Science.gov

Sample records for accidents involving pedestrians

  1. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  2. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (<2.5 m) and warn the truck driver acoustically. Bicycle lanes should be planned for one direction only, separated from the pedestrian way and large enough (2.0 m are safer than 1.6 m). Traffic education for school beginners and younger children should be repeated to be effective. Training for elderly bicyclists in cities with heavy traffic would also be reasonable. Active security systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers. PMID:22159502

  3. [Role of collision velocity in traffic accidents involving automobiles and pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Varga, T; Horváth, J

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of facts of the investigation and medical as well as technical experts' opinion on traffic accidents that happened between cars and pedestrians in Budapest in 1986, the authors studied the role of the travelling speed and collision speed in the severity of injuries suffered. They concluded that a 20% reduction of the 60 km per hour speed limit currently valid in inhabited areas in Hungary, i.e. compliance with the European standard, would reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents by as much as 40%, and the mean severity score of injuries suffered would decrease from ISS 26.90 to ISS 19.96. PMID:2241820

  4. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  5. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  6. Risks of pedestrian serious injuries and fatalities associated with impact velocities of cars in car-versus-pedestrian accidents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Ando, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    The first purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the car impact velocity and pedestrian injury severity or mortality risk. We investigated the frequency of serious injuries and fatalities of pedestrians using vehicle-pedestrian accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, minivans, and box vans (ordinary automobiles) and light passenger cars and light cargo vans (light automobiles). The results revealed that a 10-km/h reduction in impact velocity could mitigate severe pedestrian injuries in cases involving impact velocities of 40 km/h or more for the five vehicle types analyzed. Specifically, if the impact velocity was 30 km/h or less, the frequency of serious injuries was less than 27% and the frequency of fatalities was less than 5% for the five vehicle types. Therefore, if the collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) that uses a sensor to detect pedestrians can effectively reduce the impact velocity for various vehicle types, pedestrian injuries will be greatly mitigated. The second purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect injury risk. Impact experiments were conducted in which a sedan impacted against a pedestrian full-scale dummy at 40 km/h and a pedestrian headform impactor was impacted against a road surface. The results indicated that the risk of pedestrian serious injury was significantly affected by multiple impact conditions, such as the pedestrian height, car impact velocity, car frontal shape, and car stiffness in cases where the car impacted the pedestrian's head, the degrees of influence of which were driven by the vehicle impact velocity.

  7. [Socioecological determinants of the risk of accidents in young pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Joly, M F; Foggin, P; Pless, I

    1991-01-01

    We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally. PMID:1754700

  8. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary.

  9. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary. PMID:26047007

  10. Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China,a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail.

  11. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  12. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  13. Pedestrian fatality risk in accidents at unsignalized zebra crosswalks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Szagała, Piotr; Wolański, Maciej; Zielińska, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Poland has the second worst pedestrian fatality rate in the European Union. In the years 2007-2012, 9101 pedestrians were killed and 71328 injured on Polish roads. Almost 30% of pedestrian injury accidents took place at unsignalized zebra crosswalks. Based on police accident database, the worst problem in terms of numbers of fatalities occurs in built-up areas, on two-way undivided roads and at mid-block locations. Especially at risk are older people - almost 73% of pedestrians killed were 55 years or older. In order to show the effect of various factors on pedestrian fatality risk, a binary logit model with interaction terms was developed. The model shows that the following factors increase the probability of pedestrian's death at unsignalized zebra crosswalks: darkness, especially with no street lighting, divided road, two-way road, non built-up area, mid-block crosswalk location and summer time period. Speed limit is a crucial factor: probability of death increases by 37% with every 10km/h rise in the speed limit. Fatality risk increases also with victim's age and is higher for male pedestrians.

  14. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    PubMed

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. PMID:25794921

  15. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  16. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner.

  17. Severity of vehicle bumper location in vehicle-to-pedestrian impact accidents.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-10-10

    Pedestrian protection is one of the key topics for safety measures in traffic accidents all over the world. To analyze the relation between the collision site of the vehicle bumper and the severity of the lower extremity injuries, we performed biomechanical experiments. We compared the applied external force and the risks of subsequent injuries between the impact of the center and side positions of the front bumper. These comparisons were performed by practical impact tests with eight typical different types of cars which were typical of the current vehicle fleets. The tests were made using the TRL legform impactor which was a mechanical substitute of a pedestrian lower extremity. The TRL impactor is used all over the world for assessing the safety of car bumpers. It was found that the risks of lower extremity injuries in the impacts at the side positions, in front of the vehicle's side member, were significantly higher than those at the center. In the tests, we found that foam materials around the rigid front cross member had a significant effect on reducing the lower extremity injury risks and especially tibia fracture risk against vehicle bumper center collisions, but had little effect at the sides of the bumper over the vehicle's side members where the foam was thinner. We also found that the front shape of the vehicle affected the risk of ligaments injuries. According to these results, the information of impact locations of cars in vehicle-to-pedestrian traffic accidents is valuable for clinicians to diagnose patients with lower extremity injuries in traffic accidents and for forensic pathologists to analyze the accident reconstruction. Furthermore, the results suggest that testing of the bumper area in front of the main longitudinal beams should be included in the car safety legislation to require pedestrian safety.

  18. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents involving... railroad equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at...

  19. Study on Brain Injury Biomechanics Based on the Real Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengjian; Yin, Zhiyong

    This paper aimed to research the dynamic response and injury mechanisms of head based on real pedestrian traffic accidents with video. The kinematics of head contact with the vehicle was reconstructed by using multi-body dynamics models. These calculated parameters such as head impact velocity and impact location and head orientation were applied to the THUMS-4 FE head model as initial conditions. The intracranial pressure and stress of brain were calculated from simulations of head contact with the vehicle. These results were consistent with that of others. It was proved that real traffic accidents combined with simulation analysis can be used to study head injury biomechanics. Increasing in the number of cases, a tolerance limit of brain injury will be put forward.

  20. Two Simple Formulas for Evaluating the Lower Bound of the Impact Velocity in Vehicle-pedestrian Accidents.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tiefang; Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Ruoyu

    2016-07-01

    Formulas for evaluating the lower bound of the impact velocity are valuable in vehicle-pedestrian accident reconstruction. The theory of classical mechanics and four hypotheses were employed to derive formulas; the research results and simulation/accident tests were employed to validate their feasibility. Then, two simple formulas were developed according to the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and the pedestrian and the flight-phase distance. The results showed that the evaluated results by the two proposed formulas are inferior to the existing results. The influence of a roadside step on the impact velocity, which decreased with an increase in the flight-phase distance and a reduction in the road slope, was evaluated. Based on a real accident, the study concludes that the lower bound can be easily obtained with the proposed formulas, which can be used to determine the evaluated impact velocity during simulations. PMID:27364273

  1. Two Simple Formulas for Evaluating the Lower Bound of the Impact Velocity in Vehicle-pedestrian Accidents.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tiefang; Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Ruoyu

    2016-07-01

    Formulas for evaluating the lower bound of the impact velocity are valuable in vehicle-pedestrian accident reconstruction. The theory of classical mechanics and four hypotheses were employed to derive formulas; the research results and simulation/accident tests were employed to validate their feasibility. Then, two simple formulas were developed according to the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and the pedestrian and the flight-phase distance. The results showed that the evaluated results by the two proposed formulas are inferior to the existing results. The influence of a roadside step on the impact velocity, which decreased with an increase in the flight-phase distance and a reduction in the road slope, was evaluated. Based on a real accident, the study concludes that the lower bound can be easily obtained with the proposed formulas, which can be used to determine the evaluated impact velocity during simulations.

  2. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  3. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300{degrees}F and 1800{degrees}F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  4. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300[degrees]F and 1800[degrees]F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  5. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done. PMID:24406954

  6. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done. PMID:24406954

  7. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done.

  8. Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Han, Yong; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-11-01

    The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,863 in 2010. Pedestrians account for the highest number (1,714, 35%), and vehicle occupants the second highest (1,602, 33%). Pedestrian protection is a key countermeasure to reduce casualties in traffic accidents. A striking vehicle's impact velocity could be considered a parameter influencing the severity of injury and possibility of death in pedestrian crashes. A collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) using a sensor to detect pedestrians could be effective for reducing the vehicle/pedestrian impact velocity. Currently in Japan, cars equipped with the CDMBS also have vision sensors such as a stereo camera for pedestrian detection. However, the ability of vision sensors in production cars to properly detect pedestrians has not yet been established. The effect of reducing impact velocity on the pedestrian injury risk has also not been determined. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CDMBS in detecting pedestrians when it is installed in production cars. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of reducing impact velocity on mitigating pedestrian injury. Firstly, impact experiments were performed using a car with the CDMBS in which the car collided with a pedestrian surrogate. In these tests, the velocity was chosen for the various test runs to be 20, 40 and 60 km/h, respectively, which were based on the velocity distribution in real-world pedestrian crashes. The results indicated that the impact velocity reduction ranged approximately from 10 to 15 km/h at the standing location of a pedestrian surrogate at both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions. These results show that the system has the potential to reduce pedestrian casualties from car-to-pedestrian contacts. Secondly, finite-element analyses were performed simulating vehicle-to- pedestrian impacts with the THUMS pedestrian models. The vehicle models selected for the study included a medium sedan

