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Sample records for accidental toxic release

  1. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  3. Software for emission rate modeling of accidental toxic releases

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Vashisth, S.

    1999-08-01

    This book fulfills the need for Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This software is based on the guidelines released by the USEPA. It includes manual and proprietary software on CDROM. Contents include release scenario description (two-phase and single-phase choked/unchoked gas release, two-phase pressurized and refrigerated liquid release, single-phase high and low volatility liquid release); emission rate model development for each release class; software design and software evaluation and application.

  4. PROBABILITY AND CONTROL COST EFFECTIVENESS FOR ACCIDENTAL TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper shows how fault tree analysis (FTA) of a process system can be used to compare the relative effectiveness of various equipment, design, and operating measures for release prevention and protection applied to process streams. It also shows how the costs of various safety...

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  6. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  7. Accidental release of toxic chemicals: influence of the main input parameters on consequence calculation.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, Roberto; Mazzarotta, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    In the present paper the accidental release of toxic chemicals has been taken into consideration, and a sensitivity analysis study of the corresponding consequences calculation has been carried out. Four different toxic chemicals have been chosen for the simulations, and the effect of the variability of the main input parameters on the extension of the impact areas has been assessed. The results show that the influence of these parameters depends on the physical properties of the released substance and that not always the widely known rules of thumb, such as the positive influence of the wind velocity on gas dispersion, apply. In particular, the boiling temperature of the chemical has revealed to be the main parameter affecting the type of dependence of the impact distances on the input variables. PMID:17630190

  8. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  9. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  10. Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

    1991-09-01

    Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using

  11. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and

  12. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  13. The effectiveness of stationary automobiles as shelters in accidental releases of toxic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Rudolf J.; Pendergrass, William R.; White, J. Randy; Hall, Mark E.

    The protection offered occupants of stationary automobiles against airborne gases and respirable particles, such as might result from an accidental release, was measured and found to be substantial. For the four autos tested with the air conditioning (AC) system on and in recirculate position, the equilibrium ratios of inside/outside concentrations ( I/ O) for 2-μm diameter particles were less than 0.2, and some ratios were as small as 0.014. With both the AC compressor and the system fan off, the I/ O for five autos ranged from 0.04 to 0.18. These low ratios are primarily a result of deposition within the autos. However, three of the five autos had substantially higher I/ O ratios when the AC fan was on than when off, indicating that for some autos the AC caused significant added intake of outside air. Air exchange rates for the five stationary autos were on the order of 0.5h -1 with AC off, and 2.5 h -1 with AC on.

  14. Consequence analysis for accidental releases of toxic substances in a complex terrain with shoreline in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y.S.; Oh, H.S.; Moon, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    Offsite consequences resulting from various scenarios involving release of toxic substances in the Yochon Industrial Estate located in the Yosu Peninsula with complex terrain and intricate shorelines are estimated using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). ALOHA analyses by assuming the worst-case release scenarios for selected chemicals in the worst-case and alternative meteorological conditions indicate the impact on several thousand people in the nearby area. RAMS simulation is performed in order to consider the influence of terrain and shoreline. Receptors behind the terrain, 5 to 6 km distant from the source, also show high concentration when the wind blows to the terrain as well as receptors in front of the terrain in the nearby area. With considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables, it is predicted that complicated wind patterns with low speeds could cause high concentration over the entire area adjacent to the Estate.

  15. Estimation of the dispersion of an accidental release of radionuclides and toxic materials based on weather type classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Róbert; Leelőssy, Ádám; Vincze, Csilla; Szűcs, Mihály; Kovács, Tibor; Lagzi, István

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the influence of the regional-scale weather types on the atmospheric dispersion processes of the air pollutants originated from point sources. Hypothetical accidents were simulated with two different dispersion models. During a year's test period, the 6-h emission of a radionuclide from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP, Hungary) was assumed every day and the transport and deposition of the radionuclide was simulated by the Eulerian TREX dispersion model over the Central European region. In addition, the ALOHA Gaussian air dispersion model was also used for the local environment of the Paks NPP to simulate hypothetical hourly releases of ammonia during a 10-year period. During both types of model simulations, the dispersion of the plume for each time was analysed and tested with consideration of 13 circulation types corresponding to daily weather patterns over the Carpathian Basin. There are significant correlations between circulation types and plume directions and structures both in local and regional scales. The daily circulation pattern can be easily obtained from weather analyses; the expected size and direction of polluted area after an accidental release can be quickly estimated even before an accident occurs. However, this fast method cannot replace or neglect dispersion model simulations. It gives a `first guess' and a fast estimation on the direction of the plume and can provide sufficient information for decision-making strategies.

  16. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  17. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

  18. European research in accidental release phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, P.J.; Cole, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    The European Commission (CEC) has an ongoing research program in the field of the environment. Part of this work concerns the consequences of accidental releases from industrial plants, and covers hazards posing an off-site threat. This paper reviews some of the main results arising from this work. In addition to consequence modeling, the research has also included work on risk assessment and management. After a brief introduction to CEC research, the work is presented in five sections corresponding the main areas of work: flashing flow, atmospheric dispersion, jet-flame attack on vessels, gas explosions and storage fires.

  19. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 9. Control of accidental releases of chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Wert, K.P.

    1987-08-01

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. It provides conceptual cost estimates of possible prevention, protection, and mitigation measures. Chlorine has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, making it a substantial acute toxic hazard.

  20. TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) site is designed to provide information on toxic chemical releases including collected data, guidance documents, program planning, background, history, and, program contacts, among other things. The data included in this homepage have been submi...

  1. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

  2. Accidental release of fluoride into experimental pond and accumulation in sediments, plants, algae, molluscs and fish.

    PubMed

    Kudo, A; Garrec, J P

    1983-09-01

    The fate of fluoride in a simulated accidental release into an experimental pond was observed for 30 days in Grenoble, France. The components investigated were water, sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. Twenty-four hours after the release, most (99.8%) of the fluoride was distributed in the physical components (water and sediments), and the biological agents contained only 0.2% of the fluoride released. Despite an exposure to hot spots of 5000 ppm at the beginning of the accidental release, no visible toxic effects were observed on the biological components such as plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. The effects of the physical components in the defluoridation showed a significant role in the control the accidental release of fluoride in the aquatic system. PMID:6635267

  3. Accidental release of fluoride into experimental pond and accumulation in sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, A.; Garrec, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    The fate of fluoride in a simulated accidental release into an experimental pond was observed for 30 days in Grenoble, France. The components investigated were water, sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. Twenty-four hours after the release, most (99.8%) of the fluoride was distributed in the physical components (water and sediments), and the biological agents contained only 0.2% of the fluoride released. Despite an exposure to hot spots of 5000 ppm at the beginning of the accidental release, no visible toxic effects were observed on the biological components such as plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. The effects of the physical components in the defluoridation showed a significant role in the control the accidental release of fluoride in the aquatic system.

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  6. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  7. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

  8. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  9. Toxic release inventory, 1989. Magnetic tape documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Facilities subject to this reporting requirement are required to complete a Toxic Chemical Release Form (Form R) for specified chemicals. The form must be submitted to EPA and those state officials designated by the govenor, on or before July 1, 1988, and annually thereafter on July 1. The reports should reflect releases during the preceding calendar year. The purpose of the reporting requirement is to inform the public and government officials about routine and accidental releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. It will also assist in research and the development of regulations, guidelines, and standards.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  12. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.

    1988-07-01

    Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (˜0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (˜6/Wp) and projected (˜I/Wp) production costs.

  13. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  14. Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

  15. [Prognosis of inhalation-related injuries in accidental release of ammonium and chlorine by the method of dynamic concentration].

    PubMed

    Litvinov, N N; Kazachkov, V I; Grigorevskaia, Z P; Tsygankov, S S; Iagund, G K; Bodanskiĭ, M D; Ivanov, A Iu; Shmelev, K V

    2000-01-01

    The article deals with new approaches to evaluate casualty effect of accidental chemical release exemplified by common and dangerous industrial chemicals ammonium and chlorine. Dynamic concentration method considers effects of high concentrations inducing instant reflex cardiac and respiratory arrest as well as lesions caused by variable toxic doses. PMID:11019541

  16. Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.; Galt, J.

    1991-08-01

    The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked upon a program to provide chemical dispersion models to local HAZMAT groups. Greater public awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals will likely mandate greater involvement by a number of government agencies, including the National Weather Service (NWS). HAZMAT personnel have not yet fully utilized the services of NWS meteorologists. In the future, NWS meteorologists and meteorological technicians may be asked to provide weather data as well as initial and short range weather forecasts (including trajectory forecasts) to emergency response managers responsible for protecting people from accidental releases of toxic spills. While a wide number of dispersion models exist, many are very similar when it comes to the type of meteorological input required to run them. The paper focuses on the input so that meteorologists may be better informed when they are called upon to provide assistance during a hazardous chemical spill in their area.

  17. Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

  18. Toxic releases from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-09-15

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results.

  19. Toxic chemical release inventory information.

    PubMed

    Bronson, R J

    1991-01-01

    As part of a U.S. government effort to inform the public about toxic or hazardous chemicals released into the environment, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are jointly producing the TRI (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory) databanks which consist of two separate files, TRI87 and TRI88. Both files reside on NLM's TOX-NET system. The files contain geographic information about reporting facilities and land, air, and water release data for approximately 300 listed chemicals. PMID:10111718

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

  1. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 2. Control of accidental releases of chlorine (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Wert, K.P.

    1987-07-01

    This manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. It provides conceptual cost estimates of possible prevention, protection, and mitigation measures. Chlorine is a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature. It has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 25 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Accidental releases of toxic chemicals at Bhopal and Chernobyl have increased public awareness of toxic-release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less-dramatic incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of this problem long before these events. These same portions of the industry have made advances in the area.

  2. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Documentation for the 1990 magnetic tape

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Facilities subject to the reporting requirement are required to complete a Toxic Chemical Release Form (Form R) for specified chemicals. The form had to be submitted to EPA and those state officials designated by the governor, on or before July 1, 1988, and annually thereafter on July 1. The purpose of the reporting requirement is to inform the public and government officials about routine and accidental releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. It will also assist in research and the development of regulations, guidelines, and standards.

  4. Atmospheric Dispersion Code System for Evaluating Accidental Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power Stations.

    1983-06-28

    Version: 00 PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features.

  5. An evaluation of available models for assessing accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhas, J.A.; Taylor, R.K.; Dutcher, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act calls for the promulgation of new rules to prevent and minimize the consequences of accidental releases of chemicals. The rules will require the development of Risk Management Plans (RMP`s) and ambient air consequence analyses of potential releases. A series of dense gas dispersion, puff release, and accidental release models are being introduced to meet the demands of the new regulatory requirements for various release scenarios. Studies to data have shown that no single model out performs all others when tested against field experiment data. Also, little has been done to assess the applicability of these models to actual modeling scenarios and to the Section 112(r) modeling requirements. This paper assesses the applicability of current guideline models to the Section 112(r) requirements and points out areas where the guideline models cannot meet these requirements. Additional models are presented as potential solutions to this problem.

  6. Modelling dispersion processes of hypothetical nuclear accidental release on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, R.; Lagzi, I.; Molnár, F., Jr.; Vincze, Cs.; Leelőssy, Á.; Kovács, T.

    2010-09-01

    An increased attention of anthropogenic effects on the environment was observable in the last decades. As more nuclear, biological and industrial accidents occurred in the different part of the world, there is an increased demand both on the part of population and scientific society for the understanding and effective prediction of the environmental, social or economical effects of continuous or a possible accidental release. On the basis of sophisticated dispersion model calculations, the decision makers could make important arrangements, which can save human lives. For this purpose, accidental release models for different spatial and time scales were developed. Model estimations of radionuclide dispersions from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) were also carried out from regional to local scales. With the TREX-Euler, multi-layered, Eulerian passive tracer dispersion model, the transport and deposition of air pollutants over the Central European region were simulated under different weather conditions. For mesoscale simulation of accidental release, the stochastic TREX-Lagrangian particle model was chosen and developed. Both hypothetical accidental releases and continuous environmental loads were simulated. Additionally, near the point source, CFD simulations with A2C model were evaluated. Model estimations on different scales and their sensitivity analyses are presented in this study.

  7. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  8. 78 FR 79317 - Approval of Request for Delegation of Authority for Prevention of Accidental Release, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... mean Code of Federal Regulations (vi) The initials FR mean Federal Register (vii) The initials NDCC... (61 FR 31668, June 20, 1996). These regulations require owners and operators of stationary sources... Accidental Release, Clean Air Act Section 112(r) Program'' EPA-R08-OAR-2013-0330, 78 FR 66321 (Nov. 5,...

  9. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

  10. Critical care requirements after mass toxic agent release.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mass exposure of civil populations after release of toxic agents. These include military chemical warfare agents or industrial compounds, some of which have been used as a chemical. The traditional military divisions among chemical agents, toxins, and biologic agents may be viewed as a continuous spectrum of hazards. Each of these has four specific qualities (toxicity, latency, persistency, and transmissibility), which determine management of casualties and the toxic release. Toxic hazards may be released accidentally or deliberately, producing potentially large numbers of casualties. Previous incidents have shown that many of these require extended hospital care. This article reviews aspects of the nature of the toxic agents, the pathophysiology they produce, and therapeutic measures. The central and peripheral nervous systems and the respiratory systems are particularly vulnerable and may lead to fatal results unless early action is taken. Specific antidotes and life support care is required at all levels of prehospital and hospital management. Critical care management is required for severe cases, and this must combine continuing antidote, ventilatory and supportive therapy. PMID:15640682

  11. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  12. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  13. Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-06-01

    In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

  14. Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.

    PubMed

    Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ∼20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ∼2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for

  15. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  16. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  17. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

  18. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. PMID:26164282

  19. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  20. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  2. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  3. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. . Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  4. [Release of toxic agents from ceramic utensils].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, H J

    1978-01-01

    Under the influence of acidic agents, ceramic glazes and decorations for ceramics may release certain toxicants, especially lead and cadmium. Both elements are essential constituents of ceramic colours and glazes; their release to acidic foods is technologically unavoidable, but it may be minimized by the utilization of appropriate decoration agents and techniques. In most industrial countries, the release of toxicants from utensils is severely limited, the maximum permissible values and the methods of test and analysis being in part very different and not always in agreement with the demands and conditions of practice. The problems related to the release of toxicants from ceramic utensils are treated from the aspects of ceramics, test techniques, analytics, toxicology and food law, with special regard to the necessity for a well-balanced compromise between the justified hygienic demands of health protection and the actual technological possibilities. The endeavours of the ceramic industry of the GDF to produce ceramic utensils releasing as little toxicants as possible are outlined. PMID:211415

  5. Spill behaviour using REACTPOOL. Part II. Results for accidental releases of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl(4)).

    PubMed

    Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F; Stefanidis, C

    2001-02-16

    Silicon tetrachloride is a toxic, corrosive water reactive substance that is used widely in the process industries. On spillage from containment it creates liquid pools that can either boil or evaporate. The main feature of the pool behaviour is the exothermic reaction with water. There are three sources of water available for reaction: free ground water, substrate water and atmospheric moisture. Hydrogen chloride gas and ortho-silicic acid solid (or silica gel) are produced by the hydrolysis reaction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the dangers involved in cases of accidental releases of silicon tetrachloride, to report its properties, referring to toxicity data, major accidents and mitigation tests. It also describes pool behaviour using REACTPOOL [1]. Model results indicate that the pool behaviour is governed mainly by the amount of water available for reaction. Surface roughness and wind speed also have a significant effect on the results. Results are compared with those for other water reactive chemicals in Part III of this series of papers [3]. The generated cloud will initially contain silicon tetrachloride and hydrogen chloride with numerous processes taking place. Although silicon tetrachloride has been involved in many major hazard incidents, there are no experimental data relevant to the modelling requirements. PMID:11163688

  6. Sensor Networks for Detecting Toxic Releases in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, MIchael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Sreedharan, Priya; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-03-01

    Sudden releases of a toxic agent indoors can cause immediate and long-term harm to occupants. In order to protect building occupants from such threats, it is necessary to have a robust air monitoring system that can detect, locate, and characterize accidental or deliberate toxic gas releases. However, developing such a system is complicated by several requirements, in particular the need to operate in real-time. This task is further complicated when monitoring sensors are prone to false positive and false negative readings. We report on work towards developing an indoor monitoring system that is robust even in the presence of poor quality sensor data. The algorithm, named BASSET, combines deterministic modeling and Bayesian statistics to join prior knowledge of the contaminant transport in the building with real-time sensor information. We evaluate BASSET across several data sets, which vary in sensor characteristics such as accuracy, response time, and trigger level. Our results suggest that optimal designs are not always intuitive. For example, a network comprised of slower but more accurate sensors may locate the contaminant source more quickly than a network with faster but less accurate sensors.

  7. Wind tunnel modeling of toxic gas releases at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Government agencies and the petroleum, chemical and gas industries in the US and abroad have become increasingly concerned about the issues of toxic gas dispersal. Because of this concern, research programs have been sponsored by these various groups to improve the capabilities in hazard mitigation and response. Present computer models used to predict pollutant concentrations at industrial facilities do not properly account for the effects of structures. Structures can act to trap or deflect the cloud and modify the cloud dimensions, thereby possibly increasing or reducing downwind concentrations. The main purpose of this evaluation was to develop a hybrid modeling approach, which combines wind tunnel and dispersion modeling, to obtain more accurate concentration estimates when buildings or structures affect the dispersion of hazardous chemical vapors. To meet the study objectives, wind tunnel testing was performed on a building cluster typical of two industrial settings where accidental releases of toxic gases might occur. This data set was used to test the validity of the AFTOX and SLAB models for estimating concentrations and was used to develop and test two hybrid models. Two accident scenarios were simulated, an evaporating pool of a gas slightly heavier than air (Hydrazine-N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and a liquid jet release of Nitrogen Tetroxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) where dense gas dispersion effects would be significant. Tests were conducted for a range of wind directions and wind speeds for two different building configurations (low rise and high rise structures).

  8. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  9. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  10. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements

  11. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.

    PubMed

    Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

    2003-01-01

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

  12. Along-wind dispersion of short-duration accidental releases of hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    Most accidental releases of hazardous gases are of short duration (a few minutes, at most) because of limitations to the total mass available for release or because of mitigation measures such as automatic valve closure or water spray curtains. The resulting cloud would then have the shape of an elongated puff at distances of about 500 m to 1,000 m when it encounters nearby population centers. The maximum concentration in the elongated puff depends strongly on whether the along-wind dispersion coefficient, {sigma}{sub x}, is larger than the length of the finite duration core of the cloud, u{sub c}T{sub d}, where T{sub d} is the source release duration and u{sub c} is the advective speed of the cloud. The along-wind dispersion coefficient, {sigma}{sub x}, is determined by the turbulent energy and the wind-shear over the cloud depth. Both the wind-shear and the advective speed of the cloud, u{sub c}, are functions of time or distance, since they represent concentration-weighted averages over the depth of the cloud, which is steadily increasing. Boundary-layer similarity theories are used to develop simplified formulas for {sigma}{sub x}, which are tested using data from laboratory and field experiments. The theory is expanded to include dense gas clouds and the resulting associated enhanced along-wind dispersion due to gravity slumping.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1989. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad based user audience including industry, state and local environmental agencies, emergency planning committees, the Federal Government and other regulatory groups. Another important user group is likely to be concerned citizens who, on their own or through public interest groups and public libraries, can use TRI to ask questions about chemical releases in their communities.

  15. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W. ); Koopman, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 6 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.; Harvill, T.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid rates of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  18. The pre-hospital management of injury following mass toxic release; a comparison of military and civil approaches.

    PubMed

    Baker, D J

    1999-10-01

    Mass release of toxic substances may occur either accidentally or deliberately in both peace and war. Different approaches to the management of casualties from such an event have been developed by civil and military emergency medical teams, and reflect the different circumstances in which they operate. The nature and classification of toxic hazards is considered and the civil and military operational and medical responses compared. Both systems have different aspects that can contribute to early casualty management in a contaminated environment. PMID:10617335

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1990. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad based user audience including industry, state and local environmental agencies, emergency planning committees, the Federal Government and other regulatory groups.

  20. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  1. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  2. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  3. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  4. Release of toxic microvesicles by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Nowotny, A; Behling, U H; Hammond, B; Lai, C H; Listgarten, M; Pham, P H; Sanavi, F

    1982-01-01

    Oral isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (strain Y4) release spherical microvesicles in large numbers during normal growth. The biological activities of these products were studied, and it was estimated that approximately 1/10 of their dry weight was made up of heat- and proteolysis-resistant endotoxin. The chicken embryo lethality and bone-resorbing activity of the microvesicles were heat stable but proteolysis sensitive. Other laboratories have reported the presence of a heat- and proteolysis-sensitive leukotoxin in similar preparations. Accordingly, the microvesicles released by strain Y4 may contain, in addition to endotoxin, several potent substances which are highly toxic and active in bone resorption, and these may be significant factors in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. PMID:7049947

  5. Release of toxic microvesicles by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, A; Behling, U H; Hammond, B; Lai, C H; Listgarten, M; Pham, P H; Sanavi, F

    1982-07-01

    Oral isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (strain Y4) release spherical microvesicles in large numbers during normal growth. The biological activities of these products were studied, and it was estimated that approximately 1/10 of their dry weight was made up of heat- and proteolysis-resistant endotoxin. The chicken embryo lethality and bone-resorbing activity of the microvesicles were heat stable but proteolysis sensitive. Other laboratories have reported the presence of a heat- and proteolysis-sensitive leukotoxin in similar preparations. Accordingly, the microvesicles released by strain Y4 may contain, in addition to endotoxin, several potent substances which are highly toxic and active in bone resorption, and these may be significant factors in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. PMID:7049947

  6. Toxic release inventory, (TRI), 1991. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad-based user audience including industry, state and local environmental agencies, emergency planning committees, the Federal Government and other regulatory groups.

