Science.gov

Sample records for accidentally irradiated victims

  1. Long-term follow-up after accidental gamma irradiation from a 60Co source

    SciTech Connect

    Klener, V.; Tuscany, R.; Vejlupkova, J.; Dvorak, J.; Vlkovic, P.

    1986-11-01

    In December 1973 a technician was accidentally irradiated when attempting to bring under control a sealed /sup 60/Co source (110 TBq) which had been lodged in the head of a medical irradiation unit during a replacement operation. In the early period after the accident, severe skin changes on the left hand, epilation in a small area of the left temporal region and minor deviations in peripheral blood developed. In the following years, repeated surgery due to secondary skin defects of the left hand resulted in the loss of the fingers 2-5. Since 1975, changes in the lens of the left eye began to appear leading gradually to the deterioration of visual acuity. Later, opacities of the lens of the right eye were found. The patient's psychological and emotional attitude about the accident changed in the course of time. The factors influencing the psychic state of the patient are identified.

  2. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Deans, Katherine J; Thackeray, Jonathan; Groner, Jonathan I; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C

    2014-08-31

    Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007-2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age < 30 months old, having only 1 or 2 initially detected injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with "minor" injuries at their previous event.

  3. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age < 30 months old, having only 1 or 2 initially detected injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Conclusions Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with “minor” injuries at their previous event. PMID:25174531

  4. Continuous cytogenetic follow-up, over 5 years, of three individuals accidentally irradiated by a cobalt-60 source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Du, Jie; Lu, Xue; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Rong; Liu, Qing-Jie; Chen, Ying

    2015-02-01

    A cobalt-60 irradiation accident occurred in Shanxi, China, on April 11, 2008. Five people were exposed to total-body irradiation ranging from 1.7 to 14.5 Gy. Two victims died post-irradiation, due to acute intestinal radiation sickness (at 62 days) and tuberculosis (at 1.5 year). The other three victims received medical follow-ups and were monitored for 5 years with multiple cytogenetic analyses. Unstable chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and centric rings (dic+r) and the micronucleus frequency in binucleated lymphocytes, were monitored. In addition, G-banding karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to analyze translocations, for exploring chromosome stability and for retrospective dosimetry. The results show that unstable chromosome aberrations (dic+r) declined each year, dropping to about 20-40% of initial levels by the 5th year. A similar trend was observed for the micronucleus frequency. Our results show that the translocation frequencies of the three victims, detected by G-banding karyotype, remained stable for the 5 years. Five years after irradiation, the translocation rates of the three victims (G-banding and FISH analyses) were similar. The retrospective estimated doses, reconstructed based on the translocation frequencies, were consistent with the biological doses estimated at the first day post-irradiation using dic+r. The results of this study indicate that chromosome translocation frequencies can be used as a biological dosimeter and are an excellent index for dose reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Meriç, Niyazi; Şahiner, Eren; Bariş, Aytaç; Polymeris, George S

    2015-05-01

    Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols.

  6. Severe immune dysfunction after lethal neutron irradiation in a JCO nuclear facility accident victim.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Hitomi; Ooi, Jun; Tomonari, Akira; Iseki, Tohru; Tojo, Arinobu; Tani, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Tsuneo A; Yamashita, Naohide; Shigetaka, Asano

    2002-08-01

    The optimal treatment for the hematological toxicity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is not fully established, especially in cases of high-dose nonuniform irradiation by mixed neutrons and gamma-rays, because estimation of the irradiation dose (dosimetry) and prediction of autologous hematological recovery are complicated. For the treatment of ARS, we performed HLA-DRB1-mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for a nuclear accident victim who received 8 to 10 GyEq mixed neutron and gamma-ray irradiation at the JCO Co. Ltd. nuclear processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan. Donor/ recipient mixed chimerism was attained; thereafter rapid autologous hematopoietic recovery was achieved in concordance with the termination of immunosuppressants. Immune function examined in vitro showed recovery of the autologous immune system was severely impaired. Although the naive T-cell fraction and the helper T-cell subtype 1 fraction were increased, the mitogenic responses of T-cells and the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction were severely suppressed. Endogenous immunoglobulin production was also suppressed until 120 days after the accident. Although skin transplantation for ARS was successful, the patient died of infectious complications and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome 210 days after the accident. These results suggest that fast neutrons in doses higher than 8 to 10 Gy cause complete abrogation of the human immune system, which may lead to fatal outcome even if autologous hematopoiesis recovers. The roles of transplantation, autologous hematopoietic recovery, chimerism, immune suppression, and immune function are discussed.

  7. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  8. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae.

  9. [Management of severe accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M

    2012-04-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Use of Gamma-Irradiated Ethnic Ready-to-Eat Foods to Improve the Nutritional Status of Landslide Victims

    PubMed Central

    Koenari, Zubaidah Irawati; Siagian, Carmen M.; Simanungkalit, Bona; Nilatany, Asti; Pratama, Indra Mustika; Lasmawati, Deudeu; Nurcahya, Cecep M.

    2016-01-01

    The safety and high quality of ethnic ready-to-eat foods as a source of nourishment and food supplies chain to the remote areas become particularly important. Consuming healthy and balanced nutritional foods means eating better quality foods in proper quantities. Such foods can be developed through a preservation technique by using ionizing radiation. Although implementation of the technology for certain foodstuffs has been implemented in some countries, application of the process to a complete set of meals for selected target groups is still very limited. The various recipes of ready-to-eat food rations based on soy bean, fish, red meat, and poultry, were first developed in collaboration with medium-sized food enterprises prior to quality assessments. The products were individually packed and sealed either in a laminate pouch of Nylon-PE or polyester-aluminum foil-LLDPE and exposed to ionizing radiation at 8 kGy or 45 kGy, respectively, under cryogenic conditions throughout the process, to protect the essential dietary nutrients against free radical attack, and to reduce the undesirable chemical migration from packing material to the food and oxidative changes within the food matrix containing fats. The irradiated foods were stored at room temperature without impairing the overall quality. The high quality of irradiated ethnic foods, i.e., bacem tofu, pepes gold fish, rendang beef, semur beef, and semur chicken, have been administered through an intervention study on adult groups as landslide victims in Cikadu, Pemalang for 30 days continuously at breakfast time: 7.00–9.00 A.M. The results showed that body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), skin fold caliper (SFC) (mm), hemoglobin (g/dL), and total lymphocyte counts (%) of the targeted respondents did not tend to increase (at p ≥ 0.05) after consuming the irradiated foods, while the albumin content (g/dL) showed a significant increase in blood serum (at p ≤ 0.05). Sensory attributes, such as general appearance

  11. Potential Use of Gamma-Irradiated Ethnic Ready-to-Eat Foods to Improve the Nutritional Status of Landslide Victims.

    PubMed

    Koenari, Zubaidah Irawati; Siagian, Carmen M; Simanungkalit, Bona; Nilatany, Asti; Pratama, Indra Mustika; Lasmawati, Deudeu; Nurcahya, Cecep M

    2016-07-26

    The safety and high quality of ethnic ready-to-eat foods as a source of nourishment and food supplies chain to the remote areas become particularly important. Consuming healthy and balanced nutritional foods means eating better quality foods in proper quantities. Such foods can be developed through a preservation technique by using ionizing radiation. Although implementation of the technology for certain foodstuffs has been implemented in some countries, application of the process to a complete set of meals for selected target groups is still very limited. The various recipes of ready-to-eat food rations based on soy bean, fish, red meat, and poultry, were first developed in collaboration with medium-sized food enterprises prior to quality assessments. The products were individually packed and sealed either in a laminate pouch of Nylon-PE or polyester-aluminum foil-LLDPE and exposed to ionizing radiation at 8 kGy or 45 kGy, respectively, under cryogenic conditions throughout the process, to protect the essential dietary nutrients against free radical attack, and to reduce the undesirable chemical migration from packing material to the food and oxidative changes within the food matrix containing fats. The irradiated foods were stored at room temperature without impairing the overall quality. The high quality of irradiated ethnic foods, i.e., bacem tofu, pepes gold fish, rendang beef, semur beef, and semur chicken, have been administered through an intervention study on adult groups as landslide victims in Cikadu, Pemalang for 30 days continuously at breakfast time: 7.00-9.00 A.M. The results showed that body mass index (BMI) (kg/m²), skin fold caliper (SFC) (mm), hemoglobin (g/dL), and total lymphocyte counts (%) of the targeted respondents did not tend to increase (at p ≥ 0.05) after consuming the irradiated foods, while the albumin content (g/dL) showed a significant increase in blood serum (at p ≤ 0.05). Sensory attributes, such as general appearance

  12. A cytogenetic follow-up of some highly irradiated victims of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Sevan'kaev, A V; Lloyd, D C; Edwards, A A; Khvostunov, I K; Mikhailova, G F; Golub, E V; Shepel, N N; Nadejina, N M; Galstian, I A; Nugis, V Yu; Barrios, L; Caballin, M R; Barquinero, J F

    2005-01-01

    A follow-up of 10 highly irradiated men, mostly reactor crew, from the Chernobyl accident is described. Their pre-accident medical conditions and relevant medical status approximately 10-13 y later are listed. A comparison is made between estimates of their average whole-body penetrating radiation doses derived from several biological parameters. First estimates were based on their presenting severity of prodromal sickness, early changes in blood cell counts and dicentric chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. In three cases ESR measurements on tooth enamel were also made. Retrospective dosimetry using FISH translocations was attempted 10-13 y later. This showed good agreement for those patients with the lower earlier dose estimates, up to about 3 Gy. For the others, extending up to about 12 Gy, the translocations indicated lower values, suggesting that in these cases translocations had somewhat declined. Repeated chromosomal examinations during the follow-up period showed an expected decline in dicentric frequencies. The pattern of decline was bi-phasic with a more rapid first phase, with a half-life of approximately 4 months followed by a slower decline with half-lives around 2-4 y. The rapid phase persisted for a longer time in those patients who had received the highest doses. 10-13 y later dicentric levels were still above normal background, but well below the translocation frequencies.

  13. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  14. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... underwear or pads Diarrhea Constipation How will my health care provider diagnose the cause of my accidental bowel ...

  15. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-04-02

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  16. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  17. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  18. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  19. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  20. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  1. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  2. Accidental overirradiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Escó, R; López, P; Bellosta, R; Baquedano, J E; Mateo, P

    1993-08-01

    Between the 10th and 20th December 1990, there was a malfunction in the operation of the Electron Linear Accelerator (ELA) at the Hospital Clínico Universitario in Zaragoza (Spain), which led to irradiation with the highest beam energy. This situation shows the existence of a latent period between the irradiation and the appearance of the symptoms, even in situations involving much higher than normal doses in cases of localized irradiation.

  3. Geriatric assault victims treated at U.S. trauma centers: Five-year analysis of the national trauma data bank.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Tony; Clark, Sunday; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mulcare, Mary R; Stern, Michael E; Hall, Jeffrey E; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2016-12-01

    While geriatric trauma patients have begun to receive increased attention, little research has investigated assault-related injuries among older adults. Our goal was to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of geriatric assault victims and compare them both to geriatric victims of accidental injury and younger assault victims. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2012 National Trauma Data Bank. We identified cases of assault-related injury admitted to trauma centers in patients aged ≥60 using the variable "intent of injury." 3564 victims of assault-related injury in patients aged ≥60 were identified and compared to 200,194 geriatric accident victims and 94,511 assault victims aged 18-59. Geriatric assault victims were more likely than geriatric accidental injury victims to be male (81% vs. 47%) and were younger than accidental injury victims (67±7 vs. 74±9 years). More geriatric assault victims tested positive for alcohol or drugs than geriatric accident victims (30% vs. 9%). Injuries for geriatric assault victims were more commonly on the face (30%) and head (27%) than for either comparison group. Traumatic brain injury (34%) and penetrating injury (32%) occurred commonly. The median injury severity score (ISS) for geriatric assault victims was 9, with 34% having severe trauma (ISS≥16). Median length of stay was 3 days, 39% required ICU care, and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Injury severity was greater in geriatric than younger adult assault victims, and, even when controlling for injury severity, in-hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, and need for ICU-level care were significantly higher in older adults. Geriatric assault victims have characteristics and injury patterns that differ significantly from geriatric accidental injury victims. These victims also have more severe injuries, higher mortality, and poorer outcomes than younger victims. Additional research is necessary to improve identification of these victims and

  4. Childhood victimization and crime victimization.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, homelessness, criminal history, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) increase a person's risk for crime victimization? (c) Do lifestyle characteristics mediate the relationship between child abuse/ neglect and crime victimization? (d) Do these relationships vary by a person's sex or race/ethnicity? Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children (n = 395), followed up, and interviewed in middle adulthood (approximate age 39.5). Logistic and ordinary least square regressions were conducted to assess risk for crime victimization and test for mediation. Child abuse and/ or neglect increased a person's risk for physical (OR = 2.56, p < .001) and sexual (OR = 2.28, p < .001) but not for property crime victimization. For the sample overall, running away served as a partial mediator between child abuse and neglect and physical and sexual crime victimization. In addition, results revealed sex and race/ethnicity differences in patterns of mediation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Accidental or inflicted?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sara

    2005-05-01

    The visible evidence of child physical abuse most often is minimal or nonexistent, and the children at greatest risk of becoming victims are those too young to verbalize the history. As pediatric clinicians, we must be able to recognize potential sequelae of abuse and the high-risk situations that lead to physical abuse; we also must acknowledge that victims of child physical abuse often have injuries at multiple locations and in multiple organ systems. As a routine part of pediatric practice, healthcare providers, through anticipatory guidance, try to maximize the child's safety in the home environment. With this goal in mind, healthcare providers must consider the possibility of physical abuse when faced with a child with a traumatic injury. While it is important to identify these inflicted injuries, our ultimate goal is to prevent their occurrence in the first place.

  6. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  7. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  8. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cardis, E

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

  9. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  10. [My accidental discovery].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    gleaned from my one accidental discovery.

  11. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... hhs.gov The National Center for Victims of Crime -- www.ncvc.org National Organization for Victim Assistance -- www.trynova.org Office for Victims of Crime -- www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/ RAINN (Rape, Abuse & ...

  12. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  14. A case of accidental fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning involving humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Krishna, Karthik; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Rautji, Ravi; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum phosphide is one of the commonest poisons encountered in agricultural areas, and manner of death in the victims is often suicidal and rarely homicidal or accidental. This paper presents an unusual case, where two humans (owner and housemaid) and eight dogs were found dead in the morning hours inside a room of a house, used as shelter for stray dogs. There was allegation by the son of the owner that his father had been killed. Crime scene visit by forensic pathologists helped to collect vital evidence. Autopsies of both the human victims and the dogs were conducted. Toxicological analysis of viscera, vomitus, leftover food, and chemical container at the crime scene tested positive for aluminum phosphide. The cause of death in both humans and dogs was aluminum phosphide poisoning. Investigation by police and the forensic approach to the case helped in ascertaining the manner of death, which was accidental.

  15. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  16. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  17. [Analysis of accidental deaths in mountain tourism and sport according to statistics from the Republic of Kabardino-Balkariia].

    PubMed

    Mechukaev, A M; Mechukaev, A A

    2006-01-01

    Lethal cases in mountain tourism and sports in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria were studied for 1978-1995. A total of 152 accidental deaths were analysed. Most of the victims were males under 30 years of age. The greatest number of the accidents took place on Monday, in July and August. Many amateur visitors from abroad were among the victims. The main cause of death in the mountains of Kabardino-Balkaria for the 18 years studied was multitrauma of the body (69.7%). Hypothermia and obturation asphyxia with snow and compression asphyxia due to snowbreak account for 11.8 and 13.2% deaths, respectively; lightning killed 4%. Combination of high mountain hypoxia with exacerbated chronic somatic disease or hypothermia caused death in 1% victims. The authors propose how to improve forensic-medical expert examination of accidental death and safety in the mountains.