  9. Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Han, Yong; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-11-01

    The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,863 in 2010. Pedestrians account for the highest number (1,714, 35%), and vehicle occupants the second highest (1,602, 33%). Pedestrian protection is a key countermeasure to reduce casualties in traffic accidents. A striking vehicle's impact velocity could be considered a parameter influencing the severity of injury and possibility of death in pedestrian crashes. A collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) using a sensor to detect pedestrians could be effective for reducing the vehicle/pedestrian impact velocity. Currently in Japan, cars equipped with the CDMBS also have vision sensors such as a stereo camera for pedestrian detection. However, the ability of vision sensors in production cars to properly detect pedestrians has not yet been established. The effect of reducing impact velocity on the pedestrian injury risk has also not been determined. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CDMBS in detecting pedestrians when it is installed in production cars. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of reducing impact velocity on mitigating pedestrian injury. Firstly, impact experiments were performed using a car with the CDMBS in which the car collided with a pedestrian surrogate. In these tests, the velocity was chosen for the various test runs to be 20, 40 and 60 km/h, respectively, which were based on the velocity distribution in real-world pedestrian crashes. The results indicated that the impact velocity reduction ranged approximately from 10 to 15 km/h at the standing location of a pedestrian surrogate at both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions. These results show that the system has the potential to reduce pedestrian casualties from car-to-pedestrian contacts. Secondly, finite-element analyses were performed simulating vehicle-to- pedestrian impacts with the THUMS pedestrian models. The vehicle models selected for the study included a medium sedan

  10. Analyzing and modeling risk exposure of pedestrian children to involvement in car crashes.

    PubMed

    Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the various variables affecting pedestrian children road crashes, placing emphasis on the effect of daily activity patterns and the built environment, including the children's residential neighborhoods and the land use of the places where they conduct their activities. Two complementary data sources from the case study of an Arab town in northern Israel were used to provide a holistic picture of child-pedestrian road crashes: police files providing detailed analyzes of the reason for each crash, its location, and the characteristics of the driver involved; and a survey of 199 households with both involved and not involved children in road crashes, including a one-day travel diary. The study found that a combination of three groups of variables affects child-pedestrian road crashes: socio-economic status, travel patterns, and land use. Most vulnerable are boys from a low socio-economic group who live in areas of high density and mixed land use near a major road and who tend to walk to and from school and additional activities after school.

  11. Chin-sternum-heart syndrome type of injury observed in a pedestrian victim of car traffic accident.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    We report an autopsy case of a pedestrian victim of car traffic accident with the chin-sternum-heart syndrome type of injury. A drunken man who lay on the road was run over by a car. He died immediately at the scene. The autopsy findings were as follows: large scalp lacerations, abrasions in the chin and the sternal region, a transverse fracture of the sternum, ruptures of the heart, ruptures of the ascending and descending aortae, rupture and hemorrhage of the nuchal muscle, ring fracture of the base of the skull, subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain, multiple rib fractures, anterior compression fracture of the 11th thoracic vertebra, and small lacerations of the liver. Blood ethanol level was 2.92 mg/g. These findings indicate that there was hyperflexion of the neck and then the victim's heart was strongly compressed and ruptured by the collision of the chin with the sternal region of the chest.

  12. Prediction of police officers' traffic accident involvement using behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    Gully, S M; Whitney, D J; Vanosdall, F E

    1995-06-01

    The current study used scores on the Driver Performance Measurement (DPM) test and data gathered over four years on accident type and frequency from 47 police officers to provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral observations of driving patterns can lead to predictions of subsequent accident involvement. Results indicate that after controlling for age and experience, scores on the DPM test predicted involvement in preventable accidents but not unpreventable accidents. Implications for future research involving the observation of cognitive-behavioral sequences are discussed. PMID:7639919

  13. Tragic Car Accident Involves ESO Employees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    Saturday, May 27, turned into a tragic day for ESO. The team installing TIMMI2 at La Silla, went on an excursion to the Elqui valley, 70 km east of the city of La Serena and suffered a serious car accident, crashing against another car driving from the opposite direction.

  14. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Cashwell, C. E.; McClure, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions.

  15. Who's Liable? Accidents Involving Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years both administrators and teachers have found themselves involved in an increasing number of law suits. When students are injured on school grounds, parents often place the blame of negligence on the teacher, so many teachers find themselves involved in lengthy court battles over the issue of liability. Teachers and…

  16. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  17. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off. PMID:23083396

  18. The five-factor model, conscientiousness, and driving accident involvement.

    PubMed

    Arthur, W; Graziano, W G

    1996-09-01

    Personality researchers and theorists are approaching consensus on the basic structure and constructs of personality. Despite the apparent consensus on the emergent five-factor model (Goldberg, 1992, 1993), less is known about external correlates of separate factors. This research examined the relations between Conscientiousness, one dimension of the model, and driving accident involvement. Using multiple measures in independent samples drawn from college students (N = 227) and a temporary employment agency (N = 250), the results generally demonstrate a significant inverse relation between Conscientiousness and driving accident involvement; individuals who rate themselves as more self-disciplined, responsible, reliable, and dependable are less likely to be involved in driving accidents than those who rate themselves lower on these attributes. The findings are consistent with other research demonstrating the relations among Conscientiousness and other tasks and job performance. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8776881

  19. Drinking reasons, drinking locations, and automobile accident involvement among collegians.

    PubMed

    Pang, M G; Wells-Parker, E; McMillen, D L

    1989-03-01

    Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of five drinking reason factors to drinking locations and consumption variables within a random sample of drinking college students surveyed by telephone. Hypotheses relating self-reported accident involvement after drinking and two specific reason factors - Opposite Sex/Drunkenness and Pleasure - were tested. Both Pleasure and Opposite Sex/Drunkenness were directly related to quantity consumed and to drinking in several away-from-home locations. Opposite Sex/Drunkenness reasons and frequency of drinking in cars significantly contributed to identifying males who reported accident involvement following drinking.

  20. An Analysis of the Safety Issues Involving Local School Children as Pedestrians. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Kenneth J.

    The New Orleans Public Schools' Department of Planning has been concerned with school children as pedestrians for the past five years. The safety issues include the streets, the drivers, and the children. First, the streets contribute to the hazard because many major streets traverse residential areas; many streets serve as major commuter…

  1. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  2. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  3. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health.

  4. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. PMID:22269485

  5. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  6. Pedestrian Injury Patterns and Risk in Minibus Collisions in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kui; Fan, Xiaoxiang; Yin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The minibus, with a nearly flat front, is widely used in China, especially in the underdeveloped regions, and results in large numbers of pedestrian injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury patterns and risk for pedestrians involved in these crashes. Material/Methods We conducted an in-depth investigation of minibus/pedestrian accidents in Chongqing, China, occurring between September 2000 and April 2014. The enrolled pedestrians was classified into 3 groups: young (aged 14–44 years), middle-aged (aged 45–59 years), and elderly (aged over 60 years). Pedestrian injuries were coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Results A total of 109 pedestrians, with an average age of 55.7±16.2 years, were injured or killed – 30.3% were young, 23.9% were middle-aged, and 45.9% were elderly. Pedestrians hit by a minibus had a high proportion of head, chest, and extremity injuries – 84.4%, 50.5%, and 52.3%, respectively. In addition, impact speeds in excess of 75 km/h all ultimately resulted in fatalities. At an impact speed of 30 km/h, the risk of pedestrian fatality and AIS3+ injury are approximately 12.0% and 37.2%, respectively. At 50 km/h the risks are 65.2% and 96.9%, respectively, and at 70 km/h the risks are 96.3% and 99.9%, respectively. Conclusions A higher likelihood of chest injury was associated with being older and impact speed of over 40 km/h in minibus/pedestrian collision. Our data suggest that the injury patterns of pedestrians in minibus collisions differ from that in other vehicle/pedestrian collisions. These findings could contribute to better understanding of the injury patterns and risk of pedestrian in minibus collisions in China, which may play an important role in developing measures to improve traffic safety. PMID:25754962

  7. Assessment of pelvis and upper leg injury risk in car-pedestrian collisions: comparison of accident statistics, impactor tests and a human body finite element model.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G; Muser, Markus H; Walz, Felix H

    2003-10-01

    In this study, we first present a comparison between pelvis/upper leg injuries observed in real-world accidents as recorded in the database of the Medical University of Hanover, and the EEVC test results of corresponding cars as published by EuroNCAP. The fact that modern cars with rounded hood edges cause very few pelvis/upper leg injuries is discussed against the findings of the EEVC tests, where these cars do not perform significantly better than their older counterparts with sharper hood leading edges. This discrepancy could be due to the fact that the radius of the hood edge is not accounted for in the current version of the test protocol. In a second step, various impacts against several different simplified hood shapes were simulated using a detailed finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male pedestrian. The finite element model (THUMS) has been extensively validated against PMHS experiments in previous studies. The validated model affords detailed insight into pelvic and femoral deformations and loading patterns, and reveals, as expected, that the shape of the hood leading edge plays a critical role in the resulting biomechanical loading patterns. Based upon the results of this study, recommendations are offered for a more appropriate characterization of the hood shape with regard to pelvis/upper leg injury risk. PMID:17096259

  8. Assessment of pelvis and upper leg injury risk in car-pedestrian collisions: comparison of accident statistics, impactor tests and a human body finite element model.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G; Muser, Markus H; Walz, Felix H

    2003-10-01

    In this study, we first present a comparison between pelvis/upper leg injuries observed in real-world accidents as recorded in the database of the Medical University of Hanover, and the EEVC test results of corresponding cars as published by EuroNCAP. The fact that modern cars with rounded hood edges cause very few pelvis/upper leg injuries is discussed against the findings of the EEVC tests, where these cars do not perform significantly better than their older counterparts with sharper hood leading edges. This discrepancy could be due to the fact that the radius of the hood edge is not accounted for in the current version of the test protocol. In a second step, various impacts against several different simplified hood shapes were simulated using a detailed finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male pedestrian. The finite element model (THUMS) has been extensively validated against PMHS experiments in previous studies. The validated model affords detailed insight into pelvic and femoral deformations and loading patterns, and reveals, as expected, that the shape of the hood leading edge plays a critical role in the resulting biomechanical loading patterns. Based upon the results of this study, recommendations are offered for a more appropriate characterization of the hood shape with regard to pelvis/upper leg injury risk.

