the analysis of the situation and decision-making is not feasible without an operational radiation monitoring system, international data exchange and automated data processing, and the use of computerized decision-making support systems. With this in mind, in the framework of different international programs on the Chernobyl-related issues numerous projects were undertaken to study and develop a set of methods, algorithms and programs providing effective support to emergency response decision-making, starting from accident occurrence to decision-making regarding countermeasures to mitigate effects of radioactive contamination of the environment. The presentation focuses results of the analysis of radiation monitoring data and, on this basis, refining or, for many short-lived radionuclides, reconstructing the source term, modeling dispersion of radioactivity in the environment and assessing its impacts. The obtained results allowed adding and refining the existing estimates and in some cases reconstructing doses for the public on the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The activities were implemented in two stages. In the first stage, several scenarios for dispersion of Chernobyl-related radioactivity were developed. For each scenario cesium-137 dispersion was estimated and these estimates were compared with measurement data. In the second stage, the scenario which showed the best agreement of calculations and measurements was used for modeling the dispersion of iodine-131and other short-lived radionuclides. The described approach was used for assessing the consequences at the Fukushima NPP. These results are also provided in the presentation. References 1. Kelly G.N., Ehrhardt J., Shershakov V.M.. Decision Support for Off-Site Emergency Preparedness in Europe. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 64 Nos. 1-2, 1996, pp. 129-142. 2. Ehrhardt J., Shershakov V.M. Real-time on-line decision support systems (RODOS) for off-site emergency management following a nuclear accident. EUR 16533, 1996 3. Kelly G.N., Shershakov V.M. (Editors). Environmental contamination, radiation doses and health consequences after the ?hernobyl accident. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Special Commemorative Issue.Vol. 64, 1996 4. Shershakov V.M. Computer information technology for support of radiation monitoring problems. OECD Proceedings of an International Workshop «Nuclear Emergency Data Management», Zurich, Switzerland, 1998, pp. 377-388 5. Pitkevich V.A., Duba V.V., Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F., Shershakov V.M., Golubenkov A.V., Borodin R.V., V.A., Kosykh V.S. Reconstruction of External Dose to the Inhabitants Living in the Contaminated Territory of Russia by the Results of the Accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Health Phys., Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 54-68, 1995. 6. Shershakov V., Fesenko S., Kryshev I., Semioshkina T. Decision-Aiding Tools for Remediation Strategies. In: Radioactivity in the Environment, Volume 14, Remediation of Contaminated Environments, 2009, pp 41- 120, Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  16. Are toxic biometals destroying your children's future?

    PubMed

    Drum, Donald A

    2009-10-01

    Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems. Decomposition of the thimerosal can produce more toxic compounds, either methylethylmercury or diethylmercury, in the body. These compounds have a toxicity level similar to dimethylmercury. Within the human body, a mitochondrial disorder may release the more toxic form of mercury internally. Young children and pregnant women must minimize internal exposure to the vaccines and flu shots containing mercury.

  17. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    While nanoparticles occur naturally in the environment and have been intentionally used for centuries, the production and use of engineered nanoparticles has seen a recent spike, which makes environmental release almost certain. Therefore, recent efforts to characterize the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles have focused on the environmental implications, including exploration of toxicity to organisms from wide-ranging parts of the ecosystem food webs. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of toxicity of engineered nanoparticles to representatives of various trophic levels, including bacteria, plants, and multicellular aquatic/terrestrial organisms, to highlight important challenges within the field of econanotoxicity, challenges that analytical chemists are expertly poised to address. PMID:23427995

  18. Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

  19. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions.

  20. Gun burner injury: a peculiar accidental self-inflicted missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, E O; Olateju, O S; Adeolu, A A

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to report the pattern of unusual accidental missile head injuries from the use of the locally-manufactured Dane gun, which presented at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Six illustrative patients are presented, each with a peculiar injury. All the patients except one, who died prior to surgery, had wound debridement and elevation of associated fractures with removal of the metallic foreign body. With the exception of the patient that died prior to surgical intervention, all did well without noticeable neurological deficits. Missile injury to the head is increasing. Firearm-related death is also on the increase and our environment is not exempted. Accidental injuries from stray bullets are fairly common; however, self-inflicted injuries are usually due to the improper handling of firearms, particularly by novices, suicide attempts and faulty technology of locally made firearms.