  18. Gold granuloma after accidental implantation.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, F R; Dhillon, A P; Lewin, J F; Flavell, W; Laws, I M

    1995-01-01

    A case, in a 66 year old man, of a florid granulomatous reaction to gold dental alloy presenting about 20 years after accidental implantation in the oral mucosa of the lip is reported. Subsequent energy dispersive analysis confirmed the presence of a high nobility gold dental alloy. Florid granulomatosis has only rarely been reported in association with gold. Possible explanations for the delay in presentation include alteration of immune status or the development of hypersensitivity with components of the gold dental alloy acting as haptens. Images PMID:8543638

  19. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  20. Counseling Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Deborah L.

    The psychological treatment of rape victims is complicated due to the nature of the crime; the trauma which may occur in four main areas of the victim's life (social, emotional, physical and sexual); community agency involvement and treatment, if any; and the societal attitude that places the blame on the victim. Therapists, in treating rape…

  1. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  2. Naming the Rape Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  3. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  4. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences.

  5. Forensic aspects of 40 accidental autoerotic deaths in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Janssen, W; Koops, E; Anders, S; Kuhn, S; Püschel, K

    2005-01-17

    Between 1983 and 2003, 40 accidental autoerotic fatalities have been investigated. in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. Only 50% (n=20) were autopsied (13 legal autopsies, 6 for scientific purposes and 1 for an insurance company). All the victims were males, aged between 13 and 79 years (among them five children and adolescents, the deceased mainly between 20 and 40 years). The paraphiliacs utilized a great range of devices and props as fetishism, sexual aids or pain-stimulating agents, like intimate feminine garments, ropes, chains, bondages, locks, pornographic magazines, condoms, rubber items, and chemical anaesthetics. The cause of death was strangulation in 20 cases (17 x hanging, 3 x ligature strangulation), 11 x suffocation (8 x under plastic bags, 3 x with face-masks, 2 x thoracic compression, 1 x positional asphyxia, and 1 x cocaine intoxication). Five cases without autopsy remained unclear because of missing morphological and toxicological findings; it could not be differentiated between asphyxiation/intoxication/natural disease, although the scene characteristics seemed to be typical for autoerotic deaths. It is emphasized that the findings at the scene, the morphological and toxicological examination of the dead body (full autopsy as prerequisite) by experienced investigators and the personal history of the deceased have to be evaluated very carefully and intensely to reconstruct the accidental fatal autoerotic course accurately and undoubtedly (to exclude the possibility of sexual homicide, neglected killing, or suicide).

  6. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  7. Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Case history number 97: Core rewarming by peritoneal irrigation in accidental hypothermia with cacdiac arrest. Anesth Analg 1966; 56:574-577. 85. Lint-n...Intractable ventricular fibrillation associated with profound accidental hypothermia - Successful treatment with ;irtial cardiopulmonary bypass . N Engl...5 B. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHERMIC DIVER ................ 6 C. FIELD TREATMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 D

  8. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  9. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  10. Accidental hypothermia in severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.

  11. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  12. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  13. Management of Irradiated and Contaminated Casualty Victims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    of radiation in any material and is defined as the deposition of 100 ergs of energy per gram of material. For most general working purposes, a...charcoal and antacids , which reduce absorption of acid-soluble materials, Administration of magnesium sulfate or other precipitating agents can also...be available for all person- nel within the facility. Surgical scrub suits work perfectly well for this purpose. In addition to scrub suits, surgical

  14. Non-accidental Trauma Injury Patterns and Outcomes: A Single Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Ward, Austin; Iocono, Joseph A; Brown, Samuel; Ashley, Phillip; Draus, John M

    2015-09-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) victims account for a significant percentage of our pediatric trauma population. We sought to better understand the injury patterns and outcomes of NAT victims who were treated at our level I pediatric trauma center. Trauma registry data were used to identify NAT victims between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, injury severity, hospital course, and outcomes were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-eight cases of suspected NAT were identified. Children were mostly male and white. The median age was 1.1 years; the median Injury Severity Score was 9. Traumatic brain injuries, lower extremity fractures, and skull fractures were the most common injuries. Twenty-seven per cent required medical procedures; most were performed by orthopedic surgery. Twenty-four per cent required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The median length of stay was two days. The mortality rate was 9.6 per cent. We generated a hot spot map of our catchment area and identified areas of our state where NAT occurs at increased rates. NAT victims sustain significant morbidity and mortality. Due to the severity of injuries, pediatric trauma surgeons should be involved in the evaluation and management of these children. Much work is needed to prevent the death and disability incurred by victims of child abuse.

  15. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  16. Young and juvenile chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) reactions to intentional versus accidental and inadvertent actions.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, D J; Perilloux, H K; Reaux, J E; Bierschwale, D T

    1998-02-01

    Chimpanzees were tested for their ability to discriminate between accidental/inadvertent and intentional actions with equivalent adverse consequences. Subjects were first trained to `point' to human trainers in order to receive food rewards. In Experiment 1, six 5-year-old subjects were alternately presented with two unfamiliar human actors. In condition 1, each actor either started to hand a cup of juice to the trainer but then pulled it back and intentionally poured it onto the floor, or accidentally spilled it while handing it to the trainer. In condition 2, the actors either accidentally spilled it as above, or aggressively threw the juice onto the floor. The subjects were then presented with both actors and were allowed to choose between them. In Experiment 2, seven 6-7-year-old chimpanzees were confronted with unfamiliar actors who either (a) intentionally withheld and consumed food intended for the subjects, (b) attempted to hand the intended food to the subjects but were victimized by a third party who consumed the food, or (c) always succeeded in delivering the food to the subjects. In general, the subjects showed little evidence of using the accidental/inadvertent versus intentional distinction in their choices between the actors, although they did display some evidence of favoring the actor involved in the most passive role in both conditions in Experiment 1.

  17. Counseling Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra L.

    This book provides counselors with a look at the effects of violence and offers strategies for assisting victims and survivors of that violence to cope, recover, and grow. Chapter 1 tells the story of a victim of sexual abuse. Chapter 2 examines the psychodynamics of trauma, including posttraumatic stress. Chapter 3 discusses effective therapies…

  18. Criminal Victimization 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Kelly H.; DeBerry, Marshall M.

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin presents National Crime Survey (NCS) data updating the preliminary estimates of crime victimization in 1987, which were released in March, 1988. Statistics are presented which show that the overall level of crime increased marginally, while the victimization rate remained stable over the year. The NCS practice of measuring both…

  19. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  20. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  1. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  2. Victim/Witness Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert H.; Blew, Carol Holliday

    This monograph highlights the elements of four victim-assistance programs which demonstrate the range of services currently being offered. It provides a preliminary look at the impact of such programs and points out where more information is needed. Major topics include victim and witness services and monitoring thereof. The two goals of…

  3. Counseling Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra L.

    This book provides counselors with a look at the effects of violence and offers strategies for assisting victims and survivors of that violence to cope, recover, and grow. Chapter 1 tells the story of a victim of sexual abuse. Chapter 2 examines the psychodynamics of trauma, including posttraumatic stress. Chapter 3 discusses effective therapies…

  4. Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  5. Poly-victimization: a neglected component in child victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K; Turner, Heather A

    2007-01-01

    To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Children experiencing four or more different kinds of victimization in a single year (poly-victims) comprised 22% of the sample. Poly-victimization was highly predictive of trauma symptoms, and when taken into account, greatly reduced or eliminated the association between individual victimizations (e.g., sexual abuse) and symptomatology. Poly-victims were also more symptomatic than children with only repeated episodes of the same kind of victimization. Researchers and practitioners need to assess for a broader range of victimizations, and avoid studies and assessments organized around a single form of victimization.

  6. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  8. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  9. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  10. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  11. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  12. Is the victim blameless?

    PubMed

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  13. The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Bakr, S.

    2012-05-01

    Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation. A 60Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry). The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature. The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient. Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

  14. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  15. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  16. Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Grasso, Damion J; Hawke, Josephine; Chapman, John F

    2013-10-01

    This study replicates and extends the research literature on poly-victimization with a vulnerable and under-served population, juvenile justice-involved youths. N=1959, 10-16 year old youths (76% male; 74% youth of color) consecutively newly admitted to juvenile detention facilities completed psychometric measures of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, affect regulation, alcohol/drug use, suicide risk, and somatic complaints. Using latent class analysis derived from 19 types of adversity, three unique classes best fit the data. A poly-victim class (49% female, 51% youth of color) accounted for 5% of the sample and reported a mean of 11.4 (SD=1.1) types. A relatively moderate adversity class (31% female, 70% youth of color) accounted for 36% of the sample and reported a mean of 8.9 (SD=0.3) types of adversity and 2.65 (SD=1.1) types of traumatic adversity. A low adversity class (59% of the sample; 17% female, 78% youth of color) reported a mean of 7.4 (SD=0.4) adversity types but only 0.3 (SD=0.45) types of traumatic adversity. The relatively moderate adversity class was comparable to poly-victims in endorsing extensive non-victimization traumatic adversity (e.g., accidental and loss trauma), but poly-victims were distinct from both moderate and low adversity class members in the likelihood of reporting all but one type of traumatic victimization, multiple types of traumatic victimization, and severe emotional and behavioral problems. Girls were at particularly high risk of poly-victimization, and African American and White youths also were at risk for poly-victimization. Although youth involved in the juvenile justice system typically have experienced substantial victimization, a poly-victimized sub-group, especially (but not exclusively) girls, warrants particular scientific, clinical, and rehabilitative attention in order to address the most severe behavioral and mental health problems and risks faced by this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  17. [False victimization syndrome].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2011-04-03

    Criminology and criminal-psychology are sciences dealing mostly with the personality of the criminals as well as the interconnections of crime and deviance. The other player of the crimes - the victim - has recently come into focus posing the question why and how somebody is becoming a victim, and what effect can the victim have when the crime is being committed. The first international publications appeared at the beginning of the third millennium on so-called victims who are convinced to suffer from material, moral or other damages and, accordingly, who would pursue "justice" at any rate. They often appeal against decisions. Considering these facts the procedures are rather thorough and circumspect. A significant part of the law-enforcement staff is heavily involved for long periods. On the other side there is the person considered criminal being actually the real victim. These people are getting alienated from the society because of their reckoned deeds and, because of the distorting influence of the media they are condemned morally. The present study describes the syndromes of fake-victim, their occurrence as well as psychiatric considerations, social appearance and impact. The authors are drawing attention to the existence and significance of this medical-legal problem.

  18. The Culpable Victim in Mendelsohn's Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.

    This paper provides a review of Benjamin Mendelsohn's delineation of a typology of criminal victims. The typology consists of six categories: (1) completely innocent victims; (2) victims with minor guilt; (3) voluntary victims; (4) victims more guilty than the offender; (5) victims who alone are guilty; and (6) the imaginary victims. It is noted…

  19. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  20. Deep accidental hypothermia during the Queensland summer.

    PubMed

    Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F

    2007-12-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high.

  1. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  2. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  3. Youth Internet victimization in a broader victimization context.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Turner, Heather

    2011-02-01

    To examine past-year and lifetime rates of online victimization and associations with offline victimizations, trauma symptomatology, and delinquency among adolescents. Data were collected through telephone interviews from a nationally representative sample of 2,051 adolescents (ages, 10-17) as part of the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Data were collected between January and May, 2008. Six percent of youth reported a past-year online victimization and 9% a lifetime online victimization. Almost all youth reporting a past-year online victimization (96%) reported offline victimization during the same period. The offline victimizations most strongly associated to online victimization were sexual victimizations (e.g., sexual harassment, being flashed, rape) and psychological and emotional abuse. Online victims also reported elevated rates of trauma symptomatology, delinquency, and life adversity. Prevention and intervention should target a broader range of behaviors and experiences rather than focusing on the Internet component exclusively. Internet safety educators need to appreciate that many online victims may be at risk not because they are naive about the Internet, but because they face complicated problems resulting from more pervasive experiences of victimization and adversity. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  5. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  6. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  7. Women as torture victims.

    PubMed

    Allodi, F; Stiasny, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of the frequency, severity, modalities and mental health consequences of torture in 28 Latin American refugee women in Toronto. The data on these women and a comparison group of male torture victims were retrieved from case records in a hospital outpatient clinic. The results support the hypotheses implicit in the scanty literature available that the frequency and effects of torture in women differ from those found in men. In female victims, as in their male counterparts, the severity of the torture was related to the degree of their political involvement. However, torture was more frequently sexual, and its consequences more often affected the women's sexual adaptation.

  8. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  9. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  11. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  14. [Sexual victimization in old age].

    PubMed

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2006-10-01

    A study on the underresearched topic of elderly sexual victimization combined multiple data sources: German police crime statistics, 122 public prosecutor files on sexual victimization of people above age 60, survey data from 76 institutions assisting victims of sexual violence/domestic violence, in-depth interviews with 22 practitioners who had worked with sexually victimized elderly. The study shows that few cases of sexual victimization in old age are known to law enforcement agencies or victim services. Offences dealt with by the criminal justice system differ significantly from those known to battered women's shelters and victim services. The majority of incidents prosecuted by the criminal justice system are hands-off offences; hands-on offences are typically single incidents committed by strangers or loose acquaintances of the victim. Battered women's shelters and institutions of victim assistance are confronted with severe forms of sexual violence in intimate relationships, the prototypical case being an older woman who is repeatedly victimized by her husband over a considerable period of time and within a relationship characterized by a comprehensive system of violence, humiliation, and control (corresponding to Johnson's concept of intimate terrorism). The study demonstrates how small numbers of recorded cases of sexual violence in old age may reflect age-specific detection rates. It provides evidence on older victims' help-seeking behavior and on ways to improve victim services.

  15. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  16. Counseling Torture Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Shaun R.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…

  17. Counseling Torture Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Shaun R.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…

  18. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  19. Emergency Department Presentations for Injuries in Older Adults Independently Known to be Victims of Elder Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; LoFaso, Veronica M.; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal; Lachs, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elder abuse is under-recognized by Emergency Department (ED) providers, largely due to challenges distinguishing between abuse and accidental trauma. Objective To describe patterns and circumstances surrounding elder abuse-related and potentially abuse-related injuries in ED patients independently known to be physical elder abuse victims. Methods ED utilization of community-dwelling victims of physical elder abuse in New Haven, CT from 1981-1994 was analyzed previously. Cases were identified using Elderly Protective Services data matched to ED records. 66 ED visits were judged to have high probability of being related to elder abuse and 244 of indeterminate probability. We re-examined these visits to assess whether they occurred due to injury. We identified and analyzed in detail 31 injury-associated ED visits from 26 patients with high probability of being related to elder abuse and 108 visits from 57 patients with intermediate probability and accidental injury. Results Abuse-related injuries were most common on upper extremities (45% of visits) and lower extremities (32%), with injuries on head or neck noted in 13 visits (42%). Bruising was observed in 39% of visits, most commonly on upper extremities. 42% of purportedly accidental injuries had suspicious characteristics, with the most common suspicious circumstance being injury occurring >1 day prior to presentation and the most common suspicious injury pattern being maxillofacial injuries. Conclusion Victims of physical elder abuse commonly have injuries on upper extremities, head, and neck. Suspicious circumstances and injury patterns may be identified and are commonly present when victims of physical elder abuse present with purportedly accidental injuries. PMID:26810019

  20. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  1. Gender, bullying victimization, and education.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A; Day, Kristin R; Kahle, Lindsay L

    2014-01-01

    School bullying has detrimental consequences for its victims, including undermining students' educational outcomes. Furthermore, gender has been shown to play a significant role in determining the type of bullying victimization experienced and educational outcomes. This research examines whether an interaction between gender and bullying victimization exists as well as its impact on educational outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy and educational achievement). Multivariate regression analyses, drawing on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, reveal that the interaction between gender and bullying victimization is linked to disparate educational outcomes. The findings and their implications are discussed regarding understanding the relationship between gender, bullying victimization, and education.