  9. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  10. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  11. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  12. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m (2000 ft) is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments was obtained from reports or tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  13. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  14. How accurate is accident data in road safety research? An application of vehicle black box data regarding pedestrian-to-taxi accidents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Younshik; Chang, IlJoon

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the introduction of vehicle black box systems or in-vehicle video event data recorders enables the driver to use the system to collect more accurate crash information such as location, time, and situation at the pre-crash and crash moment, which can be analyzed to find the crash causal factors more accurately. This study presents the vehicle black box system in brief and its application status in Korea. Based on the crash data obtained from the vehicle black box system, this study analyzes the accuracy of the crash data collected from existing road crash data recording method, which has been recorded by police officers based on accident parties' statements or eyewitness's account. The analysis results show that the crash data observed by the existing method have an average of 84.48m of spatial difference and standard deviation of 157.75m as well as average 29.05min of temporal error and standard deviation of 19.24min. Additionally, the average and standard deviation of crash speed errors were found to be 9.03km/h and 7.21km/h, respectively. PMID:26298271

  15. Accident involvement among learner drivers--an analysis of the consequences of supervised practice.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Nils Petter; Nyberg, Anders; Berg, Hans-Yngve

    2003-09-01

    It is a well-known fact that experience is important for safe driving. Previously, this presented a problem since experience was mostly gained during the most dangerous period of driving-the first years with a licence. In many countries, this "experience paradox" has been addressed by providing increased opportunities to gain experience through supervised practice. One question, however, which still needs to be answered is what has been lost and what has been gained through supervised practice. Does this method lead to fewer accidents after licensing and/or has the number of accidents in driving practice increased? There were three aims in the study. The first was to calculate the size of the accident problem in terms of the number of accidents, health risk and accident risk during practising. The second aim was to evaluate the solution of the "experience paradox" that supervised practice suggests by calculating the costs in terms of accidents during driving practice and the benefits in terms of reduced accident involvement after obtaining a licence. The third aim was to analyse conflict types that occur during driving practice. National register data on licence holders and police-reported injury accidents and self-reported exposure were used. The results show that during the period 1994-2000, 444 driving practice injury accidents were registered, compared to 13657 accidents during the first 2 years with a licence. The health risk during the period after licensing was 33 times higher and the accident risk 10 times higher than the corresponding risk during practice. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits in terms of accident reduction after licensing were 30 times higher than the costs in terms of driving practice accidents. It is recommended that measures to reduce such accidents should focus on better education of the lay instructor, but not on introducing measures to reduce the amount of lay-instructed practice. PMID:12850073

  16. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11 (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE...

  17. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11 (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE...

  18. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  19. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals. PMID:24091032

  20. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

  1. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  2. [The forensic-medical characteristic of the injuries inflicted to a pedestrian in a road traffic accident by the vehicle in the side and front impact position].

    PubMed

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to distinguish between the separate phases of the car-to-pedestrian collision with the vehicle being in the side and front impact position. The secondary objective was to determine characteristics of injuries specific for the collisions of this type. The methods employed in the study included the analysis of archival materials and video sequence images. We propose to consider a special type of injury resulting from the car-to-pedestrian collision with the vehicle being in the side and front impact position and to distinguish its two varieties. One of them is caused by the vehicle hitting the pedestrian front laterally, the other arises from the oblique-transverse collision. Each type of collision produces injuries with highly specific characteristics. PMID:27500477

  3. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. PMID:20728647

  4. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness.

  5. A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and quantity of the radioactive materials involved, and assess the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The report consists of five major sections. The first section describes the circumstances and conditions of the accident and the finding of facts. The second describes the containers, the unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, and the tie down arrangement used for the trailer. The third describes the damage sustained during the accident to the tractor, trailer, containers, and unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The fourth evaluates the accident environment and its effects on the containers and their contents. The final section gives conclusions derived from the analysis and fact finding investigation. During this severe accident, only minor injuries occurred, and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  6. Guidelines for the management of accidents involving microorganisms: a WHO Memorandum*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The response to an emergency resulting from an accident involving microorganisms, whether in a laboratory or during needs to be graded according to the degree of hazard to human or animal health created by the circumstances of the accident and the properties of the organisms concerned. A categorization of microorganisms by risk groups is proposed for the purposes of accident management, and the factors influencing assignment to risk groups are described. Organizational responsibilities at government health authority and local levels are outlined and emphasis is placed on contingency planning. Medical surveillance is proposed for persons who work in laboratories with dangerous microorganisms, as a means of recognizing accidents that might otherwise go undetected. The response to exposure in a laboratory or transport-associated accident includes emergency safety measures at the site, hazard assessment, and action by the public health or veterinary authorities. The management of exposed persons is considered in relation to the immediate post-exposure period, the potential incubation period, and the onset of illness. Prophylactic treatment, surveillance, and the transport and isolation of infected persons are described. A distinction is drawn between the consequences of accidents recognized at the time of their occurrence and those that are only recognized by onset of illness in the exposed persons. PMID:6994911

  7. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to § 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL...

  8. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to § 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL...

  9. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  10. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  11. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  12. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  13. Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places.

    PubMed

    Nasar, Jack L; Troyer, Derek

    2013-08-01

    Research shows that pedestrians, similar to drivers, experience reduced situation awareness, distracted attention and unsafe behavior when talking or texting on their mobile phones. The present study centered on injuries related to mobile phone use among pedestrians. It used data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission on injuries in hospital emergency rooms from 2004 through 2010. It found that mobile-phone related injuries among pedestrians increased relative to total pedestrian injuries, and paralleled the increase in injuries for drivers, and in 2010 exceeded those for drivers. Pedestrian injuries related to mobile-phone use were higher for males and for people under 31 years old. Using a mobile phone while walking puts pedestrians at risk of accident, injury or death.

  14. Fatal accidents involving roof falls in coal mining, 1996--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents information on fatalities involving roof and rib falls that occurred in coal mining operations from January 1996 through December 1998. It includes statistics for the fatalities, as well as abstracts, best practices and illustrations. Conclusion statements have been substituted for best practices where no Title 30 Code of Regulations violations were cited during the accident investigation. From January 1996 through December 1998, 36 miners died at coal operations from accidents classified as roof falls. The information in the report is based on statistics taken from the 1996 through 1998 MSHA Fatal Illustration Programs: Roof Fall Fatalities by District.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

  16. Features of the Vision of Elderly Pedestrians when Crossing a Road.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshio; Sekine, Michiaki; Mitobe, Kazutaka

    2014-11-01

    The present study clarifies the mechanism by which an accident occurs when an elderly pedestrian crosses a road in front of a car, focusing on features of the central and peripheral vision of elderly pedestrians who are judging when it is safe to cross the road. For the pedestrian's central visual field, we investigated the effect of age on the timing judgment using an actual car. The results for daytime conditions indicate that the elderly pedestrians tended to make later judgments of when they crossed the road from the right side of the driver's view at high car velocities. At night, for a car with its headlights on high beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians on the left side of the driver's view were significantly longer than those of young pedestrians at velocities of 20 and 40 km/h. The eyesight of the elderly pedestrians during the day did not affect the timing judgment of crossing a road. At night, for a car with its headlights on either high or low beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians having good eyesight were longer than those of elderly pedestrians having poor eyesight, for all car velocities. The color of the car body in the central visual field did not affect the timing judgment of elderly pedestrians crossing the road. Meanwhile, the car-body color in the elderly pedestrian's peripheral vision strongly affected the pedestrian's awareness of the car. PMID:26192957

  17. Features of the Vision of Elderly Pedestrians when Crossing a Road.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshio; Sekine, Michiaki; Mitobe, Kazutaka

    2014-11-01

    The present study clarifies the mechanism by which an accident occurs when an elderly pedestrian crosses a road in front of a car, focusing on features of the central and peripheral vision of elderly pedestrians who are judging when it is safe to cross the road. For the pedestrian's central visual field, we investigated the effect of age on the timing judgment using an actual car. The results for daytime conditions indicate that the elderly pedestrians tended to make later judgments of when they crossed the road from the right side of the driver's view at high car velocities. At night, for a car with its headlights on high beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians on the left side of the driver's view were significantly longer than those of young pedestrians at velocities of 20 and 40 km/h. The eyesight of the elderly pedestrians during the day did not affect the timing judgment of crossing a road. At night, for a car with its headlights on either high or low beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians having good eyesight were longer than those of elderly pedestrians having poor eyesight, for all car velocities. The color of the car body in the central visual field did not affect the timing judgment of elderly pedestrians crossing the road. Meanwhile, the car-body color in the elderly pedestrian's peripheral vision strongly affected the pedestrian's awareness of the car.