  7. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  8. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  9. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  11. Control of toxic gas release during the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, P.K.; Dobryn, D.G.; Lee, C.M.

    1986-03-01

    Toxic gas control systems will be needed to treat both routine and accidental H/sub 2/Se and H/sub 2/S emissions from manufacturing facilities producing CuInSe/sub 2/ photovoltaic cells. In this study, routine and accidental environmental control options were evaluated for a manufacturing plant with an annual production of cells capable of generating 10 MWp. A routine emissions treatment facility was designed which uses a venture scrubber, a packed-bed scrubber, and a carbon adsorption bed to reduce emissions to allowable limits. This facility incrementally increases the cost of manufacturing CuInSe/sub 2/ photovoltaic cells by 0.60 cents/Wp. Two alternative systems were designed to handle an accidental release: a packed-bed scrubber/carbon adsorption bed, and a containment scheme followed by carbon adsorption. The incremental costs of manufacturing for these release systems are 0.91 cents/Wp and 1.25 cents/Wp, respectively.

  12. Release, transport and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soni, Deepika; Naoghare, Pravin K; Saravanadevi, Sivanesan; Pandey, Ram Avatar

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have facilitated the synthesis of novel engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) that possess new and different physicochemical properties. These ENPs have been ex tensive ly used in various commercial sectors to achieve both social and economic benefits. However. the increasing production and consumption of ENPs by many different industries has raised concerns about their possible release and accumulation in the environment. Released EN Ps may either remain suspended in the atmosphere for several years or may accumulate and eventually be modified int o other substances. Settled nanoparticles can he easily washed away during ra in s. and therefore may easily enter the food chain via water and so il. Thus. EN Ps can contaminate air. water and soil and can subsequently pose adverse risks to the health of different organisms. Studies to date indicate that ENP transport to and within the ecosystem depend on their chemical and physical properties (viz .. size. shape and solubility) . Therefore. the EN Ps display variable behavior in the environment because of their individual properties th at affect their tendency for adsorption, absorption, diffusional and colloidal interaction. The transport of EN Ps also influences their fate and chemical transformation in ecosystems. The adsorption, absorption and colloidal interaction of ENPs affect their capacity to be degraded or transformed, whereas the tendency of ENPs to agglomerate fosters their sedimentation. How widely ENPs are transported and their environmental fate influence how tox ic they may become to environmental organisms. One barrier to fully understanding how EN Ps are transformed in the environment and how best to characterize their toxicity, is related to the nature of their ultrafine structure. Experiments with different animals, pl ants, and cell lines have revealed that ENPs induce toxicity via several cellular pathways that is linked to the size. shape. surface area

  13. Death scene evaluation in a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

    2006-12-20

    Exposure of humans to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in death, due to the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. Carbon monoxide is responsible of a great number of accidental domestic poisonings and deaths throughout the world, particularly in homes that have faulty or poorly vented combustion appliances. A case is reported, in which a 21-year-old woman was found dead, due to carbon monoxide poisoning from a gas water heater, despite the puzzling evidence that the heater has been used for more than 10 years without any problem. An evaluation of the exposure to CO was performed, by measuiring the rate of production of CO from the heater, and using the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation to describe the kinetics of the poisoning process. The death was attributed to an accidental poisoning from carbon monoxide due to a sum of unfortunate circumstances. PMID:16439085

  14. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  15. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  16. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  17. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  18. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  19. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Facilities that currently report Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) use either paper reporting forms or the online reporting software application known as the Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Web or simply TRI- MEweb. Effective January 1, 2013, EPA proposes to require facilities to report non-confidential TRI data to EPA using electronic......

  20. An integrated decision model for the application of airborne sensors for improved response to accidental and terrorist chemical vapor releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitan, Loginn

    This research created a new model which provides an integrated approach to planning the effective selection and employment of airborne sensor systems in response to accidental or intentional chemical vapor releases. The approach taken was to use systems engineering and decision analysis methods to construct a model architecture which produced a modular structure for integrating both new and existing components into a logical procedure to assess the application of airborne sensor systems to address chemical vapor hazards. The resulting integrated process model includes an internal aggregation model which allowed differentiation among alternative airborne sensor systems. Both models were developed and validated by experts and demonstrated using appropriate hazardous chemical release scenarios. The resultant prototype integrated process model or system fills a current gap in capability allowing improved planning, training and exercise for HAZMAT teams and first responders when considering the selection and employment of airborne sensor systems. Through the research process, insights into the current response structure and how current airborne capability may be most effectively used were generated. Furthermore, the resultant prototype system is tailorable for local, state, and federal application, and can potentially be modified to help evaluate investments in new airborne sensor technology and systems. Better planning, training and preparedness exercising holds the prospect for the effective application of airborne assets for improved response to large scale chemical release incidents. Improved response will result in fewer casualties and lives lost, reduced economic impact, and increased protection of critical infrastructure when faced with accidental and intentional terrorist release of hazardous industrial chemicals. With the prospect of more airborne sensor systems becoming available, this prototype system integrates existing and new tools into an effective

  1. Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

  2. Improving the U.S. EPA Toxic Release Inventory database for environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M

    1998-01-01

    In 1986, Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) in response to the tragic death of thousands of people in Bhopal, India, following the accidental release of the toxic gas methyl isocyanate (MIC) from a Union Carbide facility. As a component of EPCRA, certain manufacturers are required to report annually the total mass (pounds per year, lb/yr) of toxic chemicals released into the environment (air, water, land, or underground injection), treated on-site, or shipped off-site for further waste treatment. This information is compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a publicly accessible database known as the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI database is designed to encourage pollution prevention and waste reduction by increasing public access to and knowledge of environmental chemical releases. EPCRA has been generally considered by industry, government, and community representatives as one of the most successful environmental laws in U.S. history. Over the past few years, EPA has initiated a three-phased expansion to EPCRA reporting requirements that will enhance the overall usefulness of the TRI database. The focus of this article is to discuss these changes and highlight several current uses of the TRI database in environmental health research. PMID:9644330

  3. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  4. Use of 3D numerical simulation model for impact analysis of accidental release of hazardous substance in urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Ni-Bin Chang

    1996-12-31

    A three dimensional, time dependent, numerical model is developed for the simulation of vapor cloud of chemical substance being accidentally released in urban environment. Such a modeling technique as it would apply to chemical emergency response situation in the urban environment is considerably important due to the behavior of heavy gas diffusion and dispersion. Within the scope of this study, the distribution of chemicals being released is estimated based on the kernel density estimator along with a three-dimension wind field model in which the horizontal momentum equations, turbulence kinetic energy equation, and a set of conservation equations are integrated together. By utilizing the capability of numerical analysis, the solution of such a hydrodynamic model can be found to constitute the analytical framework in the process of pollutant transport and even transformation. Such a result is required for both short-term and long-term risk analyses in urban environment.

  5. Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarek, Victor; Vira, Julius; Bocquet, Marc; Sofiev, Mikhail; Saunier, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. The accuracy of the forecast plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. On several academic test cases, including real data, inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques were proven to help in the assessment of the source term. In this paper, a semi-automatic method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by implementing a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling, with a care to develop realistic methods for operational risk agencies. The performance of the assimilation scheme has been assessed through the intercomparison between French and Finnish frameworks. Two dispersion models have been used: Polair3D and Silam developed in two different research centres. Different release locations, as well as different meteorological situations are tested. The existing and newly planned surveillance networks are used and realistically large multiplicative observational errors are assumed. The inverse modelling scheme accounts for strong error bias encountered with such errors. The efficiency of the data assimilation system is tested via statistical indicators. For France and Finland, the average performance of the data assimilation system is strong. However there are outlying situations where the inversion fails because of a too poor observability. In addition, in the case where the power plant responsible for the accidental release is not known, robust statistical tools are developed and tested to discriminate candidate release sites.

  6. A rapidly deployable chemical sensing network for the real-time monitoring of toxic airborne contaminant releases in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepley, Jason J.; Lloyd, David R.

    2010-04-01

    We present findings of the DYCE project, which addresses the needs of military and blue light responders in providing a rapid, reliable on-scene analysis of the dispersion of toxic airborne contaminants following their malicious or accidental release into a rural, urban or industrial environment. We describe the development of a small network of ad-hoc deployable chemical and meteorological sensors capable of identifying and locating the source of the contaminant release, as well as monitoring and estimating the dispersion characteristics of the plume. We further present deployment planning methodologies to optimize the data gathering mission given a constrained asset base.

  7. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release. PMID:26710163

  8. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G.D.; Merrick, E.

    1987-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process, or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities.

  10. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1989. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate.

  11. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1987. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate.

  12. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1990. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate.

  13. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1988. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate.

  14. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-26

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  15. TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY - GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM COVERAGE FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data extracted from the EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) system for reporting year 1993 are written in Arc/INFO geographic information system (GIS) export file format (an ASCII data exchange format). The data are also summarized in tables out of the TRI public data release publ...

  16. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  17. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

  18. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure Resulting from Accidental Radioactive Releases to the Hydrosphere.

    1982-11-18

    Version 00 LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) tomore » body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.« less

  19. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The potential damage to electrical equipment caused by the release of carbon fibers from burning commercial airliners is assessed in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence. A materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials for aircraft structures is reviewed.

  20. A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

    2012-12-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

  1. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport.

    PubMed

    Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-08-01

    In summer 2008, an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish, and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) sediment-water distribution factor (KD ) values, bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values showed a remarkable agreement among reference and impacted sites, 10 wk after the incident as well as after 3 yr. PMID:24729487

  2. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases with an operational regional forecast model

    SciTech Connect

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Sugiyama, G.

    1995-09-11

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an operational emergency preparedness and response organization supported primarily by the Departments of Energy and Defense. ARAC can provide real-time assessments of atmospheric releases of radioactive materials at any location in the world. ARAC uses robust three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, extensive geophysical and dose-factor databases, meteorological data-acquisition systems, and an experienced staff. Although it was originally conceived and developed as an emergency response and assessment service for nuclear accidents, the ARAC system has been adapted to also simulate non-radiological hazardous releases. For example, in 1991 ARAC responded to three major events: the oil fires in Kuwait, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and the herbicide spill into the upper Sacramento River in California. ARAC`s operational simulation system, includes two three-dimensional finite-difference models: a diagnostic wind-field scheme, and a Lagrangian particle-in-cell transport and dispersion scheme. The meteorological component of ARAC`s real-time response system employs models using real-time data from all available stations near the accident site to generate a wind-field for input to the transport and dispersion model. Here we report on simulation studies of past and potential release sites to show that even in the absence of local meteorological observational data, readily available gridded analysis and forecast data and a prognostic model, the Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System, applied at an appropriate grid resolution can successfully simulate complex local flows.

  3. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  4. Estimating outdoor and indoor dust lead levels from accidental bridge repair containment releases

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.T.; Conway, R.F.

    1999-07-01

    A 1998 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the proposed removal of deteriorated lead paint from NYCDOT-owned bridges. The EIS health risk assessment quantified the potential impact of particulate releases on blood lead levels among members of the public living and working near affected bridges. The risk assessment consisted of a fate and transport component and an exposure-dose component. The fate and transport component, modeled using the EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model, calculated the impact of paint removal activities on ambient air lead concentrations and dust lead deposition rates. The exposure-dose component, modeled using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, the Bowers et al. Adult Lead model, and the O'Flaherty lead model, calculated the impact of additional lead in air, street dust, interior house dust, and soil on blood lead levels, a conventional measure of body lead burden. The analysis was complicated because the ISC3 model provides a dust lead deposition rate ({micro}g/m{sup 2}-day), while the IEUBK, Bowers et al., and O'Flaherty models demand as input specification of dust lead concentrations ({micro}g lead per g dust). This paper describes a model developed for the EIS that quantifies long term average dust lead concentrations associated with typical bridge containment releases, and short term dust lead concentration spikes following worst case release events associated with bridge repair containment structure failures. The model reflects the influence of both lead and other debris associated with bridge repair activities, the contribution of background debris to street dust, and the impact of rainfall on removal of both lead and other material from the street dust reservoir.

  5. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases by mesoscale forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Mobley, R.L.; Pace, J.C.; Hodur, R.A.; Lion, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    Modeling atmospheric releases even during fair weather can present a sever challenge to diagnostic, observed-data-driven, models. Such schemes are often handicapped by sparse input data from meteorological surface stations and soundings. Forecasting by persistence is only acceptable for a few hours and cannot predict important changes in the diurnal cycle or from synoptic evolution. Many accident scenarios are data-sparse in space and/or time. Here we describe the potential value of limited-area, mesoscale, forecast models for real-time emergency response. Simulated wind-fields will be passed to ARAC`s operational models to produce improved forecasts of dispersion following accidents.

  6. Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.

    PubMed

    Moody, Cheryl A; Martin, Jonathan W; Kwan, Wai Chi; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2002-02-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants have emerged as priority environmental contaminants due to recent reports of their detection in environmental and biological matrices as well as concerns regarding their persistence and toxicity. In June 2000, 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants was accidentally released at L. B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, and subsequently entered into Etobicoke Creek, a tributary to Lake Ontario. A suite of analytical tools that include liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and 19F NMR were employed to characterize fish (common shiner, Notropus cornutus) and surface water samples collected following the discharge of the perfluorinated material. Total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (4, 6, and 8 carbons) concentrations in fish liver samples ranged from 2.00 to 72.9 microg/g, and total perfluorocarboxylate (5-14 carbons) concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.02 microg/g. In addition to fish samples, total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (6 and 8 carbons) concentrations were detected in creek water samples by LC/MS/MS over a 153 day sampling period with concentrations ranging from <0.017 to 2260 microg/L; perfluorooctanoate concentrations (<0.009-11.3 microg/L) were lower than those observed for the perfluoroalkane-sulfonates. By 19F NMR, the total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from < 10 to 17000 microg/L. A bioaccumulation factor range of 6300-125000 was calculated for perfluorooctanesulfonate, based on concentrations in fish liver and surface water. The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluorinated surfactants will persist and bioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment. PMID:11883418

  7. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): United States and territories, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. The set contains all of the data provided on the magnetic tape version. Twelve indexes allow easy access to the data. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. The data include (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, released to publicly owned treatment works, or transferred to off-site waste disposal facilities. All releases are in pounds per year.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): United States and territories, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. The set contains all of the data provided on the magnetic tape version. Twelve indexes allow easy access to the data. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. The data include (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, released to publicly owned treatment works, or transferred to off-site waste disposal facilities. All releases are in pounds per year.

  10. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... ``Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data'' (March 5, 2012; 77 FR 13061). These comments are... EPA--U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA--Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 2677) that the Agency was considering requiring TRI facilities...

  11. Beneficial impacts of the implementation of the accidental release risk management regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nand, K.

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Management Program and Plan (RMP) regulations were issued on June 20, 1996, which require the implementation of a Risk Management Program by June 21, 1999. These regulations are designed to prevent serious chemical accidents that could affect public health and the environment and to improve the response to any accidents that do occur. The RMP regulations have forced various industries handling regulated substances to review their operations and develop measures to prevent accidents, reduce the quantity of regulated substance released during an accident, reduce the quantity stored at the facility or completely eliminate the use of the regulated substance. The net result of these actions will be to overall reduce the risk and cause beneficial impacts to the surrounding community. A review analysis was performed of the various actions, including the control measures implemented by various facilities to prevent the accidents and reduce the overall risk as part of the implementation of RMP regulations. The results of the review analysis indicated that for some of the facilities the best control measure would be to substitute the regulated substance with a less hazardous material. For example, anhydrous chlorine may be replaced by sodium hypochlorite for water and wastewater disinfection purposes.

  12. Study of the effects of accidentally released carbon/graphite fibers on electric power equipment. Program final report, June 5, 1978-June 5, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, S.F.; Bankoske, J.W.; Cooper, J.H.; Davies, D.G.; Eichler, C.H.; Hileman, A.R.; Mousseau, T.E. Jr.; Rackliffe, G.B.

    1980-06-05

    The program to study the effect of accidentally released carbon fibers on electrical power equipment consisted of determining the vulnerability of system outage rates to carbon fiber contamination, and performing tests to quantitize the contamination required to cause flashover of external insulation. Part One of this final report describes an assessment of the vulnerability of power systems to accidentally released fibers from a composite burn. The assessment describes the effect of carbon fibers on individual component failure rates and discusses the effect the change in component failure rates has on the power system reliability. Part Two describes in detail testing performed to determine the vulnerability of external insulation to carbon fiber contamination. Testing consisted of airborne contamination tests on distribution insulators, limited tests on suspension insulators which are commonly used for transmission class voltages, and various tests to quantify the influence of fiber length, voltage stress, etc. on flashover characteristics. The data obtained and analysis performed during this project show that the change of system reliability due to an accidental release from burned carbon fiber composite is negligible.

  13. Laccase oxidation and removal of toxicants released during combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Semlitsch, Stefan; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Lemmouchi, Yahia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    This study reports for the first time the ability of laccases adsorbed on cellulose acetate to eliminate toxicants released during combustion processes. Laccases directly oxidized and eliminated more than 40% w/v of 14 mM of 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone); 2-methyl-1,4-benzenediol (methylhydroquinone); 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3,5-trimethylbenzene (trimethylhydroquinone); 3-methylphenol (m-cresol); 4-methylphenol (p-cresol); 2-methylphenol (o-cresol); 1,3-benzenediol (resorcinol); 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol); 3,4-dihydroxytoluene (4-methylcatechol) and 2-naphthylamine. Further, laccase oxidized 2-naphthylamine, hydroquinone, catechol, methylhydroquinone and methylcatechol were also able to in turn mediate the elimination of >90% w/v of toxicants which are per-se non-laccase substrates such as 3-aminobiphenyl; 4-aminobiphenyl; benz[a]anthracene; 3-(1-nitrosopyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine (NNN); formaldehyde; 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde); nitric oxide and vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile). These studies demonstrate the potential of laccase immobilized on solid supports to remove many structurally different toxicants released during combustion processes. This system has great potential application for in situ removal of toxicants in the manufacturing, food processing and food service industries. PMID:26408262

  14. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic chemical release reporting form... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Forms and Instructions § 372.85 Toxic chemical release reporting form...

  15. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Toxic chemical release reporting form... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Forms and Instructions § 372.85 Toxic chemical release reporting form...

  16. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Toxic chemical release reporting form... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Forms and Instructions § 372.85 Toxic chemical release reporting form...

  17. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic chemical release reporting form... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Forms and Instructions § 372.85 Toxic chemical release reporting form...

  18. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Toxic chemical release reporting form... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Forms and Instructions § 372.85 Toxic chemical release reporting form...

  19. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1990 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  20. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1992 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  1. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1991 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  2. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1987 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  3. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1988 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  4. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1989 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  5. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1993 (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities), and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  6. Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

  7. Developments in EPA`s air dispersion modeling for hazardous/toxic releases

    SciTech Connect

    Touma, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) lists many chemicals as hazardous air pollutants and requires establishing regulations to prevent their accidental release, and to minimize the consequence, if any such releases occur. With the large number of potential release scenarios that are associated with these chemicals, there is a need for a systematic approach for applying air dispersion models to estimate impact. Because some chemicals may form dense gas clouds upon release, and dispersion models that can simulate these releases are complex, EPA has paid attention to the development of modeling tools and guidance on the use of models that can address these types of releases.

  8. Release of air toxics during coating operations -- Understanding the process

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, P.A.; Fultz, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    Air toxics emissions, specifically volatile organic compounds (VOC), occur during the mixing, application, and drying of coatings. However, the means by which these emissions are quantified are generally a gross exaggeration. Many times this over-estimation results in the placement of permit emission limits on facilities that restrict operations unnecessarily. This paper will present and discuss the coating application process giving special attention to the points in the process and time periods over which VOCs may be released to the atmosphere. Finally, the highly conservative nature of emission estimation techniques and the methods by which permit limits are developed will be discussed and an alternative approach suggested that more closely represents VOC releases that occur during coating operations; thereby, allowing facilities to realize their operational potential without compromising the potential health impacts to offsite receptors.

  9. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  10. Estimation of exposure to toxic releases using spatial interaction modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data are frequently used to estimate a community's exposure to pollution. However, this estimation process often uses underdeveloped geographic theory. Spatial interaction modeling provides a more realistic approach to this estimation process. This paper uses four sets of data: lung cancer age-adjusted mortality rates from the years 1990 through 2006 inclusive from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, TRI releases of carcinogens from 1987 to 1996, covariates associated with lung cancer, and the EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. Results The impact of the volume of carcinogenic TRI releases on each county's lung cancer mortality rates was calculated using six spatial interaction functions (containment, buffer, power decay, exponential decay, quadratic decay, and RSEI estimates) and evaluated with four multivariate regression methods (linear, generalized linear, spatial lag, and spatial error). Akaike Information Criterion values and P values of spatial interaction terms were computed. The impacts calculated from the interaction models were also mapped. Buffer and quadratic interaction functions had the lowest AIC values (22298 and 22525 respectively), although the gains from including the spatial interaction terms were diminished with spatial error and spatial lag regression. Conclusions The use of different methods for estimating the spatial risk posed by pollution from TRI sites can give different results about the impact of those sites on health outcomes. The most reliable estimates did not always come from the most complex methods. PMID:21418644

  11. Directory of public libraries. Toxic chemical release inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    The Directory of Public Libraries is a compilation of over 2,300 libraries designated by each State's Librarian to receive their state's microfiche containing data collected under Section 313 (j) of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986--Public Law 99-499. Section 313 (j) of EPCRA requires EPA to establish the National Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) and to make the data/information collected annually available to the public through computer telecommunications and other means. TRI is distributed, sold and available in many different forms--online through the National Library of Medicine, CD-ROM, dBase, and Lotus floppy diskettes, microfiche, magnetic tape. It is accessible to the public in one or more of these forms from thousands of locations nationwide, as well as several international locations, of which this Directory identifies over 40% of those locations.