  2. Do accidents happen accidentally? A study of trauma registry and periodical examination database.

    PubMed

    Avi, A; Yehonatan, S; Alon, S; Alexandra, H; Arieh, E

    2001-01-01

    Health profile of trauma victims might affect accident involvement. Information linking medical data to accident epidemiology is lacking. This study aims to identify health factors that increase risk of accident involvement. The Israeli Defense Forces maintains two databases: records of periodical health examination of military personnel and a trauma registry including emergency department referrals of personnel resulting from injury. We identified 5,578 subjects who were examined in the Periodical Health Examination Center and were victims of trauma. We analyzed relation between injuries and various health parameters. Results shows cigarette smoking is more frequent among the population involved in trauma (40% in motor vehicle crash, 37% in fall injury, and 31% in blunt contusion compared with 28% in Periodical Health Examination Center population not involved in trauma, p < 0.05). Odds ratio of smokers involvement in motor vehicle crash is 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.67, p < 0.005). Younger age is relatively more frequent among trauma victims. We conclude that cigarette smokers and younger subjects might be at greater risk of being involved in accidental injuries.

  3. Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).

    PubMed

    Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

    1991-03-01

    Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel.

  4. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  5. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

  6. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Non-invasive determination of the irradiation dose in fingers using low-frequency EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkova, M.; Crokart, N.; Trompier, F.; Beghein, N.; Gallez, B.; Debuyst, R.

    2004-07-01

    Several reports in the literature have described the effects of radiation in workers who exposed their fingers to intense radioactive sources. The radiation injuries occurring after local exposure to a high dose (20 to 100 Gy) could lead to the need for amputation. Follow-up of victims needs to be more rational with a precise knowledge of the irradiated area that risks tissue degradation and necrosis. It has been described previously that X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy could be used to assess the dose in irradiated amputated fingers. Here, we propose the use of low-frequency EPR spectroscopy to evaluate non-invasively the absorbed dose. Low-frequency microwaves are indeed less absorbed by water and penetrate more deeply into living material (~10 mm in tissues using 1 GHz spectrometers). This work presents preliminary results obtained with baboon and human fingers compared with human dry phalanxes placed inside a surface-coil resonator. The EPR signal increased linearly with the dose. The ratio of the slopes of the dry bone to whole finger linear regression lines was around 5. The detection limit achievable with the present spectrometer and resonator is around 60 Gy, which is well within the range of accidentally exposed fingers. It is likely that the detection limit could be improved in the future, thanks to further technical spectrometer and resonator developments as well as to appropriate spectrum deconvolution into native and dosimetric signals.

  9. Serotonin receptors in suicide victims with major depression.

    PubMed

    Stockmeier, C A; Dilley, G E; Shapiro, L A; Overholser, J C; Thompson, P A; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-02-01

    Serotonin1A (5-HT1A) and serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors in the brain have been implicated in the pathophysiology of suicide. Brain samples were collected at autopsy from suicide victims with a current episode of major depression and matched comparison subjects who died of natural or accidental causes. Retrospective psychiatric assessments were collected from knowledgeable informants for all suicide victims and most of the comparison subjects. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined according to DSM-III-R criteria. Any subjects with current psychoactive substance use disorders were excluded. Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used in serial sections of the right prefrontal cortex (area 10) and hippocampus to measure the binding of [3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl)-aminotetralin ([3H]8-OH-DPAT) to 5-HT1A receptors and [3H]ketanserin to 5-HT2A receptors. Analysis of covariance was used to compare control subjects and suicide victims with major depression. The age of subjects, the time from death to freezing the tissue (postmortem interval), and the storage time of tissues in the freezer were used as covariates in the analyses. There were no significant differences between suicide victims with major depression and comparison subjects in 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A receptors in area 10 of the right prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus. The current results suggest that the number of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the right prefrontal cortex (area 10) or hippocampus are not different in suicide victims with major depression.

  10. Brain Resuscitation in the Drowning Victim

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia

  11. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily

    2017-04-01

    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Examining victims of interpersonal violence].

    PubMed

    Laberke, Patrick J; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Mauf, Sabrina; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Interpersonal violence represents a widespread phenomenon with a high prevalence. Consequences of these acts of violence are serious and extensive to the victims and from a socio-economic point of view. Physical examination of the victims is a key aspect in the medic-legal expertise. This article describes the basic principles and the standard procedures in conjunction with the examination of violent crime victims.

  13. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  14. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  15. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske E-mail: markus.rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  16. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  18. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  19. Ground Shock Effects from Accidental Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    2,640 2.47 x 10_1+ Limestone 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* Sandstone 2,240 2.10 x 10_l+ Shale 2,320 2.17 x 10-*4 Concrete 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* 19 Table 4...and compact soils Sandstone and cemented soils Shale and marl Limestone-chalk Metamorphic rocks Volcanic rocks Sound plutonic rocks Jointed...Accidental Explosions," Dept. of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-1300 (also NAVFAC P-397, AFM 88-22), Washington, DC, June 1969. 2. R. E. Crawford

  20. Road rage victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smart, Reginald G; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Sharpley, Justin M

    2007-09-01

    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students. Based on the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a self-administered survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (n = 7726), the contribution of demographic factors (gender, region, driver's license status, grade, overall marks) to three road rage victimization measures was examined with logistic regression analysis. Just over half of students (53.2%) had been victims of shouts, curses and rude gestures in the past year, 8.9% were threatened with damage to their vehicle or personal injury and 6.2% experienced an attempt or actual damage to their vehicle or personal injury. Logistic regression analyses revealed that being a victim of shouting was significantly related to region, driver's license status, and grade. Victimization by threats was significantly related to gender, driver's license, grade, and marks. Being a victim of attempts or actual vehicle damage or injury was significantly related to region, driver's license, and marks. This study provides the first indication of prevalence of road rage victimization among adolescents. Road rage victimization in its milder form is common, involving just over half of Ontario students in grades 7-12. About 1 in 10 students were threatened with vehicle damage or personal injury, and about 1 in 20 were victims of attempts or actual damage or injury.

  1. Dating violence: comparing victims who are also perpetrators with victims who are not.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is accepted as bi-directional with both genders as victims and perpetrators. While researchers have studied perpetration and victimization, limited research has explored differences in young women who are victims and perpetrators with those who are victims only. This study compares injury and mental health symptoms of victims who reported perpetrating violence with victims who did not.

  2. Hospital-based screening tools in the identification of non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J

    2017-02-01

    Over 700,000 children are victims of abuse and neglect each year in the United States. Effective screening programs that entail broad capture of suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT) may help to identify sentinel injuries. This can facilitate earlier detection and psychosocial interventions in hopes of decreasing recurrent NAT, which confers a higher mortality rate. The purpose of this article is to outline essential components of hospital-based NAT screening tools and highlight existing programs. In general, these tools should include several components: education sessions for healthcare providers on how to identify signs of NAT, automated notes or checklists within the electronic medical record to prompt specialty referrals, and a multidisciplinary team of experts that can address the needs of these children in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  4. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  5. Severe acute radiation syndrome: treatment of a lethally 60Co-source irradiated accident victim in China with HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Dong, Zheng; Qiao, Jianhui; Yu, Changlin; Sun, Qiyun; Hu, Kaixun; Liu, Guangxian; Wei, Li; Yao, Bo; Man, Qiuhong; Sun, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiqing; Song, Zhiwu; Yu, Chengze; Chen, Ying; Luo, Qingliang; Liu, Sugang; Ai, Hui-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    This is a case report of a 32-year-old man exposed to a total body dose of 14.5 Gy γ-radiation in a lethal (60)Co-source irradiation accident in 2008 in China. Frequent nausea, vomiting and marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were observed from 30 min to 45 h after exposure. HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation combined with infusion of mesenchymal stem cells was used at Day 7. Rapid hematopoietic recovery, stable donor engraftment and healing of radioactive skin ulceration were achieved during Days 18-36. The patient finally developed intestinal obstruction and died of multi-organ failure on Day 62, although intestinal obstruction was successfully released by emergency bowel resection.

  6. Management of the choking victim.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D

    1986-01-01

    Current recommendations for the management of the choking victim have arisen from a long history of anecdotal experience and controversial experimental and clinical data. The author reviews the available literature on the various maneuvers and discusses the existing controversies. He also gives brief recommendations for the management of the choking victim. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3730995

  7. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  8. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  9. Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%). The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims.

  10. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  11. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  12. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  13. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  14. Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

  15. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  16. 49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection against accidental overpressuring. 192.195 Section 192.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.195 Protection against accidental overpressuring. (a) General requirements...

  17. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  18. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  19. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  20. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  1. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  2. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  3. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  4. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  5. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  6. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  7. Reduce accidental releases of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.

    1996-09-01

    With final publication of the Risk Management Program (RMP), operating companies must take action to lessen the likelihood of accidental hazardous chemical releases. Now, companies must extensively investigate how raw materials and products are managed within the process and storage facilities. Protection at high costs is not profitable. At the same time, not enough protection is also costly should a release invoke substantial property damage or loss of life. Modern ways to confine regulated compounds include inherently safer technologies (ISTs) and active mitigation technologies. These new designs and added options can improve protection against more likely release scenarios. Using the guidelines, HPI operators manage both compliance and cost of compliance when developing safety programs for RMP.

  8. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; Del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

  9. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  10. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  11. Characteristics and triage of a maritime disaster: an accidental passenger ship collision in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Yeom, Seok Ran; Jeong, Jin Woo; Kim, Yong In; Cho, Suck Ju

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of and responses to a maritime disaster, by reviewing the events surrounding the accidental collision of a high-speed passenger ship in South Korea. Of the 215 boarded passengers on a high-speed passenger ship sailing from Fukuoka to Busan, we retrospectively examined information of 114 victims of the ship's collision with a whale on 12 April 2007. We referenced reports from the on-site disaster medical assistance team members; recorded notifications to the Busan 1339 Emergency Medical Information Centre, from the scene of the accident and data from the ship's insurer. The 114 victims were transported to 20 different hospitals. Many patients were transported to nearby local hospitals from the scene of the accident; other patients were transported to more distant hospitals. Eighty-five patients were transported to hospitals through mobile emergency support units, whereas the other patients were transported directly by fire officers from the 119 Fire Officer Centre. One patient died in the transport. In conclusion, our national emergency medical service and disaster response system each suffer from many problems - especially a lack of cooperation among related departments and insufficient communication therein. The onboard planning and practice of a disaster plan is required, and a reliable information system between the scene of a maritime disaster and our emergency medical service system should be developed.

  12. Bullying Victimization Trajectories for Sexual Minority Adolescents: Stable Victims, Desisters, and Late-Onset Victims.

    PubMed

    Sterzing, Paul R; Gibbs, Jeremy J; Gartner, Rachel E; Goldbach, Jeremy T

    2017-08-12

    Sexual minority adolescents are bullied more frequently than heterosexual peers. Research is lacking on their rates of general and sexual orientation bullying victimization. The present study identified (1) the rate, onset, and desistance of general and sexual orientation bullying victimization, (2) the rate of bullying victimization trajectories, and (3) risk and protective factors across trajectories. A life history calendar method and thematic analysis were employed with a sexual minority adolescent sample (N = 52, 14-20 y/o). General bullying began at age 5 and declined after age 12, with sexual orientation bullying increasing throughout adolescence. Late-onset victim (34.6%) was the most common trajectory, followed by stable victim (28.9%), desister (23.1%), and nonvictim (13.5%). Differences in risk and protective factors were found across trajectories. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Accidental exposures to blood and body fluids among health care workers in a Referral Hospital of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nouetchognou, Julienne Stéphanie; Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Jemea, Bonaventure; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-02-15

    Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is a public health concern, especially among health workers and constitutes a risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses including HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and the post exposure management of accidental exposures to blood and body fluid among health workers in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital. It was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from the 1st to the 30th of September 2013. Self-administered questionnaires to health workers were used to collect data on self-reported accidents, circumstances and post-exposure management. Their knowledge on accidental exposure to blood was also assessed. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi Info software version 3.5.4. Descriptive analysis was performed to measure the importance of AEB and to evaluate the risk of contamination. One hundred and fifty health workers were interviewed among which 36.7 % reported having been exposed to blood and body fluid at least once in the preceding 3 months. Splash was the most reported injury (in 60.3 % of cases), followed by needle stick (28.7 %) and cuts (10.9 %). Moreover, 43.6 % of victims were not vaccinated against HBV, 7.3 % were not wearing gloves during the accident and 41 % of splash occurs on injured skin. The majority of victims belong to the surgical Department [20 %, p = 0.2310]. None of these injuries had been reported in the registry of accidental exposure to blood. There is a high rate of accidental exposure to blood and body fluid in the daily hospital routine. Preventives measures, including wearing of protective equipment's during care and vaccination against HBV are not systematically done among health workers. Health institution should develop and provide standard operating procedures targeting surveillance of occupational risks, staff training, and supervision.

  14. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathways to poly-victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Holt, Melissa

    2009-11-01

    Some children, whom we have labeled poly-victims, experience very high levels of victimizations of different types. This article finds support for a conceptual model suggesting that there may be four distinct pathways to becoming such a poly-victim: (a) residing in a dangerous community, (b) living in a dangerous family, (c) having a chaotic, multiproblem family environment, or (d) having emotional problems that increase risk behavior, engender antagonism, and compromise the capacity to protect oneself. It uses three waves of the Developmental Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample of children aged 2-17 years. All four hypothesized pathways showed significant independent association with poly-victim onset. For the younger children, the symptom score representing emotional problems was the only significant predictor. For the older children, the other three pathway variables were significant predictors--dangerous communities, dangerous families, and problem families--but not symptom score. Poly-victimization onset was also disproportionately likely to occur in the year prior to children's 7th and 15th birthday, corresponding roughly to the entry into elementary school and high school. The identification of such pathways and the ages of high onset should help practitioners design programs for preventing vulnerable children from becoming poly-victims.

  16. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. An unusual autopsy case of a victim stabbed during sadomasochistic prostitution.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, M; Terada, M; Tun, Z; Takikita, S; Honda, K; Matoba, R; Shinohara, T

    1999-04-01

    A 29-year-old male who lived alone was found dead with his back leaning against the wall of his room. He had been stabbed in his abdomen with a survival-type knife. The victim's mouth was plugged with a pink-colored glove and was sealed with packing tape. His wrists were tightly tied behind his back with the same type of packing tape. The cause of death was diagnosed as hemorrhage from the right common iliac artery and vein. Due to the strange circumstances of the crime scene, the police initially considered the possibility of homicide by a group of assassins. Two months later, the police arrested a male suspect who was a member of a vice racketeer. The victim was characterized as a masochist and bisexual. He often hired the male suspect to perform sadomasochistic activities. On the day of the crime, the victim prepared a survival-type knife and packing tape himself to experience fear and pain more strongly. The victim hoped to use the knife to increase sexual excitement. In this case of sadomasochistic prostitution leading to death, the legal issues of homicide for money, malicious request of injury by the victim and accidental death were involved.

  18. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... criminal justice process, support for human trafficking victims with a myriad of complicated issues... particularly important for human trafficking victims, but also for victims of domestic abuse, identity theft, and other crimes as well. OVC has funded programs providing services for human trafficking victims...

  19. The Developmental Epidemiology of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines developmental trends in the rates of different kinds of victimization across the span of childhood. The Developmental Victimization Survey was a national telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 2,030 children from ages 2 to 17. The overall mean number of victimizations during a single year increased with age, as…

  20. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  1. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  2. Victims of fraud: comparing victims of white collar and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, L; McFarland, B; Bloom, J

    1990-01-01

    Mental health professionals have focused attention on the psychiatric sequelae of criminal victimization. This article compares the experience of white collar and violent crime victims on several parameters including statistical risk of victimization and psychiatric outcome after victimization. Emphasis is given to data obtained from interviewing 77 victims of a fraudulent financial scheme.