  18. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  19. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  20. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  1. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  2. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  3. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. J.; Koltai, R. N.; McGowan, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  4. Highway accident involving radiopharmaceuticals near Brookhaven, Mississippi on December 3, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.B.; Mount, M.E.; Schwartz, M.W.

    1985-04-01

    A rear-end collision occurred between a passenger automobile and a luggage trailer carrying 84 packages, 76 of which contained radiopharmaceuticals, on US Highway 84 near Brookhaven, Mississippi on the afternoon of December 3, 1983. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the accident, confirm the nature and quantity of radioactive materials involved, and assess the nature of the physical environment to which the packages were exposed and the response of the packages. The report consists of three major sections. The first deals wth the nature and circumstances of the accident and findings of fact. The second gives an accounting and description of the materials involved and the consequences of their exposure. The third gives an assessment and analysis of the mechanisms of damage and the conclusions which may be drawn from the investigation. 4 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Statistical aspects of carbon fiber risk assessment modeling. [fire accidents involving aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, D.; Miller, D. R.; Soland, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The probabilistic and statistical aspects of the carbon fiber risk assessment modeling of fire accidents involving commercial aircraft are examined. Three major sources of uncertainty in the modeling effort are identified. These are: (1) imprecise knowledge in establishing the model; (2) parameter estimation; and (3)Monte Carlo sampling error. All three sources of uncertainty are treated and statistical procedures are utilized and/or developed to control them wherever possible.

  6. The epidemiology and prevention of child pedestrian injury.

    PubMed

    Malek, M; Guyer, B; Lescohier, I

    1990-08-01

    Of pedestrian injuries that occur every year, approximately 50,000, including 1300 fatalities, are experienced by children between the ages of 1 and 14 years. Despite the importance of the problem, the pedestrian safety issue is often neglected in reports on vehicular injuries. Children between the ages of five and nine years, boys, and children in lower socioeconomic class are at higher risk of pedestrian injury than other children. Childhood pedestrian injuries take place predominantly in residential locations close to home and frequently occur while the child is at play. The risk of pedestrian injury to children is higher than that of other age groups when adjusted for traffic exposure, and a variety of developmental limitations may account for this fact. In spite of these limitations, children undertake collision avoidance maneuvers far more often than drivers do. Accident analyses have identified 15 different accident types, each reflecting a unique combination of human and environmental factors. Among children, the most frequently observed accident type is the midblock dart-out. Programs to modify pedestrian behavior, driver behavior, and vehicle design have met with modest success. In the United States, the cultural and political environments have not been favorable to the injury prevention effort. Urban designers and traffic engineers in Europe have undertaken a variety of modifications of the physical environment, and some of these have been successful in preventing pedestrian injuries to children. PMID:2222697

  7. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  8. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  9. Accidents involving motorcyclists and cyclists in the municipality of São Paulo: characterization and trends☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; de Eston Armond, Jane; Gorios, Carlos; Souza, Patricia Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of motorcycle and bicycle accident victims, according to notifications of suspected and confirmed accidents that have occurred in the municipality of São Paulo. Method This was a descriptive epidemiological study. It covered all accidents (12,924) that occurred involving motorcycles (11,366) and bicycles (1558) between January 2011 and October 2013. Data in the Health Department's information system for surveillance of violence and accidents (SIVVA) was surveyed. Results Motorcycle accidents accounted for 52.1% of the cases notified and bicycles, 7.1%. Males predominated in both types of accidents: 81.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In the motorcycle accidents, the predominant age group among the victims was from 20 to 24 years. Both types of accidents occurred during the daytime (7:00–18:00 h): 37.4% and 27.0% respectively. Among the motorcycle accidents, the driver had been using alcohol in 3% and it was not possible to identify whether this had occurred in 67%. Conclusions Public policies prioritizing financial and human resources applied toward reducing these types of accidents need to be brought in. PMID:26229868

  10. Simulation of spatial and temporal separation of pedestrian counter flow through a bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ren-Yong

    2014-12-01

    We propose a revised social force model to simulate the pedestrian counter flow through a bottleneck. Spatial and temporal separation rules are involved in this model so as to reproduce these self-organizing movement patterns of pedestrians, including oscillatory flow and three classes of lane formations. Moreover, by scenario simulations, we show that, by reasonably adjusting the parameters in these separation rules, the pedestrian efficiency of passing through the bottleneck can be improved. The study is helpful for designing and planning pedestrian facilities involving pedestrian counter flow through the bottleneck and for evaluating the pedestrian efficiency of passing through a bottleneck.

  11. 25 CFR 170.904 - Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous materials shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.904 Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous... Radiological Assistance Program team that may include nuclear engineers, health physicists,...

  12. 25 CFR 170.904 - Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous materials shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.904 Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous... Radiological Assistance Program team that may include nuclear engineers, health physicists,...

  13. 25 CFR 170.904 - Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous materials shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.904 Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous... Radiological Assistance Program team that may include nuclear engineers, health physicists,...

  14. 25 CFR 170.904 - Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous materials shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.904 Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous... Radiological Assistance Program team that may include nuclear engineers, health physicists,...

  15. 25 CFR 170.904 - Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous materials shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.904 Who responds to an accident involving a radioactive or hazardous... Radiological Assistance Program team that may include nuclear engineers, health physicists,...

  16. Report on a workshop on transportation-accident scenarios involving spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L; McClure, J D; Luna, R E

    1981-02-01

    Much confusion and skepticism resulted from the scenarios for transportation accidents involving spent fuel that have been presented in environmental impact statements because the supporting assumptions and conclusions from the scenarios did not always appear to be consistent. As a result, the Transportation Technology Center gathered a group whose participants were experts in disciplines related to the transport of spent fuel to consider the scenarios. The group made a number of recommendations about scenario development and about areas in need of further study. This report documents the discussions held and the recommendations and conclusions of the group.

  17. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  18. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women.

  19. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal... investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. As prescribed in 228.370(d), use the following clause: Accident Reporting and Investigation Involving Aircraft, Missiles, and Space...

  20. Analysis of injuries among pilots involved in fatal general aviation airplane accidents.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Taneja, Narinder

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of injuries sustained by pilots involved in fatal general aviation (GA) airplane accidents. Detailed information on the pattern and nature of injuries was retrieved from the Federal Aviation Administration's autopsy database for pilots involved in fatal GA airplane accidents from 1996 to 1999. A review of 559 autopsies revealed that blunt trauma was the primary cause of death in 86.0% (N=481) of the autopsies. The most commonly occurring bony injuries were fracture of the ribs (72.3%), skull (55.1%), facial bones (49.4%), tibia (37.9%) and pelvis (36.0%). Common organ injuries included laceration of the liver (48.1%), lung (37.6%) heart (35.6%), and spleen (30.1%), and hemorrhage of the brain (33.3%) and lung (32.9%). A fractured larynx was observed in 14.7% of the cases, a finding that has not been reported in literature until now. It was observed that individuals who sustained brain hemorrhage were also more likely to have fractures of the facial bones rather than skull fractures. PMID:12729820

  1. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  2. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide. PMID:26192956

  3. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment

    PubMed Central

    Sammarco, J.; Gallagher, S.; Mayton, A.; Srednicki, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards. PMID:22503737

  4. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  5. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Bergstra, Arnold D.; Bliemer, Michiel C. J.; Trijssenaar-Buhre, Inge J. M.; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens’ protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens’ protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce. Methods A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19–64 years) living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects’ protective behaviour. Results The response was 44% (881/1,994). The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, ‘escaping’ was more preferred than ‘seeking shelter’, although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people. Conclusion Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects’ protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs

  6. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  7. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  8. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  9. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  10. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  11. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  12. Exploring factors affecting pedestrians' red-light running behaviors at intersections in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Feng, Zhongxiang; Du, Yingjie

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians' Red-light running behavior is one of the most critical factors for pedestrian involved traffic crashes at intersections in China. The primary objective of this study is to explore how various factors affect pedestrians' red-light running behaviors at intersection areas, using the data collected from Hefei, China. A questionnaire was well designed aiming at collecting pedestrians' socio-economic characteristics, trip related features, and attribute variables in different crossing facilities. Based on 631 valid samples, a binomial logistic model was established to evaluate the impacts of contributing factors on pedestrians' red-light running behavior. The modeling results show that four variables significantly affect the probability of pedestrians' red-light running behavior, which are the trip purpose, time period in one day, pedestrian's attitude towards whether to run a red light when in hurry, and pedestrian's attitude towards whether quality of road facility affects crossing behavior. With those variables, the probability of pedestrians' red-light running behavior at intersections could be predicted. Findings of this study can help understand why pedestrians in China run red-lights and identify which pedestrian groups and intersections are more likely to have such behaviors. This study can also help propose countermeasures more efficiently to reduce pedestrian-related crashes at intersections in China. PMID:27505098

  13. Exploring factors affecting pedestrians' red-light running behaviors at intersections in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Feng, Zhongxiang; Du, Yingjie

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians' Red-light running behavior is one of the most critical factors for pedestrian involved traffic crashes at intersections in China. The primary objective of this study is to explore how various factors affect pedestrians' red-light running behaviors at intersection areas, using the data collected from Hefei, China. A questionnaire was well designed aiming at collecting pedestrians' socio-economic characteristics, trip related features, and attribute variables in different crossing facilities. Based on 631 valid samples, a binomial logistic model was established to evaluate the impacts of contributing factors on pedestrians' red-light running behavior. The modeling results show that four variables significantly affect the probability of pedestrians' red-light running behavior, which are the trip purpose, time period in one day, pedestrian's attitude towards whether to run a red light when in hurry, and pedestrian's attitude towards whether quality of road facility affects crossing behavior. With those variables, the probability of pedestrians' red-light running behavior at intersections could be predicted. Findings of this study can help understand why pedestrians in China run red-lights and identify which pedestrian groups and intersections are more likely to have such behaviors. This study can also help propose countermeasures more efficiently to reduce pedestrian-related crashes at intersections in China.