  12. Pentoxifylline Inhibits Superantigen-Induced Toxic Shock and Cytokine Release

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Teresa; Stiles, Bradley G.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a critical cytokine that mediates the toxic effects of bacterial superantigens like staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits endotoxemia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-α, was tested for its ability to inhibit SEB- and TSST-1-induced activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and toxin-mediated shock in mice. Stimulation of PBMCs by SEB or TSST-1 was effectively blocked by pentoxifylline (10 mM), as evidenced by the inhibition of TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and T-cell proliferation. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IFN-γ in serum after an SEB or TSST-1 injection were significantly lower in mice given pentoxifylline (5.5 mg/animal) versus control mice. Additionally, pentoxifylline diminished the lethal effects and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB and TSST-1. Thus, in addition to treating endotoxemias, the cumulative in vitro and in vivo data suggest that pentoxifylline may also be useful in abrogating the ill effects of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1. PMID:10391869

  13. Pentoxifylline inhibits superantigen-induced toxic shock and cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, T; Stiles, B G

    1999-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a critical cytokine that mediates the toxic effects of bacterial superantigens like staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits endotoxemia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-alpha, was tested for its ability to inhibit SEB- and TSST-1-induced activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and toxin-mediated shock in mice. Stimulation of PBMCs by SEB or TSST-1 was effectively blocked by pentoxifylline (10 mM), as evidenced by the inhibition of TNF-alpha, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and T-cell proliferation. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum after an SEB or TSST-1 injection were significantly lower in mice given pentoxifylline (5.5 mg/animal) versus control mice. Additionally, pentoxifylline diminished the lethal effects and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB and TSST-1. Thus, in addition to treating endotoxemias, the cumulative in vitro and in vivo data suggest that pentoxifylline may also be useful in abrogating the ill effects of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1. PMID:10391869

  14. Toxic Chemicals in Production-Related Wastes Combusted for Energy Recovery, Released, Treated, or Recycled

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes trends in the quantities of reportable toxic chemicals generated, managed, and/or released by manufacturing operations, certain service businesses, and federal facilities across the United States from 2001 to 2009. Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic ...

  15. Toxic Release Inventory reporting requirement: Estimating volatile organic compound releases from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    In production/maintenance processes at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center, industrial wastewater streams are generated which contain organic compounds. These wastewaters are collected and treated in a variety of ways. Some of these collection and treatment steps result in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the wastewater to the ambient air. This paper provides a discussion of the potential VOC emission sources and presents estimates of emissions for an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP). As regulatory reporting requirements become increasingly more stringent, Air Force installations are being required to quantify and report VOC releases to the environment. The computer software described in this paper was used to identify and quantify VOC discharges to the environment. The magnitude of VOC emissions depends greatly on many factors such as the physical properties of the pollutants, the temperature of the wastewater, and the design of the individual collection and treatment process units. IWTP VOC releases can be estimated using a computer model designed by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Surface Impoundment Model System (SIMS) model utilizes equipment information to predict air emissions discharged from each individual process unit. SIMS utilizes mass transfer expressions, process unit information, in addition to chemical/physical property data for the interested chemicals. By inputting process conditions and constraints, SIMS determines the effluent concentrations along with the air emissions discharged from each individual process unit. The software is user-friendly with the capable of estimating effluent concentration and ambient air releases. The SIMS software was used by Tinker AFB chemical engineers to predict VOC releases to satisfy the Toxic Release Inventory reporting requirements.

  16. Calculation of External Gamma-Ray and Beta-Ray Doses from Accidental Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    1981-02-25

    SUBDOSA-II calculates submersion doses from an acute release of radionuclides to the atmosphere, as did SUBDOSA. Doses are calculated as a function of distance from release point, atmospheric stability, and wind speed for a specified radionuclide inventory. Contributions from both beta and gamma radiation are included as a function of tissue depth.

  17. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K; Watson, E C

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  18. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  19. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  20. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  1. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  2. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Covered facilities for toxic chemical... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.22 Covered facilities for toxic...

  3. Risk assessment, risk management and risk-based monitoring following a reported accidental release of poliovirus in Belgium, September to November 2014.

    PubMed

    Duizer, Erwin; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schijven, Jack

    2016-01-01

    On 6 September 2014, the accidental release of 10(13) infectious wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) particles by a vaccine production plant in Belgium was reported. WPV3 was released into the sewage system and discharged directly to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequently into rivers that flowed to the Western Scheldt and the North Sea. No poliovirus was detected in samples from the WWTP, surface waters, mussels or sewage from the Netherlands. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) showed that the infection risks resulting from swimming in Belgium waters were above 50% for several days and that the infection risk by consuming shellfish harvested in the eastern part of the Western Scheldt warranted a shellfish cooking advice. We conclude that the reported release of WPV3 has neither resulted in detectable levels of poliovirus in any of the samples nor in poliovirus circulation in the Netherlands. This QMRA showed that relevant data on water flows were not readily available and that prior assumptions on dilution factors were overestimated. A QMRA should have been performed by all vaccine production facilities before starting up large-scale culture of WPV to be able to implement effective interventions when an accident happens. PMID:27020766

  4. The U.S. EPA Geographic Information System for mapping environmental releases of Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) chemicals.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, J R; Sorensen, J W; Eckert, J W; Carreras, E M

    1993-04-01

    This study characterizes the environmental releases of toxic chemicals of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) in the southeastern United States by using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Geographic Information System (GIS) to map them. These maps show that the largest quantities of TRI releases in the Southeast are usually near densely populated areas. This GIS mapping approach takes the first steps in defining those areas in the region which may be potential exposure zones and which could be strategic targets for future risk screening efforts in this geographic area. PMID:8502789

  5. User's manual for LPGS: a computer program for calculating radiation exposure resulting from accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1982-11-01

    The LPGS computer program was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. The program is principally designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota is estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radio-nuclides. Optionally, a tabulated user-supplied release model can be input. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  6. Endogenous glucocorticoids released during acute toxic liver injury enhance hepatic IL-10 synthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Swain, M G; Appleyard, C; Wallace, J; Wong, H; Le, T

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoids are known to play a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response possibly by modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. We examined endogenous glucocorticoid secretion, hepatic damage, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression and release in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) after treatment with vehicle or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU-486). Rats treated with CCl4 demonstrated striking elevations of plasma corticosterone levels. Inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoid activity by pretreatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 resulted in augmented CCl4-mediated hepatotoxicity, as reflected by histology and serum transaminase levels, which were independent of alterations in serum TNF-alpha levels or hepatic mRNA expression. CCl4 treatment resulted in enhanced hepatic IL-10 mRNA expression and elevated serum IL-10 levels, which were markedly attenuated by glucocorticoid receptor blockade. In summary, significant endogenous glucocorticoid release occurs during acute toxic liver injury in the rat and suppresses the inflammatory response independent of effects on TNF-alpha but possibly by upregulating hepatic IL-10 production. PMID:9886996

  7. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    PubMed

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-14 - Toxic Chemical Release Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not manufacture, process, or otherwise use any toxic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 372.65; (2) The... established under section 313(f) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(f) (including the alternate thresholds at 40 CFR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxic Chemical...

  9. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9494125

  10. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located. PMID:9494125

  11. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  12. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Pennsylvania, 1989 (in Macintosh Excel format) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. All releases are in pounds per year.

  14. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Effects of a Community Toxic Release on the Psychological Status of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Stickle, Timothy R.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Doane, Bridget M.; Thompson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the emotional effects of a major community toxic release on children in the exposed community while controlling for the potential effects of response bias. Controlling for the response bias inherent in litigated contexts is an advance over previous studies of toxic exposure in children. A randomly selected…

  16. Toxic releases from paper made with recovered wastepaper versus virgin wood fiber: A research note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Daniel

    1996-09-01

    Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data were used to compare average releases (kilograms per metric ton) of paper mills using primarily recovered wastepaper versus mills using primarily virgin wood fiber. Annual releases, for 79 mills, of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloroform, acids (hydrochloric and sulfuric), volatile organics (methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, and acetone), and ammonia were compared over the years 1987-1992. Both types of mills reported generally lower toxic releases in 1992 than in 1987; however, toxic releases in all categories were significantly lower from mills using recovered wastepaper than from mills using virgin wood fiber, strongly demonstrating that recycling has added benefits beyond reduced resource consumption. These results suggest that environmental policy should concentrate as much on increasing demand for recycled paper and developing wastepaper collection infrastructure as it does on end-of-pipe pollution abatement.

  17. Effect of drug release kinetics on nanoparticle therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Manish; Sukumar, Rohit; Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E; Wang, Edina C; Moore, Dominic T; Kowalczyk, Sonya R; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Andrew Z

    2014-02-21

    The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with wortmannin and docetaxel as model drugs, we determined the relationship between the release kinetics and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of the drugs. We have determined that drug release kinetics can affect the therapeutic efficacy of NP docetaxel and NP wortmannin in vitro and in vivo. Our study also demonstrates that a decrease in drug release kinetics can result in a decrease in the hepatotoxicity of CLS NP wortmannin. Using two model drugs, the current findings provide the first direct evidence that NP drug release profile is a critical factor in determining the NP therapeutics' efficacy and toxicity in vivo. PMID:24418914

  18. Toxic chemical release inventory: Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act, Title 3, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Toxic chemical release information contained in this document was derived using process flow diagrams and material balances, process chemistry and emissions treatment technology, hazardous materials inventories, environmental permits, hazardous materials release reports, hazardous waste shipment papers, and sample analysis or monitoring data where available.

  19. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  20. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-10-15

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage. PMID:20633985

  1. Codes and regulations governing handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmen, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    To control the hazards associated with the handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases in the manufacturing process, a number of codes and regulations have been promulgated. At the forefront of these regulations are the Uniform Fire Code (UFC), Article 51, ``Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities Using Hazardous Production Materials,'' 1985 Edition; UFC Article 80, ``Hazardous Materials,'' 1987 Revision; and the Toxic Gas Model Ordinance, California Assembly Bill 1021. Article 51 of the UFC is specific for semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities and regulates the storage, handling and use of hazardous production materials. Article 80 of the UFC has a much broader scope and incorporates requirements for prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to hazardous materials. As it applies to toxic gases, Article 80 incorporates Article 51 requirements and in addition requires treatment systems to reduce discharge concentrations and mitigate unauthorized releases of toxic gases. The Toxic Gas Model Ordinance is specific to toxic gases and regulates storage, handling and use of toxic gases at new and existing facilities incorporating monitoring and treatment systems should an unauthorized release occur. This paper will focus on these regulations as they apply to toxic gases used by the semiconductor and photovoltaics industries.

  2. 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Emergency Planning & Community Right to Know Act SEC 313

    SciTech Connect

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2002-06-24

    Pursuant to section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management, the US Department of Energy has prepared and submitted a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory for the Hanford Site covering activities performed during calendar year 2001. EPCRA Section 313 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in quantities exceeding established threshold levels to report total annual releases of those chemicals. During calendar year 2001, Hanford Site activities resulted in one chemical used in amounts exceeding an activity threshold. Accordingly, the Hanford Site 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DOE/RL-2002-37, includes total annual amount of lead released to the environment, transferred to offsite locations, and otherwise managed as waste.

  3. 2003 HANFORD SITE TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE INVENTORY EMERGENCY PLANNING & COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW ACT SECTION 313

    SciTech Connect

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2004-06-16

    Pursuant to section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and Executive Order 13148, ''Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management'', the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared and submitted a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory for the Hanford Site covering activities performed during calendar year 2003. EPCRA Section 313 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in quantities exceeding established threshold levels to report total annual releases of those chemicals. During calendar year 2003, Hanford Site activities resulted in two chemicals used in amounts exceeding an activity threshold; ethylene glycol, Chemical Abstract Services Registry (CAS) Number 107-21-1 and lead, CAS Number 7439-92-1. Accordingly, the 2003 Hanford Site Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DOE/RL-2004-20, includes total annual amounts of ethylene glycol and lead released to the environment, transferred to offsite locations, and otherwise managed as waste.

  4. ADVANCED NON-TOXIC SILICONE FOULING-RELEASE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated and validated the use of the duplex silicone fouling-release coating system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), for use on boat hulls and power plant cooling water intake tunne...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

  6. Analysis of National Pollutant Release Inventory data on toxic emissions by industry. Working paper Number 97-16

    SciTech Connect

    Olewiler, N.; Dawson, K.

    1998-12-31

    There are 230 substances of varying toxicity listed on the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). This paper describes a methodology for analyzing the NPRI data to provide a preliminary estimate of the toxic intensity of Canadian industries. Several indicators of toxic intensity of releases from each industry relative to employment or the value of output are calculated.

  7. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE INFORMATION PROGRAM (ARIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office(CEPPO) leads the effort to deal with chemical accidents. The Agency began its chemical accident prevention program in 1986. To identify the steps that could be taken by industrial fa...

  8. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases. PMID:26477531

  9. Potentially toxic element release by fenton oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J P; Asaadi, M; Clarke, B; Ouki, S

    2006-01-01

    The presence, in sewage sludge, of excess levels of the potentially toxic elements (PTE) copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury, could impact on our ability to recycle these residues in the future. Far stricter limits on the levels of PTEs are likely in proposed legislation. A method involving the dosing of Fenton's reagent, a mixture of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide, under acidic conditions was evaluated for its potential to reduce metal levels. The [Fe]:[H2O2] (w/w) ratio was found to give a good indication of the percentage copper and zinc elution obtainable. Sites with no iron dosing as part of wastewater treatment required extra iron to be added in order to initiate the Fenton's reaction. A significant reduction, in excess of 70%, of the copper and zinc was eluted from both raw primary and activated sludge solid fractions. Cadmium and nickel could be reduced to below detection limits but elution of mercury, lead and chromium was less than 40%. The iron catalyst concentration was found to be a crucial parameter. This process has the potential to reduce the heavy metal content of the sludge and allow the recycling of sludge to continue in a sustainable manner. PMID:17087386

  10. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory -- Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, D.E.

    1998-06-30

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid.

  11. Effect of drug release kinetics on nanoparticle therapeutic efficacy and toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Manish; Sukumar, Rohit; Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E.; Wang, Edina C.; Moore, Dominic T.; Kowalczyk, Sonya R.; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with wortmannin and docetaxel as model drugs, we determined the relationship between the release kinetics and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of the drugs. We have determined that drug release kinetics can affect the therapeutic efficacy of NP docetaxel and NP wortmannin in vitro and in vivo. Our study also demonstrates that a decrease in drug release kinetics can result in a decrease in the hepatotoxicity of CLS NP wortmannin. Using two model drugs, the current findings provide the first direct evidence that NP drug release profile is a critical factor in determining the NP therapeutics' efficacy and toxicity in vivo.The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with

  12. The implications of new toxic release inventory requirements for coal utilization and R and D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Recent action by the US Environmental Protection Agency will require coal-fired power plants to begin reporting their annual release of toxic chemicals covered by the national Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI is a widely-reported public inventory of emissions to air, water and land which has had a major impact on the industries affected to date. Similar impacts can be expected for the utility industry. Utilities also will be required to develop and report on pollution prevention activities to reduce or eliminate TRI releases. This paper reviews the new TRI requirements for coal-fired power plants and presents illustrative results of TRI releases to the environment. The implications of these results for future coal utilization, and for coal R and D priorities, are discussed.

  13. Implications of new toxic release inventory requirements for coal utilization and R & D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1998-04-01

    Recent action by the US Environmental Protection Agency will require coal-fired power plants to begin reporting their annual release of toxic chemicals covered by the national Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI is a widely-reported public inventory of emissions to air, water and land which has had a major impact on the industries affected to date. Similar impacts can be expected for the utility industry. Utilities also will be required to develop and report on pollution prevention activities to reduce or eliminate TRI releases. This paper reviews the new TRI requirements for coal-fired power plants and presents illustrative results of TRI releases to the environment. The implications of these results for future coal utilization, and for coal R&D priorities, are discussed.

  14. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  15. Toxic chemical release inventory at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) submits an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (Form R) as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). The Site uses a multi-step process for completing the Form R which includes developing a written procedure, determine thresholds, collection of chemical use and fate information, and peer review.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  17. Evaluation of pollutant toxicity in aquatic environment by assay of enzymes released from lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tabata, Masako; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shizuo )

    1990-07-01

    To survey aquatic environmental pollution, many workers have attempted to evaluate river pollution using index organisms. These methods reflect the toxicities of river water and sediment directly. In recent years, the monitoring method using enzyme inducement or enzyme depression in fish or other aquatic organisms has been proposed for studying polluted environments. To evaluate toxicity of environmental sample simply, the authors attempted to use biochemical index for assay method. When the membrane of a lysosome is destabilized by chemical action, resident enzymes are released. The effect of chemicals on a lysosome membrane thus can be evaluated by measuring the activity of released enzymes. In the present paper they evaluate environmental sample toxicity for biological membrane using rat liver lysosomes in vitro.

  18. Release of adenine nucleotide metabolites by toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, W

    1994-01-01

    In isolated perfused guinea-pig hearts the effect of toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides on the release of the adenine nucleotide metabolites adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid was investigated. Digoxin concentrations of 0.03-1 mumol.l-1 produced moderate to severe tachyarrhythmias. Large amounts of metabolites were released by concentrations of 0.1 mumol.l-1, and higher. Occurrence of glycoside-induced ventricular fibrillation was associated with a particularly high release. Metabolite release was also obtained when fibrillation was elicited electrically in normal control hearts, or in hearts receiving simultaneously a marginally toxic digoxin concentration (0.03 mumol.l-1). Digoxin-induced tachyarrhythmias and metabolite release were almost completely prevented by a high potassium concentration in the coronary perfusion fluid (8.1 mmol.l-1). The antiarrhythmic effect was also obtained with lidocaine (60 mumol.l-1), but the release was only partially antagonized. Similar results concerning arrhythmias and metabolite release as with digoxin were obtained with ouabain. The findings suggest that the decrease in myocardial ATP observed in glycoside-intoxicated heart preparations is partly due to the loss of nucleotide precursor substances. Moreover, it appears likely that liberated adenosine in the interstitium of severely intoxicated heart preparations reaches pharmacologically effective concentrations. PMID:7826306

  19. Acute toxic effects of sustained-release verapamil in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Pritza, D R; Bierman, M H; Hammeke, M D

    1991-10-01

    Four hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease who were treated with sustained-release verapamil hydrochloride subsequently developed acute toxic effects. All four patients developed varying degrees of atrioventricular heart block, hypotension, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and hepatic dysfunction. Supportive treatment consisted of intravenous catecholamines, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and dialysis, and all patients recovered completely without any residual hepatic or cardiac disease. Patients with renal impairment who are treated with sustained-release verapamil may accumulate verapamil or its metabolites and develop toxic side effects. We conclude that sustained-release verapamil should be used with caution in this patient population and that patients should be closely monitored for adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, and hepatic side effects. PMID:1843183

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Idaho, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Nebraska, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Michigan, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), California, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Mssissippi, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Louisiana, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Vermont, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Tennessee, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Missouri, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Kansas, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off-site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Washington, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Massachusetts, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Alabama, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year.Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Kentucky, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off-site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Florida, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Colorado, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Utah, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Maine, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Georgia, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Pennsylvania, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility; the first nine digit alphanumeric number a facility holds under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Montana, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Arkansas, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Hawaii, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Oklahoma, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Delaware, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Arizona, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Texas, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Wisconsin, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Wyoming, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Oregon, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Alaska, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year.Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Maryland, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Minnesota, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Indiana, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Connecticut, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility; the first nine digit alphanumeric number a facility holds under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Illinois, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Iowa, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Ohio, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Nevada, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Medical planning for toxic releases into the community: the example of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Davies, P C; Murray, V

    1989-01-01

    Emergency planning for a major accidental release of chlorine gas from industrial installations into the community is outlined for emergency services and hospitals. Realistic planning has been made possible with the advent of computer models for gas dispersion which may be used to estimate the numbers of deaths and casualties, according to their severity. For most purposes sufficient accuracy may be obtained by using a small number of computer analyses for the most serious reasonably foreseeable events under typical day and night weather conditions, and allowing for the emergency response to be scaled up or down according to the size of an actual release. In highly populated areas triage should be preplanned to deal with a large number of victims; field stations will be needed for the treatment and observation of minor casualties. The management and treatment of casualties is summarised. The best protection against a gas cloud is afforded by buildings whose windows, doors, and ventilation systems have been closed. Hospitals in the vicinity of an installation should draw up plans to protect patients and staff. Coordination in a disaster will require toxicological and epidemiological expertise and hospital plans should allow for this. PMID:2713283

  20. Monitoring of troponin release from cardiomyocytes during exposure to toxic substances using surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Kågedal, Bertil; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    Troponin T (TnT) is a useful biomarker for studying drug-induced toxicity effects on cardiac cells. We describe how a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was applied to monitor the release of TnT from active HL-1 cardiomyocytes in vitro when exposed to cardiotoxic substances. Two monoclonal human TnT antibodies were compared in the SPR immunosensor to analyse the TnT release. The detection limit of TnT was determined to be 30 ng/ml in a direct assay set-up and to be 10 ng/ml in a sandwich assay format. Exposure of the cardiomyocytes to doxorubicin, troglitazone, quinidine and cobalt chloride for periods of 6 and 24 h gave significant SPR responses, whereas substances with low toxicity showed insignificant effects (ascorbic acid, methotrexate). The SPR results were verified with a validated immunochemiluminescence method which showed a correlation of r (2) = 0.790. PMID:20694813

  1. Toxic release inventory database. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TRI database was begun by EPA in response to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, which required EPA to establish an inventory by states of routine toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of manufacturing facilities that employ 10 or more full-time employees and that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a tested toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The data file is contained on diskettes in dBASE III format or LOTUS 1-2-3 format available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Taking stock of toxic releases: When power plants file Form R

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Platisha, S.B.; Ulman, P.