  3. Juvenile delinquency and victimization: a theoretical typology.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Ormrod, Richard K

    2007-12-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected. This analysis looks for possible subtypes of delinquents and victims consistent with such pathways. Using the Developmental Victimization Survey, a national sample of 1,000 youth aged 10 to 17 were interviewed over the phone. Support emerges for three distinct types of delinquent-victims, who are termed bully-victims, delinquent sex/maltreatment- victims, and property delinquent-victims. There is also evidence for substantial groups of youth who are primarily delinquent but not seriously victimized, as well as youth who are primarily victimized but not delinquent.

  4. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    PubMed

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people.

  5. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  6. Victims of violence: an Asian scenario.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-12-01

    The term 'violence' is difficult to define. Aggressive behaviour with actual use of physical force may result in some form of physical and emotional trauma to an individual and this could be considered as violence against the person. The trauma may range from minimal physical injury to death. It is also relevant to note that in some jurisdictions if members of the law enforcement agencies with appropriate authority resort to certain acts of 'violence' for lawful purposes, then such acts of violence may be excluded from this category. However, if the law enforcement personnel exceed their limits of authority, or resort to various unacceptable and unauthorized methods of violence, then certainly such acts will become violence against the person. In today's context the word violence has expanded to encompass many issues, besides the usual physical violence such as assault. Rape, child sexual abuse, other forms of sexual abuse, non-accidental injury to children, battered wife, assault in custody, torture, victims of war, civil unrest and ethnic violence are all considered under 'violence'. While general violence is almost endemic in many countries, assault in custody, torture, political and ethnic violence are serious problems in some of the developing world. In these countries, particularly, the law enforcement agencies and other unlawful groups who are backed by politicians may inflict politically motivated violence against its citizens. In such cases attempts are often made to cover up such crimes. Forensic physicians and forensic pathologists who examine these cases may be placed in difficult positions at times owing to various 'pressures' being brought upon them to issue 'favourable' reports. On the other hand there is also a general dearth of suitably trained forensic physicians and forensic pathologists in many of these countries. Medical officers without any training in forensic medicine often undertake the examination of victims of violence, both living and

  7. Health among lifetime victimized men.

    PubMed

    Soares, Joaquim J F; Macassa, Gloria; Miranda, Jamilette; Viitasara, Eija

    2007-09-01

    We examined differences in demographics/socio-economics, lifestyles and mental/ physical health between victimized/non-victimized men, and identified/quantified factors associated with mental/physical health. The study design was cross-sectional. The men were assessed in various areas (e.g., depression) by means of a questionnaire. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared with non-victims were younger. They also had higher intermediate education levels, were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, were on student allowances and financially strained, smoked more, had a lower BMI, and reported headaches, depression, tension and cognitive difficulties more frequently. The regression analyses showed that financial strain rather than violence was a more important factor for ill-health. Only headaches and cognitive difficulties were associated with violence. Quite an number of men were in a poor physical/mental state, but there were few differences between victims/non-victims. Financial strain was determined to be a more important factor for ill-health than violence. Our data indicate that violence had little effect on men's health. Our findings do not generally support a relationship between poor health and the abuse of men.

  8. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  9. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  10. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, “victim sensitivity” predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively—especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (“ontogenetic stabilization”) and across social situations (“actual-genetic stabilization”). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity. PMID:25926806

  11. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization.

  12. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  13. Body Positioning of Buried Avalanche Victims.

    PubMed

    Kornhall, Daniel K; Logan, Spencer; Dolven, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The immediate medical management of buried avalanche victims will to some extent be dictated by the victim's body positioning in the snow. Medical personnel are trained to assess and manage victims in a supine body position. Furthermore, avalanche first responders are trained to handle extricated avalanche victims carefully out of concerns for causing hemodynamic instability or for aggravating spinal injury. Thus, locating and extricating avalanche victims in positions other than supine has the potential to complicate immediate medical management. To our knowledge, the current medical literature does not detail the body positioning of buried victims. In order to ascertain the most common body positioning of buried avalanche victims we reviewed the avalanche incident database of the Colorado Avalanche Information Center (CAIC). This comprehensive database strives to track over 160 fields of information for each avalanche victim, including the body and head positioning of buried victims. Head positioning was recorded for 159 buried victims. We found that 65% of buried avalanche victims were found with their heads in a downhill position, 23% with their heads uphill and 11% with their heads in the same level as the rest of their bodies. Body positioning was recorded in 253 victims. 45% of victims were found lying prone, 24% supine, 16% were sitting or standing and 15% were found lying on their sides. We identified 135 victims where both head and body position was registered. 40% of victims were found prone with their heads in a downhill position The majority of victims will be extricated with their heads in a downhill position. Moreover, almost half of victims will be found prone. We believe this will have significant impact on the immediate medical management. We believe current training in avalanche medical rescue should emphasize managing victims in non-supine positions. Finally, our findings may represent another benefit of modern extrication techniques. Copyright

  14. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  15. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  16. A survey of adult victims of dog bites in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wake, A A F; Minot, E O; Stafford, K J; Perry, P E

    2009-12-01

    To describe the circumstances of dog bites to adults in New Zealand, in order to better understand factors associated with these bites. A questionnaire was sent to 1,800 adults aged > or =16 years who had made claims to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) in 2002 as a result of dog bites. Five hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were returned; 50% of respondents were male, and 30% of bites were reported to local authorities. Most injuries were to the legs or hand. More people were bitten by male dogs than female dogs. A disproportionate number of bites took place in rural areas, but the most common locations for attacks were streets/walkways, and the victim's home. Protection of territory, accidental bites, fear, and pain were considered to be the most common reasons for dogs to bite. Many victims were bitten in situations that could have been avoided.

  17. Accidental fire fatality with sustained combustion.

    PubMed

    Romich, Tarin J; Horan, Patrick M; Catanese, Charles A

    2010-09-01

    This is a case of a 59-year-old man found with extensive second to fourth degree thermal burns found lying on the ground several feet from a vehicle used as his domicile. Autopsy revealed extensive loss of soft tissue and fragmentation of bone, mostly to the trunk region, with partial sparing of the upper trunk, head, and extremities.The decedent had a history of acute and chronic substance abuse and it was reported that he was participating in a methadone program. Toxicology reports of autopsy blood obtained from the heart indicated methadone levels of 0.4 mg/L at the time of his death.There was also a trace amount of cocaine present and there was no ethanol detected. Sustained human combustion, or the "wick effect," is concisely defined as the partial destruction of a body by fire, where the victim's clothing absorbs liquefied fatty tissue and acts like a wick of a candle by perpetuating a flame that slowly destroys the body with heat. There are few nonexperimental cases describing this process in the world literature.

  18. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  19. Observations on increased accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy while cosleeping in the state of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Zielke, Ron H; Ping, Yan; Fowler, David R

    2009-12-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) has recorded a significant increase of accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy associated with cosleeping in the state of Maryland in 2003. A total of 102 infants died suddenly and unexpectedly during 2003 in the state of Maryland. Of the 102 infants, 46 (45%) were found cosleeping. The frequency of cosleeping among these 102 infants was 28% (29/102) for black infants and 15% (15/102) for white infants. Ten of the 46 cosleeping infant deaths (20%) were determined to be the result of accidental asphyxia, and 28 cosleeping infant deaths (59%) were classified as "undetermined" because the possibility of asphyxia due to overlay while cosleeping could not be ruled out. Only 21 cases were determined to be Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), which is consistent with the continuous decline of SIDS death in Maryland since 1994. The age of asphyxiated cosleeping infants ranged from 15 days to 9 months. Nine out of the 10 asphyxia deaths were black infants. The most common sleeping location of the asphyxia infants was on a couch/sofa, followed by an adult bed. Crib availability was documented in all of the cosleeping cases. A majority (61%) of the cosleeping infants (28/46) had an available crib or bassinet at home and 9 out of 10 asphyxiated cosleeping infants had a crib at home at the time of the incident. This report focuses on the detailed scene investigation findings of infant victims who died of asphyxia while cosleeping. The shift of diagnosis in sudden infant death investigation is also addressed.

  20. [Sexual dysfunction in torture victims].

    PubMed

    Theilade, Lotte D Arlø

    2002-10-07

    Sexual dysfunction is seen in up to 51% of torture victims. The torture victim seldom reports anything about having been tortured but often consults the health care system because of a somatic problem which may seem unrelated to torture. Therefore, it is important that doctors are aware of the possible correlation. Symptoms and findings may be both physical and psychical. The torture may be both sexual and non-sexual as well as physical and non-physical. Social, cultural and individual factors also influence the development of sexual dysfunction in a torture victim. The factors that cause sexual dysfunction and the identification of any direct causal relations are discussed. There are indications that sexual torture has a greater impact on the development of sexual dysfunction than other types of torture and it seems that sexual dysfunction is a result of many factors.

  1. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

  2. Factors affecting reactions to a rape victim.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M A; Quackenbush, S W; Sinisi, C S; Wegman, C M; Otney, K L

    1992-11-01

    We examined the influence of the sex of the subject reacting to the rape victim, the type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance), the location of the rape (inside vs. outside the victim's home), and the victim's attribution concerning the cause of the rape, on undergraduates' reactions to a rape victim. American undergraduates (264 women, 230 men) read a Rape Crisis Center Intake Form, watched a videotape of a rape victim (an actress) describing her psychological and behavioral reactions to the rape, and completed three questionnaires assessing their reactions to the victim. Women were more supportive of the rape victim than were men, and the stranger rape evoked more chance and characterological attributions than did the acquaintance rape. A rape outside the home evoked more chance attributions than did an "inside" rape. The rape victim was rated as having been more traumatized by the experience if she made any causal attribution than if she made no attribution at all.

  3. The developmental epidemiology of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K; Turner, Heather A

    2009-05-01

    This article examines developmental trends in the rates of different kinds of victimization across the span of childhood. The Developmental Victimization Survey was a national telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 2,030 children from ages 2 to 17. The overall mean number of victimizations during a single year increased with age, as did the percentage of children with polyvictimizations (4 or more different kinds of victimization). However, some specific types of victimization, physical bullying and sibling assaults, were highest prior to adolescence and then declined. Other types had different developmental patterns by gender. Peer assaults increased in adolescence for boys but not for girls. Child maltreatment and sexual victimization increased in adolescence for girls but not for boys. The complex and diverse patterns of developmental vulnerability to different kinds of victimization at different ages need more exploration and explanation in order to better target prevention and intervention policies.

  4. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  5. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  6. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  7. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harriet A.; Arseneault, Louise; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Three groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural problems, especially the bully-victims. No research has examined the genetic and environmental…

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harriet A.; Arseneault, Louise; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Three groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural problems, especially the bully-victims. No research has examined the genetic and environmental…

  9. [Secondary medullary aplasia from accidental radiation:therapeutic options and evolution of the concept].

    PubMed

    de Revel, T; Fagot, T; Souleau, B; Dormont, D; Nedellec, G

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow grafting following accidental irradiation exposure should be viewed in the perspective of a severe myeloablative syndrome linked to high medullary damage for a dose range higher than 6-8 Gy, resulting in very late or no recovery. Prognosis will depend on the presence or absence of radio-combined injuries, the toxicity of the transplant procedure, and the risk of rejection induced by insufficient percritical immunosuppression. It is in this context that new cell therapy modalities, which combine enhanced peripheral hematopoietic cell engraftment and high immunosuppressive conditioning regimen with low extrahematological toxicity, inducing early and stable mixed lymphomyeloid chimerism with minimal morbidity, can be considered. Such an approach is being evaluated in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies at high risk of transplant-related mortality using conventional bone marrow methods.

  10. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts.

  11. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  12. Fatal accidental hanging by a high-chair waist strap in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Souheil, Mlayeh; Audrey, Farrugia; Anny, Geraut; Sebastien, Raul J; Bertrand, Ludes

    2011-03-01

    High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6 months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. In here, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue.

  13. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  14. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  15. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  16. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  17. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  18. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  19. College Students' Perception of AIDS Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Roger C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…

  20. Victim/Witness Assistance: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Anthony A., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography highlights the literature available on two important aspects of assistance to victims and witnesses of crime. The first section, victim and witness services, covers the need, function and implementation of services to assist victims, elements of effective programs and evaluation of specific programs. The second section,…

  1. Interviewing Alleged Victims with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederborg, Ann-Christin; Lamb, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: When interviewing alleged victims of crime, it is important to obtain reports that are as accurate and complete as possible. This can be especially difficult when the alleged victims have intellectual disabilities (ID). This study explored how alleged victims with ID are interviewed by police officers in Sweden and how this may affect…

  2. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  3. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  4. Sexual Assault of the Elderly Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated elderly victims of rape and determined the variables affected solely by the patient's age. It was found that 71.7 percent of these assaults took place at the victim's home, and most were by an unknown assailant. Genital injury was more prevalent among elderly victims. Physical intimidation was all that was necessary to subdue the victims…

  5. Victim/Witness Assistance: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Anthony A., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography highlights the literature available on two important aspects of assistance to victims and witnesses of crime. The first section, victim and witness services, covers the need, function and implementation of services to assist victims, elements of effective programs and evaluation of specific programs. The second section,…

  6. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  7. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms.

  8. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  9. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  10. Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between bullying victimization and students' extracurricular activity and misbehavior. This research examined whether students' engagement in particular school activities increased or decreased the likelihood of being bullied while at school. Data for this research were drawn from the Educational…

  11. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  12. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  13. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  14. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary

    1977-01-01

    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  15. Nurses' attributions about rape victims.

    PubMed

    Damrosch, S P; Gallo, B; Kulak, D; Whitaker, C M

    1987-08-01

    In an evaluation experiment, 80 registered nurses (64% of whom had cared for at least one rape victim) read an account of a rape involving a woman who drove to a drugstore on her way home from work. By random assignment, the nurses read one of four versions of the rape which varied in terms of whether or not the victim locked her car door (carelessness manipulation) and time of attack (5:00 p.m. or midnight). Subjects evaluated the victim on a series of 0 to 9 bipolar adjective scales. MANOVA showed a significant main effect for the locked/unlocked conditions: Nurses who read the unlocked version, as compared to those reading the locked version, showed differences in terms of more negative ratings of the victim on such variables as less liking for her, less identification with her, and assigning greater responsibility for the rape to her (p less than or equal to .005). Time of attack and the interaction were not significant.

  16. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  18. Carina as a useful and reliable radiological landmark for detection of accidental arterial placement of central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Ranjan, Shetty; Jasvinder, Kaur; Nanda, Shetty

    2010-12-01

    Central venous catheters are commonly used in the management of critically ill patients. Their insertion can be challenging in hemodynamically unstable patients and in those with altered thoracic anatomy. Although ultrasound guided insertion can reduce this problem, this facility may not be available in all locations and in all institutions. Accidental arterial puncture is one of the very serious complications that can occur during central venous catheter insertion. This is usually detected clinically by bright color and projectile/pulsatile flow of the returning blood. However, such means are known to be misleading especially in hypoxic and hemodynamically unstable patients. Other recognized measures used to identify arterial puncture would be blood gas analysis of the returning blood, use of pressure transducer to identify waveform pattern and the pressures. In this article, we propose that trachea and carina can be used as a reliable radiological landmark to identify accidental arterial placement of central venous catheters. We further conclude that this information could be useful especially when dealing with post-resuscitation victims and hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients.

  19. [Management of hypothermia -- Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.

  20. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  1. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  2. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  3. Death by hanging while watching violent pornographic videos on the Internet - suicide or accidental autoerotic death?

    PubMed

    Vennemann, B; Pollak, S

    2006-03-01

    In deaths by hanging, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate between autoerotic accident and suicide. Our report deals with a 30-year-old man who was found hanged in the living room of his flat. The deceased was wearing headphones connected to a PC. Within the deceased's view was a computer screen showing the last picture of a video file downloaded from the Internet with the head of an unclothed, allegedly hanged female. The deceased's left hand was inside his trousers in the genital region. The autopsy did not only show findings typical for hanging, but also advanced sarcoidosis, which was known to the victim. Although this basic illness could have been a possible motive for suicide, the circumstances in the presented case pointed more in the direction of an accidental autoerotic death. As far as we know, this is the first description of a death during autoerotic activity in which sexual stimulation was achieved by watching a video file downloaded from the Internet.