  14. Pedestrian injuries in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of hospitalised trauma pedestrian patients in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), so as to improve preventive measures. All pedestrian trauma patients who were involved with a road traffic collision and admitted to Al Ain Hospital for more than 24 hours or who died in the hospital were included in the study. Data were prospectively collected during March 2003-October 2007. Three hundred and eighteen patients were studied, 279 (87.7%) were males. Median (range) age was 31 (1-75) years. UAE nationals were significantly younger than non-nationals (median (range) age of 14 (2-75) years compared with 33 (1-75) years, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The lower limb (57.2%) was the most common injured region followed by the head (46.9%). The median (range) Injury Severity Score of patients was 5 (1-45). The median (range) total hospital stay was 11.3 (1-130) days. Thirty patients died (overall mortality 9.4%). In conclusion, mortality of pedestrian injured patients in the UAE is high. Severe head injury was the main cause of death. Measures to improve pedestrian safety should be adopted so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. These include educating drivers and pedestrians on road safety and enforcement of traffic safety laws.

  15. Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large-trucks: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Khorashadi, Ahmad; Niemeier, Debbie; Shankar, Venky; Mannering, Fred

    2005-09-01

    This study explores the differences between urban and rural driver injuries (both passenger-vehicle and large-truck driver injuries) in accidents that involve large trucks (in excess of 10,000 pounds). Using 4 years of California accident data, and considering four driver-injury severity categories (no injury, complaint of pain, visible injury, and severe/fatal injury), a multinomial logit analysis of the data was conducted. Significant differences with respect to various risk factors including driver, vehicle, environmental, road geometry and traffic characteristics were found to exist between urban and rural models. For example, in rural accidents involving tractor-trailer combinations, the probability of drivers' injuries being severe/fatal increased about 26% relative to accidents involving single-unit trucks. In urban areas, this same probability increased nearly 700%. In accidents where alcohol or drug use was identified as being the primary cause of the accident, the probability of severe/fatal injury increased roughly 250% percent in rural areas and nearly 800% in urban areas. While many of the same variables were found to be significant in both rural and urban models (although often with quite different impact), there were 13 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in rural but not urban areas, and 17 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in urban but not rural areas. We speculate that the significant differences between rural and urban injury severities may be at least partially attributable to the different perceptual, cognitive and response demands placed on drivers in rural versus urban areas.

  16. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night. PMID:27523959

  17. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night.

  18. Car-to-pedestrian collision reconstruction with injury as an evaluation index.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yiliu; Jin, Xianlong; Zhao, Zhijie; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2010-07-01

    Reconstruction of accidents is currently considered as a useful means in the analysis of accidents. By multi-body dynamics and numerical methods, and by adopting vehicle and pedestrian models, the scenario of the crash can often be simulated. When reconstructing the collisions, questions often arise regarding the criteria for the evaluation of simulation results. This paper proposes a reconstruction method for car-to-pedestrian collisions based on injuries of the pedestrians. In this method, pedestrian injury becomes a critical index in judging the correctness of the reconstruction result and guiding the simulation process. Application of this method to a real accident case is also presented in this paper. The study showed a good agreement between injuries obtained by numerical simulation and that by forensic identification.

  19. [Accidents involving children and adolescents: from epidemiological findings to preventive action].

    PubMed

    Manciaux, M; Jeanneret, O

    1983-01-01

    It is generally accepted that improving epidemiological knowledge of accidents in childhood and adolescence leads to a better implementation of more efficient prevention programs. Nevertheless, it is not yet generally admitted that any new preventive measure addressing these accidents has to be evaluated by competent epidemiologists. Obviously, there are exceptions regarding these two rules. Four examples of successful implementation are presented in this paper: safety packaging of aspirin; fences around private swimming pools; changes in minimal drinking and driving age in adolescence; bicycle accidents. The discussion is focused on four intervention levels suggested for the epidemiologists. PMID:6669771

  20. Sustained improvement of attitudes about epilepsy following a reduction in media coverage of car accidents involving persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Nakazawa, Mika; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Igarashi, Ayuko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate changes in the attitudes of nonmedical students about epilepsy, the present study compared the results of a questionnaire that was completed in three different time periods: before media coverage of car accidents associated with epilepsy, during a period of abundant media coverage about epilepsy-related accidents, and after media coverage of epilepsy-related accidents. The nonmedical students who completed the questionnaire were divided into three groups: Years 08-10 (preaccident era), Years 11-12 (media coverage era), and Years 13-14 (postmedia coverage era). The rates of students who had read or heard about epilepsy and of students who did not think that epilepsy was a mental disorder increased annually throughout the study period. There was an improvement in attitudes about epilepsy after the media coverage era, and this change was not altered even after a decrease in the media coverage of epilepsy-related car accidents. Additionally, the rate of positive answers did not differ between Years 11-12 and Years 13-14. These findings demonstrate that the familiarity with and improved attitudes about epilepsy were sustained even after the media coverage of car accidents involving persons with epilepsy had decreased.

  1. The Implications of Handling Qualities in Civil Helicopter Accidents Involving Hover and Low Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.; Delamer, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of increasing accident rates in Army helicopters in hover and low speed flight, a study was made in 1999 of accidents which could be attributed to inadequate stability augmentation. A study of civil helicopter accidents from 1993-2004 was then undertaken to pursue the issue of poor handling qualities in helicopters which, in almost all cases, had no stability augmentation. The vast majority of the mishaps studied occurred during daylight in visual meteorological condition, reducing the impact of degraded visual environments (DVE) on the results. Based on the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale, the handling qualities of many of the helicopters studied could be described as having from "very objectionable" to "major" deficiencies. These costly deficiencies have resulted in unnecessary loss of life, injury, and high dollar damage. Low cost and lightweight augmentation systems for helicopters have been developed in the past and are still being investigated. They offer the potential for significant reductions in the accident rate.

  2. Rapid detection and identification of pedestrian impacts using a distributed sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Andrew C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-05-01

    Pedestrian fatalities from automobile accidents often occur as a result of head injuries suffered from impacts with an automobile front end. Active pedestrian protection systems with proper pedestrian recognition algorithms can protect pedestrians from such head trauma. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a network of piezoelectric sensors mounted on the front bumper beam of an automobile to discriminate between impacts with "pedestrian" and "non-pedestrian" objects. This information would be used to activate a safety device (e.g., external airbag or pop-up hood) to provide protection for the vulnerable pedestrian. An analytical foundation for the object-bumper impact problem will be presented, as well as the classical beam impact theory. The mechanical waves that propagate in the structure from an external impact contain a wealth of information about the specifics of a particular impact -- object mass, size, impact speed, etc. -- but most notably the object stiffness, which identifies the impacted object. Using the frequency content of the sensor signals, it can be shown that impacts with a "pedestrian" object of varying size, weight, and speed can be easily differentiated from impacts with other "non-pedestrian" objects. Simulation results will illustrate this phenomenon, and experimental tests will verify the results. A comprehensive series of impact tests were performed for validation, using both a stationary front bumper with a drop-pendulum impactor and a moving car with stationary impact objects. Results from both tests will be presented.

  3. A Statistical Description of the Types and Severities of Accidents Involving Tractor Semi-Trailers, Updated Results for 1992-1996

    SciTech Connect

    BLOWER,DANIEL F.; CLAUSS,DAVID B.

    1999-10-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. A previous study (SAND93-2580) reviewed the availability of accident data, identified the TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) as the best source of accident data for accidents involving heavy trucks, and provided statistics on accident data collected between 1980 and 1990. The current study is an extension of the previous work and describes data collected for heavy truck accidents occurring between 1992 and 1996. The TIFA database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports and interviewing responders and witnesses for selected TEA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, effective fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  4. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  5. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  6. Characteristics on fractures of tibia and fibula in car impacts to pedestrians and bicyclists - influences of car bumper height and shape.