    1997-07-01

    On June 27, 1996, EPA proposed to add seven industry categories, including power plants, to the list of industries subject to the annual Toxic Release Reporting requirements, authorized in SARA Title DI, the Emergency Planning and Community Right tot Know Act (EPCRA). The proposed rule will require power plants to submit a Toxic Release Inventory or {open_quote}Form R{close_quotes} to report annual releases. As of this writing, the proposal is undergoing review at the Office of Management and Budget and is expected to be finalized in the second quarter of 1997. Under the TRI reporting requirement a completed Form R must be submitted for each toxic chemical, including chemicals and chemical compounds routinely used at power plants. Submittal of Form R will require review, tabulation and evaluation of numerous plant records. Annual chemical and fuel consumption, as well as emission data, must be summarized for each toxic chemical by Chemical Abstract Services Number (CAS No.) to evaluate a plant`s chemical usage against three threshold quantities. To complete Form R, a facility must quantify all releases to land, water and soil (permitted and unpermitted) and quantify the pounds of chemical treated, recycled, burned for energy recovery or transferred offsite for treatment or disposal. Finally, all Form R`s must be certified by an owner, operator or corporate{open_quote}responsible official{close_quotes} stating that the information is true and accurate based on reasonable estimates. This regulatory assessment is organized in four sections. Section I describes the scope of the proposed TRI expansion. Section II describes the key steps to comply with EPCRA. Section M discusses the impacts and benefits, including compliance costs, pollution prevention and public relations. Section IV suggests implementation strategies for electric industry.

  3. Toxic and nontoxic effects of ouabain on the transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Maeno, T; Enomoto, K; Hara, N; Sawada, M; Ichinose, M

    1995-01-01

    Toxic and nontoxic effects of ouabain were investigated on frog neuromuscular preparation by measuring the mean quantal content of endplate potentials elicited during repetitive nerve stimulation. In the untreated normal muscles, application of 10 microM ouabain gave rise to a slow exponential increase in the transmitter release (toxic ouabain effect) with a certain delay. This delay was increased with either 100 microM amiloride, a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange blocker, or the intracellular loading of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), a specific intracellular Ca2+ chelator. Measurements of frequency augmentation-potentiation (FAP) revealed a specific nontoxic effect of ouabain: 1 microM ouabain pivoted the long-linear FAP relation counter-clockwise without altering the intercept on the ordinate. Contrary to their action in the toxic effect, both 100 microM amiloride and the intracellular loading of BAPTA failed to counteract the nontoxic effect of 1 microM ouabain. The present results suggest that the toxic and nontoxic effects of ouabain are of different entities. The ouabain-sensitive subtype of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, which is abundant in neural tissues, seems to play a specific role in the process of nontoxic potentiation of transmitter release. PMID:7650860

  4. The toxic release inventory: fact or fiction? A case study of the primary aluminum industry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Dinah A; Spengler, John D

    2007-10-01

    Since 1989 manufacturing facilities across the USA must report toxic chemical emissions to the EPA's toxic release inventory (TRI). Public release of this information and increased public scrutiny are believed to significantly contribute to the over 45% reduction in toxic chemical releases since inception of the program and to growing support for this type of informational regulation instead of traditional command-and-control. However, prior research indicates a tendency to under-report emissions. We find specific evidence of under-reporting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to the TRI by primary aluminum facilities after promulgation of the industry's maximum available control technology (MACT) standard in 1997. We also find evidence of dislocation of emission overseas due to these regulatory requirements. Additionally, changes in energy prices affected aluminum production and further distort reported PAH emissions levels. This suggests the possibility of more widespread under-reporting that is modulated by various factors, including market conditions and new regulations, and which may partially explain the downward trend in TRI emissions. It also suggests that the quality of TRI data may improve once facilities are subject to monitoring of emissions of a TRI listed pollutant due to command-and-control regulation. PMID:17240526

  5. Facts about SARA Title III, Section 313: Toxic Release Inventory. Data tape documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 requires EPA to establish an Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The final toxic Chemical Release Form and regulations were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988. The following information is required on the form: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste (whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemicals; and an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year); and quantity of the chemical entering each medium--air, land, and water--annually (waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream, optional information on waste minimization, and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate). The data files for the microcomputers on diskettes can be obtained by ordering PB90-504041 (set in the dBase III Plus file format) or PB90-504069 (set in the Lotus 1-2-3 file format).

  6. Bilirubin release induced by tumor necrosis factor in combination with galactosamine is toxic to mice.

    PubMed

    Van Molle, W; Libert, C

    2003-08-01

    Application of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in combination with galactosamine (GalN) in mice causes severe apoptosis of hepatocytes, resulting in complete destruction of the liver. Administration of high levels of unconjugated bilirubin and abnormally high production of unconjugated bilirubin have been reported to cause liver damage and are associated with several human pathologies. Serum alanine aminotransferase as well as total and direct bilirubin levels in mice were determined. Bilirubin levels are shown to significantly increase after a challenge with TNF/GalN in mice. Pretreatment with a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor significantly prevents this release in bilirubin and offers significant protection against TNF/GalN-induced lethality. A correlation between the release of unconjugated bilirubin and the toxicity accompanied with this release is provided. PMID:12906872

  7. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  8. Will Toxic Amounts of Lead be Released from Astronauts' Bones During Long Duration Missions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contaminants in the air, water, or food are a source of concern, both on Earth and in spacecraft. In microgravity, however, another source of potential toxicants can be introduced: astronauts' bones. Space toxicologists have been concerned about the possibility that crew members of long duration missions could suffer from lead poisoning due to the release of lead into their blood from stores of lead in their bones. If this occurs, NASA would be unable to set a Spacecraft Water Exposure Guideline (SWEG) for permissible lead concentrations in spacecraft drinking water that would be protective of astronaut health. Lead ingested earlier in life is stored in the bones where it can remain for many years without causing toxicity unless something happens to cause the release of lead into the blood. Microgravity is known to accelerate bone resorption, leading to the release of calcium and lead from bones into the blood. Relatively small increases in the concentration of lead in the blood can cause toxic effects in a variety of organ systems including the brain and kidneys. One mathematical model [1] of the rate of release of lead from bones in microgravity predicts that blood lead levels (BLLs) exceeding the current level of concern for adults (25 µg/dL) could be achieved within about 100 days in microgravity in some astronauts. Another, more complex mathematical model [2], however, predicts a much more limited release of lead, such that clinically significant concentrations of lead in the blood are not achieved. To determine which of these predictions is more accurate, BLL measurements were taken in a sample of astronauts before and after stays of at least 150 days on the International Space Station. BLLs measured before flight and compared to BLLs upon landing confirmed that no measurable increases in BLLs are observed in crew members of long-duration missions. In all astronauts tested, BLLs were below the U.S. population average of about 2 μg/dL both before and

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987-1994 (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database. The online TRI file should appeal to a broad based user audience.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987-1993 (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the states of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1987-1992 (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form R and regulations for the 1987 reporting year were published in the Federal Register on February 16, 1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The following information is required on Form R: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium-air, land, and water-annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  12. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Metal ion-induced toxic histamine release from human basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Schedle, A; Samorapoompichit, P; Füreder, W; Rausch-Fan, X H; Franz, A; Sperr, W R; Sperr, W; Slavicek, R; Simak, S; Klepetko, W; Ellinger, A; Ghannadan, M; Baghestanian, M; Valent, P

    1998-03-15

    Recent data suggest that distinct metal ions can be released from dental alloys or other biomaterials, and may cause toxic effects on various cells. In this study, the effects of 14 metal ions on histamine release from human blood basophils (n = 4), isolated tissue mast cells (lung n = 8, uterus n = 2, skin n = 1, gingiva n = 1), the basophil cell line KU-812, and the mast cell line HMC-1 were analyzed. Of the 14 metal ions, Ag+ (0.33 mM) and Hg2+ (0.33 mM) were found to induce release of histamine in blood basophils, KU-812, mast cells, and HMC-1. The effects of Ag+ and Hg2+ were dose dependent and were observed within 60 min of incubation. In primary mast cells and basophils, AU3+ (0.33 mM) also induced histamine release, whereas no effects of Au3+ on HMC-1 or KU-812 cells were seen. The other metal ions showed no effects on primary or immortal cells within 60 min. However, Pt4+ (0.33 mM) induced histamine liberation in HMC-1 and lung mast cells after 12 h. The Ag+- and Hg2+-induced rapid release of histamine from HMC-1 was associated with ultrastructural signs of necrosis, but not apoptosis. In contrast, prolonged exposure to Pt4+ (0.33 mM, 14 h) induced apoptotic cell death in HMC-1 cells, as assessed by electron microscopy and DNA analysis. Together, certain metal ions induce distinct cytopathogenic effects in mast cells and basophils. Whereas Ag+, Hg2+, and Au3+ cause direct toxicity, Pt4 causes cell death through induction of apoptosis. Whether such effects contribute to local adverse reactions to metal-containing biomaterials in vivo remains to be determined. PMID:9492216

  14. Emissions of Toxic Release Inventory listed chemicals from MSW landfills and federal right to know programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is considering expanding the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to include releases from sanitary services including municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Information about release of TRI-listed chemicals from MSW landfills under federal community right to known laws is scattered throughout the literature and difficult for the general public to obtain. Reports prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) considering TRI expansion to include MSW landfills recognized the quantity and diversity of toxic compounds, some carcinogenic, present in landfill gases and leachate. This two-part discussion summarizes existing literature on emissions of TRI-listed chemicals from landfills and examines the extent and limits of each agency`s program evaluating Environmental Health and Safety impacts of landfill emissions. In reviewing limited emissions data from landfills, EPA identified both known and suspected carcinogens (such) as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. At least 12 pollutants such as benzene, chloroform, and ethylene dichloride contained in MSW landfill emissions have the potential to produce health effects other than cancer.

  15. Toxic chemical release inventory reporting: Questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    On September 22, 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Department to participate in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program and to initiate Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) issued interim guidance on March 4, 1993, entitled ``Toxic Chemical Release Inventory and 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program`` that provided instructions on implementing the Secretarial directive. As stated in the interim guidance, all DOE sites not currently reporting under EPCRA Section 313, which meet the criteria for DOE TRI reporting, will initiate reporting of all TRI chemical releases and transfers for the 1993 calendar year with the annual report due to EPA, States and a courtesy copy to EH-20 by July 1, 1994. All other DOE sites which currently report under EPCRA Section 313 will also follow the criteria for DOE TRI reporting.

  16. Numerical predictions of the atmospheric circulations and dispersion of toxic releases in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, K.R.; Flicker, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The South Area of Tooele Army Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. The Department of Defense is preparing to destroy the aging stockpiles of lethal chemical munitions, which have existed since the end of World War II. Although the danger slight, accurate predictions of the wind fields in the valley and accurate dispersion calculations are important in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. In order to prepare for an emergency which might involve a release of toxic agents to the atmosphere, the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) and its companion code RAndom Particle and Diffusion (RAPTAD) have been adapted for use in predicting where dangerous amounts of these chemicals may travel. Both codes have been applied to a number of air quality studies in the past, including previous dispersion studies at Tooele.

  17. Effects of a community toxic release on the psychological status of children.

    PubMed

    Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Stickle, Timothy R; Love, Jeffrey M; Doane, Bridget M; Thompson, Matthew D

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to determine the emotional effects of a major community toxic release on children in the exposed community while controlling for the potential effects of response bias. Controlling for the response bias inherent in litigated contexts is an advance over previous studies of toxic exposure in children. A randomly selected representative sample of Exposed children (n = 31) was compared to a matched Control group (n = 28) from a nearby, unexposed community. Symptoms and complaints were assessed via interview with the children and their guardians, surveys and checklists, and well-established psychological instruments. Even when biased responding was controlled the Exposed children experienced more psychological distress, more physical symptoms, and greater general concern over their physical functioning than the Controls. The Exposed children also reported some concern about their future health and cancer risk but usually only if asked. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:17136451

  18. Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-01

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs. PMID:26042368

  19. Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2015-01-01

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square = 0.034–0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square = 63.315, p = 0.022, df = 42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs. PMID:26042368

  20. Toxic interaction between fluvoxamine and sustained release theophylline in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D

    1991-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with asthma had been receiving a controlled release theophylline preparation. He was prescribed fluvoxamine for a depressive disorder and within a week complained of severe headaches, tiredness and vomiting. His serum theophylline concentration had increased from 14.2 mg/L (shortly before fluvoxamine was started) to 27.4 mg/L. Fluvoxamine was withdrawn and theophylline concentrations decreased. Clomipramine was substituted for fluvoxamine with no further problems, and a later theophylline concentration was 13.7 mg/L. Competitive inhibition of hepatic microsomal enzymes by fluvoxamine may have been responsible for the elevated theophylline concentrations and toxicity observed in this case. PMID:1793525

  1. Drug Toxicity Deaths after Release from Incarceration in Ontario, 2006-2013: Review of Coroner’s Cases

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Emily; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Kiefer, Lori; Madadi, Parvaz; Gross, Jeremy; Prevost, Brittany; Jhirad, Reuven; Huyer, Dirk; Snowdon, Victoria; Persaud, Navindra

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of death due to drug toxicity after release from incarceration. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing, rate and circumstances of drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. This information can be used to help design potential preventive interventions. Methods and Findings We reviewed coroner’s files to identify deaths in adults in Ontario between 2006 and 2013 caused by drug toxicity (n = 6,978) and these records were matched with provincial correctional records to identify individuals who died within one year of being released from incarceration (n = 702). Twenty percent (n = 137) of the 702 deaths occurred within one week of release. The majority (77%, n = 538) of deaths after release involved one or more opioids. Of the deaths involving opioids, intervention by another person may have been possible in 318 cases. Conclusions Between 2006 and 2013 in Ontario, one in ten drug toxicity deaths in adults occurred within one year of release from provincial incarceration. These findings may help to inform the implemention and assessment of interventions aimed at reducing drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. PMID:27384044

  2. Toxicity, bio-distribution and metabolism of CO-releasing molecules based on cobalt.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaguo; Zhang, Taofeng; Li, Meng; Xi, Na; Zheng, Yawen; Zhao, Quanyi; Chen, Yonglin; Liu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) containing [Co2(CO)6] moiety show many bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory and antitumor cell proliferation. However, so far, no one knows their properties in vivo. So, here, we evaluated some these kind CORMs from drug-like properties including cytotoxicity, toxicity in vivo, distribution and metabolism. The results show all the tested complexes displayed antiproliferative activity to HeLa cell and HepG2 cell lines, and their IC50 values were 36-110µM against HeLa cells and 39-140µM against HepG2 cells. Toxicity tests of mice, we used oral acute toxic class method and got their LD50 values; among them, LD50 of complex 1 and complex 4 were in 2500-5000mgkg(-1) and complex 7 over 5000mgkg(-1). The developmental toxicities of the complexes were investigated in embryonic zebrafish. The mortality, hatch rate, malformation, heart rate, spontaneous movement, and larval behavior were examined, and we found both complexes 4 and 7 have not toxicity at low concentration (<1.0μM) but have higher toxicity at high concentration (>5.0μM). After several consecutive i.p administrations, tested complexes severely damaged rat liver and kidney in both functional and morphological aspects. Through metal ion measurement using ICP-AES, we found the tested complexes were unevenly distributed in tissues and organs; complex 4 has a big prone to collect in liver, whereas complex 7 easily enters to kidney. After administration 480min later, most of complex 7 excreted from kidney and entered urine, while complex 4 needed 9h at least. This results show cobalt did not accumulate, and could excrete with the urine. In vivo, Co(0) in complexes was oxidised to Co(II). In addition, the substituents significantly affected the rate of CO-release, cytotoxicity and their bio-distribution. In the view of these aspects, the CORMs based cobalt has a potential property to be a medicine. PMID:27375229

  3. Results from field applications of controlled release bactericides on toxic mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorn, M.A.; Sobek, A.A.; Rastogi, V.

    1985-12-09

    Controlled release system employing batericides inhibitory to iron oxidizing bacteria (acidophilic Thiobacillus) can reduce acid generation in toxic mine waste for prolonged period of time. Designing systems to remain active for a number of years can allow the development of beneficial heterotrophic bacteria, enzymes, and mycorrhizae to establish a natural cycle mitigating acid generation. Field sites have been installed in Ohio and West Virginia using controlled release systems as part of reclamation. Refuse water quality, bacterial enumerations, and vegetation have been continuously monitored to establish time spans necessary for a natural cycle to take over. Described are the methods used and results obtained so far on the two oldest sites. Comparisons of various bactericides and their site-specific character are presented for use in reclamation projects and active mining operations. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Release of toxic Gd3+ ions to tumour cells by vitamin B12 bioconjugates.

    PubMed

    Siega, Patrizia; Wuerges, Jochen; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Fedosov, Sergey N; Dreos, Renata; Geremia, Silvano; Aime, Silvio; Randaccio, Lucio

    2009-08-10

    Two probes consisting of vitamin B(12) (CNCbl) conjugated to Gd chelates by esterification of the ribose 5'-OH moiety, Gd-DTPA-CNCbl (1; DTPA = diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid) and Gd-TTHA-CNCbl (2; TTHA = triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid), have been synthesised and characterised. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of 1, obtained by crystallisation with an excess of GdCl(3), has been determined. The kinetics of binding to and dissociation from transcobalamin II show that 1 and 2 maintain high-affinity binding to the vitamin B(12) transport protein. Complex 2 is very stable with respect to Gd(3+) release owing to the saturated co-ordination of the Gd(3+) ion by four amino and five carboxylate groups. Hydrolysis of the ester functionality occurs on the time scale of several hours. The lack of saturation and the possible involvement of the ester functionality in co-ordination result in lower stability of 1 towards hydrolysis and in a considerable release of Gd(3+) in vitro. Gd(3+) ions released from 1 are avidly taken up by the K562 tumour cells to an extent corresponding to approximately 10(10) Gd(3+) per cell. The internalisation of toxic Gd(3+) ions causes a marked decrease in cell viability as assessed by Trypan blue and WST-1 tests. On the contrary, the experiments with the more stable 2 did not show any significant cell internalisation of Gd(3+) ions and any influence on cell viability. The results point to new avenues of in situ generation of cytotoxic pathways based on the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions by vitamin B(12) bioconjugates. PMID:19562781

  5. Effect of drug release rate on therapeutic outcomes: formulation dependence of gastrointestinal toxicity of diclofenac in the rat.

    PubMed

    Khazaeinia, Tahereh; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2004-01-01

    - The use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, is associated with occasional serious side effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We examined the effect of altering the site of release of diclofenac sodium on GI tract side effects. Dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out to substantiate the sustained-release nature of crushed sustained release tablet. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered diclofenac 10 mg/kg orally as either immediate-release or sustained-release preparations. Upper and lower GI permeability, as a surrogate marker of toxicity, were measured using sucrose and 51Cr-EDTA, respectively. Immediate- and sustained-release preparations similarly increased upper GI permeability. The induced toxicity in the lower GI tract, however, caused by the sustained-release formulation lasted longer than that of the immediate release formulation. Since both immediate- and sustained-release preparations of diclofenac increased sucrose permeability, the upper GI damage caused by diclofenac may be attributable mainly to a systemic mechanism. The prolonged lower GI toxicity following the sustained-release preparation may be related to a greater residence time therein. PMID:15035780

  6. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000–$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010–1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  7. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  8. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 1. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of...

  9. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-04-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 ..mu..g/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T/sub 4/, T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 ..mu..M Pb/sup 2 +/ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity.