  4. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Juvenile Victimization Experiences on Adult Victimization and Fear of Crime.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Jonathan A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2015-11-01

    Research has identified that juvenile victimization can play a detrimental role for individuals later in life. While this literature has focused on direct and indirect forms of victimization at different stages of life, the influence of juvenile victimization on fear of crime and violent victimization as an adult has been limited. To expand this body of literature, the present research examines the effects of direct (sexual victimization) and indirect (witnessing parental intimate partner violence) juvenile victimization on fear of crime as well as the prevalence of victimization as an adult. Using telephone survey data collected from randomly selected Texas adults, this study demonstrates that both juvenile sexual victimization and indirect victimization increase the likelihood of adult victimization, whereas juvenile sexual victimization increases the likelihood of adult sexual victimization. In contrast, fear of crime as an adult was not significantly influenced by either juvenile sexual victimization or indirect victimization. A discussion of how these findings relate to previous research, limitations, and implications are also provided. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Chronic pain in torture victims.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Adam J; Mehta, Pankaj; Christo, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Torture is widely practiced throughout the world. Recent studies indicate that 50% of all countries, including 79% of the G-20 countries, continue to practice systematic torture despite a universal ban. It is well known that torture has numerous physical, psychological, and pain-related sequelae that can inflict a devastating and enduring burden on its victims. Health care professionals, particularly those who specialize in the treatment of chronic pain, have an obligation to better understand the physical and psychological effects of torture. This review highlights the epidemiology, classification, pain sequelae, and clinical treatment guidelines of torture victims. In addition, the role of pharmacologic and psychologic interventions is explored in the context of rehabilitation.

  6. Legal interventions for child victims.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Debra

    2003-04-01

    Many commentators have expressed concern over the plight of children in the nation's court system, fearing that child victim/witnesses might suffer significant trauma. In efforts to alleviate this presumed trauma, new laws were passed and traditional procedures were modified. This paper synthesizes available research addressing 2 questions pertaining to the mental health needs of child victims: (1) To what extent are children traumatized by their involvement in the justice system, and (2) What interventions are effective in reducing children's trauma? The review concludes that most children can testify without suffering long-term adverse effects. It also identifies elements of the justice system that appear to heighten stress for children. Finally, it suggests several strategies that might be effective in alleviating that stress.

  7. A Plea for Rape Victims

    PubMed Central

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A woman was seen in the office several days after emergency department treatment for sexual assault. A cervical swab taken in the office grew Chlamydia trachomatis. No cultures for this organism had been taken in the emergency department, and the patient had not been given prophylactic antibiotics against Chlamydia. Physicians dealing with rape victims should culture for and cover with appropriate antibiotics for Chlamydia trachomatis, which is capable of causing pelvic inflammatory disease and eventual infertility or ectopic pregnancy. PMID:21279132

  8. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  9. Accidental introductions of natural enemies: causes and implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accidental introductions of natural enemies, including parasitoid and predatory groups, may exceed species introduced intentionally. Several factors favor this: a general surge in international trade; lack of surveillance for species that are not associated with live plants or animals; inability to ...

  10. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  11. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  12. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  13. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  14. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  15. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  16. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  17. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    PubMed

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  18. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  19. Factors which predict violence victimization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence is a major public health issue, globally and on the African continent. This paper looks at Uganda and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the study results for violence prevention programs. Methods The study includes the responses of 2 399 Ugandans collected in 2011 by the Fifth Round of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 259 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the last year. Results Logistical regression analysis identified six factors that predict physical violence in Uganda. In order, these included being the victim of a property crime, age, gender, fear of crime in the home, poverty, and residential crowding. The surprising findings relate to what may be called target hardening, especially for those likely to be re-victimized. Respondents did tend to be re-victimized, with about 61 percent of violence victims also property crime victims. Fear of crime in home was another predictor of violence victimization, and many of these respondents had been crime victims. Conclusion These findings imply that target hardening should be the basis to begin to implement violence prevention programs in Uganda. The suggestion is crime prevention personnel/ law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimization and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:25918575

  20. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  1. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  2. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions.

  3. Childhood Predictors of Teen Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Carl D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on predictors of teen dating violence (TDV) has used cross-sectional data, which weakens predictive modeling and hypothesis testing analyses. This study uses prospective and retrospective longitudinal data on a community sample to examine previously identified predictors of TDV victimization and pathways from childhood risk and protection to TDV victimization. Data are from 941 participants in the Raising Healthy Children project. Bivariate analyses found associations in the expected direction between potential predictors and TDV victimization. For girls, a multivariate path model indicated that higher levels of bonding to parents and social skills protected against TDV victimizations, partly by reducing early adolescent alcohol use. While externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early adolescence were predicted by childhood risk and protective factors for girls, neither uniquely predicted TDV victimization. For boys, there was an indirect path from childhood bonding to parents to TDV victimization through early adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID:20514813

  4. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is regulating...

  5. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  6. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  7. 76 FR 58566 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Report of Accidental Injury in Support... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation... needed to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury. DATES: Written comments...

  8. "Why Me?" An Attributional Theory of Adjustment to Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; And Others

    Studies on victimization suggest that victims, whether of crime, accident, disease, or natural disaster, ask "why me?" questions and that finding answers to these questions seems related to the victims' adjustment. An attributional theory of victims' search for meaning in their misfortune proposes that victims perceive their misfortunes as…

  9. Identifying Bully Victims: Definitional versus Behavioral Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Furlong, Michael J.; Kras, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method — describing “bullying” as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power, and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term “bullying,” but instead included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences, but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PMID:23244644

  10. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  11. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  12. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  13. Victim's Response Cycle: A Model for Understanding the Incestuous Victim-Offender Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Roper, Liza

    1996-01-01

    The victim-response cycle model focuses on specific aspects of the relationship that victims have with their offenders which contribute to the degree of trauma that victims experience. This model addresses attachment and learned coping responses to assist clinicians in treating symptomatic behavior. A case example demonstrating the model is…

  14. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  15. Bullies, Victims, and Bully/Victims: Distinct Groups of At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Denise L.; Nasel, Tonja; Eitel, Patricia; Crump, Aria Davis; Saylor, Keith; Yu, Kai; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed middle school students on incidents of bullying and victimization. Found that psychosocial and behavioral predictors such as problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting linearly separated never bullied or victimized students from the victim group, from the…

  16. Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…

  17. Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…

  18. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  19. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  20. Weapon Involvement in the Victimization of Children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Hamby, Sherry L; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    To report the prevalence of weapons involved in the victimization of youth with particular emphasis on weapons with a "high lethality risk" and how such exposure fits into the broader victimization and life experiences of children and adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence, a nationally representative telephone survey of youth ages 2 to 17 years and caregivers (N = 4114) conducted in 2011. Estimates from the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence indicate that almost 14 million youth, ages 2–17, in the United States have been exposed to violence involving a weapon in their lifetimes as witnesses or victims,or .1 in 5 children in this age group [corrected]. More than 2 million youth in the United States (1 in 33) have been directly assaulted in incidents where the high lethality risk weapons of guns and knives were used. Differences were noted between victimizations involving higher and lower lethality risk weapons as well as between any weapon involvement versus none. Poly-victims, youth with 7 or more victimization types, were particularly likely to experience victimization with any weapon, as well as victimization with a highly lethal weapon compared with nonpoly-victims. Findings add to the field's broadening conceptualization of youth victimization highlighting the potentially highly consequential risk factor of weapon exposure as a component of victimization experiences on the mental health of youth. Further work on improving gun safety practices and taking steps to reduce children's exposure to weapon-involved violence is warranted to reduce this problem. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature.

  2. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  4. Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1998-11-01

    Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males.

  5. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accidental mydriasis from exposure to Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens).

    PubMed

    Havelius, Ulf; Asman, Peter

    2002-06-01

    To report clinical findings after accidental instillation into the eye of sap from Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens). We report findings on seven patients who developed sudden onset of unilateral mydriasis. At least three of them also had ipsilateral cycloplegia and one developed transient tachycardia. The symptoms evolved after ocular exposure to sap from Angel's trumpet, a plant containing natural alkaloids with parasympatholytic properties. Six patients were initially unaware of the cause of their symptoms. In these cases, patient history revealed recent contact with Angel's trumpet. Accidental ocular instillation of sap from Angel's trumpet should be noted as a cause of sudden onset of mydriasis in otherwise unaffected patients and also of general symptoms like tachycardia.

  7. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  8. Technology-based interpersonal victimization: predictors of patterns of victimization over time.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that could predict youth's future technology-based interpersonal victimization and the pattern of that future victimization over time. Data from Growing up With Media, a national, longitudinal, online study were analyzed. At baseline, participants (N = 1,018) were 10- to 15-year-old English speakers who had used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Twenty-nine percent reported repeat technology-based interpersonal victimization over a 2-year period (re-victimized group); 10% were victims during only Year 1 (desisted victimized group); and 17% reported victimization during only Year 2 (later victimized group). Of the individual risk factors examined, prior technology-based interpersonal victimization and current amount of Internet use had the strongest overall associations with pattern of technology-based interpersonal victimization over the subsequent 2-year period. There was substantial overlap among the individual risk factors. Thus, they could be thought of more simply in terms of four latent risk and three individual risk factors. On average, across these seven risk factors, repeat victims had the greatest average risk score (0.21) and the not victimized group had the lowest (-0.16). Repeat victims were more likely to be female and older and had more prior experience with problem behaviors, substance use, and negative parent-child relationships as compared with the other three groups. Being female, prior experience with problem behavior, prior substance use, and prior negative parent-child relationships were also associated with frequency of technology-based interpersonal victimization in the near (Year 1) and more distant (Year 2) future. Many of these risk factors related to technology-based victimization over time are malleable, suggesting opportunities for effective targeting of future prevention efforts.

  9. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I.; Berg, Mark T.; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Background Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. Objective To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008–2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Results Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Conclusions Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting. PMID:27466811

  10. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

  12. Accidentally discovered large metallic intra-orbital foreign body.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Yilikal

    2002-01-01

    A 6.2 cm long and 2.7 cm thick metallic foreign body was accidentally found and removed from a 62 years old man. He was sent to a minor operation theater for repair of left lower lid laceration secondary to trauma after a fight. Subsequent investigation, management, patient follow-up and outcome are discussed. Importance of careful history taking, thorough physical examination and proper investigations are stressed.

  13. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil A; Kundargi, Vinay S; Patil, Siddangouda B; Biradar, Ashok N; Desai, Anup S

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  14. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed Central

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R.

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  15. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  16. Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; de Farias Cascudo, Elialba; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; da Silva, Marcelo Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis].

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; Cascudo, Elialba de Farias; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; Silva, Marcelo Carneiro da

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Accidental ingestions of oral prescription drugs: a multicenter survey.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, B J; Rock, A R; Cohn, M S; Litovitz, T

    1989-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of oral prescription drugs by children under age five continues to be a public health problem. A telephone survey of 1,866 ingestion incidents reported to nine poison control centers was conducted in the spring of 1986. Accidental ingestion occurred most often with a two-year-old child (42 per cent) in their own home (82 per cent). Thirty-five per cent of the toxic drugs ingested at home belonged to someone other than the immediate family, most often a grandparent. Toxic drugs were more often out of their usual storage location and in non-child-resistant prescription packaging, a nonprescription container, or in no container. Twenty-two per cent of all child-resistant packages were non-functional. Overall, at least 61 per cent of all medications had no child-resistant barrier at the time of ingestion. Accessible storage locations such as the kitchen counter, table top, or top of a dresser or bedside table greatly increased the risk of accidental ingestion. These results suggest the need for effective child-resistant packaging that is easier for all adults to use. PMID:2660604

  19. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  20. Accidental asphyxia in bed in severely disabled children.

    PubMed

    Amanuel, B; Byard, R W

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether there are specific situations which may increase the risk of accidental asphyxia during sleep in children with physical and mental disabilities. Review of all cases where death was attributed to accidental asphyxia caused by unsafe sleeping situations in children listed in the Department of Histopathology database over a 10-year period from March 1989 to February 1999. A total of 26 cases were found (M:F, 19:7; age range, 1-48 months; average age, 7.4 months). Of those cases, two involved children with significant mental and physical impairment. Case 1: A 4-year-old boy with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, macrocephaly and severe developmental delay, was found dead with his head hanging over a wooden board attached to the side of his bed. Case 2: A 4-year-old boy with lissencephaly and severe developmental delay was found dead wedged between a retractable mesh cot side and the side of his bed. In both cases the devices resulting in death had been put in place to prevent the boys from falling out of bed. Accidental asphyxia in physically and mentally impaired children may be caused by devices that have been used to prevent injury from falling out of bed. Careful assessment of the specific developmental problems that children suffer should be undertaken before their beds are modified. It may be safer for these children either to have no barrier, or to have drop-sided cots/beds that meet recognized safety standards.

  1. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  2. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  3. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  5. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  6. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  7. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  8. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  9. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  10. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  11. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  12. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  13. Teenage Victims: A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Catherine J.

    The information in this report on teenage victims of crime is based on data obtained from the National Crime Survey for the years 1982 through 1984. The introduction summarizes crimes against teenagers, highlighting numbers, rates of victimization, and differences in crimes against teenagers and adults. These topics are discussed in detail: (1)…

  14. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  15. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    PubMed

    Pittaro, P

    1978-01-01

    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  16. School Crime & Violence: Victim's Rights. Revised 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    This comprehensive guide for protecting school crime victims provides a concise, central source for quickly accessing and utilizing new legal authorities pertinent to the inalienable right to safe schools and tort principles relating to the rights of campus crime victims. Intended for school officials and trial lawyers, the book can also be used…

  17. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  20. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  1. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  2. Family Context and Criminal Victimization in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David; Menard, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Reports using data from the Denver Youth Survey to investigate the influence of family factors in predicting adolescent victimization. Results indicate that family context (particularly parental problem behavior), family involvement, adolescent social isolation from the family, and positive parenting were predictive of adolescent victimization,…

  3. Bay Area Students Help Victims and Witnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Dave

    1978-01-01

    Aid to Victims and Witnesses (AVW), sponsored by the San Mateo (California) Probation Department and staffed almost entirely by citizen and student volunteers, offers immediate financial and emotional aid to victims of violent crime after police call AVW's hot line. AVW also helps witnesses to crime in court appearances. (MF)

  4. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  5. Deviant Lifestyles and Violent Victimization at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and…

  6. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  7. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  8. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  9. Persecutors, Victims and Rescuers in Harlequin Romances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassencahl, Fran

    Based on a pattern of interaction, in which the interactants fulfill the roles of victim, persecutor, or rescuer, a study of ten Harlequin romantic novels was undertaken to determine what factors provided for the readers' identification with the Harlequin characters. It was found that Harlequin heroines manifested their status as victims by…

  10. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  11. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  12. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  13. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  14. Youth victimization: school climate or deviant lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-02-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more recently, victimization. Hierarchical analysis of data from 5,037 11th-grade students in 33 schools found that offending behavior was the strongest predictor for both minor and more serious forms of victimization. School climate, specifically the social cohesion of schools, reduced serious violent victimization risk. However, school climate did not affect the relationship between offending and victimization, and was not substantially modified when characteristics of the school environment were considered.

  15. Workplace victimization: aggression from the target's perspective.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Karl; Thau, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research on workplace victimization, which we define as acts of aggression perpetrated by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended target. We compare several types of victimizing behaviors that have been introduced into the organizational psychology literature to illustrate differences and similarities among them. We then review studies looking at who is likely to become a victim of aggression. Predictors include personality, demographic, behavioral, structural, and organizational variables. We also review research on coping strategies for victimization, which include problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. We conclude with a summary of challenges for victimization research. These include addressing the proliferation of constructs and terms into the literature, attempting to clarify inconclusive findings, and using theory to guide the selection of study variables.