    PubMed

    Otte, D; Haasper, C

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the analysis of lower leg fractures in pedestrians and bicyclists after collisions with passenger cars and examines to what extent the shape and location of the fractures in the lower leg changed, following alterations in the shape of bumpers. It can be assumed that that the bumpers changed in shape and effective impact height, not least due to the realization of the developments of vehicle safety tests as in the context of the European Union Directive 2003/102/EC on pedestrian protection. In addition, consumer protection tests, EuroNCAP, accomplished a change of the injury situation. All of these are mainly focused on pedestrian protection measurements but adopt the bicyclists also in their goal. For the study, traffic accidents from GIDAS (German in-Depth-Accident Study) were selected, which had been documented in the years 1995 to 2004 by scientific teams in Hannover and Dresden (Germany) and for which there is detailed information regarding injury patterns and collision speeds. The accident documentations can be regarded as representative and constitute a random sample with statistic weighing of the data. Altogether 143 cases of lower leg fractures (Tibia/ Fibula) with x-rays of pedestrians and 79 cases of bicyclists were differentiated according to new and old vehicles (year of manufacture before/after 1995). The bumper shapes were divided into classical types (protruding pronouncedly/ protruding integrated /integrated rounded). Besides the injuries to the lower leg, those to thighs and feet were also regarded, and the injury conditions involving the head and trunk were included in the kinematic analytics.

  7. Monocular pedestrian detection: survey and experiments.

    PubMed

    Enzweiler, Markus; Gavrila, Dariu M

    2009-12-01

    Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance, and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspectives. The first part of the paper consists of a survey. We cover the main components of a pedestrian detection system and the underlying models. The second (and larger) part of the paper contains a corresponding experimental study. We consider a diverse set of state-of-the-art systems: wavelet-based AdaBoost cascade [74], HOG/linSVM [11], NN/LRF [75], and combined shape-texture detection [23]. Experiments are performed on an extensive data set captured onboard a vehicle driving through urban environment. The data set includes many thousands of training samples as well as a 27-minute test sequence involving more than 20,000 images with annotated pedestrian locations. We consider a generic evaluation setting and one specific to pedestrian detection onboard a vehicle. Results indicate a clear advantage of HOG/linSVM at higher image resolutions and lower processing speeds, and a superiority of the wavelet-based AdaBoost cascade approach at lower image resolutions and (near) real-time processing speeds. The data set (8.5 GB) is made public for benchmarking purposes.

  8. A review of suspected cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) involved in traffic accidents in Istanbul (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Acar, Fatih; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Aker, Rezzan Gulhan; Kucukibrahimoglu, E Esra; Ates, Ismail; Erol, Yeter; Sahin, Aysegul

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays traffic accidents, which have high mortality and morbidity, are an important public health problem. The association between the use of alcohol and/or drugs by drivers and the increased risk of traffic accidents with a high risk of death and injury has been well described in the literature. This study aimed to review the incidence of cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) among all cases of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and/or other drugs involved in traffic accidents and to evaluate the type of the psychoactive drugs (with or without alcohol) detected in blood samples in Istanbul and its surrounding area. This study is the first investigation on the subject of DUID cases in Turkey. The reports of the Istanbul Toxicology Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine (Turkey) on suspected DUID cases involved in traffic accidents between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for alcohol and/or drug use. Alcohol analysis was requested in 4274 suspected DUI cases, whereas drug along with alcohol analysis was requested in only 91. The rate of suspected DUID cases (n = 91) among the suspected DUI cases (n = 4274) was only 2.1% and in this study, we evaluated only the DUID cases in detail. Alcohol was present in 44% of suspected DUID cases. Psychoactive drugs were present in 15.4% of cases. The incidence among 46 confirmed DUID cases was found to be 17.4% for cannabis, 8.7% for benzodiazepines, 4.3% for barbiturates, 4.3% for antidepressants, 2.2% for cocaine and 2.2% for amphetamines. Although there is a zero-tolerance approach for DUID in the Turkish regulations, it is not well recognised and not inspected by police and legal authorities who are responsible for taking measures in traffic accidents and for routine traffic controls in Turkey. It is concluded that psychoactive drugs should be checked as well as alcohol in all traffic accident cases and roadside controls. PMID:23910848

  9. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  10. Injury tolerance of tibia for the car-pedestrian impact.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fuhao; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Jure, Jean Jaques; Masson, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Lower limbs are normally the first contacted body region during car-pedestrian accidents, and easily suffer serious injuries. The previous tibia bending tolerances for pedestrian safety were mainly developed from three-point bending tests on tibia mid-shaft. The tibia tolerances of other locations are still not investigated enough. In addition, tibia loading condition under the car-pedestrian impact should be explored to compare with the three-point bending. This work aims to investigate the injury tolerance of tibia fracture with combined experimental data and numerical simulation. Eleven new reported quasi-static bending tests of tibia mid-shaft, and additional eleven dynamic mid-shaft bending test results in the previous literature were used to define injury risk functions. Furthermore, to investigate the influence of tibia locations on bending tolerance, finite element simulations with lower limb model were implemented according to three-point bending and pedestrian impact conditions. The regressive curve of tibia bending tolerance was obtained from the simulations on the different impact locations, and indicated that tibia fracture tolerance could vary largely due to the impact locations for the car-pedestrian crash.

  11. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (p<0.05). Conclusion The study results indicated that higher NISS correlated to longer HLS, fewer home discharges, and increasing mortality. Specialized hospitals for TA patient rehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  12. Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID

  13. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  14. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed. PMID:4096796

  15. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally).

  16. Multi-level hot zone identification for pedestrian safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Choi, Keechoo; Huang, Helai

    2015-03-01

    According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), while fatalities from traffic crashes have decreased, the proportion of pedestrian fatalities has steadily increased from 11% to 14% over the past decade. This study aims at identifying two zonal levels factors. The first is to identify hot zones at which pedestrian crashes occurs, while the second are zones where crash-involved pedestrians came from. Bayesian Poisson lognormal simultaneous equation spatial error model (BPLSESEM) was estimated and revealed significant factors for the two target variables. Then, PSIs (potential for safety improvements) were computed using the model. Subsequently, a novel hot zone identification method was suggested to combine both hot zones from where vulnerable pedestrians originated with hot zones where many pedestrian crashes occur. For the former zones, targeted safety education and awareness campaigns can be provided as countermeasures whereas area-wide engineering treatments and enforcement may be effective safety treatments for the latter ones. Thus, it is expected that practitioners are able to suggest appropriate safety treatments for pedestrian crashes using the method and results from this study.

  17. Pedestrian dynamics via Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat, Ibrahim; Khader, Ahamad Tajudin; Subramanian, K. G.

    2014-06-01

    Studies on pedestrian dynamics have vital applications in crowd control management relevant to organizing safer large scale gatherings including pilgrimages. Reasoning pedestrian motion via computational intelligence techniques could be posed as a potential research problem within the realms of Artificial Intelligence. In this contribution, we propose a "Bayesian Network Model for Pedestrian Dynamics" (BNMPD) to reason the vast uncertainty imposed by pedestrian motion. With reference to key findings from literature which include simulation studies, we systematically identify: What are the various factors that could contribute to the prediction of crowd flow status? The proposed model unifies these factors in a cohesive manner using Bayesian Networks (BNs) and serves as a sophisticated probabilistic tool to simulate vital cause and effect relationships entailed in the pedestrian domain.

  18. New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Song, W. G.; Lo, S. M.; Fang, Z. M.

    2013-02-01

    Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored.

  19. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  20. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  1. Results of the intercalibration study of laboratories involved in assessing the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E L; Valkovic, V; Strachnov, V; Dekner, R; Danesi, P R

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Chernobyl Project, the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories organized an intercalibration exercise among some of the laboratories which were involved in assessing the environmental contamination in the USSR due to the accident. The objective was to assess the reliability of the radioanalytical data for food and environmental samples, which were used to assess the doses. In the initial study reference materials from the stocks of the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) were re-labelled and submitted to 71 laboratories as blind samples. These natural matrix materials included samples of milk (containing 2 different levels of radioactivity), soil, air filters and clover. The concentrations of radionuclides in these samples were known from previous intercalibration exercises. The overall range in performance was broad, which is similar to what has been observed in previous international intercomparisons. The results obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry tended to be somewhat underestimated, on average. On the other hand, the laboratories showed an overall tendency to overestimate 90Sr and possibly 239Pu, which were analysed radiochemically. The intercalibration exercise is continuing with nine materials, including: soil, grass, hay and milk powder contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. These materials, which were prepared by laboratories in the USSR, are now being tested by AQCS prior to future intercomparison exercises. Work with these materials is expected to continue for several years.