  10. Mouse Toxicity and Cytokine Release by Verotoxin 1 B Subunit Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Wolski, Vince M.; Soltyk, Anna M.; Brunton, James L.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of the verotoxin 1 (VT1) B subunit complexed with a globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) analogue showed the presence of three receptor binding sites per monomer. We wished to study the effects of altering the three sites, singly or in combination, on animal toxicity and cytokine induction in vitro. We found that while the site 1 and 2 mutants were modestly (two- to sevenfold) reduced in their ability to cause disease in BALB/c mice, the site 3 mutant, W34A, was as toxic as VT1. However, all the double-mutant proteins, irrespective of which two sites were mutated, exhibited approximately a 100-fold reduction in their 50% lethal doses for mice. These results suggest that multivalent receptor binding is important in vivo and that all three binding sites make a similar contribution to the latter process. The triple-mutant holotoxin, F30A G62T W34A, administered intraperitoneally without adjuvant, stimulated a strong antibody response in BALB/c mice, and the immune sera neutralized the activity of VT1 in vitro. Induction of tumor neurosis factor alpha release from differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells) was relatively impaired for site 1 and site 2 but not site 3 mutants, suggesting an auxiliary role for the latter site in mediation of cytokine release in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays on undifferentiated THP-1 cells have also demonstrated the importance of sites 1 and 2 and the relatively small role played by site 3 in causing cell death. These data suggest an association between the cytotoxicity of the protein and its ability to induce cytokine release. PMID:11119557

  11. Unrecognized delayed toxic lithium peak concentration in an acute poisoning with sustained release lithium product.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Navarro-Ruiz, Andrés; Murcia-López, Ana; Romero-Crespo, Isabel; Enriquez, Ricardo

    2007-03-01

    A 32-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder was admitted after taking approximately 16 g of an extended-release lithium carbonate formulation in an attempted suicide. Five hours after consumption, the lithium serum level was 3.2 mEq/L. Fourteen hours after consumption, the lithium level was 5.1 mEq/L and the patient was asymptomatic. Due to a level > 4 mEq/L, the patient was transferred to a renal medicine service for hemodialysis. The lithium concentration 6 hours after the hemodialysis was 2.54 mEq/L. Thirty seven hours after the consumption (15 hours after hemodialysis), lithium levels increased up to 6.09 mEq/L. A second hemodialysis session was performed, which successfully reduced the serum lithium concentration to 1.86 mEq/L. Lithium levels 85 hours after the consumption were 0.61 mEq/L and the patient was transferred to the Psychiatry Department. Unrecognized delayed toxic peak lithium concentration may appear in an acute poisoning with a sustained release lithium product. Therefore, patients presenting with acute intoxication with extended release formulations should be managed with caution, and continued drug monitoring is suggested. PMID:17396741

  12. Controlled release of sugar and toxicant from a novel device for controlling pest insects.

    PubMed

    Hu, X P; Shasha, B S; McGuire, M R; Prokopy, R J

    1998-01-01

    A novel biodegradable device, designed for long-lasting residual effectiveness of feeding stimulant (sugar) and insecticide (dimethoate) against apple maggot files and other insects, was formulated. The device is an 8-cm diameter fruit-mimicking sphere, consisting of 42-50% sugar entrapped in a mixture of gelatinized corn flour and wheat flour in the presence of glycerin, and coated with a layer of latex paint containing dimethoate and sugar. We found that the outer layer of paint prevents cracking of the sphere upon drying and creates a barrier to control the release of both sugar and dimethoate. Releases of each ingredient were screened first by chemical analysis and then by bioassays in the laboratory and in field cages against apple maggot flies. Chemical analysis demonstrated strong potential for controlled release of water-soluble feeding stimulant and water-insoluble insecticide measured as a function of the amount of rainfall and duration of exposure time. Field results showed greater than 70% insecticidal activity after 11 weeks of sphere exposure in an orchard. This device has the potential to be used for a variety of insect-control applications through manipulating its shape, color and texture into forms known to be attractive to target insects, and by employing various toxicants designed to be effective against such insects. PMID:9685892

  13. Drug Release Kinetics, Cell Uptake, and Tumor Toxicity of Hybrid VVVVVVKK Peptide-Assembled Polylactide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Yang, Xiaoming; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong

    2013-01-01

    An exciting approach to tumor delivery is encapsulation of the drug in self-assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles. The objective of this work was to synthesize a conjugate of low molecular weight polylactide (LMW PLA) and V6K2 peptide, and investigate self-assembly, drug release kinetics, cell uptake and toxicity, drug pharmacokinetics, and tumor cell invasion with Doxorubicin (DOX) or paclitaxel (PTX). The results for PLA-V6K2 self-assembled NPs were compared with those of polyethylene glycol stabilized PLA (PLA-EG) NPs. The size of PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs were 100±20 and 130±50 nm, respectively, with polydispersity index of 1.04 and 1.14. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 44±9% and 55±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was >90 for both NP types. The release of DOX and PTX from PLA-V6K2 was slower than that of PLA-EG and the release rate was relatively constant with time. Based on molecular dynamic simulation, the less hydrophobic DOX was distributed in the lactide core as well as the peptide shell while the hydrophobic PTX was localized mainly to the lactide core. PLA-V6K2 NPs had significantly higher cell uptake by 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma cells compared to PLA-EG NPs, which was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the peptide and negatively charged moieties on the cell membrane. PLA-V6K2 NPs showed no toxicity to marrow stromal cells. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs showed higher toxicity to 4T1 cells and the DNA damage response and apoptosis was delayed compared to the free DOX. DOX or PTX encapsulated in PLA-V6K2 NPs significantly reduced invasion of 4T1 cells compared to those cells treated with the drug in PLA-EG NPs. Invasion of 4T1 cells treated with DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 5±1% and 30±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was 11±2% and 40±7%. The AUC of DOX in PLA-V6K2 NPs was 67% and 21% higher than those of free DOX and PLA-EG NPs, respectively. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs injected in C3He

  14. Residential proximity to toxic release sites and the implications for low birth weight and premature delivery.

    PubMed

    Braud, Troylyn; Nouer, Simonne; Lamar, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study discussed in this article was to evaluate the impact of residential proximity to toxic release sites (TRS) and potential implications for low birth weight (LBW) and premature delivery in Shelby County, Tennessee women. The sample (N = 369) included pregnant women who participated in the Blues Project (2007-2009). ArcGIS was used to map the mother's residence at delivery and distance from each of the 10 TRS. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict LBW and prematurity based on proximity to TRS, while adjusting for probable confounders and effect modifiers. Proximity to Site 8 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.018, confidence interval [CI] = 1.103-14.643) and Site 10 (OR = 2.667, CI = 1.036-6.862) put mothers at increased risk for preterm births. The authors' findings suggest that residential proximity to Site 8 or Site 10 may be a risk factor for premature delivery in Shelby County women. PMID:21306089

  15. Effects of toxic chemicals on the release of pyrimidine compounds in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Uziel, M; Butler, A; Owen, B

    1987-07-01

    Exposure of hamster embryo cells and BF lymphoblastoid cells to 18 known toxic substances and four nominally nontoxic substances results in the release of pyrimidines (and their nucleosides) into the culture medium. The extent of release is dependent on the specific chemical and the specific cells present in the assay. BF cells are not affected by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, while the hamster embryo cells exhibit enhanced excretion on exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. This difference in response may be due to the difference in endogenous aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (BaP) activity. In contrast, diethylstilbestrol, which is metabolized by a peroxidase-mediated enzyme system, causes enhanced excretion in both cell types. Direct alkylating agents and Ni(+2) salts also cause enhanced excretion in both cell types. We have used concentrations of chemicals that give a 5% enhanced excretion as the criterion of low-dose response. Within the range of concentrations tested, chromate induces enhanced excretion in BF cells but not the HEC cells, and Pb(+2) induces enhanced excretion in HEC cells but not the BF cells. Benzene, dimethylnitrosamine, and Mg(+2) did not affect either cell type. 7,12-Dimethylbenzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, phenylazoaniline, N-methyl, N-nitroso, N'-nitroguanidine, dioxane, and pyrene cause enhanced excretion in the hamster embryo cells while benzo(e)pyrene, ZnSO4 and cholesterol do not cause enhanced excretion in the hamster embryo cells. Of those chemicals causing enhanced excretion, the concentration range bracketing 5% enhanced excretion approximated low-dose exposures reported to result in toxic responses like cancer, teratogenesis or pulmonary disease. PMID:3662812

  16. Modeling dispersion from toxic gas released after a train collision in Graniteville, SC.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Robert L; Hunter, Charles H; Addis, Robert P; Parker, Matthew J

    2007-03-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Weather Information and Display System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies after the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for 9 fatalities and caused injuries to more than 500 others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing 2 days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Savannah River Site (SRS) Emergency Operations Center, Department of Energy headquarters, and hazard material teams dispatched from the SRS. Operational model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response. High-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration in greater detail. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 m. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher-resolution winds indicated agreement with

  17. 1992 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The following document is the July 1993 submittal of the EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R). Included is a Form R for chlorine and for lead, the two chemicals used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during calendar year 1992.

  18. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  19. Code System for Real-Time Prediction of Radiation Dose to the Public Due to an Accidental Release from a Nuclear Power Plant.

    1987-01-20

    Version 00 The suite of computer codes, SPEEDI, predicts the dose to the public from a plume released from a nuclear power plant. The main codes comprising SPEEDI are: WIND04, PRWDA, and CIDE. WIND04 calculates three-dimensional mass-conservative windfields. PRWDA calculates concentration distributions, and CIDE estimates the external and internal doses. These models can take into account the spatial and temporal variation of wind, variable topography, deposition and variable source intensity for use in real-time assessment.more » We recommend that you also review the emergency response supporting system CCC-661/ EXPRESS documentation.« less

  20. Accidental sexual strangulation.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, M; Frangoulis, M; Koutselinis, A

    1986-03-01

    Accidental death by manual strangulation among homosexuals during the act of sodomy is an uncommon event. In our recent case, the pattern of injuries indicates that strangulation resulted from the forearm application on the neck in a manner better known as "choke holding." PMID:3728426

  1. 76 FR 70361 - Methyl Mercaptan; Toxic Chemicals Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Stay of Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... date note is added to read as follows: Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 43050, Aug. 22, 1994, in Sec. 372... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 Methyl Mercaptan; Toxic Chemicals Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know;...

  2. Markedly reduced toxicity of a hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of naproxen (ATB-346)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John L; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hydrogen sulphide is an important mediator of gastric mucosal defence. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs continues to be limited by their toxicity, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated the gastrointestinal safety and anti-inflammatory efficacy of a novel hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of naproxen, ATB-346 [2-(6-methoxy-napthalen-2-yl)-propionic acid 4-thiocarbamoyl-phenyl ester]. Experimental approach: The ability of ATB-346 versus naproxen to cause gastric damage was evaluated in healthy rats and in rats with compromised gastric mucosal defence. Effects on the small intestine and on the healing of ulcers were also assessed. The ability of ATB-346 to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 and to reduce inflammation in vivo was also evaluated. Key results: ATB-346 suppressed gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis as effectively as naproxen, but produced negligible damage in the stomach and intestine. In situations in which the gastric mucosa was rendered significantly more susceptible to naproxen-induced damage (e.g. ablation of sensory afferent nerves, inhibition of endogenous nitric oxide or hydrogen sulphide synthesis, co-administration with aspirin, antagonism of KIR6.x channels), ATB-346 did not cause significant damage. Unlike naproxen and celecoxib, ATB-346 accelerated healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers. In a mouse airpouch model, ATB-346 suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 activity and inhibited leukocyte infiltration more effectively than naproxen. ATB-346 was as effective as naproxen in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats, with a more rapid onset of activity. Unlike naproxen, ATB-346 did not elevate blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Conclusions and implications: ATB-346 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties similar to naproxen, but with substantially reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:20128814

  3. Cadmium exerts toxic effects on ovarian steroid hormone release in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchang; Pang, Fen; Huang, Yaqing; Yan, Ping; Lin, Wei

    2008-11-10

    This study examined the toxic effects of cadmium on the function of sexual hormone release in the ovaries of rats and the mechanism of this dysregulation. In vivo, adult female rats were randomly assigned to four groups based on weight. Cadmium was given ip 5 days/week for 6 weeks at doses of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0mg/kg. Following euthanasia, the ovaries were removed and placed into culture medium for 3h. The levels of progesterone (P) and estadiol (E) in the culture medium were then measured by radioimmunoassay. In vitro studies were done using the ovaries of adult rats in different stages of estrous (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus). Individual ovaries were collected, placed into culture medium and exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 2mM of CdCl(2) for 3h, at which time the levels of P and E in the ovary culture serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. The in vivo results showed that the levels of P and E in the ovary culture serum (5.3+/-1.4 ng/ml and 1.4+/-0.4 pg/ml, respectively) decreased significantly in the high dose group compared to the control (9.2+/-0.9 ng/ml and 3.9+/-0.7 pg/ml, respectively). In vitro, there were significant differences in P and E in between the different concentrations of cadmium and also between the different stages of the estrous cycle. These data suggest that cadmium can inhibit P and E release in ovaries. This may represent an important mechanism of endocrine disruption. PMID:18708132

  4. Application of LDH-release assay to cellular-level evaluation of the toxic potential of harmful algal species.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanan; Kim, Daekyung; Yagi, Motoaki; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Jun; Iida, Takaji; Matsuyama, Yukihiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-release assay was applied to estimate the toxic potential of harmful algal species at the cellular level. African green monkey kidney (Vero), yellowtail fin epithelia (MJF), and rainbow trout gill (RTgill-W1) cells were used as target cells. A live cell suspension of Karenia mikimotoi (SUO-1) induced the release of LDH from these cell lines, while the activity of another strain, FUK, was much lower. The cell-free culture supernatants and ruptured cell suspensions of both strains of K. mikimotoi were less effective on LDH-release assay. Exposure experiments against abalone and shrimp revealed that SUO-1 showed much stronger lethal effects on these organisms than FUK. Among six phytoplankton species, three species known to be harmful algal species induced the release of LDH to different extents depending on the cell line, whereas the other three species, known to be non-toxic, showed no effects on any cell lines. These results suggest that LDH-release assay is a useful micro-plate assay for estimation of the toxic potential of harmful phytoplankton. PMID:23391929

  5. A toxic fraction from scolopendra venom increases the basal release of neurotransmitters in the ventral ganglia of crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María del Carmen; Abarca, Carolina; Possani, Lourival D

    2003-06-01

    A toxic fraction from centipede (Scolopendra sp.) venom was tested in neurotransmitter release experiments. The venom was fractionated by DEAE-cellulose with a linear gradient from 20 mM to 1.0 M of ammonium acetate pH 4.7. Lethality tests were performed by injections into the third abdominal dorsolateral segment of sweet water crayfishes of the species Cambarellus cambarellus. Only fraction V (TF) was toxic. Analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that this fraction contains at least seven proteins. It induces an increase of basal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release from ventral abdominal ganglia of C. cambarellus. Assays conducted with this fraction in the presence of several drugs that affect ion channel function suggested that TF modifies membrane permeability by increasing basal release of neurotransmitters was very likely through sodium channels. PMID:12860060

  6. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    PubMed

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. PMID:22840636

  7. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H; Madrid, Rodolfo; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PC(Na)), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Na(v)) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1(G93A). These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1(G93A) on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  8. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R.; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H.; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1G93A) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PCNa), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1G93A. These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1G93A on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  9. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  10. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  11. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, section 313 toxic chemical release inventory reporting forms for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Forms and the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Certification Statement Form A(s) for chlorine for 1996 for the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The reporting forms contain information on the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems Y-12 Plant and Johnson Controls Water Treatment Plant operational releases for specific toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land in addition to transfers to off-site disposal locations in CY 1996. Personnel from U.S. West reported no usage of the specified toxic chemicals in CY 1996; therefore, no Form R or Form A reporting data are included for U.S. West.

  12. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  13. Toxic oxygen metabolites and ischemia-reperfusion increase histamine synthesis and release in the isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Valen, G; Kaszaki, J; Szabó, I; Nagy, S; Vaage, J

    1993-01-01

    Histamine is synthetized in the heart, and released by ischemia-reperfusion injury in several species. Histamine has arrhythmogenic, chronotropic, inotropic and vasoactive effects. Cardiac histamine release during ischemia-reperfusion may be mediated by toxic oxygen metabolites. We studied the effect of ischemia-reperfusion and toxic oxygen metabolites on release and synthesis of histamine in the isolated rat heart (Langendorff model). The following groups were included: I, (n = 10) control perfusion for 60 min; II, (n = 7) H2O2 (200 microM) was given for 10 min followed by 50 min recovery; III, (n = 7) thiourea (15 mM) was given in addition to H2O2; IV, (n = 7) thiourea given alone; V, (n = 7) catalase (150 U/ml) plus H2O2; VI, (n = 7) 20 min ischemia followed by 40 min reperfusion. The contents of histamine in the coronary effluent and in cardiac tissue were measured repeatedly (radioenzymatic method). Ischemia-reperfusion and toxic oxygen metabolites increased release of histamine in the coronary effluent. Concomitantly the histamine contents in cardiac tissue increased, indicating increased synthesis of histamine. PMID:8441180

  14. A toxic substance from the sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus induces histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Takei, M; Nakagawa, H; Kimura, A; Endo, K

    1991-03-01

    A toxic substance (P-II fraction), fractionated from the pedicellariae of the sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus, dose-dependently caused the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. The histamine release induced by P-II fraction increased with time, while compound 48/80 caused a more rapid histamine release. The dose-response curve for P-II fraction was studied with concentration 0.03-2.0 mg/ml. This reaction was dependent on Ca2+ and temperature. When glucose (5.5 mM) was omitted during the incubation step, the histamine release induced by P-II fraction was significantly reduced as compared to that of compound 48/80. Pyruvate reversed this reduction. On the other hand, the histamine release induced by P-II fraction was effectively potentiated by the addition of glucose (11.0 mM), but not that by compound 48/80. These results suggest that P-II fraction-induced histamine release differs from that of compound 48/80 disregards to the effects of glucose, because this histamine release appears to be more sensitive to the glycolytic pathway than compound 48/80-induced histamine release. PMID:1713736

  15. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  16. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), South Dakota, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), North Carolina 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Tennessee, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Montana, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), American Samoa, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Nevada, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Louisiana, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Alabama, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), United States and Territories, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year.Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility; the first nine digit alphanumeric number a facility holds under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Virgin Islands, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Idaho, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Texas, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Colorado, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Alaska, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), South Carolina, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Oregon, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Arkansas, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Rhode Island, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Hampshire, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Kansas, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New York, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New York, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), West Virginia, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Pennsylvania, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), South Carolina, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Virginia, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Nebraska, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Arizona, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Mexico, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Oklahoma, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Puerto Rico, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Vermont, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Connecticut, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Missouri, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Virgin Islands, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Kentucky, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), North Carolina, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), California, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Iowa, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Wisconsin, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), American Samoa, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Ohio, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Florida, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Minnesota, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Michigan, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Puerto Rico, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Illinois, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Jersey, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Georgia, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  6. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), North Dakota, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Hawaii, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Washington, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Delaware, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), West Virginia, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), vVrginia, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Hampshire, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Jersey, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Wyoming, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Utah, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Rhode Island, 1991 and 1992 (in dbase iii plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Indiana, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), North Dakota, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), South Dakota, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Maine, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Massachusetts, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  2. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Mississippi, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  3. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Maryland, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), New Mexico, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  5. Toxic chemical release inventory risk screening guide (Version 1. 0). Volume 1. The process. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauder, D.; Saunders, L.

    1989-07-01

    The guide describes some of the challenges raised by the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data and to suggest ways of approaching them. The guide suggests steps that can be taken to answer two key issues of concern: setting risk-based priorities for followup investigation of the TRI facilities and chemicals within geographic area of interest, and identifying data needs and approaches for collecting information necessary to respond to health and ecological questions from the public. The guide is directed at those individuals who are involved in interpreting and explaining environmental pollution, exposures, and health risks to the general public, especially at the local or sub-State level. Many users of the guide will already be well versed in evaluating risk and/or in helping members of the public understand and deal with toxic chemicals, but Title 111 - particularly, the Section 313 release data - presents new challenges for everyone.

  6. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  7. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  8. The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.

    PubMed

    Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

    2009-11-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making. PMID:19732394

  9. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  12. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human peritoneal macrophages in response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed

    Buyalos, R P; Rutanen, E M; Tsui, E; Halme, J

    1991-08-01

    We examined the release in vitro of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes following incubation with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We obtained peritoneal macrophages from 22 women at laparoscopy and peripheral blood monocytes from four healthy women during both the midfollicular and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 C with 10(-2)-10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 or 10(4) ng/mL of bacterial endotoxin. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity was determined with a bioassay using an actinomycin D-sensitized WEHI-164 murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Twenty-four-hour incubation with TSST-1 resulted in a dose-dependent release of TNF-alpha by both peritoneal macrophages (maximal response 554 +/- 97 U of activity) and peripheral blood monocytes (maximal response 478 +/- 81 U of activity). We observed enhanced TNF-alpha release by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis, compared with those without endometriosis, at a concentration of 10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 (704 +/- 134 versus 354 +/- 103 U of activity; P less than .05). These data support the theory that the metabolic and physiologic derangements of perimenstrual toxic shock syndrome may be partially mediated by TNF-alpha released by peritoneal macrophages as a result of exposure to TSST-1. PMID:2067760

  13. A toxic extract of the marine phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum induces calcium-dependent release of glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Nelson, George Nicholas; Fonnum, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Blooms of the marine phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum produced mass mortality of fish in Norway and many other parts of the world. The effects of a purified algae extract of P. parvum on transmitter release from rat brain synaptosomes were studied to characterize its toxic action. Synaptosomes are detached nerve terminals and represent a simple system that has retained the machinery for uptake, synthesis, storage, and release of neurotransmitters. A crude methanol extract of P. parvum was purified by reverse-phase column for fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The purified extract stimulated Ca2+-dependent spontaneous release of glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. The release was increased by addition of extracellular Ca2+. The release of glutamate was suppressed by the Ca2+-channel blockers flunarizine (10 microM), diltiazem (10 microM), and verapamil (10 microM). The stimulation of release of glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes induced by the toxin may be due to an ionophorelike property of the algae extract such as previously reported for the potent algal toxin maitotoxin. At high concentrations the toxin primarily acts as a powerful lytic agent. PMID:15739805

  14. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  15. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  16. Determination of kinetic law for toxic metals release during thermal treatment of model waste in a fluid-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Abanades, S; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G; Zheng, Chuguang; Lu, Jidong

    2005-12-01

    Accumulation of toxic metals generated by thermal treatment of municipal solid waste presents a serious threat to the environment. A study was carried out to investigate the kinetic law of toxic metal release from municipal solid waste during their thermal treatment. Both direct and inverse models were developed in transient conditions. The direct mathematical model of the fluid-bed reactor is based on Kunii and Levenspiel's two-phase flow model for Geldart Group B particles. The inverse model intends to predict the metal's rate of vaporization from its concentration in the outlet gas. The derived models were found to predict reasonably well the experimental observations. A method to derive the kinetic law of toxic metals release during fluidized bed thermal treatment of model waste from the global model and the experimental measurements is derived and illustrated. A first-order law was fitted for the mineral matrix, and a second-order law (simplified) was fitted for the realistic model waste. The kinetic law obtained in this way could be integrated in a global model of combustion of municipal solid waste in order to simulate the effects of operating parameters on the metal's behavior. PMID:16382960

  17. TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI) OF FACILITIES IN 1987 TO 1993 BY STATESAND TERRITORIES INCLUDING AMERICAN SAMOA, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRI contains data on annual estimated releases of over 300 toxic chemicals to air, water, and land by the manufacturing industry. Industrial facilities provide the information, which includes: the location of the facility where chemicals are manufactured, processed, or otherwise...