  16. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  17. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  18. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.

  19. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated.

  2. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk for food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  3. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C; Brinkman, William

    2002-11-01

    To assess accidental poisoning in children in the Caribbean country of Antigua and Barbuda, including the incidence, the types of substances ingested, the age of the children involved, and the clinical outcomes. The results from Antigua and Barbuda were compared with the results of other reports from the English-speaking Caribbean and from the United States of America. We performed a retrospective review of the charts of all patients less than 13 years old admitted to the Children's Ward at Holberton Hospital in Antigua for accidental poisoning between March 1989 and March 1999. Those data were compared with data from earlier reports from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and the United States of America. In Antigua and Barbuda there were 255 hospital admissions for accidental poisoning among children below 13 years old over that 10-year period. Of the 255 ingestions, 115 of them (45%) were in 1-year-old children, 69 (27%) were in 2-year-old children, and 26 (10%) were in 3-year-old children. These proportions in Antigua and Barbuda are similar to the age patterns seen in the other countries with which we made comparisons. In Antigua and Barbuda there was an annual average of 26 hospital admissions for poisoning for the roughly 20,000 children below 13 years of age, for a rate of 1.3 per 1,000. In comparing the patterns of childhood poisoning in all the countries we studied, we found that, as economic levels rose, there was a shift in the substances ingested, with hydrocarbon and plant ingestions decreasing and chemical and medication ingestions increasing. There is an increasing variety and complexity of poisonous substances ingested as economic conditions improve. This trend would make the establishment of a poison control center for the English-speaking Caribbean a logical step.

  4. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  5. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-08-26

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  6. Evaluation and treatment of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Peyko, Vincent; Cohen, Victor; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Pearl-Davis, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    A case of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine is described. A 47-year-old man arrived at the emergency department after accidental injection of epinephrine with an autoinjector into his left thumb. His vital signs were stable at admission. The patient was allergic to nuts and thought he may have eaten something containing a pine nut. The patient reported feeling itching in his throat but had no shortness of breath or swollen tongue. He tried to self-administer an epinephrine injection, but it did not inject. While he was checking the device, it accidently injected into his left thumb pad. A review of systems revealed throat discomfort, a tingling sensation of the tongue, and a left-thumb puncture with pain. Physical examination of the left thumb pad revealed a pale, cool thumb with diminished capillary refill and punctuate black discoloration at the site of injection. Topical nitroglycerin paste was applied but had no effect, so terbutaline was ordered. The terbutaline injection was prepared as a 1:1 preparation of terbutaline sulfate 1 mg/mL and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The immediate effects were the return of color from pale white to red and observable perfusion to the area within seconds. After 20 minutes, the red color remained, with observable perfusion and warmth, in addition to complete neurosensory function. Sixty minutes after terbutaline administration, the patient was discharged home. A 47-year-old man who accidentally injected himself in the thumb with an epinephrine autoinjector was successfully treated with subcutaneous terbutaline. The treatment had an immediate effect, including revascularization and resolution of pain.

  7. Outcome of accidental peritoneal dialysis catheter holes or tip exposure.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Wilcox, Jennifer E

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for acute peritonitis. One risk factor is accidental exposure of the catheter to a non-sterile surface. We studied catheter exposures in 17 pediatric patients receiving PD who developed 16 holes and 12 other accidental exposures. The rate of exposures was 3.7 events/100 patient-months. After exposure, the mean counts (+ or - standard error) of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells, and neutrophils were 39.8 + or - 19.3, 9.5 + or - 7.1, and 24.2 + or - 5.3/mm(3), respectively. There was a trend towards higher peritoneal fluid WBC in patients with holes than in those with exposures (60.1 + or - 34.8 vs. 15.4 + or - 5.1/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.2). The initial peritoneal fluid WBC count was significantly higher if there was a positive culture than a negative culture (165.0 + or - 132.6 vs. 20.3 + or - 6.4/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.01). The percentage of neutrophils was higher in patients with a positive culture than in those with a negative culture (54.7 + or - 14.1 vs. 19.1 + or - 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Of the 28 patients, 27 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics, as per the protocol at that time. Among those treated, 7% developed a positive culture (all staphylococcal species) while 93% had a negative culture. We conclude that following accidental exposure of the peritoneal dialysis catheter: (1) the prevalence of peritonitis is low; (2) measuring peritoneal fluid WBC provides treatment guidance; (3) if treatment is initiated, it should be applied intraperitoneally and include activity against Gram-positive organisms.

  8. Extrapyramidal symptoms following accidental ingestion of risperidone in a child.

    PubMed

    Cheslik, T A; Erramouspe, J

    1996-04-01

    To describe the development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) precipitated by an accidental overdose of risperidone in a 3.5-year-old boy. The boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral upward eye gaze, jerky movements of his extremities, and motor restlessness following an accidental ingestion of a single 4-mg risperidone tablet. Decontamination with NaCl 0.9% lavage and activated charcoal with sorbitol was performed. His symptoms responded immediately to intravenous diphenhydramine (on 3 different occasions) during his first 9.5 hours of hospitalization. He experienced no additional EPS, and was discharged home approximately 33 hours following initial presentation. At home, he received three oral doses of diphenhydramine in the 24 hours following hospital discharge because of hand tremor, total body shivering, and eye wandering. These signs resolved without further complications. Although the incidence of EPS associated with therapeutic risperidone use is low, its occurrence following overdose is less clearly defined. This represents the first published case, to our knowledge, of risperidone overdose in a child and highlights the potential for dystonic reactions at low doses in this population. Seven intentional overdoses of risperidone in adults (aged 21-68 y) have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. Amounts ingested ranged from 5 to 270 mg. All adult patients appeared to have a relatively benign course. Reported symptoms included drowsiness, slurred speech, altered levels of consciousness, hypertension, tachycardia, electrocardiogram abnormalities, atypical motor behavior, tremors, and other EPS (not specified). Accidental ingestion of low doses of risperidone can cause EPS in children that may respond well to an anticholinergic agent. Overdose management includes gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal with cathartic, cardiovascular monitoring, and supportive therapy.

  9. Enhancing victim empathy for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level.

  10. Victim advocates' perceptions of legal work.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Past scholarship has weighed the risks and rewards of legal remedies for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Missing from this debate, however, is an analysis of the social incentives for victim advocates to offer legal options to their clients. Preliminary findings show that victim advocates perceive that outsiders respect legal work more than their care work with clients (listening, caring, and empathizing). This study offers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) the devaluation of women's care work in general, (2) the confidentiality constraints on communicating the value of their care work, and (3) popular assumptions that care work requires professional credentials in order to be legitimate.

  11. The family of the trauma victim.

    PubMed

    Solursh, D S

    1990-03-01

    Emergency room and trauma unit work offers unique challenges to the nurse, both professionally and personally. One of these challenges is understanding and dealing with the behavior of victims' families. Some of the factors that impact on the behavior of families include (1) the sudden and unpredictable nature of trauma; (2) the nature of the relationship of the specific family member and the trauma victim; (3) the issues of responsibility, anger, and guilt; (4) religious beliefs; and (5) trauma sequelae. The development of organ and tissue donor programs and of psychotraumatology as ways to help ease the plight of trauma victims' families are also discussed.

  12. Medical management of a potentially toxic accidental trialkylamine ingestion during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Blue, Rebecca S; Hudson, Joseph C; Rieders, Michael F; James, John T; Stepaniak, Philip C

    2013-10-01

    To reduce excessive iodine consumption by astronauts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed various methods of removing residual iodine after iodine-based water purification aboard spacecraft. The Low Iodine Residual System (LIRS) was developed as an iodine removal system for use aboard the space shuttle. This is a case report of an accidental, potentially toxic ingestion by astronauts aboard a space shuttle mission following exposure to contaminated water from LIRS filtration and the medical response operations that followed. Astronauts ingested significant levels of trialkylamines from water that had passed through gamma-irradiated, de-iodination resin in the LIRS hardware. Medical response operations included crew evaluations, consultations with toxicologists and systems experts, hardware testing, contaminant evaluation, and close crewmember follow-up. Despite the significant ingestion there were no adverse clinical symptoms in any of the exposed astronauts; however, the case highlights a simple pitfall in the classification of hardware that ultimately lead to a potentially harmful toxic ingestion among the crewmembers, and the real-time response of medical personnel to ensure crew safety.

  13. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  15. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  16. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    PubMed

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  19. Assessing victim empathy in sexual offenders using the victim letter task.

    PubMed

    Webster, Stephen D

    2002-10-01

    In attempting to enhance victim empathy, it is common to have sexual offenders write an apology letter to their victim. This task is thought to reveal the level of empathy that the sexual offender has for his victim. However, until now there has been no reliable method for judging the quality of empathy revealed in the victim letter. This paper reports the development and evaluation of 2 templates to score letters written to child victims and adult victims, respectively. An acceptable level of interrater reliability was obtained for the templates. Deficits revealed by the templates did not correlate with scores on a generic empathy measure but did correlate with scales measuring minimization and denial. The measures were also sensitive to change following empathy training.

  20. The Bulgarian Emergency Response System for dose assessment in the early stage of accidental releases to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Syrakov, D; Veleva, B; Prodanova, M; Popova, T; Kolarova, M

    2009-02-01

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is being developed in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1994. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast meteorological information and a numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. In the present paper, the further development of this system for a mixture of radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants is described. The basic module for the BERS, the numerical dispersion model EMAP, is upgraded with a "dose calculation block". Two scenarios for hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases from two NPPs, one in Western, and the other in Eastern Europe, are numerically simulated. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed dose by thyroid gland formed by 37 different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields for both case studies and discussed.

  1. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  2. Delinquent Behavior, Violent Victimization, and Coping Strategies among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…

  3. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  4. Bullies and Victims at School: Are They the Same Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, Dan; Endresen, Inger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of bully-victims and aggressive/provocative victims varies quite considerably in previous research, and only a few studies have reported prevalence rates across grades. There is also a lack of detailed analyses of the extent to which victims are also bullies, and bullies are also victims. Aims: To study the…

  5. Bullies and Victims at School: Are They the Same Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, Dan; Endresen, Inger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of bully-victims and aggressive/provocative victims varies quite considerably in previous research, and only a few studies have reported prevalence rates across grades. There is also a lack of detailed analyses of the extent to which victims are also bullies, and bullies are also victims. Aims: To study the…

  6. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  7. Another Look at School Crime: Student as Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Dale A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Though no significant sex and race differences were found between victims and nonvictims of crime in K-8 schools, in junior highs, Whites and males were most likely to be victimized. Social psychological consequences of victimization included lowered self-esteem and perception of anonymity, especially among victims in White junior highs.…

  8. Delinquent Behavior, Violent Victimization, and Coping Strategies among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…

  9. Multiple Victimization of Spanish Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lila, Marisol; Herrero, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Multiple victimization in adolescence is an issue that has received little research attention. Furthermore, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to victimization in different contexts. The aim of this study is to analyze correlates of multiple victimization in three contexts (home, school, and street). The following forms of victimization were…

  10. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  11. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  12. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  13. Multiple Victimization of Spanish Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lila, Marisol; Herrero, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Multiple victimization in adolescence is an issue that has received little research attention. Furthermore, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to victimization in different contexts. The aim of this study is to analyze correlates of multiple victimization in three contexts (home, school, and street). The following forms of victimization were…

  14. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  15. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  16. Advances in the Hopkinson bar testing of irradiated/non-irradiated nuclear materials and large specimens.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Carlo; Cadoni, Ezio; Solomos, George

    2014-05-13

    A brief review of the technological advances of the Hopkinson bar technique in tension for the study of irradiated/non-irradiated nuclear materials and the development of this technology for large specimens is presented. Comparisons are made of the dynamic behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated materials previously subjected to creep, low cycle fatigue and irradiation (2, 10 and 30 displacements per atom). In particular, complete results of the effect of irradiation on the dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304L steel, tested at 20, 400 and 550°C are presented. These high strain rate tests have been performed with a modified Hopkinson bar (MHB), installed inside a hot cell. Examples of testing large nuclear steel specimens with a very large Hopkinson bar are also shown. The results overall demonstrate the capability of the MHB to efficiently reproduce the material stress conditions in case of accidental internal and external dynamic loadings in nuclear reactors, thus contributing to the important process of their structural assessment.

  17. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  18. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  19. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  20. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Alayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  1. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  2. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  3. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  4. Quality of life among lifetime victimized men.

    PubMed

    Soares, Joaquim J F; Viitasara, Eija; Macassa, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men.

  5. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  6. A historical perspective: Simian AIDS-an accidental windfall.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Murray

    2016-10-01

    For the past 30 years, Simian AIDS has provided an indispensible animal model for the human disease. This historical perspective highlights the circumstances leading to the creation of this experimental model. Historical information and stored non-human primate (NHP) specimens, including isolates of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), were analyzed by molecular epidemiologic methods to trace the lineage and transmission of SIV among NHPs at US primate centers. The rhesus and stump-tailed macaque models of Simian AIDS are the result of the accidental transmission of SIV from healthy sooty mangabey carriers to naïve macaques during the course of human kuru experimental transmission studies at UC Davis during the 1960s. Simian AIDS, first recognized in the 1980s, is the accidental result of experimental kuru transmission experiments carried out in the 1960s, which led to the discovery of infectious prions but inadvertently transmitted SIV, unknown at that time, from sooty mangabeys to macaques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apnoea and brain swelling in non-accidental head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Stoodley, N; Cobley, C; Coles, L; Kemp, K; Geddes, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI. Methods: Retrospective case series (1992–98) with case control analysis of 65 children under 2 years old, with an SDH secondary to NAHI. Outcome measures were presenting symptoms, associated injuries and apnoea at presentation, brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemic changes on neuroimaging, and clinical outcome (KOSCHI). Results: Twenty two children had a history of apnoea at presentation to hospital. Apnoea was significantly associated with hypoxic ischaemic brain damage. Severe symptoms at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling/hypoxic ischaemic damage were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. Eighty five per cent of cases had associated injuries consistent with a diagnosis of non-accidental injury. Conclusions: Coma at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemia all predict a poor outcome in an infant who has suffered from SDH after NAHI. There is evidence of associated violence in the majority of infants with NAHI. At this point in time we do not know the minimum forces necessary to cause NAHI. It is clear however that it is never acceptable to shake a baby. PMID:12765909

  9. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  10. Accidental Peccei-Quinn Symmetry Protected to Arbitrary Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardi, Enrico; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    A S U (N )L×S U (N )R gauge theory for a scalar multiplet Y transforming in the bifundamental representation (N ,N ¯) preserves, for N >4 , an accidental U (1 ) symmetry first broken at operator dimension N . A vacuum expectation value for Y can break the symmetry to Hs=S U (N )L+R or to Hh=S U (N -1 )L×S U (N -1 )R×U (1 )L +R . In the first case the accidental U (1 ) gets also broken, yielding a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with mass suppression controlled by N . In the second case a global U (1 ) remains unbroken. The strong C P problem is solved by coupling Y to new fermions carrying color. The first case allows for a Peccei-Quinn solution with U (1 )PQ protected by the gauge symmetry up to order N . In the second case U (1 ) can get broken by condensates of the new strong dynamics, resulting in a composite axion. By coupling Y to fermions carrying only weak isospin, models for axionlike particles can be constructed.