  2. Advanced accident research system based on a medical and engineering data in the metropolitan area of Florence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the metropolitan area of Florence, 62% of major traumas involve powered two wheeler rider and pillion passengers, 10% cyclists, and 7% pedestrians. The urban and extra-urban areas are the most dangerous for the vulnerable road user. In-depth investigations are needed for assessing detailed information on road accidents. This type of study has been very limited in time frame in Italy, and completely absent in the Tuscan region. Consequently a study called “In-depth Study of road Accident in FlorencE” (In-SAFE) has been initiated. Methods A network between the Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technologies (University of Florence) and the Intensive Care Unit of the Emergency Department (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence) was created with the aim of collecting information about the road accidents. The data collected includes: on-scene data, data coming from examination of the vehicles, kinematics and dynamic crash data, injuries, treatment, and injury mechanisms. Each injury is codified thorough the AIS score, localized by a three-dimensional human body model based on computer tomography slices, and the main scores are calculated. We then associate each injury with its cause and crash technical parameters. Finally, all the information is collected in the In-SAFE database. Results Patient mean age at the time of the accident was 34.6 years, and 80% were males. The ISS mean is 24.2 (SD 8.7) and the NISS mean is 33.6 (SD 10.5). The main road accident configurations are the “car-to-PTW” (25%) and “pedestrian run over” (17,9%). For the former, the main collision configuration is “head-on crash” (57%). Cyclists and PTW riders-and-pillions-passengers suffer serious injuries (AIS3+) mainly to the head and the thorax. The head (56.4%) and the lower extremities (12.7%) are the most frequently injured pedestrian body regions. Conclusions The aim of the project is to create an in-depth road accident study with special focus on the correlation

  3. Elderly pedestrian neurotrauma: A descriptive study from a premier neurotrauma center in India

    PubMed Central

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Pruthi, Nupur; Philip, Mariamma; Devi, Bhagavatula I; Somanna, Sampath

    2013-01-01

    Context: Experience with elderly pedestrian neurotrauma at a major neurotrauma tertiary center. Aims: To highlight the specific injuries and outcome of the elderly pedestrian neurotrauma patients within the city of Bangalore and its surrounding districts. Settings and Design: A retrospective study consisting of demographic data, clinical findings, radiological details, and outcomes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at the casualty services, in which 143 consecutive elderly pedestrian (age >60 years) head injury victims were studied from June to September 2009. The records from the hospital mortuary were analyzed from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of 77 elderly patients who died as a pedestrian in accidents during this period was performed. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 15. Results: The elderly pedestrians constituted 27% (143/529) of all pedestrian traumas. Two wheelers were the most common accident vehicle (56.6%, 81/143). Most of the injuries (38.5%, 55/143) occurred during peak traffic hours, that is, 4 pm to 9 pm. Majority sustained moderate to severe head injury (61%, 87/143). More than three-fourths of patients required a computed tomography (CT) scan (77%, 110/143), in which there was a higher frequency of contusion (31.5%, 45/143), and subdural hemorrhage (23.1%, 33/143). Most of the injured (43.3%, 13/30) underwent surgery for intracranial hematoma. The mortality rate was 22.8% (8/35). Nearly one-fourth of conducted postmortems among pedestrians belonged to the elderly age group (77/326, 23.6%). Conclusions: Elderly pedestrian neurotrauma patients sustain a more severe injury as evident by poorer Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) scores and CT scan findings, and hence have a higher mortality rate. PMID:23546344

  4. Haptic Feedback to Assist Bus Drivers for Pedestrian Safety at Low Speed.

    PubMed

    Girbes, Vicent; Armesto, Leopoldo; Dols, Juan; Tornero, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Buses and coaches are massive Passenger Transportation Systems (PTS), because they represent more than half of land PTS in the European Union. Despite that, bus accident figures are lower than other means of transport, but its size and weight increase the severity of accidents in which buses are involved, even at low speed. In urban scenarios, turnings and maneuvers around bus stops are the main causes of accidents, mostly due to low visibility, blind spots, or driver's distractions. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing driving assistance systems to avoid these situations, among others. However, even though there are some solutions on the market, they are not meant to work in urban areas at low speed and with the sole purpose of preventing collisions with pedestrians. In this sense, the paper proposes an active safety system for buses in maneuvers at low speed. The safety system consists of haptic feedback devices together with collision avoidance and risk evaluation systems based on detected people nearby the bus. The performance of the active safety system has been validated in a simulated urban scenario. Our results show that driver's reaction time is reduced and time to collision increased due to the proposed low-speed active safety system. In particular, it is shown that there is a reduction in the number of high risk cases and collisions, which implies a considerable improvement in safety terms. In addition to this, a brief discussion about current regulations for innovative safety systems on real vehicles is carried out.

  5. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  6. PASES: combining radar and video sensing for improved pedestrian safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Edmondson, Richard P.

    2016-05-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies reports on the development of Pedestrian Automated System for Enforcement and Safety (PASES), a radar and video based system used to monitor vehicle and pedestrian traffic with the intent of improving pedestrian safety. Data is fused from a system of multiple sensors and multiple sensor modalities to identify vehicular violations of pedestrian right of way. A focus was placed on the selection of low cost COTS sensors to make the system more widely available to state and local DOTs with limited budgets. Applications include automated enforcement, adaptive traffic control, and improved intersection and crosswalk design based on high quality data available for traffic engineering. We discuss early results with high fidelity sensors, and the performance trades made in order to make the system affordable. A discussion of the system processing architecture is included which highlights the treatment of each sensor data type, and the means of combining the processed data products into state information related to traffic incidents involving vehicles and pedestrians.

  7. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  8. Experimental study of pedestrian inflow in a room with a separate entrance and exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities.

  9. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  10. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  11. Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

  12. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  13. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  14. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Marvin; Hoover, Mark D.; Nelson, Robert C.; Templeton, William; Bollinger, Lance; Anspaugh, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later time after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  15. Pedestrian preferences with respect to roundabouts -- a video-based stated preference survey.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Mario; Rezaei, Ali; Patterson, Zachary; Saunier, Nicolas; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2014-09-01

    Research on user behavior and preferences has been a helpful tool in improving road safety and accident prevention in recent years. At the same time, there remain some important areas of road safety and accident prevention for which user preferences, despite their importance, have not been explored. Most road safety research has not explicitly addressed vulnerable user (pedestrians and cyclists) preferences with respect to roundabouts, despite their increasing construction around the world. The present research stems from the fact that studies related to roundabout safety have generally focused on drivers, while overlooking the importance of safety as it relates to vulnerable users, especially pedestrians. Moreover, it handles this particular issue through an approach that has not been used so far in this context; the Stated Preference (SP) survey. As such, there are two main goals (and contributions) of this work. First, to show how SP surveys can be used to investigate the importance of different design and operational features to pedestrian perceptions of safety in roundabouts. This allows us, for example, to quantify how some features of roundabouts (e.g. high traffic volume) can be compensated for by design features such as pedestrian islands. This is useful in helping to design roundabouts that pedestrians prefer and will hopefully use, to help encourage active transport. Second, to demonstrate how traffic simulation software can be successfully used to include difficult-to-communicate attributes in SP surveys.

  16. Wind-drag estimation in a traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Lee, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Jae-Geun; Park, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hong-Seok; Choi, Young-Shik

    2012-07-01

    This case report describes a noncontact traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer with a focus on the wind-drag effect. We used load cells to measure the drag force acting on a substantially similar motor scooter when a substantially similar tractor-trailer passes by it, taking into consideration various speeds of the tractor-trailer and distances between the two vehicles. A three-dimensional steady-state flow analysis was also performed by using the CFX program for computational fluid dynamics to examine the streamlines and the pressure distribution around the tractor-trailer at various speeds. From the experiment, for a separation distance of 1.0 m (3.28 ft) and a speed of 90 km/h (55.9 mph), the maximum resultant drag force is 124.5 N (28 lb); this constitutes a degree of force that could abruptly disrupt the stability in maneuvering by an operator who is unaware of the approaching tractor-trailer. In addition, a single equation that relates the tractor-trailer speed to the drag force that acts on the motor scooter was derived on the basis of the Reynolds number (Re) and the wind-drag coefficient (C(d)): C(d) = 1.298 × 10(-7) Re.

  17. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  18. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  19. Behavioural observations of adult-child pairs at pedestrian crossings.

    PubMed

    Zeedyk, M Suzanne; Kelly, Laura

    2003-09-01

    Pedestrian accidents are a serious health risk to children in the UK and other Western countries. There remains a considerable amount to be learned about children's behaviour in real-traffic environments. The present study was intended to help fill this gap, by observing unobtrusively the behaviours of 123 adult-child pairs as they crossed the road at pedestrian light-controlled crossings. Eight behaviours were coded, including whether or not the pair stopped at the kerb, waited for the light to change, and checked to ensure traffic flow had stopped. Results showed that the adults observed provided reasonably good models of pedestrian behaviour, but that they rarely treated the crossing event as an opportunity to teach children explicitly about road safety. The only gender difference to emerge revealed that adults were more likely to hold girls' hands than boys' hands. No differences were observed in relation to (estimated) age of child. The implications of these findings for parental training programmes are explored.

  20. Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Christe, Andreas; Naether, Silvio; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance. Impact injuries can be identified on the external injuries of the skin, the injured subcutaneous and fat tissue, as well as the fractured bones. Another sign of impact is a bone bruise. The bone bruise, or occult bone lesion, means a bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow, which is presumed to be the result of micro-fractures of the medullar trabeculae. The aim of this study was to prove that bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow of the deceased can be detected using the postmortem noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. This is demonstrated in five accident cases, four involving pedestrians and one a cyclist, where bone bruises were detected in different bones as a sign of impact occurring in the same location as the external and soft tissue impact injuries. PMID:19034476

  1. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  2. Simulation of counterflow pedestrian dynamics using spheropolygons.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Chiew, Coraline; Lozano, Celia; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Pedestrian dynamic models are typically designed for comfortable walking or slightly congested conditions and typically use a single disk or combination of three disks for the shape of a pedestrian. Under crowd conditions, a more accurate pedestrian shape has advantages over the traditional single or three-disks model. We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large dense crowd of spheropolygons adapted to the cross section of the chest and arms of a pedestrian. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton's second law, taking into account viscoelastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground-reaction forces. Ground-reaction torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians' orientation toward their preferred destination. Simulations of counterflow pedestrians dynamics in corridors were used to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanism of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigated. The results highlights the importance of the pedestrians' density and the effect of counterflow in the onset of avalanches and clogging and provides an estimation of the number of injuries based on a calculation of the contact-force network between the pedestrians.