  18. ICP-MS determination of toxic-metal release from pumping systems for food processing.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Franco; Barbangelo, Francesco; Toniolo, Rosanna; Di Narda, Francesca; Susmel, Sabina; Bontempelli, Gino

    2002-03-01

    The release of heavy metals from uncovered and nickel-covered brass pumps has been evaluated by ICP-MS analysis in both simple ultrapure water and 3% acetic acid solution (mimic of neutral and acid edible liquids, respectively), following a procedure similar to that recommended by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International, Test Procedure P203. The results found highlight that the main release regards zinc, copper and lead, i.e. the three major metals present in brass alloys. The first contact of brass surfaces with the extraction solvent leads to an extensive Pb release which is comparable with that observed for Cu and Zn. Subsequent washings reduce markedly the Pb release, thus rising in evidence a progressive surface passivation. In particular, the Pb release found after four repeated washings turns out to approach the limit set by both Italian and USA governments for liquids used for food purposes when determined in neutral media, while it remains quite higher when evaluated in acid media. Release analyses conducted on nickel-covered brass pumps point out that the Niploy nickel coating process is very effective for brass surface protection, in that the Pb release is reduced of about three orders of magnitude, but a Ni release exceeding the relevant permitted level is in this case observed. PMID:12025513

  19. Feasibility of using GEMS (Graphical Exposure Modeling System) to perform risk assessments using SARA (Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986), toxic release inventory information. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckels, J.H.

    1989-04-13

    Under Title III, Section 313 of the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) companies which release toxic chemicals into the environment are required to report annually the amount of these toxic releases. Because the chemical toxic-release reports are public information, EPA Region V is concerned that the raw data published in the toxic-chemical-release reports will be misinterpreted and will in turn generate unfounded public concern. The study examines the possibility of using the Graphical Exposure Modeling System (GEMS), a computer program, to transform incoming raw data into better qualified, user ready, public information. Specifically, the report analyzes the compatibility between the raw data reported in the toxic chemical release reports and the input requirements of the GEMS exposure model. An industrial site in East St. Louis, Illinois is used as a test site for the development of the exposure assessment. The study discusses the research and the methods used to perform the exposure assessment. The report also reviews the legislation which requires companies to report toxic-release data, the basics of exposure assessment and the GEMS model, the research methods used, and the findings of the study.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), United States and Territories, 1987 (DBASE III) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Zaiss, F.; Nowak, G.

    1987-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of routine toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. Individual documents for each state or territory are available in the set.

  1. Toxic Release Inventory TRI, 1988: Reporting facilities names and addresses. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The database contains only the name, location and type of business of facilities that have been reported for 1988.

  2. Public report for options to make the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data base accessible to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-04

    This paper presents appropriate options for implementation of a publicly accessible Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data base, analyzes and evaluates the costs and benefits of those options, and recommends one or more of the best alternatives for making the TRI data base available to the public. The analysis addresses only the data-base options. It does not address other means of public access to TRI data, e.g., printed versions of the data or Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, other than to note the potential effect of other means on usage of the data base.

  3. Coal mining facilities: Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Toxic chemical release inventory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended to assist establishments and facilities designated by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 12 (except 1241) in making compliance determinations under the EPCRA Section 313 reporting requirements and preparing Form R(s) or the Form A certification statement(s) as required. The EPCRA Section 313 program is commonly referred to as the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) program. This document is organized to provide a step-by-step guide to compliance with EPCRA Section 313, starting with how you determine if your facility must report through completion of the Form R or Form A.

  4. Chemical distribution facilities: Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Toxic chemical release inventory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended to assist establishments and facilities designated by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 5169 (chemical and allied products wholesale) in making compliance determinations under the EPCRA Section 313 reporting requirements and preparing Form R(s) or the Form A certification statement(s) as required. The EPCRA Section 313 program is commonly referred to as the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) program. This document is organized to provide a step-by-step guide to compliance with EPCRA Section 313, starting with how you determine if your facility must report through completion of the Form R or Form A.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-13 - Certification of Toxic Chemical Release Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacture, process, or otherwise use any toxic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 372.65; □ (ii) The facility does... under section 313(f) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(f) (including the alternate thresholds at 40 CFR 372.27... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text...

  7. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  8. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  9. 1993 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency. The following document is the July 1994 submittal of the Hanford site EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) Report. Included is a Form R for chlorine, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1993. Only those facilities that fall within the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code range of 20 through 39 are subject to mandatory reporting under EPCRA, Section 313. However, on August 3, 1993, Executive Order 12856 was signed, requiring all federal agencies and facilities to comply with pollution prevention and emergency planning and community right-to-know provisions established by Section 313 of EPCRA and Section 6607 of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, without restriction to the specified SIC Codes. The report format requires identification of the facility SIC Code in the TRI Report. Application of definitions and requirements provided in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations Part 372.22 has led to the adoption of SIC Code 9999, Nonclassifiable Establishments, as the primary Hanford Site SIC Code for EPCRA regulatory assessments. The SIC Code 9999 determination is based on a broad analysis of the current mission of the Hanford Site which includes environmental and waste management, demonstration and application of advanced remediation technologies, and environmental restoration.

  10. Choroid plexus macrophages proliferate and release toxic factors in response to feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Bragg, D C; Hudson, L C; Liang, Y H; Tompkins, M B; Fernandes, A; Meeker, R B

    2002-06-01

    Recent observations have suggested that lentiviruses stimulate the proliferation and activation of microglia. A similar effect within the dense macrophage population of the choroid plexus could have significant implications for trafficking of virus and inflammatory cells into the brain. To explore this possibility, we cultured fetal feline macrophages and examined their response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or the T-cell-derived protein, recombinant human CD40-ligand trimer (rhuCD40-L). The rhCD40-L was the most potent stimulus for macrophage proliferation, often inducing a dramatic increase in macrophage density. Exposure to FIV resulted in a small increase in the number of macrophages and macrophage nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine. The increase in macrophage density after FIV infection also correlated with an increase in neurotoxic activity of the macrophage-conditioned medium. Starting at 16-18 weeks postinfection, well after the peak of viremia, a similar toxic activity was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from FIV-infected cats. Toxicity in the CSF increased over time and was paralleled by strong CD18 staining of macrophages/microglia in the choroid plexus and adjacent parenchyma. These results suggest that lentiviral infection of the choroid plexus can induce a toxic inflammatory response that is fueled by local macrophage proliferation. Together with the observation of increasing toxic activity in the CSF and increased CD18 staining in vivo, these observations suggest that choroid plexus macrophages may contribute to an inflammatory cascade in the brain that progresses independently of systemic and CSF viral load. PMID:12053277

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) 1987-1989, (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emission from certain facilities. The following information is required: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  12. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1987-1990 (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a national inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The following information is required: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  13. Toxic release inventory (TRI), 1987 (for CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G.D.; Merrick, E.

    1987-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a National Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The following information is required: the name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium - air, land, and water - annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; optional information on waste minimization; and a certification by a senior facility official that the report is complete and accurate. The law mandates that the data be made publicly available through a computer database.

  14. Huntingtin proteolysis releases non-polyQ fragments that cause toxicity through dynamin 1 dysregulation.

    PubMed

    El-Daher, Marie-Thérèse; Hangen, Emilie; Bruyère, Julie; Poizat, Ghislaine; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Pardo, Raul; Bourg, Nicolas; Souquere, Sylvie; Mayet, Céline; Pierron, Gérard; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Botas, Juan; Humbert, Sandrine; Saudou, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Cleavage of mutant huntingtin (HTT) is an essential process in Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Cleavage generates N-ter fragments that contain the polyQ stretch and whose nuclear toxicity is well established. However, the functional defects induced by cleavage of full-length HTT remain elusive. Moreover, the contribution of non-polyQ C-terminal fragments is unknown. Using time- and site-specific control of full-length HTT proteolysis, we show that specific cleavages are required to disrupt intramolecular interactions within HTT and to cause toxicity in cells and flies. Surprisingly, in addition to the canonical pathogenic N-ter fragments, the C-ter fragments generated, that do not contain the polyQ stretch, induced toxicity via dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and increased ER stress. C-ter HTT bound to dynamin 1 and subsequently impaired its activity at ER membranes. Our findings support a role for HTT on dynamin 1 function and ER homoeostasis. Proteolysis-induced alteration of this function may be relevant to disease. PMID:26165689

  15. Evaluation of effect of galvanic corrosion between nickel-chromium metal and titanium on ion release and cell toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell toxicity due to ion release caused by galvanic corrosion as a result of contact between base metal and titanium. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was hypothesized that Nickel (Ni)-Chromium (Cr) alloys with different compositions possess different corrosion resistances when contacted with titanium abutment, and therefore in this study, specimens (10×10×1.5 mm) were fabricated using commercial pure titanium and 3 different types of Ni-Cr alloys (T3, Tilite, Bella bond plus) commonly used for metal ceramic restorations. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to the composition of Ni-Cr alloy and contact with titanium. The experimental groups were in direct contact with titanium and the control groups were not. After the samples were immersed in the culture medium - Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium[DMEM] for 48 hours, the released metal ions were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test (P<.05). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cells were used for cell toxicity evaluation. The cell toxicity of specimens was measured by the 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results of MTT assay were statistically analyzed by the two-way ANOVA test (P<.05). Post-hoc multiple comparisons were conducted using Tukey's tests. RESULTS The amount of metal ions released by galvanic corrosion due to contact between the base metal alloy and titanium was increased in all of the specimens. In the cytotoxicity test, the two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of the alloy type and galvanic corrosion for cytotoxicity (P<.001). The relative cell growth rate (RGR) was decreased further on the groups in contact with titanium (P<.05). CONCLUSION The release of metal ions was increased by galvanic corrosion due to contact between base metal and titanium, and it can cause adverse effects on the tissue around the implant by inducing

  16. Release behaviour and toxicity evaluation of levodopa from carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Julia M; Foo, Jhi Biau; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work explores the potential use of commercially obtained, carboxylated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT–COOH) as nanocarriers for the antiparkinson drug, levodopa (LD). The resulting nanohybrid was characterized using materials characterization methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that SWCNT–COOH were able to form supramolecular complexes with LD via a π–π stacking interaction and exhibited favourable, slow, sustained-release characteristics as a drug carrier with a release period over more than 20 h. The results obtained from the drug release studies of LD at different pH values showed that the LD-loaded nanohybrid is pH activated. The release kinetics of LD from SWCNT–COOH were well-described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. A cytotoxicity assay of the synthesized nanohybrid was also carried out in PC12 cell lines (a widely used, in vitro Parkinson’s model for neurotoxicity studies) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in order to investigate their possible effects on normal neuronal cells in vitro. It was found that the synthesized nanohybrid did not compromise the cell viability and the PC12 cells remained stable throughout the experiments up to 72 h after treatment. PMID:25671168

  17. Sediment pore-water toxicity test results and preliminary toxicity identification of post-landfall pore-water samples collected following the Deepwater Horizon oil release, Gulf of Mexico, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.; Carr, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Pore water from coastal beach and marsh sediments from the northern Gulf of Mexico, pre- and post-landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil release, were collected and evaluated for toxicity with the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. There were 17 pre-landfall samples and 49 post-landfall samples tested using both assays. Toxicity was determined in four pre-landfall sites and in seven post-landfall sites in one or both assays as compared to a known reference sediment pore-water sample collected in Aransas Bay, Texas. Further analysis and testing of five of the post-landfall toxic samples utilizing Toxicity Identification Evaluation techniques indicated that ammonia, and to a lesser extent metals, contributed to most, if not all, of the observed toxicity in four of the five samples. Results of one sample (MS-39) indicated evidence that ammonia, metals, and non-ionic organics were contributing to the observed toxicity.

  18. T cell activation and cytokine release in streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadal, D; Lauener, R P; Braegger, C P; Kaufhold, A; Simma, B; Lütticken, R; Seger, R A

    1993-05-01

    A 5-year-old girl with streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome during varicella infection had high levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 but no interleukin-1 or interleukin-2 in the serum. Intravenous administration of gamma-globulin coincided with clinical improvement and with reduction of the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. The data suggest that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins trigger synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in vivo; intravenously administered gamma-globulin may down-regulate the cytokine response. PMID:8496751

  19. Sub-100 nm biodegradable nanoparticles: in vitro release features and toxicity testing in 2D and 3D cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Marco; Guarnieri, Daniela; Yu, Hui; Belli, Valentina; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A big challenge in tumor targeting by nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is the fabrication of small size devices for enhanced tumor penetration, which is considered fundamental to improve chemotherapy efficacy. The purposes of this study are (i) to engineer the formulation of doxorubicin-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) NPs to obtain <100 nm devices and (ii) to translate standard 2D cytotoxicity studies to 3D collagen systems in which an initial step gradient of the NPs is present. Doxorubicin release can be prolonged for days to weeks depending on the NP formulation and the pH of the release medium. Sub-100 nm NPs are effectively internalized by HeLa cells in 2D and are less cytotoxic than free doxorubicin. In 3D, <100 nm NPs are significantly more toxic than larger ones towards HeLa cells, and the cell death rate is affected by the contributions of drug release and device transport through collagen. Thus, the reduction of NP size is a fundamental feature from both a technological and a biological point of view and must be properly engineered to optimize the tumor response to the NPs.

  20. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa. PMID:18568668

  1. Influence of inorganic anions on metals release from oil sands coke and on toxicity of nickel and vanadium to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study it was shown that pH significantly influences the release of metals from oil sands coke, particularly Ni and V which were identified as the cause of coke leachate toxicity. Coke comes in contact with oil sands process water (OSPW) during its transport to and long term storage in reclamation landscapes. However, the influence of dominant inorganic anions present in OSPW (i.e. HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)) on metals release from coke and on speciation and toxicity of Ni and V, has not been characterized before. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at four levels of HCO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) to determine the influence on metals release and speciation. Further, the effects of each of the three anions on Ni and V toxicity, as well as the mixture toxicity of Ni and V, were assessed using the three-brood Ceriodaphnia dubia test. Inorganic anions had a significant influence on the type and amount of metals released from coke. Specifically, sulfate increased the mobilization of cationic metals (e.g. Ni, Fe, Mn and Zn), whereas bicarbonate enhanced the release of oxyanion forming metals (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V) from coke. Chloride had no particular effect on the type and amount of metals released. With respect to toxicity, elevated bicarbonate levels decreased the 7-d Ni IC50 from 6.3 to 2.3 μg L(-1), whereas sulfate showed an ameliorative effect against V toxicity to C. dubia. In combination, Ni and V acted additively at their highest sub-lethal concentrations. Aqueous chemistry and toxicity of Ni and V are discussed with the goal of informing reclamation efforts at the Athabasca oil sands. PMID:22138340

  2. Reduce toxic hazards using passive mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Flamberg, S.A.; Torti, K.S.; Myers, P.M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary goal of the Risk Management Program Rule promulgated under Section 112(r) of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments is to prevent the accidental release of those chemicals that pose the greatest threat to the public and the environment, and to encourage emergency preparedness to mitigate the severity of such releases. The Rule requires facility owners to identify, evaluate, and communicate to the public any potential worst-case scenarios that could involve accidental releases of toxic and flammable substances. A worst-case scenario is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, DC) as: {hor_ellipsis}the release of the largest quantity of a regulated substance from a vessel or process line failure that results in the greatest distance to an endpoint. When designing systems to store or process hazardous materials, passive-mitigation methods--those that function without human, mechanical, or energy input--should be considered. Such systems contain or limit a potential release of hazardous materials. And, because they have no mechanical requirements, passive-mitigation techniques are considered more reliable than active methods, such as emergency-shutdown and water-spray systems. Passive mitigation should also be considered when defining potential release scenarios and modeling hazard zones.

  3. Assessment of the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory Facilities in Metropolitan Charleston: An Environmental Justice Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Rahim, Herb; Williams, Edith; Zhang, Hongmei; Rice, LaShanta; Svendsen, Erik; Abara, Winston

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed spatial disparities in the distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities in Charleston, SC. Methods. We used spatial methods and regression to assess burden disparities in the study area at the block and census-tract levels by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Results revealed an inverse relationship between distance to TRI facilities and race/ethnicity and SES at the block and census-tract levels. Results of regression analyses showed a positive association between presence of TRI facilities and high percentage non-White and a negative association between number of TRI facilities and high SES. Conclusions. There are burden disparities in the distribution of TRI facilities in Charleston at the block and census-tract level by race/ethnicity and SES. Additional research is needed to understand cumulative risk in the region. PMID:22897529

  4. Astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutated SOD1 release factors selectively toxic to motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Makiko; Re, Diane B; Nagata, Tetsuya; Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Jessell, Thomas M; Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

    2007-05-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause a form of the fatal paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), presumably by a combination of cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous processes. Here, we show that expression of mutated human SOD1 in primary mouse spinal motor neurons does not provoke motor neuron degeneration. Conversely, rodent astrocytes expressing mutated SOD1 kill spinal primary and embryonic mouse stem cell-derived motor neurons. This is triggered by soluble toxic factor(s) through a Bax-dependent mechanism. However, mutant astrocytes do not cause the death of spinal GABAergic or dorsal root ganglion neurons or of embryonic stem cell-derived interneurons. In contrast to astrocytes, fibroblasts, microglia, cortical neurons and myocytes expressing mutated SOD1 do not cause overt neurotoxicity. These findings indicate that astrocytes may play a role in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS. Identification of the astrocyte-derived soluble factor(s) may have far-reaching implications for ALS from both a pathogenic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:17435755

  5. Astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutated SOD1 release factors selectively toxic to motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Makiko; Re, Diane B; Nagata, Tetsuya; Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Jessell, Thomas M; Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause a form of the fatal paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), presumably by a combination of cell-autonomous and non–cell-autonomous processes. Here, we show that expression of mutated human SOD1 in primary mouse spinal motor neurons does not provoke motor neuron degeneration. Conversely, rodent astrocytes expressing mutated SOD1 kill spinal primary and embryonic mouse stem cell–derived motor neurons. This is triggered by soluble toxic factor(s) through a Bax-dependent mechanism. However, mutant astrocytes do not cause the death of spinal GABAergic or dorsal root ganglion neurons or of embryonic stem cell–derived interneurons. In contrast to astrocytes, fibroblasts, microglia, cortical neurons and myocytes expressing mutated SOD1 do not cause overt neurotoxicity. These findings indicate that astrocytes may play a role in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS. Identification of the astrocyte-derived soluble factor(s) may have far-reaching implications for ALS from both a pathogenic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:17435755

  6. Waterpipe smoking: the role of humectants in the release of toxic carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jens; Heinke, Volkmar; Bewersdorff, Jana; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the number of waterpipe smokers has increased substantially worldwide. Here, we present a study on the identification and quantification of seven carbonylic compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein in the mainstream smoke of the waterpipe. Smoking was conducted with a smoking machine, and carbonyls were scavenged from the smoke with two impingers containing an acidic solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The derivatives were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For instance, during one waterpipe smoking session, up to 111 ± 12 μg formaldehyde could be detected. This value is about 5 times higher when compared to one 2R4F reference cigarette. We also found a distinct filter effect of the bowl water for all carbonyls investigated. Our data further demonstrate that increasing amounts of humectants in the unburned tobacco lowers the temperature in the waterpipe head during smoking, thereby resulting in decreasing levels of carbonyls in the smoke produced. Altogether, considerable amounts of toxic carbonyls are present in the waterpipe smoke, thus conferring a health risk to waterpipe smokers. PMID:22707202

  7. Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Stec, A A; Readman, J; Blomqvist, P; Gylestam, D; Karlsson, D; Wojtalewicz, D; Dlugogorski, B Z

    2013-01-01

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires. This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported. Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires. PMID:22960058

  8. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  10. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident. PMID:25687345

  11. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  12. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  13. Minimizing the release of proinflammatory and toxic bacterial products within the host: a promising approach to improve outcome in life-threatening infections.

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Eiffert, Helmut

    2005-04-01

    Various bacterial components (e.g., endotoxin, teichoic and lipoteichoic acids, peptidoglycans, DNA) induce or enhance inflammation by stimulating the innate immune system and/or are directly toxic in eukariotic cells (e.g., hemolysins). When antibiotics which inhibit bacterial protein synthesis kill bacteria, smaller quantities of proinflammatory or toxic compounds are released in vitro and in vivo than during killing of bacteria by beta-lactams and other cell-wall active drugs. In general, high antibiotic concentrations liberate lower quantities of bacterial proinflammatory or toxic compounds than concentrations close to the minimum inhibitory concentration. In animal models of Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis/sepsis and of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, a lower release of proinflammatory bacterial compounds was associated with a reduced mortality or neuronal injury. Pre-treatment with a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor reduced the strong release of bacterial products usually observed during treatment with a beta-lactam antibiotic. Data available strongly encourage clinical trials comparing antibiotic regimens with different release of proinflammatory/toxic bacterial products. The benefit of the approach to reduce the liberation of bacterial products should be greatest in patients with a high bacterial load. PMID:15780573

  14. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  15. 1997 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Heather McBride

    1997-07-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCIL4), Title III, Section 313 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires all federal facilities to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators of manufacturing, processing, or production facilities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), nitric acid was the only toxic chemical used in 1997 that met the reportable threshold limit of 10,000 lb. Form R is the only documentation required by the Environmental Protection Agency, and it is included in the appendix of this report. This report, as requested by DOE, is provided for documentation purposes. In addition, a detailed description of the evaluation and reporting process for chemicals and processes at LANL has been included.