  11. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are used in meat industry for “humane killing” of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Conclusion: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement’s and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity. PMID:28164044

  12. Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary. PMID:6655419

  13. Incidence and characteristics of accidental falls in hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Inagaki, Yuko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ando, Kei; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Yoshimasa; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    Aging of the patient population has led to increased occurrence of accidental falls in acute care settings. The aim of this study is to survey the annual occurrence of falls in a university hospital, and to examine procedures to prevent fall. A total of 49,059 inpatients were admitted to our hospital from April 2015 to March 2016. A fall assessment scale was developed to estimate the risk of fall at admission. Data on falls were obtained from the hospital incident reporting system. There were fall-related incidents in 826 patients (1.7%). Most falls occurred in hospital rooms (67%). Adverse events occurred in 101 patients who fell (12%) and were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥80 years old and in those wearing slippers. The incidence of falls was also significantly higher in patients in the highest risk group. These results support the validity of the risk assessment scale for predicting accidental falls in an acute treatment setting. The findings also clarify the demographic and environmental factors and consequences associated with fall. These results of the study could provide important information for designing effective interventions to prevent fall in elderly patients.

  14. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-05

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  15. [Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].

    PubMed

    Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind

    2016-03-15

    Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims.

  16. [Does a victim's fault exonerate medical responsibility?].

    PubMed

    Bernard, M G

    2005-06-01

    Victim fault constitutes a paradox in which the person creates herself her damage and runs the risk to suffer of it. That situation can occur in several cases, exploration or therapeutics. French liability rules consist in application of Civil code articles n(o) 1382 and 1383, but mainly 1147 concerning contractual liability since 1936. Indubitably, victim fault exonerates practitioner from her liability, at least partly. After report of a few files, the author proposes safety rules which can help to avoid problems.

  17. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  18. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    PubMed

    McBrearty, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  20. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

  1. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  2. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  3. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  4. Social Behavior and Peer Relationships of Victims, Bully-Victims, and Bullies in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of bully/victim problems in school-age children and adolescents has been investigated in many countries, only a few studies have been carried out among younger children. This study examines social behaviors and peer relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems in kindergarten. Methods: Three…

  5. Mental Health Correlates of the Victim-Perpetrator Relationship among Interpersonally Victimized Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven R.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines mental health correlates of different victim-perpetrator relationships among adolescent victims of interpersonal violence. A large and nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,023) responded to structured telephone interviews concerning mental health functioning (posttraumatic stress disorder--PTSD, major…

  6. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  7. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, E R; De Gregorio, M A; Mateo, P; Escó, R; Bascón, N; Morales, F; Bellosta, R; López, P; Gimeno, M; Roca, M; Villavieja, J L

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the "open-neck" (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase ( < 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis.

  8. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Keeping Victims Informed: Service Providers' and Victims' Experiences Using Automated Notification Systems.

    PubMed

    Irazola, Seri P; Williamson, Erin J; Niedzwiecki, Emily; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Automated victim notification is often touted as an effective and efficient means for providing victims timely and accurate information of their offenders' court events and status changes at reduced burden to the criminal justice system. Today, 47 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have some form of automated notification system. Researchers surveyed 1,246 service providers and 723 victims to examine their awareness and use of, satisfaction with, and experiences using automated notification systems. Findings indicate that service providers are aware of and use automated notification; however, less than one-quarter of victim respondents were registered for automated notification services. Service providers and victims who use automated notification services report high overall satisfaction; however, they also report challenges in using these systems. Service providers offer several recommendations for improving automated notification systems.

  10. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  11. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole.

    PubMed

    Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2017-06-01

    Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.

  12. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. 7208 Victims of domestic and public violence; an exploratory study based on the reports of assaulted individuals reporting to the police.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, U J L; Ceelen, M

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the data of 7208 victims (children and adults) of domestic and public violence were analysed after they reported this to the police in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In this analysis the characteristics of these intentional injuries were collected and compared. Despite some significant differences, there is no clear, specific way to distinguish between public and domestic violence. Therefore, it is more efficient for doctors to limit their focus to the differences between accidental and intentional injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks for Combined License Applications--DC/COL-ISG-013 and Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks.../COL-ISG-013, Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials...

  15. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    PubMed

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  16. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion...

  17. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  18. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  19. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  20. 76 FR 73021 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation or Pension/Statement of Witness to Accident, VA Form 21- 4176...: VA Form 21-4176 is used to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury that... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation or...

  1. Accidental hypothermia and frost-bite in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P G

    1987-02-02

    Two members of an Australian Antarctic expedition suffered hypothermia and frost-bite when they were stranded onshore after their small boat was swamped. Their efforts at field survival until recovery, six hours later, are described. At rescue one patient was found to have frost-bite and a core temperature of 30 degrees C. He was treated successfully by rapid rewarming in a hot bath. The other victim was considerably less hypothermic and suffered only mild frost-bite. Contrary to expectations the tall thin patient fared much better than the short heavier one. Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.

  2. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  3. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation.

  4. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile.

  5. Accidental boric acid poisoning following the ingestion of household pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebecca A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    Borate-containing compounds were formerly used as topical antiseptics and were components of many medicinal preparations including skin powders and ointments used for the treatment of burns and diaper rash. These compounds were also used as irrigants for body cavities, including the pleural, vaginal, and rectal cavities. These applications were subsequently discontinued by the medical community when the toxicity and potential lethality of borates were recognized. Although documented cases of borate poisoning are now rare, the chemical is still an active component commonly used in high concentrations in household disinfectants/cleaners, pesticides, and wood preservatives. While the majority of documented borate-related deaths have occurred in infants, the toddler population is currently at risk due to possible exposure to these household products. We present the case of an 18-month-old child who died following the accidental ingestion of a boric acid-containing, commercially available roach pesticide product.

  6. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  7. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  8. Endocardial left ventricular pacing after accidental aortic wall perforation.

    PubMed

    Şoşdean, Raluca; Enache, Bogdan; Macarie, Răzvan Ioan; Pescariu, Sorin

    2016-03-01

    Inadvertent endocardial placement of a pacing lead in the left ventricle through the aortic valve is a rare complication with an unknown incidence because of inadequate reporting. Reported cases are usually the result of lead insertion via the subclavian artery. A possible but very unusual situation is endocardial lead insertion in the left ventricle after aortic arch perforation. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman in whom a screw-in pacing lead accidentally perforated the aortic arch and continued its way through the ascending aorta, aortic valve and left ventricle, after insertion through the left subclavian vein. We describe how this complication was diagnosed, the predisposing factors, the risks it carries and the ways in which devastating consequences have so far been avoided, as the patient refused any surgical intervention including lead removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  9. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  10. [Complex pelvic trauma caused by an accidental side split].

    PubMed

    Heinermann, J D B; Hessmann, M H; Rommens, P M

    2005-04-01

    Complex pelvic ring fractures are defined as injuries of the pelvic ring in association with lesions of the pelvic organs or the pelvic soft tissues. These injuries are typically caused by high-energy accidents. In contrast to the typical mechanism of injury a case is described in which a low energy trauma led to a complex pelvic ring trauma. An obese woman suffered an open-book injury of the pelvis with severe open urogenital soft-tissue damage by accidentally doing forced splits. Primary stabilization of the pelvic ring with external fixation and secondary internal fixation with a double-plate osteosynthesis of the symphysis led to a good clinical outcome concerning the osseous lesion. The urogenital injuries with rupture of the bladder, the urethra and the vagina led despite immediate urological management to an incontinence, which finally required definitive urine drainage via an ileum conduit.

  11. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  12. Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions.

  13. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  14. Realization of unidirectional transmission under accidental degenerated Dirac point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Qun; Zhang, Yichi; Poo, Yin; Ma, HuiFeng; Wu, Ruixin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a good unidirectional transmission (UT) with high transmission efficiency without breaking time-reversal symmetry both theoretically and experimentally. By adjusting the topological structure and designing the component of all-dielectric photonic crystal, an accidental degenerated Dirac point is built at Γ point. We obtained simultaneous zero permittivity and zero permeability. Truncating the PC into a bow-tie shape, we observed a total reflection in one direction but a total transmission in the opposite direction. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data verifies such model supports a good UT even considering the material's loss. Due to the PC's scale invariance, this kind of UT can be conveniently exploited into terahertz or optical frequency, providing a great promising application to optical communication and optical circuit.

  15. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  16. Psychosocial Profile of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Leiner, Marie; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Villanos, Maria Theresa; Singh, Namrata; Blunk, Dan; Peinado, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR) and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims). Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue. PMID:24459665

  17. The Association between Peer Victimization, PTSD, and Dissociation in Child Victims of Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martine; Langevin, Rachel; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually abused children present a host of psychological difficulties, including dissociation and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms. Negative repercussions associated with sexual abuse may interfere with children’s ability to interact competently with their peers, and might put them at risk for peer victimization. The aims of the study were 1) to describe peer victimization experiences of sexually abused children using a multi-informant approach (self, parents, teachers), and 2) to examine if peer victimization experiences are associated with clinical levels of PTSD and dissociation after controlling for relevant variables. Method Participants were 158 children (104 girls and 54 boys; Mean age = 9.10) and their non-offending parent consulting after the disclosure of sexual abuse. Children, parents, and teachers completed a measure assessing peer victimization (Self-Report Victimization Scale). Measures of trauma-related symptoms (PTSD and dissociation) were used as outcome variables. Results More than half (60%) of sexually abused children reported being picked on, 51% reported sustaining verbal victimization and a third (35%) physical victimization by peers in the school context. Inter-informant agreement was higher between parents and teachers than between self-reports and adults’ reports. Peer victimization experiences increased the odds by up to threefold for clinical levels of dissociation and PTSD symptoms. Limitations Our findings are based on cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. No control group was included in the study. Conclusions Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention. Clinicians should include assessment of peer victimization experiences when evaluating sexually abused school-aged children. Prevention initiatives in terms of peer victimization could indirectly prevent worsening of symptoms in abused children. PMID:26773922

  18. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  19. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. [Accidental ingestion of two magnets--aggresive or prolonged approach?].

    PubMed

    Durko, Alina; Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Małecka-Panas, Ewa

    2007-05-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common pediatric problem. Non-sharp items like coins, jewelry, pieces of toys are most frequently found among swallowed objects. They usually pass through a child's digestive system without health consequences (40-90% of reported cases). Approximately 10% of children require endoscopic intervention and 1-3% undergoes a surgical treatment. Authors present a unique health hazard caused by multiple magnet ingestion and general management in these cases of this specific foreign body presence. A 6 y.o. boy, in excellent health has been admitted G.I. Dept. presenting a history of accidental ingestion of two magnets (size 1.5 x 0.5 cm) 4 days prior to hospitalization. On admission patient presented no symptoms of foreign body in GI tract, however his WBC was 15000/mm3, ESR-22mm. Foreign bodies have been removed under general anesthesia using endoscopic technique. Endoscopic view of the esophagus region from which magnet has been removed at first might have been identify as a perforation of the esophageal wall. Chest X-ray has not revealed symptoms of pneumothorax, as well as the contrast radiologic study showed symptoms of upper GI tract perforation. Conservative treatment has been administered. Patient has been discharged home with no complaints in general and local good condition. Ingestion of more than one magnets is an strong indication for an immediate endoscopic intervention. Such an algorithm is strongly advocated to prevent of lesion formation in the soft tissues located between two objects with paramagnetic properties which may cause ischemic necrosis and perforation of the GI tract wall.

  1. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  2. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  3. Reduction of State Victim Compensation Disparities in Disadvantaged Crime Victims Through Active Outreach and Assistance: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia; Green, Jon Dean; Kelly, Vanessa; Merrill, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether providing active outreach and assistance to crime victims as part of comprehensive psychosocial services reduced disparities in access to state compensation funds. Methods. We analyzed data from a randomized trial of injured crime victims (N = 541) and compared outcomes from comprehensive psychosocial services with usual community care. We examined the impact of outreach and assistance on disparities in applying for victim compensation by testing for interactions between victim characteristics and treatment condition in logistic regression analyses. Results. Victims receiving comprehensive services were much more likely to apply for victim compensation than were victims receiving usual care. Comprehensive services decreased disparities associated with younger age, lower levels of education, and homelessness. Conclusions. State-level victim compensation funds are available to help individuals recover physically, psychologically, and financially from crime victimization. However, few crime victims apply for victim compensation, and there are particularly low application rates among young, male, ethnic minority, and physical assault victims. Active outreach and assistance can address disparities in access to victim compensation funds for disadvantaged populations and should be offered more widely to victims of violent crime. PMID:18382004

  4. Interviewing alleged victims with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cederborg, A-C; Lamb, M

    2008-01-01

    When interviewing alleged victims of crime, it is important to obtain reports that are as accurate and complete as possible. This can be especially difficult when the alleged victims have intellectual disabilities (ID). This study explored how alleged victims with ID are interviewed by police officers in Sweden and how this may affect their ability to report information as accurately as possible. Twelve interviews with 11 alleged victims were selected from a larger sample. The complainants were interviewed when their chronological ages ranged from 6.1 to 22 years. A quantitative analysis examined the type of questions asked and the numbers of words and details they elicited in response. Instead of open-ended questions, the interviewers relied heavily on focused questions, which are more likely to elicit inaccurate information. When given the opportunity, the witnesses were able to answer directive questions informatively. Interviewers need special skills in order to interview alleged victims who have ID. In addition to using more open-ended questions, interviewers should speak in shorter sentences.

  5. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Mental Findings in Trauma Victims

    PubMed Central

    CAN, İsmail Özgür; DEMİROĞLU UYANIKER, Zehra; ULAŞ, Halis; KARABAĞ, Gökmen; CİMİLLİ, Can; SALAÇİN, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In medico-legal evaluation of trauma patients, the bio-psychological effects of the trauma and the severity of the injuries require to be evaluated. In this study, assuming the fact that psychiatric assessment is not taken into consideration in physical trauma cases, we planned to show the presence of psychological trauma in our medico-legally evaluated patients who presented with different types of traumas and to review the mental findings and diagnoses in trauma victims. Method We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 1975 patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the Department of Forensic Medicine at Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine for medico-legal evaluation between 1999 and 2009. Psychiatric assessment was performed in 142 patients by the Department of Psychiatry. The data contained in medico-legal reports and patient records were then examined with respect to patients’ age, gender, nature of traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses, descriptive characteristics of the patients, severity of trauma and past history of mental disorder and trauma experience. Results of the medicolegal evaluations were also analyzed. Result Of the 142 patients, 80 (56.3%) were female and their average age was 40.30±17.17 years. The most frequent traumatic events were traffic accidents (29.6%) and violence-related blunt force trauma (28.9%). When the distribution of the most common psychiatric diagnoses was examined, it was found that anxiety disorders were found in 69 cases (48.6%), adjustment disorders were found in 16 cases (11.3%) and mood disorders were found in 12 cases (8.5%). Among anxiety disorders, acute stress disorder (n=39) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=27) were the most common ones. In 27 cases of the 142, it was determined that, psychiatric symptoms and findings did not meet the diagnostic criteria of any psychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of psychiatric disorder was not significantly related with traumatic

  7. Mental health correlates of victimization classes among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin; Thompson, Sanna; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Literature reports high rates of street victimization among homeless youth and recognizes psychiatric symptoms associated with such victimization. Few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ in type and frequency of victimization and how youth in such classes differ in psychiatric profiles. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine whether classes of homeless youth, based on both type and frequency of victimization experiences, differ in rates of meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of homeless youth (N=601) from three regions of the United States. Results suggest youth who experience high levels of direct and indirect victimization (high-victimization class) share similarly high rates of depressive episodes and PTSD as youth who experience primarily indirect victimization only (witness class). Rates of meeting criteria for depressive episodes and PTSD were nearly two and three times greater, respectively, among the high victimization and witness classes compared to youth who never or rarely experienced victimization. Findings suggest the need for screening and intervention for homeless youth who report direct and indirect victimization and youth who report indirect victimization only, while prevention efforts may be more relevant for youth who report limited victimization experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transforming Care for Victims of Violence.

    PubMed

    Boatright, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force. She works collaboratively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and helped Nebraska state senators draft legislation to create a sexual assault payment program. In recognition of her determination to make a difference for victims of violence, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year Award for Transformational Leadership.