  16. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  17. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  18. Receptors for C3b and C3bi promote phagocytosis but not the release of toxic oxygen from human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the release of H2O2 from granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages during spreading on ligand-coated culture surfaces. While IgG-coated surfaces stimulate vigorous release of H2O2, neither C3b- nor C3bi-coated surfaces promoted appreciable release of H2O2 despite full ligation of C3b and C3bi receptors. We also measured release of H2O2 from cultured monocytes spreading on surfaces coated with both fibronectin and C3. Under such circumstances, the C3 receptors elicit a strong phagocytic response, but no H2O2 release was recorded. We conclude that the C3b and C3bi receptors of monocytes and granulocytes do not signal the generation of toxic oxygen intermediates from these cells. PMID:6227677

  19. Receptors for C3b and C3bi promote phagocytosis but not the release of toxic oxygen from human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wright, S D; Silverstein, S C

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the release of H2O2 from granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages during spreading on ligand-coated culture surfaces. While IgG-coated surfaces stimulate vigorous release of H2O2, neither C3b- nor C3bi-coated surfaces promoted appreciable release of H2O2 despite full ligation of C3b and C3bi receptors. We also measured release of H2O2 from cultured monocytes spreading on surfaces coated with both fibronectin and C3. Under such circumstances, the C3 receptors elicit a strong phagocytic response, but no H2O2 release was recorded. We conclude that the C3b and C3bi receptors of monocytes and granulocytes do not signal the generation of toxic oxygen intermediates from these cells. PMID:6227677

  20. Glucose deprivation stimulates Cu(2+) toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons and Cu(2+)-dependent zinc release.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Aleksandrova, Olga P; Zelenova, Elena A; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2016-05-27

    Copper chloride (0.01mM, 2h) did not have significant influence on the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) incubated in balanced salt solution. However, CuCl2 caused severe neuronal damage by glucose deprivation (GD). The glutamate NMDA-receptors blocker MK-801 partially and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or Zn(2+) chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) almost entirely protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Measurements of intracellular calcium ions using Fluo-4 AM, or zinc ions with FluoZin-3 AM demonstrated that 1 h-exposure to GD induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence in neurons. The supplementation of solution with CuCl2 caused an increase of FluoZin-3, Fluo-4 and CellROX Green (reactive oxygen species probe) fluorescence by GD. The stimulation of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence by copper could be prevented partially by MK-801 and as well as CellROX Green fluorescence by NAC at GD. This data imply that during GD copper ions induce intense displacement zinc ions from intracellular stores, in addition free radical production, glutamate release and Ca(2+) overload of CGNs, that causes death of neurons as a result. PMID:27063646

  1. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Ma, W C; Chen, L M

    2009-09-15

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10(-4), 10(-5)-10(-4) and 10(-6)-10(-5) per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10(-6) per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment. PMID:19345011

  2. Survival following accidental scarf strangulation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ullasa; Deepak, M; Hussain, Syed Ather; Usmani, Hadi; Osama, Muhammad; Pereira, Kiran Godwin; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2016-09-01

    Injury or death by strangulation, unless otherwise explained, is almost always homicidal. Accidental strangulation may occur but only very rarely. We present such a case of accidental strangulation and survival in a motorbike pillion rider. A long scarf (dupatta) clad woman, sitting at the back of a two wheeler motorbike, fell after her long scarf got caught in the back wheel. The lady was first taken to a local clinic and then later was referred to a hospital for a suspected spine injury where she made an uneventful recovery. This case report exposes the precarious position of women pillion riders wearing a long scarf and emphasizes the need for extra caution and the need for wheel guards on spoked wheels in particular. PMID:27048761

  3. The big chill: accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Allan

    2012-01-01

    A potential cause of such emergent issues as cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and fluid and electrolyte shifts, accidental hypothermia can be deadly, is common among trauma patients, and is often difficult to recognize. The author discusses predisposing conditions, the classic presentation, and the effects on normal thermoregulatory processes; explains how to conduct a systems assessment of the hypothermic patient; and describes crucial management strategies. PMID:22186703

  4. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    SciTech Connect

    Marjorie B. Stockton

    1999-11-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

  5. NC-6301, a polymeric micelle rationally optimized for effective release of docetaxel, is potent but is less toxic than native docetaxel in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mitsunori; Iwata, Caname; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenta; Hayashi, Tatsuyuki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Miyazono, Kohei; Kato, Yasuki; Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2012-01-01

    Drug release rate is an important factor in determining efficacy and toxicity of nanoscale drug delivery systems. However, optimization of the release rate in polymeric micellar nanoscale drug delivery systems has not been fully investigated. In this study NC-6301, a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymer with docetaxel (DTX) covalently bound via ester link, was synthesized with various numbers of DTX molecules bound to the polymer backbone. The number of DTX molecules was determined up to 14 to achieve an optimal release rate, based upon the authors' own pharmacokinetic model using known patient data. Efficacy and toxicity of the formulation was then tested in animals. When administered three times at 4-day intervals, the maximum tolerated doses of NC-6301 and native DTX were 50 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, in nude mice. Tissue distribution studies of NC-6301 in mice at 50 mg/kg revealed prolonged release of free DTX in the tumor for at least 120 hours, thus supporting its effectiveness. Furthermore, in cynomolgus monkeys, NC-6301 at 6 mg/kg three times at 2-week intervals showed marginal toxicity, whereas native DTX, at 3 mg/kg with the same schedule, induced significant decrease of food consumption and neutrophil count. NC-6301 at 50 mg/kg in mice also regressed a xenografted tumor of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer. Native DTX, on the other hand, produced only transient and slight regression of the same tumor xenograft. NC-6301 also significantly inhibited growth of OCUM-2MLN human scirrhous gastric carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model. Total weight of metastatic lymph nodes was also reduced. In conclusion, NC-6301 with an optimized release rate improved the potency of DTX while reducing its toxicity. PMID:22745540

  6. NC-6301, a polymeric micelle rationally optimized for effective release of docetaxel, is potent but is less toxic than native docetaxel in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Mitsunori; Iwata, Caname; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenta; Hayashi, Tatsuyuki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Miyazono, Kohei; Kato, Yasuki; Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2012-01-01

    Drug release rate is an important factor in determining efficacy and toxicity of nanoscale drug delivery systems. However, optimization of the release rate in polymeric micellar nanoscale drug delivery systems has not been fully investigated. In this study NC-6301, a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymer with docetaxel (DTX) covalently bound via ester link, was synthesized with various numbers of DTX molecules bound to the polymer backbone. The number of DTX molecules was determined up to 14 to achieve an optimal release rate, based upon the authors’ own pharmacokinetic model using known patient data. Efficacy and toxicity of the formulation was then tested in animals. When administered three times at 4-day intervals, the maximum tolerated doses of NC-6301 and native DTX were 50 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, in nude mice. Tissue distribution studies of NC-6301 in mice at 50 mg/kg revealed prolonged release of free DTX in the tumor for at least 120 hours, thus supporting its effectiveness. Furthermore, in cynomolgus monkeys, NC-6301 at 6 mg/kg three times at 2-week intervals showed marginal toxicity, whereas native DTX, at 3 mg/kg with the same schedule, induced significant decrease of food consumption and neutrophil count. NC-6301 at 50 mg/kg in mice also regressed a xenografted tumor of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer. Native DTX, on the other hand, produced only transient and slight regression of the same tumor xenograft. NC-6301 also significantly inhibited growth of OCUM-2MLN human scirrhous gastric carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model. Total weight of metastatic lymph nodes was also reduced. In conclusion, NC-6301 with an optimized release rate improved the potency of DTX while reducing its toxicity. PMID:22745540

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), United States and Territories, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Mitochondria buffer non-toxic calcium loads and release calcium through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and sodium/calcium exchanger in rat basal forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Murchison, D; Griffith, W H

    2000-01-31

    Mitochondria participate in intracellular Ca2+ buffering and signalling. They are also major mediators of cell death. Toxic Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria is widely believed to initiate cell death in many cell types by opening the permeability transition pore (PTP). In non-neuronal cells, the PTP has been implicated as a Ca2+ release mechanism in physiological Ca2+ signalling. In neurons, Ca2+ release from mitochondria has been attributed primarily to mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Using fura-2 ratiometric microfluorimetry in acutely dissociated rat basal forebrain neurons, we show that mitochondria are able to buffer non-toxic Ca2+ loads arising from caffeine-sensitive internal stores or from extracellular influx through voltage gated channels. We also show that these non-toxic Ca2+ loads are reversibly released from mitochondria through the PTP and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Evoked Ca2+ transients have characteristic peak and shoulder features mediated by mitochondrial buffering and release. Depolarizing mitochondria with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, 5 microM) causes release of mitochondrial Ca2+ and prevents Ca2+ uptake. In CCCP, the magnitudes of evoked Ca2+ transients are increased, and the peak and shoulder features are eliminated. The PTP antagonist, cyclosporin A, (CSA, 2 microM) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchange blocker, clonazepam, (CLO, 20 microM) reversibly inhibited both the shoulder features of evoked Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ transients associated with CCCP application. We suggest that central neuronal mitochondria buffer and release Ca2+ through the PTP and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger during physiological Ca2+ signalling. We also suggest that CLO blocks both the PTP and the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. PMID:10784115

  9. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  10. Discrimination of the toxic potential of chemically differing topical glucocorticoids using a neutral red release assay with human keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Hülsebus, E; Kerscher, M; Greber, R; Schäfer-Korting, M

    1995-07-01

    In inflammatory skin disease, hydrocortisone and prednisolone double esters are about equipotent to conventional medium potency topical glucocorticoids, such as betamethasone valerate. Local adverse effects, in particular skin atrophy, are a potential problem with topical glucocorticoids. Recently, cell cultures have shown promise as a means of assessing local tolerance. To investigate the toxic potential of hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate, hydrocortisone aceponate, prednicarbate, triamcinolone acetonide, betamethasone valerate and desoximethasone, human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were exposed to these agents in vitro, using a modified neutral red release assay. In addition, the morphology of these cells was assessed by light microscopy. Although all the topical glucocorticoids tested proved toxic to both cell types, there were major differences between glucocorticoids in their effect on fibroblasts. Hydrocortisone and the non-halogenated double-ester-type glucocorticoids were less toxic than the conventional medium potency topical glucocorticoids tested (betamethasone valerate and desoximethasone). In particular, hydrocortisone aceponate was less toxic than betamethasone valerate (P < or = 0.05). In general, the effect of topical glucocorticoids on the cells, based on neutral red release, was more marked with keratinocytes than with fibroblasts. Although the ranking order with respect to the toxic potential was similar, a clear-cut difference was not observed between non-halogenated double-ester-type glucocorticoids and betamethasone valerate. Morphological changes due to glucocorticoid exposure followed the same pattern with both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The neutral red release assay is able to discriminate between the cytotoxic effects of chemically differing topical glucocorticoids on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7669640

  11. Toxic Release Inventory data base. August 1988-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for August 1988-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TRI database was begun by EPA in response to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, which required EPA to establish an inventory of routine toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of manufacturing facilities that employ 10 or more full-time employees and that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a tested toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. The data file is contained on diskettes in dBASE III format or LOTUS 1-2-3 format available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). (Contains 116 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. Reversibly cross-linked polyplexes enable cancer-targeted gene delivery via self-promoted DNA release and self-diminished toxicity.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Bai, Yugang; Wang, Jinhui; Deng, Qiurong; Zhu, Lipeng; Meng, Fenghua; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Yin, Lichen

    2015-04-13

    Polycations often suffer from the irreconcilable inconsistency between transfection efficiency and toxicity. Polymers with high molecular weight (MW) and cationic charge feature potent gene delivery capabilities, while in the meantime suffer from strong chemotoxicity, restricted intracellular DNA release, and low stability in vivo. To address these critical challenges, we herein developed pH-responsive, reversibly cross-linked, polyetheleneimine (PEI)-based polyplexes coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) for the effective and targeted gene delivery to cancer cells. Low-MW PEI was cross-linked with the ketal-containing linker, and the obtained high-MW analogue afforded potent gene delivery capabilities during transfection, while rapidly degraded into low-MW segments upon acid treatment in the endosomes, which promoted intracellular DNA release and reduced material toxicity. HA coating of the polyplexes shielded the surface positive charges to enhance their stability under physiological condition and simultaneously reduced the toxicity. Additionally, HA coating allowed active targeting to cancer cells to potentiate the transfection efficiencies in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This study therefore provides an effective approach to overcome the efficiency-toxicity inconsistence of nonviral vectors, which contributes insights into the design strategy of effective and safe vectors for cancer gene therapy. PMID:25756930

  13. Increased urinary excretion of toxic hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid by slow acetylators. Effect of a slow-release preparation of isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Peretti, E; Karlaganis, G; Lauterburg, B H

    1987-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that slow acetylators, who may have a greater risk of developing isoniazid hepatitis than rapid acetylators, are exposed to more acetylhydrazine and hydrazine, two toxic metabolites of isoniazid, the urinary excretion of hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid was measured following the ingestion of 300 mg isoniazid. Slow acetylators (n = 7) excreted significantly more isoniazid (32.4 vs 9.2% dose), acetylhydrazine (3.1 vs 1.6% dose), and hydrazine (1.0 vs 0.4% dose) in 24 h than rapid acetylators (n = 5), whereas the excretion of acetylisoniazid and diacetylhydrazine was significantly lower. As the acetylation (i.e. detoxification) of acetylhydrazine is inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of isoniazid, a study was also made of the effect of a slow-release preparation that results in lower plasma concentrations of isoniazid on the production of hydrazino metabolites. The ratio of acetylisoniazid to isoniazid in urine was significantly increased in slow acetylators from 0.84 to 1.02 following administration of the slow release preparation, indicating increased acetylation of isoniazid. However, the excretion of diacetylhydrazine relative to the excretion of acetylhydrazine and hydrazine did not change. It is concluded that exposure to toxic metabolites of isoniazid is increased in slow acetylators. Detoxification of the toxic metabolites was not enhanced by a slow-release preparation of isoniazid. PMID:3691615

  14. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

  15. Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A

    2014-01-01

    Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

  16. Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Stamellou, E.; Storz, D.; Botov, S.; Ntasis, E.; Wedel, J.; Sollazzo, S.; Krämer, B.K.; van Son, W.; Seelen, M.; Schmalz, H.G.; Schmidt, A.; Hafner, M.; Yard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

  17. Challenge to assess the toxic contribution of metal cation released from nanomaterials for nanotoxicology - the case of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jie; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Su, Huanxing; Chen, Hongzheng; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-05-01

    The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The toxic contribution of released Zn2+ ions to the A549 cell lines was estimated to be only about 10%. We conclude that the cytotoxicity associated with ZnO NPs is not a function of the Zn concentration, suggesting that other factors play an important role in the toxic effect of ZnO NPs.The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The

  18. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2003-11-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  19. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  20. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  1. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  2. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  3. TOXICITY OF SELECTED CONTROLLED RELEASE AND CORRESPONDING UNFORMULATED TECHNICAL GRADE PESTICIDES TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled release pesticides (CRP), also called encapsulated pesticides, are a relatively recent development, although controlled release technology has been in use by the drug industry for many years. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selected CRP's o...

  4. Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II)-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alesha N.; Hinojosa, Barbara R.; Chavious, Montaleé D.; Petros, Robby A.

    2011-07-01

    The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.%) and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy.

  5. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  6. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  7. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives. PMID:21561706

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), United States and territories, 1987 (Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Zaiss, F.; Nowak, G.

    1987-01-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of routine toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. The list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and categories on these lists. The reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of facilties that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (including importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical in excess of specified threshold quantities. Individual documents for each state or territory are available in the set.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography assay of N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine released from bone cements: evidence for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Stea, S; Granchi, D; Zolezzi, C; Ciapetti, G; Visentin, M; Cavedagna, D; Pizzoferrato, A

    1997-02-01

    Five commercially available bone cements were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography for detecting the residual content of an accelerator, the amine N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT), after curing. It was found that the concentration of DMPT in aqueous extracts decreases with time, being almost absent 7 days after curing. Differences were noticed among the cements; residual DMPT is higher in cements prepared with higher content of the amine. It is verified that DMPT's toxic effect on cell cultures is dose-related; a delay in the cell replication cycle is induced in vitro. Damage is reversible, thus justifying the low bone cement toxicity that is clinically ascertained. PMID:9031725

  10. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  11. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  12. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability emergency response model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Freis, R.P.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1993-10-07

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a modeling system to calculate the impact of accidental radiological or toxic releases to the atmosphere anywhere in the world. Operated for the US Departments of Energy and Defense, ARAC has responded to over 60 incidents in the past 18 years, and conducts over 100 exercises each year. Explosions are one of the most common mechanisms by which toxic particulates are injected into the atmosphere during accidents. Automated algorithms with default assumptions have been developed to estimate the source geometry and the amount of toxic material aerosolized. The paper examines the sensitivity of ARAC`s dispersion model to the range of input values for explosive sources, and analyzes the model`s accuracy using two field measurement programs.

  13. ARAC: a centralized computer assisted emergency planning, response, and assessment system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Knox, J.B.

    1986-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an emergency planning, response, and assessment service, developed by the US Departments of Energy and Defense, and focused, thus far, on atmospheric releases of nuclear material. For the past 14 years ARAC has responded to over 150 accidents, potential accidents, and major exercises. The most notable accident responses are the COSMOS 954 reentry, the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident and subsequent purge of /sup 85/Kr from the containment vessel, the recent UF/sub 6/ accident at the Kerr-McGee Plant, Gore, Oklahoma, and the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union. Based on experience in the area of emergency response, developed during the past 14 years, this paper describes the cost effectiveness and other advantages of a centralized emergency planning, response, and assessment service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material.

  14. Aloe-emodin prevents cytokine-induced tumor cell death: the inhibition of auto-toxic nitric oxide release as a potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic, S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radovic, J; Popadic, D; Momcilovic, M; Harhaji, L; Miljkovic, D; Trajkovic, V

    2004-07-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with potential anticancer activity. We investigated the ability of AE to modulate survival of mouse L929 fibrosarcoma and rat C6 astrocytoma cells through interference with the activation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and subsequent production of tumoricidal free radical NO. Somewhat surprisingly, AE in a dose-dependent manner rescued interferon-gamma + interleukin-1-stimulated L929 cells from NO-dependent killing by reducing their autotoxic NO release. The observed protective effect was less pronounced in C6 cells, due to their higher sensitivity to a direct toxic action of the drug. AE-mediated inhibition of tumor cell NO release coincided with a reduction in cytokine-induced accumulation of transcription and translation products of genes encoding inducible NOS and its transcription factor IRF-1, while activation of NF-kappaB remained unaltered. These data indicate that the influence of AE on tumor growth might be more complex that previously recognized, the net effect being determined by the balance between the two opposing actions of the drug: its capacity to directly kill tumor cells, but also to protect them from NO-mediated toxicity. PMID:15241556

  15. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian

    2007-03-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values<0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p<0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it

  16. Form and toxicity of copper released into aquatic systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, such as lumber treated with micronized copper. Micronized copper tre...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  18. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  19. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  20. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  1. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  2. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  3. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A modulate inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, T; Köller, M; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E; König, W

    1993-01-01

    We studied the influence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal erythrogenic (pyrogenic) toxin A (ETA) on intact and digitonin-permeabilized human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). As was shown by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 or ETA alone, in the absence of any additional stimulus, did not induce the generation of the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from PMNs in a wide range of concentrations. In addition, pretreatment of intact PMNs with either toxin potentiated formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- and washed Staphylococcus aureus cell-induced generation of LTB4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This increase included LTB4 as well as its inactive omega-oxidated compounds. Further studies revealed evidence that toxin exposure was accompanied by enhanced cellular receptor expression for fMLP as well as for LTB4. The intrinsic GTPase activity of membrane fractions was modulated by both toxins. Short-term incubation with ETA increased the GTPase activity of PMNs up to 141%. Inhibitory effects were obtained when GTP-binding protein functions were stimulated with sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, specific binding of Gpp(NH)p to GTP-binding protein was inhibited by both toxins during the first 10 min of incubation and was restored at later times of incubation. Our data therefore suggest that both toxins significantly affect the signal transduction pathways of human PMNs, which results in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:8381770

  4. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A modulate inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hensler, T; Köller, M; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E; König, W

    1993-03-01

    We studied the influence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal erythrogenic (pyrogenic) toxin A (ETA) on intact and digitonin-permeabilized human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). As was shown by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 or ETA alone, in the absence of any additional stimulus, did not induce the generation of the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from PMNs in a wide range of concentrations. In addition, pretreatment of intact PMNs with either toxin potentiated formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- and washed Staphylococcus aureus cell-induced generation of LTB4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This increase included LTB4 as well as its inactive omega-oxidated compounds. Further studies revealed evidence that toxin exposure was accompanied by enhanced cellular receptor expression for fMLP as well as for LTB4. The intrinsic GTPase activity of membrane fractions was modulated by both toxins. Short-term incubation with ETA increased the GTPase activity of PMNs up to 141%. Inhibitory effects were obtained when GTP-binding protein functions were stimulated with sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, specific binding of Gpp(NH)p to GTP-binding protein was inhibited by both toxins during the first 10 min of incubation and was restored at later times of incubation. Our data therefore suggest that both toxins significantly affect the signal transduction pathways of human PMNs, which results in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:8381770

  5. Rapamycin protects mice from staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced toxic shock and blocks cytokine release in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, Teresa; Buckley, Marilyn; Issaq, Haleem J; Fox, Stephen D

    2010-03-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins are potent activators for human T cells and cause lethal toxic shock. Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant, was tested for its ability to inhibit staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and toxin-mediated shock in mice. Stimulation of PMBC by SEB was effectively blocked by rapamycin as evidenced by the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and T-cell proliferation. In vivo, rapamycin protected 100% of mice from lethal shock, even when administered 24 h after intranasal SEB challenge. The serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-6, after intranasal exposure to SEB, were significantly reduced in mice given rapamycin versus controls. Additionally, rapamycin diminished the weight loss and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB. PMID:20086156

  6. Rapamycin Protects Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Toxic Shock and Blocks Cytokine Release In Vitro and In Vivo▿

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Teresa; Buckley, Marilyn; Issaq, Haleem J.; Fox, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins are potent activators for human T cells and cause lethal toxic shock. Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant, was tested for its ability to inhibit staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and toxin-mediated shock in mice. Stimulation of PMBC by SEB was effectively blocked by rapamycin as evidenced by the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and T-cell proliferation. In vivo, rapamycin protected 100% of mice from lethal shock, even when administered 24 h after intranasal SEB challenge. The serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-6, after intranasal exposure to SEB, were significantly reduced in mice given rapamycin versus controls. Additionally, rapamycin diminished the weight loss and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB. PMID:20086156

  7. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  8. Growth hormone release of interleukin-1 alpha, interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 from murine splenocytes stimulated with staphylococcal protein A, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and streptococcal lysin S.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, M; Vitiello, M; Scarfogliero, P; Sommese, L

    1997-03-01

    We investigated changes in the IL-1 alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-4 release from splenocytes in the presence of growth hormone (GH). Splenocytes were stimulated with Protein A (PA), Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1) and Streptolysin S (SLS). In the presence of GH, splenocytes stimulated with PA, induced a 40% and 50% drop in IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma release respectively, compared to controls, while no changes were shown in IL-4 release. The release of IFN-gamma by TSST-1-stimulated splenocytes fell by 30%, while no changes were shown in IL-1 alpha and IL-4 release after GH. The release of IL-1 alpha by SLS-stimulated splenocytes increased by 50% in the presence of GH. No changes were shown in IFN-gamma and IL-4 release. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility of an expanding function for these endocrine peptides within the immune system. PMID:9110153

  9. Valproic acid pharmacokinetics in the mouse following controlled-release of pharmacologic and toxic doses via novel implantable and refillable drug reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nau, H; Finley, P; Williams, J; Brendel, K

    1983-01-01

    Novel drug reservoirs are described which, after their implantation under mouse skin, continuously released organic liquids such as the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid at preselected rates for periods up to several weeks. The liquids, which were filled into the reservoirs, diffused through silastic membranes. The area and thickness of these membranes determined the administered dose. Administration of the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid at various selected doses resulted in persistent drug concentrations spanning from subtherapeutic to toxic levels. The drug reservoirs were easily refillable in situ which greatly extended the duration of the experiment. The dose administered could be determined within 5-15 per cent (rel. S.D.). It is suggested that the maintenance of persistent drug levels in small laboratory animals may be an appropriate model for the pharmacological and toxicological study of those compounds with short half-lives and high clearance rates in these species. PMID:6411139

  10. Allelopathic effects of toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum lead to release of dissolved organic carbon and increase in bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Uronen, Pauliina; Kuuppo, Pirjo; Legrand, Catherine; Tamminen, Timo

    2007-07-01

    The haptophyte Prymnesium parvum has lytic properties, and it affects coexisting phytoplankton species through allelopathy. We studied the effect of P. parvum allelochemicals on the lysis of the nontoxic and nonaxenic cryptomonad Rhodomonas salina and the consequent release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Changes in production, cell density, and biomass of associated bacteria were measured over 12 h. Six different combinations of P. parvum and R. salina cultures, their cell- and bacteria-free filtrates, and growth media as controls were used in the experiments. When P. parvum and R. salina cells were mixed, a significant increase in DOC concentration was measured within 30 min. Bacterial biomass increased significantly during the next 6 to 12 h when R. salina was mixed either with the P. parvum culture or the cell-free P. parvum filtrates (allelochemicals only). In contrast, bacterial biomass did not change in the treatments without the allelopathic action (without R. salina cells). Blooms of P. parvum alter the functioning of the planktonic food web by increasing carbon transfer through the microbial loop. In addition, P. parvum may indirectly benefit from the release of DOC as a result of its ability to ingest bacteria, by which it can acquire nutrients during limiting conditions. PMID:17345140

  11. Spatio-temporal patterns of bladder cancer incidence in Utah (1973-2004) and their association with the presence of toxic release inventory sites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The authors analyse the spatio-temporal variations of the incidence of bladder cancer between 1973 and 2004 in Utah at the census tract level (496 areas) to highlight areas of high and low relative risks that remained so throughout the 32 year period. Using these identified areas, a novel strategy is used to carry out a geographical case-control study of association between the risk of bladder cancer and presence of Toxic Release Inventory sites, where areas with stable high RRs are 'case areas' and all remaining areas with stable non increased risks are 'control areas'. Results The time trend of bladder cancer risk fluctuated over the study period: A steady decrease was observed, followed by an abrupt increase from 1992 to 2004. Using a Bayesian space-time model, 93 census tracts were classified as having an excess relative risk and 81 a lower relative risk, sustained over the 32 years. We showed that these high relative risk areas for bladder cancer were associated with the presence of Toxic Release Inventory sites, after adjusting for the proportion of Latter-Day Saint Church members as an area level proxy for smoking habits. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated that the modeling of data in time and space has additional benefits over a purely spatial analysis. In addition to highlighting the areas with high and low relative risks, this model also allows the simultaneous study of persistency of spatial patterns over time and detection of 'unusual' time trends that may warrant further investigation. PMID:21356086

  12. The development of non-toxic ionic-crosslinked chitosan-based microspheres as carriers for the controlled release of silk sericin.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Ekasit, Sanong; Yamdech, Rungnapha

    2015-10-01

    Silk sericin is recently shown to possess various biological activities for biomedical applications. While various sericin carriers were developed for drug delivery system, very few researches considered sericin as a bioactive molecule itself. In this study, sericin incorporated in the chitosan-based microspheres was introduced as a bioactive molecule and bioactive carrier at the same time. The chitosan/sericin (CH/SS) microspheres at different composition (80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50) were successfully fabricated using anhydroustri-polyphosphate (TPP) as a polyanionic crosslinker. The microspheres with an average size of 1-4 μm and narrow size distribution were obtained. From FT-IR spectra, the presence of both chitosan and sericin in the microspheres confirmed the occurrence of ionic interaction that crosslink them within the microspheres. We also found that the CH/SS microspheres prepared at 50/50 could encapsulate sericin at the highest percentage (37.28%) and release sericin in the most sustained behavior, possibly due to the strong ionic interaction of the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged sericin. On the other hand, the composition of CH/SS had no effect on the degradation rate of microspheres. All microspheres continuously degraded and remained around 20% after 14 days of enzymatic degradation. This explained that the ionic crosslinkings between chitosan and sericin could be demolished by the enzyme and hydrolysis. Furthermore, we have verified that all CH/SS microspheres at any concentrations showed non-toxicity to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Therefore, we suggested that the non-toxic ionic-crosslinked CH/SS microspheres could be incorporated in wound dressing material to achieve the sustained release of sericin for accelerated wound healing. PMID:26233725

  13. Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Levites, Yona; Amit, Tamar; Mandel, Silvia; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2003-05-01

    Green tea extract and its main polyphenol constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possess potent neuroprotective activity in cell culture and mice model of Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis guiding this study is that EGCG may play an important role in amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and protection against toxicity induced by beta-amyloid (Abeta). The present study shows that EGCG enhances (approximately 6-fold) the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) into the conditioned media of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. sAPPalpha release was blocked by the hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitor Ro31-9790, which indicated mediation via alpha-secretase activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with the inhibitor GF109203X, or by down-regulation of PKC, blocked the EGCG-induced sAPPalpha secretion, suggesting the involvement of PKC. Indeed, EGCG induced the phosphorylation of PKC, thus identifying a novel PKC-dependent mechanism of EGCG action by activation of the non-amyloidogenic pathway. EGCG is not only able to protect, but it can rescue PC12 cells against the beta-amyloid (Abeta) toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, administration of EGCG (2 mg/kg) to mice for 7 or 14 days significantly decreased membrane-bound holoprotein APP levels, with a concomitant increase in sAPPalpha levels in the hippocampus. Consistently, EGCG markedly increased PKCalpha and PKC in the membrane and the cytosolic fractions of mice hippocampus. Thus, EGCG has protective effects against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and regulates secretory processing of non-amyloidogenic APP via PKC pathway. PMID:12670874

  14. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. PMID:11335011

  15. Persistency of highly toxic coplanar PCBs in aquatic ecosystems: uptake and release kinetics of coplanar PCBs in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R; Phillips, D J

    1989-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of three highly toxic coplanar PCB isomers [3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (T(4)CB); 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (P(5)CB); and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (H(6)CB)] was investigated using green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus) as a bioindicator, through a transplantation experiment at two locations in Hong Kong waters. By contrast to the relatively rapid uptake and release of many other PCB isomers, the non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar PCB congeners exhibited slow uptake and clearance. The kinetic parameters of coplanar PCBs based on lipid weight-related data, and the degree of bioaccumulation based on the proportion of coplanar PCBs in total PCBs in mussels, clearly indicate that coplanar PCBs are highly bioaccumulative in lower organisms. On the assumption that mussels are unlikely to be particularly unusual with respect to their bioaccumulation of coplanar PCBs, it appears most likely that these highly toxic and persistent PCB congeners are concentrated by all aquatic organisms, and may reach higher consumers (including humans) in quantities of toxicological concern. PMID:15092492

  16. An Analog of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is Neuroprotective Against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity In Fetal Rat Hippocampal Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Michael C.; Yard, Michael; Jackson, James; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Kubek, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    TRH has been found to be efficacious in treating certain neurodegenerative disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, neurotrauma and depression, however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Since Glutamate (Glu) toxicity has been implicated in these disorders, we utilized primary enriched cultures of rat fetal (E 17) hippocampal neurons to test the hypothesis that an analog of TRH, 3-Methyl-Histidine TRH (3Me-H TRH), given concurrently with Glu would protect such neurons against cell damage and cell death. Cell viability was assessed via Trypan Blue exclusion cell counts and neuronal damage was determined by assaying lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the conditioned media. Fetal hippocampal neurons were cultured in neurobasal media for 7 days. On day 7, neurons (106/well) were treated with: control media, 10 μM 3Me-H TRH, 500 μM Glu, or 500 μM Glu with either 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 or 0.001 μM 3Me-H TRH. Both media and neurons were harvested 16 hr after treatment. Prolonged exposure to 10 μM 3Me-H TRH was not toxic to the cells, whereas, neurons exposed to 500 μM Glu resulted in maximal cell death. Notably, 10, 1 and 0.1 μM 3Me-H TRH, when co-treated with 500 μM Glu protected fetal neurons against cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide support for an important neuroprotective effect of TRH/analogs against glutamate toxicity in primary hippocampal neuronal culture, and implicate a potentially beneficial role of TRH/analogs in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17125753

  17. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  18. Risk analysis approach. [of carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of the carbon fiber hazard is outlined. Program objectives, requirements of the risk analysis, and elements associated with the physical phenomena of the accidental release are described.

  19. Ischaemia-reperfusion and toxic oxygen metabolites do not induce release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor from isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Valen, G; Lettrem, I; Sundsfjord, J; Vaage, J

    1993-07-01

    Secretion of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factors (ANF) after injury by ischaemia-reperfusion and toxic oxygen metabolites (TOM) was investigated in the following groups of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts: 1.1., control perfusion; 1.2., hearts perfused with H2O2 (200 mumol l-1) as a TOM-generating agent for 10 min, followed by recovery for 30 min; 1.3., thiourea (10 mmol l-1), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, was given together with H2O2; 2.1., control perfusion; 2.2., ischaemia (37 degrees C) for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 40 min. Ischaemia-reperfusion and TOM temporarily decreased left ventricular developed pressure and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The cardiac effects of H2O2 were inhibited by thiourea. Coronary flow (CF) was increased by TOM and decreased by ischaemia-reperfusion. Immunoreactive ANF was measured sequentially in the coronary effluent by radioimmunoassay. Basal secretion of immunoreactive ANF for all groups pooled was 0.45 +/- 0.02 pmol min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and did not change significantly with time in any group. In conclusion, ischaemia-reperfusion and TOM do not influence secretion of immunoreactive ANF. PMID:8378741

  20. Accidental paraffin poisoning in Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Lang, T; Thuo, N; Akech, S

    2008-06-01

    A serious and common accident in rural Kenyan homesteads is accidental ingestion of paraffin when it has been mistaken for water and offered to a young child. Here we report the incidence, parental practices and outcome of severe paraffin poisoning, requiring admission at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Over a 2-year period, 48 children (0.5% of all admissions) were admitted with kerosene poisoning, constituting 62% of all poisoning cases. All cases were accidental. Ten per cent had induced vomiting. One child (2%) died. We suggest these data support assessment followed by implementation of practical and affordable measures to prevent paraffin poisoning. PMID:18363584

  1. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning. PMID:20345576

  2. A Tale of two Cities: Causes of Different Toxic Lead Releases From Lead and Brass Plumbing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, J. B.; Mast, D.; Hart, P.

    2006-05-01

    High lead (Pb) levels in drinking water have become a major health issue for many water distribution systems, especially Washington DC. This Pb comes from the dissolution of Pb minerals that coat lead service lines and Pb-containing brasses and solders. Using a variety of spectroscopic techniques (XRF, XRD, FTIR, laser micro-Raman), we studied pipe samples from Washington DC and from a similar utility system that has not had Pb releases. Both utilities use surface water and until recently both used chlorine as a disinfectant. DC switched to choramine disinfection, whereas the second utility did not. We found that both utilities have a similar array of Pb minerals present in their pipes, and that these minerals occur in distinct layers. From the pipe surface towards the water the sequence is litharge (PbO), cerussite (PbCO3), plattnerite (PbO2) and pyromorphite (Pb5[PO4]3F). We have also seen that the surface layer for DC is more discontinuous than in the pipes from utility 2 and the litharge from deeper layers is exposed. This mineral is especially soluble and may contribute to the extra Pb found in the DC water. We speculate that the switch to chloramine disinfection produced a lowering of the Eh at the scale surface with consequent dissolution of PbO2 followed by physical disruption of the pipe scales. Phosphate addition is now being practiced by both utilities for Pb control, and the PO4 content of the DC scales is increasing. XRD analysis shows a decrease in litharge and a corresponding increase in pyromorphite. For both utilities, we found that by far the most severe corrosion and scale buildup occurs at the junctions between brass and lead pipes. We attribute this to a galvanic corrosion of the brass by the adjacent lead sections. A consequence is that a portion of the Pb detected at customer's taps is coming not from the Pb service branches but from accelerated corrosion of Pb-containing brasses. Further reductions in Pb levels will require that releases

  3. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  4. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion. PMID:27079409

  5. Phosphine toxicity: a story of disrupted mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Wong, Benjamin J; Martens, Margaret E; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi; Perkins, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Rodenticides and pesticides pose a significant threat not only to the environment but also directly to humans by way of accidental and/or intentional exposure. Metal phosphides, such as aluminum, magnesium, and zinc phosphides, have gained popularity owing to ease of manufacture and application. These agents and their hydrolysis by-product phosphine gas (PH3 ) are more than adequate for eliminating pests, primarily in the grain storage industry. In addition to the potential for accidental exposures in the manufacture and use of these agents, intentional exposures must also be considered. As examples, ingestion of metal phosphides is a well-known suicide route, especially in Asia; and intentional release of PH3 in a populated area cannot be discounted. Metal phosphides cause a wide array of effects that include cellular poisoning, oxidative stress, cholinesterase inhibition, circulatory failure, cardiotoxicity, gastrointestinal and pulmonary toxicity, hepatic damage, neurological toxicity, electrolyte imbalance, and overall metabolic disturbances. Mortality rates often exceed 70%. There are no specific antidotes against metal phosphide poisoning. Current therapeutic intervention is limited to supportive care. The development of beneficial medical countermeasures will rely on investigative mechanistic toxicology; the ultimate goal will be to identify specific treatments and therapeutic windows for intervention. PMID:27219283

  6. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  7. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  8. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  9. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  11. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  13. In vitro effects of coal fly ashes: hydroxyl radical generation, iron release, and DNA damage and toxicity in rat lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    van Maanen, J.M.; Borm, P.J.; Knaapen, A; van Herwijnen, M.; Schilderman, P.A.; Smith, K.R.; Aust, A.E.; Tomatis, M.; Fubini, B.

    1999-12-15

    The authors measured iron release, acellular generation of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidative DNA damage and cytotoxicity in rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells by different coal fly ashes (CFA) that contain both quartz and iron. Seven samples of CFA with different particle size and quartz content (up to 14.1%) were tested along with silica (alpha-quartz), ground coal, and coal mine dust (respirable) as positive control particles, and fine TiO{sub 2} (anatase) as a negative control. Five test samples were pulverized fuel ashes (PFA), two samples were coal gasification (SCG) ashes (quartz content {lt} 0.1%), and one sample was a ground coal. No marked differences between SCG and PFA fly ashes were observed, and toxicity did not correlate with physicochemical characteristics or effect parameters. Stable surface radicals were only detected in the reference particles silica and coal mine dust, but not in CFA. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical generation by all fly ashes was observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also a relationship between acellular hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative DNA damage in RLE cells by CFA was observed. The respirable ashes (MAT023, 38, and 41) showed an extensive level of hydroxyl radical generation in comparison to nonrespirable fly ashes and respirable references. This was related to the iron mobilization from these particles. Themechanisms by which CFA and the positive references (silica, coal mine dust) affect rat lung epithelial cells seem to be different, and the data suggest that quartz in CFA does not act the same as quartz in silica or coal mine dust. However, the results indicate an important role for size and iron release in generation and subsequent effects of reactive oxygen species caused by CFA.

  14. Exposure of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients to Toxic Elements Released during Orthodontic Treatment in the Study of Non-Invasive Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Kachniarz, Krzysztof; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The Objective The aim of the study was evaluation of metal ions (nickel and chromium) released from orthodontic appliances in cleft lip and palate patients and the usefulness of non-invasive matrices (saliva and hair). Materials and Methods The material studied consisted of 100 individuals, including 59 females and 41 males of 5 to 16 years of age, which were divided into 3 groups: experimental–patients with cleft lip and palate (36 individuals, the average treatment time 5.74 years); control group–patients without cleft lip and palate, during orthodontic treatment (32 individuals, the average treatment time 1.78 years) and the control group patients without cleft lip and palate, without any orthodontic appliances (32 individuals). Samples (saliva, hair) were collected and subjects underwent a survey by questionnaire. Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES. The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva. Results The concentration of Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu ions in saliva of cleft lip and palate patients were several times higher as compared with not treated orthodontically control groups and higher than in the group with orthodontic appliances. Among the assessed matrices, hair of cleft lip and palate patients seem to be not a meaningful biomarker. Conclusion It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions. PMID:26544176

  15. The pathogenesis of experimental toxic shock syndrome: the role of interleukin-2 in the induction of hypotension and release of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Tokman, M G; Carey, K D; Quimby, F W

    1995-02-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by fever, hypotension, and involvement of three other organ systems. The etiologic agent is a toxigenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus which secretes the exotoxin, TSST-1. The toxin is a superantigen which stimulates the immune system to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We hypothesized that TSST-1 induces the release of IL-2 which in turn is either directly involved or acts via an additional mediator to produce hypotension. We submitted four pairs of normal anesthetized adult female baboons to intravenous boluses of TSST-1. One baboon in each pair received anti-IL-2 intravenously and anti-IL-2 receptor intrathyroidally 15 min prior to TSST-1. The other baboon received the same dose and placement of anti-sheep red blood cell antibody. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded continuously and mean arterial pressure was calculated and plotted. IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF were measured in serum at varying times before and after toxin administration. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in the sham-treated group versus the experimental (anti-IL-2/IL-2R) group (p < .05 for all variables). In addition no differences were seen in any of the measurements between experimentally treated baboons and those receiving no TSST-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749941

  16. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  17. Fatal accidental burns in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhal

    2003-09-01

    Burning incidents amongst women are a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. They may be homicidal, suicidal or accidental in nature. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of accidental burns in the married women. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 70 (46%) were accidental victims and these cases were analyzed accordingly for their different medicolegal and epidemiological aspects. Data were collected from personal interview and from examining the different documents related to death. In this series, most of the women were illiterate Hindu housewives hailing from joint families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) of rural community. The majority (60%) of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age at the time of the accident and sustained less than 90% total body surface area burn injury. Most had the survival period more than 1 day, and more than half of them died of septicaemia. PMID:14568773

  18. Modelling absorption and dilution of unconfined releases of hazardous gases by water curtains or monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Blewitt, D.N.; Hague, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    OSHA Process Safety Management guidelines suggest that a facility operator investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain, or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such analysis. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation and describes some recent enhancements of the HGSPRAY model: (1) Adding algorithms for modeling NH{sub 3} and LNG mitigation; (2) Modeling spraying of releases with fire water monitors encircling the point of release; (3) Combining wind tunnel modeling with mathematical modeling; and (4) Linking HGSPRAY and BEGADAS. Case cases are presented as examples of how HGSPRAY can aid the design of water spray systems for initiation of toxic gases (e.g., BF, NH,) or dilution/dispersion of flammable vapors (e.g., LNG).

  19. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  20. Containing the accidental laboratory escape of potential pandemic influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent work on the modified H5N1 has stirred an intense debate on the risk associated with the accidental release from biosafety laboratory of potential pandemic pathogens. Here, we assess the risk that the accidental escape of a novel transmissible influenza strain would not be contained in the local community. Methods We develop here a detailed agent-based model that specifically considers laboratory workers and their contacts in microsimulations of the epidemic onset. We consider the following non-pharmaceutical interventions: isolation of the laboratory, laboratory workers’ household quarantine, contact tracing of cases and subsequent household quarantine of identified secondary cases, and school and workplace closure both preventive and reactive. Results Model simulations suggest that there is a non-negligible probability (5% to 15%), strongly dependent on reproduction number and probability of developing clinical symptoms, that the escape event is not detected at all. We find that the containment depends on the timely implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and contact tracing and it may be effective (>90% probability per event) only for pathogens with moderate transmissibility (reproductive number no larger than R0 = 1.5). Containment depends on population density and structure as well, with a probability of giving rise to a global event that is three to five times lower in rural areas. Conclusions Results suggest that controllability of escape events is not guaranteed and, given the rapid increase of biosafety laboratories worldwide, this poses a serious threat to human health. Our findings may be relevant to policy makers when designing adequate preparedness plans and may have important implications for determining the location of new biosafety laboratories worldwide. PMID:24283203