  9. Do trials of perpetrators retraumatize crime victims?

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Maercker, Andreas

    2004-02-01

    Attendance at trials of perpetrators could be retraumatizing for crime victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. To investigate this hypothesis, two studies were conducted in which retraumatization was defined as a significant increase in posttraumatic stress reactions. A cross-sectional study of 137 victims of rape and nonsexual assault revealed that trial variables do virtually not predict posttraumatic stress reactionsat a time several years after trial. A longitudinal study of 31 victims of rape and nonsexual assault revealed intraindividual stability of posttraumatic stress reactions for the time interval from a few weeks before the trial to a few weeks after the trial; in addition, interindividual stability was high. The results of both studies do not support the retraumatization hypothesis, which should therefore be used with caution.

  10. Opportunity, Choice, and Burglary Victimization in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya

    2015-07-01

    This study examined burglary victimization in Taiwan with an application of the structure-choice model that included four theoretical dimensions: proximity to crime, exposure to crime, target attractiveness, and guardianship. Drawing on the 2000 Taiwan Areas Criminal Victimization Survey, the results of the current study showed a moderate effect of the opportunity model on Taiwan's burglary victimization. Also, this study found both consistent and conflicting findings in the current data. The null effect of motorcycles (including scooters) that represented the concept of target attractiveness in relation to burglary risk reflected a difference in population density and transportation needs between Taiwan and the West. Clearly, the role of social context needs to be understood when studies apply a Western model to a non-Western context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Perceptions of blame and credibility toward victims of childhood sexual abuse: differences across victim age, victim-perpetrator relationship, and respondent gender in a depicted case.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated victim culpability, credibility, and assault severity in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. A 2 (respondent gender) x 3 (victim age) x 3 (perpetrator type) between-subjects design was employed. Members (391) of the U.K. general public read the depiction of a female child assaulted by an adult male perpetrator. Respondents then completed an attributions questionnaire. Findings showed that male respondents were less positive toward victims and considered the victim less credible than female respondents. Younger victims (aged five years) were considered more credible than older children (aged 15 years). Victims of strangers were considered more positively and more credible than victims of someone known to them (their father or a family friend). Suggestions for future work are proposed.

  12. An exploratory study of victim resistance in child sexual abuse: offender modus operandi and victim characteristics.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The use of self-protection strategies and related situation in rape has been studied by several scholars. The circumstances in which children are more likely to resist sexual victimization have, however, not been studied. This study examines the association between offence-related factors-specifically, the preoffence situation, the modus operandi strategies adopted by offenders, and victim characteristics-and victim resistance in sexual offences against children.The sample consisted of 94 adult offenders convicted of having committed a sexual offence against a child (or adolescent) of 16 years of age or younger and who agreed to provide confidential self-report data concerning their offending behavior and victim resistance actions. Victim resistance strategies were regrouped into three categories, namely, physical resistance, forceful verbal resistance, and nonforceful verbal resistance. The total number of resistance strategies was also used in the analyses. Overall, the age of the victim was found to be related to nonforceful verbal resistance, and violence was related to all forms of resistance.Younger girls were found to be more likely to employ nonforceful verbal resistance than older girls and to use a greater number of strategies as well. To provide reliable knowledge to build on for reducing the risk of child sexual abuse, this study suggests the need for prevention programs to include empirical findings regarding the circumstances in which children are more likely to resist sexual victimization.

  13. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  14. Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    PubMed

    Teplin, Linda A; McClelland, Gary M; Abram, Karen M; Weiner, Dana A

    2005-08-01

    Since deinstitutionalization, most persons with severe mental illness (SMI) now live in the community, where they are at great risk for crime victimization. To determine the prevalence and incidence of crime victimization among persons with SMI by sex, race/ethnicity, and age, and to compare rates with general population data (the National Crime Victimization Survey), controlling for income and demographic differences between the samples. Epidemiologic study of persons in treatment. Independent master's-level clinical research interviewers administered the National Crime Victimization Survey to randomly selected patients sampled from 16 randomly selected mental health agencies. Sixteen agencies providing outpatient, day, and residential treatment to persons with SMI in Chicago, Ill. Randomly selected, stratified sample of 936 patients aged 18 or older (483 men, 453 women) who were African American (n = 329), non-Hispanic white (n = 321), Hispanic (n = 270), or other race/ethnicity (n = 22). The comparison group comprised 32 449 participants in the National Crime Victimization Survey. National Crime Victimization Survey, developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. More than one quarter of persons with SMI had been victims of a violent crime in the past year, a rate more than 11 times higher than the general population rates even after controlling for demographic differences between the 2 samples (P<.001). The annual incidence of violent crime in the SMI sample (168.2 incidents per 1000 persons) is more than 4 times higher than the general population rates (39.9 incidents per 1000 persons) (P<.001). Depending on the type of violent crime (rape/sexual assault, robbery, assault, and their subcategories), prevalence was 6 to 23 times greater among persons with SMI than among the general population. Crime victimization is a major public health problem among persons with SMI who are treated in the community. We recommend directions for future research, propose

  15. CPS: client violence and client victims.

    PubMed

    Ringstad, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study that explored the extent and nature of workplace violence in child protective services (CPS). A total of 68 workers and clients reported on their experiences. Of workers, 70% reported being the victim of client violence, and 22% reported they had perpetrated a violent act toward a client. Of clients, 55% reported being a victim of assault by a CPS worker, while 42% acknowledged perpetrating violence. Future research needs and recommendations for practice including training, reporting, and policy development are discussed.

  16. Identification of victims in extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  17. A victim typology of sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, William R; Holcomb, Megan G

    2008-12-01

    A clinical sample of 20 sexual harassment victims who were successful in obtaining damage awards for trauma through the judicial system were sources of this descriptive study. Ratings of physical coercion of the harassment, MMPI-2 scores, and ratings on DSM-IV symptoms were analyzed. The majority of subjects met the DSM-IV criteria of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A cluster analysis identified four clusters of harassment victims, described as older-mature, younger-mature, anxious-guilty, and expressive-adaptive based on MMPI-2 scores and symptoms.

  18. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  19. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  20. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing...

  1. Financial Victimization of Adults With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Claycomb, Meredith; Black, Anne C.; Wilber, Charles; Brocke, Sophy; Lazar, Christina M.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with severe mental illness are vulnerable to having other people directly take or misappropriate their disability payments. This study investigated the prevalence of different types of financial victimization and the client characteristics associated with being financially victimized. Methods Adults (N=122) receiving inpatient or intensive outpatient psychiatric treatment who received Social Security disability payments completed assessments about money management and victimization. A path model was used to estimate the association of victimization with participant characteristics. Results Seventy percent of participants experienced at least one type of financial victimization in the preceding 28 days; 35% ran out of money because of victimization. Victimization was significantly associated with being younger, having had more psychiatric hospitalizations, having more recent alcohol use, and, most robustly, having problems managing money (β=.52, p<.01). Conclusions Financial victimization of disability recipients in acute care settings is common and more likely among people with recent substance use and difficulty managing their funds. PMID:24026837

  2. Peer victimization among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

  3. Relationship between particular areas of victimization and mental health in the context of multiple victimizations in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Forns, Maria; Kirchner, Teresa; Segura, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the relationship between different areas of victimization (e.g., sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms taking into account the full range of victimizations adolescents suffer. The final aim is to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that those studies which focus on just one area of victimization may be introducing into our psychological knowledge. A total of 923 adolescents (62.4% girls) between 14 and 18 years old were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess psychological problems (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and victimization, respectively. The large majority of adolescents reported having experienced more than one area of victimization. However, Conventional Crime area was the one that was more reported in isolation. Overall, the explicative power of a particular area of victimization was greatly reduced or even lost its significance when the other areas were taken into account. However, some areas remained significant and were different by gender. Clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of victimizations adolescents suffer when intending to understand the psychological aftermaths of victimization. Some areas of victimization appear to be more important at explaining particular psychological symptoms, those being Peer and Sibling Victimization in the case of boys, and both Conventional Crime and Internet Victimization in the case of girls.

  4. Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related deaths in San Diego County (1987): homicides and accidental overdoses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D N; Shaw, R F

    1989-03-01

    Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related homicides and fatal accidental overdoses in San Diego County were studied retrospectively for the 1987 calendar year. Cocaine was involved in 66 cases (39 homicides, 27 accidental overdoses), methamphetamine in 32 cases (23 homicides, 9 accidental overdoses), and a combination of cocaine and methamphetamine in 10 cases (4 homicides, 6 accidental overdoses). The composite for cocaine-related deaths was a 30-year-old black man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol or morphine. The composite for methamphetamine-related deaths was a 32-year-old Caucasian man who used methamphetamine with at least 1 other drug (usually ethanol). For cases involving both cocaine and methamphetamine, the composite was a 36-year-old Caucasian man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol, codeine, or morphine. Mean tissue concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine were significantly higher in accidental overdoses than in homicides except for cocaine concentrations in liver, which did not differ significantly between the two groups. For methamphetamine-related deaths there was no significant difference between mean tissue concentrations in accidental overdoses and in homicides. Cocaine or methamphetamine or both were involved in approximately one third of homicides in San Diego County in 1987, and when fatal accidental overdoses were included, cocaine was involved in twice as many cases as methamphetamine.

  5. Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Renesme, L; Garlantézec, R; Anouilh, F; Bertschy, F; Carpentier, M; Sizun, J

    2013-04-01

    To determine risk factors for accidental out-of-hospital deliveries (OHDs), which represent 0.5% of live births in France and are associated with poor neonatal outcomes. This retrospective case-control study assessed accidental OHDs that occurred in the Finistère District (Brittany, France) between January 2007 and December 2009. For each OHD case, two controls were randomly selected. Outcome measures included maternal demographics, obstetric characteristics and neonatal outcomes. During the study period, accidental OHDs accounted for 0.42% of all births; 76 accidental OHDs were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis found four independent risk factors for accidental OHD: multiparity [OR: 8.84 (3.22-24.29)], unemployment [OR: 4.99 (1.85-13.47)], lack of or poor antenatal care [OR: 9.00 (2.41-33.72)] and a travel time >45 min from home to the delivery unit [OR: 6.18 (1.33-28.65) versus < 15 min]. Significantly more newborns from the OHD group required admission to the neonatal unit (p = 0.04), but accidental OHD was not significantly associated with prematurity or low birth weight. Four risk factors for accidental OHD were identified. Setting up an anonymous registry of OHD cases could improve our knowledge and screening of women at risk. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  7. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  8. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule...

  9. Inmate-on-Inmate Victimization Among Older Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbs, John J.; Jolley, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the safety and victimization of older prisoners has been limited. This study examines quantitative and qualitative victimization data gathered from face-to-face interviews with 65 male prisoners (ages 50 and above) confined in a state-level prison system. Both victimization rates and narrative descriptions of psychological, property,…

  10. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  11. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2017-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  12. Maladjustment of Bully-Victims: Validation with Three Identification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Li, Xiang; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge on the psychosocial (mal)adjustment of bully-victims, children who bully others and are victimised by others, has been increasing, the findings have been principally gained utilising a single method to identify bully-victims. The present study examined the psychosocial adjustment of bully-victims (as compared with pure bullies…

  13. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  14. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  15. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2016-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  16. Maladjustment of Bully-Victims: Validation with Three Identification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Li, Xiang; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge on the psychosocial (mal)adjustment of bully-victims, children who bully others and are victimised by others, has been increasing, the findings have been principally gained utilising a single method to identify bully-victims. The present study examined the psychosocial adjustment of bully-victims (as compared with pure bullies…

  17. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...

  18. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  19. Relationship between Perceptions of Control and Victimization of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bi; Lei, Li

    2006-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of control in victims of school bullying, by surveying 108 adolescents with questionnaires. The result shows that there are significant gender differences in external control in general, internal control of sociality, and victimization of physical bullying. Physical victimization decreases as subjects grow older,…

  20. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  2. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  3. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  4. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations.

  5. Relationship between Perceptions of Control and Victimization of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bi; Lei, Li

    2006-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of control in victims of school bullying, by surveying 108 adolescents with questionnaires. The result shows that there are significant gender differences in external control in general, internal control of sociality, and victimization of physical bullying. Physical victimization decreases as subjects grow older,…

  6. Understanding and Responding to Teen Victims: A Developmental Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Julie L.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents experience victimization differently than either younger children or adults. This article explores how victimization impacts adolescents using a developmental framework, discusses barriers to help-seeking that youth may experience, and provides practical suggestions for supporting those youth who have been victimized. (Contains 2…

  7. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  8. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  9. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  10. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  11. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  12. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  13. An Experimental Analysis of Children's Dislike of Aggressors and Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mary Lynne; Cohen, Robert; Deptula, Daneen P.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined contextual factors influencing fourth- to sixth-graders' dislike for aggressors and their victims, by varying aggressor's and victim's behavior in scenarios describing camp experiences. Found that children disliked aggressors the most, followed by victims, and by other children in the scenarios. Aggressors were liked more if their victim…

  14. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  15. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  16. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  17. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our... family loses its life savings or home due to cruel deception. During National Crime Victims' Rights Week...

  18. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  19. The Sexual Victimization of College Women. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Turner, Michael G.

    The National College Women Sexual Victimization (NCVS) study attempted to build on and surmount the limitations of existing research on the sexual victimization of college students. In addition to the study of sexual victimization, the study investigated how rape estimates that use the two-stage process of behaviorally specific questions and…

  20. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  1. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  2. Interpersonal Correlates of Peer Victimization among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Pricilla K.; Byrd, Caroline P.

    2003-01-01

    Examined empathy, prosocial behavior, number of friends, self-reported popularity, and forms of interpersonal forgiveness as predictors of peer victimization among 52 seventh and eighth graders. High popularity was associated with low victimization, and interpersonal forgiveness scores were the strongest predictors of self-reported victimization,…

  3. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  4. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    Consolidating the most requested information on juvenile offenders and victims in the United States, this report presents statistical data in a user friendly format. The report is designed as a series of briefing papers on specific topics and contains short sections designed to be read in isolation from other parts of the report. The report is…

  5. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress,…

  6. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  7. The Social Contexts of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Davis, Heather A.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the amount of middle school students' bullying and nonbullying behaviors observed in three less-structured school venues: the monthly school dance, the cafeteria, and the locker/hall area. Two questions guided our analysis: (a) How do students' bullying and victimization behaviors and nonbullying social behaviors vary by…

  8. Gender Differences in Coping with Potential Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Habermeier, Wendy M.

    Individuals utilize many cues from their environments in order to assess their status. A person's status may be conceptualized as being made up of the roles the individual plays. One role individuals may play at some point in their life is the role of victim. This study sought to determine whether or not individuals possess a veridical assessment…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  10. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  11. Bullying Victims' Perceptions of Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Trude

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated bullying victims' perceptions of their teachers' support and monitoring when controlling for level of mental health problems, peer relationships, gender, and grade level. Given the nested structure of the data, multilevel analyses were employed to examine these associations. The quality of classroom interaction is highly…

  12. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  13. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  14. Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank D.; Lawrence, Gloria J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether those bullied in schools continued to show the effects of being bullied after they enrolled in an institution of higher education. There were 269 undergraduate students participating in the study. Previous studies (2006; 2008) conducted by the authors suggested the effects of bullying upon both the victim and bully are…

  15. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  16. Finding a Voice for the Victimized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Examines writers' growing awareness of the voices if the victims, exploring the representation of characters who resist subjugating colonial powers and tracing how various past and present authors have represented colonized peoples. By refocusing postmodern readers' consciousness on the violation of rights, authors reeducate and sensitize them to…

  17. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  18. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  19. Connections to Rescue Our Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…

  20. Criminal Consequences of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ames, M. Ashley

    1994-01-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, this study assessed the long-term criminal consequences of childhood abuse/neglect in 908 cases. Early childhood sexual abuse did not uniquely increase risk for later delinquent and criminal behavior, compared to other types of abuse/neglect. Child abuse victims were at higher risk of adult arrest for sex crimes…