  3. Simulation of counterflow pedestrian dynamics using spheropolygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Chiew, Coraline; Lozano, Celia; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Pedestrian dynamic models are typically designed for comfortable walking or slightly congested conditions and typically use a single disk or combination of three disks for the shape of a pedestrian. Under crowd conditions, a more accurate pedestrian shape has advantages over the traditional single or three-disks model. We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large dense crowd of spheropolygons adapted to the cross section of the chest and arms of a pedestrian. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton's second law, taking into account viscoelastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground-reaction forces. Ground-reaction torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians' orientation toward their preferred destination. Simulations of counterflow pedestrians dynamics in corridors were used to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanism of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigated. The results highlights the importance of the pedestrians' density and the effect of counterflow in the onset of avalanches and clogging and provides an estimation of the number of injuries based on a calculation of the contact-force network between the pedestrians.

  4. Simulation of counterflow pedestrian dynamics using spheropolygons.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Chiew, Coraline; Lozano, Celia; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Pedestrian dynamic models are typically designed for comfortable walking or slightly congested conditions and typically use a single disk or combination of three disks for the shape of a pedestrian. Under crowd conditions, a more accurate pedestrian shape has advantages over the traditional single or three-disks model. We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large dense crowd of spheropolygons adapted to the cross section of the chest and arms of a pedestrian. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton's second law, taking into account viscoelastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground-reaction forces. Ground-reaction torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians' orientation toward their preferred destination. Simulations of counterflow pedestrians dynamics in corridors were used to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanism of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigated. The results highlights the importance of the pedestrians' density and the effect of counterflow in the onset of avalanches and clogging and provides an estimation of the number of injuries based on a calculation of the contact-force network between the pedestrians. PMID:25615220

  5. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  6. Scaling laws in granular flow and pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shumiao; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Hidalgo, Raúl Cruz; Sathianandan, Charmila; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro; Mora, Peter

    2013-06-01

    We use particle-based simulations to examine the flow of particles through an exit. Simulations involve both gravity-driven particles (representing granular material) and velocity-driven particles (mimicking pedestrian dynamics). Contact forces between particles include elastic, viscous, and frictional forces; and simulations use bunker geometry. Power laws are observed in the relation between flow rate and exit width. Simulations of granular flow showed that the power law has little dependence on the coefficient of friction. Polydisperse granular systems produced higher flow rates than those produced by monodisperse ones. We extend the particle model to include the main features of pedestrian dynamics: thoracic shape, shoulder rotation, and desired velocity oriented towards the exit. Higher desired velocity resulted in higher flow rate. Granular simulations always give higher flow rate than pedestrian simulations, despite the values of aspect ratio of the particles. In terms of force distribution, pedestrians and granulates share similar properties with the non-democratic distribution of forces that poses high risks of injuries in a bottleneck situation.

  7. Biomechanically inspired modelling of pedestrian-induced forces on laterally oscillating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocian, M.; Macdonald, J. H. G.; Burn, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Despite considerable interest among engineers and scientists, bi-directional interaction between walking pedestrians and lively bridges has still not been well understood. In an attempt to bridge this gap a biomechanically inspired model of the human response to lateral bridge motion is presented and explored. The simple inverted pendulum model captures the key features of pedestrian lateral balance and the resulting forces on the structure. The forces include self-excited components that can be effectively modelled as frequency-dependent added damping and mass to the structure. The results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements of humans walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill, and in very good agreement with measurements on full-scale bridges. In contrast to many other models of lateral pedestrian loading, synchronisation with the bridge motion is not involved. A parametric study of the model is conducted, revealing that as pedestrians slow down as a crowd becomes more dense, their resulting lower pacing rates generate larger self-excited forces. For typical pedestrian parameters, the potential to generate negative damping arises for any lateral bridge vibration frequency above 0.43 Hz, depending on the walking frequency. Stability boundaries of the combined pedestrian-structure system are presented in terms of the structural damping ratio and pedestrian-to-bridge mass ratio, revealing complex relations between damping demand and bridge and pedestrian frequencies, due to the added mass effect. Finally it is demonstrated that the model can produce simultaneous self-excited forces on multiple structural modes, and a realistic full simulation of a large number of pedestrians, walking randomly and interacting with a bridge, produces structural behaviour in very good agreement with site observations.

  8. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened.

  9. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened. PMID:27406628

  10. [Psychosocial aspects and accidents in land transport].

    PubMed

    Morales-Soto, Nelson; Alfaro-Basso, Daniel; Gálvez-Rivero, Wilfredo

    2010-06-01

    Road traffic accidents are a public health problem in Peru, having caused 35 596 deaths in Peru between 1998 and 2008. Lima is the most affected region, presenting 61.7% of the accidents, the annual cost reached one thousand million dollars, equivalent to a third part of the investment in health. Available studies give emphasis to the protagonists--the drivers, the pedestrians--or to equipment and roads; the laws have been modified and containment plans for accidents have been implemented, but the incidence remains the same. We raise the possibility of exploring behavioral and social factors that could be relevant in the genesis of the problem, revising those related to current disorder in transport, the behaviors of drivers and pedestrians and the permissiveness of society in general particularly of the authority. We propose research and a multidisciplinary and intersectoral intervention. PMID:21072481

  11. H. R. 3124: A bill to require the Secretary of Transportation to take actions to protect against railroad accidents involving hazardous materials, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 31, 1991 to require the Secretary of Transportation to take actions to protect against railroad accidents involving hazardous materials. One of the main aspects of this legislation is to identify railroad routes which present the greatest danger of accidents and to find alternative routes.

  12. International trends in pedestrian injury mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I G

    1993-01-01

    Trends in pedestrian injury mortality for children aged 0-4 and 5-14 for England and Wales, Denmark, Sweden, the USA, and New Zealand were examined from 1968 onwards. While there has been a reduction in the pedestrian mortality in all these countries, there are striking international differences in the extent of these reductions. Denmark has achieved the greatest fall in mortality with the smallest decrease seen in New Zealand. Countries which have experienced major decreases in pedestrian mortality are distinguished by having placed greater emphasis on environmentally based prevention strategies rather than pedestrian skills education. PMID:8481041

  13. Cellular automata modeling of pedestrian's crossing dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hui; Li, Ping

    2004-07-01

    Cellular automata modeling techniques and the characteristics of mixed traffic flow were used to derive the 2-dimensional model presented here for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics. A conception of "stop point" is introduced to deal with traffic obstacles and resolve conflicts among pedestrians or between pedestrians and the other vehicles on the crosswalk. The model can be easily extended, is very efficient for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics, can be integrated into traffic simulation software, and has been proved feasible by simulation experiments.

  14. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  15. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  16. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  17. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2014-09-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-light signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32-59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02-9.60 per 15-s interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions.

  18. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-lit signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32–59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02–9.60 per 15-second interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions. PMID:24821630

  19. Pedestrians, vehicles, and cell phones.

    PubMed

    Neider, Mark B; McCarley, Jason S; Crowell, James A; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-03-01

    With cellular phones and portable music players becoming a staple in everyday life, questions have arisen regarding the attentional deficits that might occur when such devices are used while performing other tasks. Here, we used a street-crossing task in an immersive virtual environment to test how this sort of divided attention affects pedestrian behavior when crossing a busy street. Thirty-six participants navigated through a series of unsigned intersections by walking on a manual treadmill in a virtual environment. While crossing, participants were undistracted, engaged in a hands free cell phone conversation, or listening to music on an iPod. Pedestrians were less likely to successfully cross the road when conversing on a cell phone than when listening to music, even though they took more time to initiate their crossing when conversing on a cell phone ( approximately 1.5s). This success rate difference was driven largely by failures to cross the road in the allotted trial time period (30s), suggesting that when conversing on a cell phone pedestrians are less likely to recognize and act on crossing opportunities.

  20. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations.

  1. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. PMID:26433568

  2. Separability between pedestrians in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Jared; Kerekes, John; Eismann, Michael

    2013-02-20

    The popularity of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in remote sensing continues to lead to it being adapted in novel ways to overcome challenging imaging problems. This paper reports on research efforts exploring the phenomenology of using HSI as an aid in detecting and tracking human pedestrians. An assessment of the likelihood of distinguishing between pedestrians based on the measured spectral reflectance of observable materials and the presence of noise is presented. The assessments included looking at the spectral separation between pedestrian material subregions using different spectral-reflectance regions within the full range (450-2500 nm), as well as when the spectral content of the pedestrian subregions are combined. In addition to the pedestrian spectral-reflectance data analysis, the separability of pedestrian subregions in remotely sensed hyperspectral images was assessed using a unique data set garnered as part of this work. Results indicated that skin was the least distinguishable material between pedestrians using the spectral Euclidean distance metric. The clothing, especially the shirt, offered the most salient feature for distinguishing the pedestrian. Additionally, significant spectral separability performance is realized when combining the reflectance information of two or more subregions.

  3. Separability between pedestrians in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Jared; Kerekes, John; Eismann, Michael

    2013-02-20

    The popularity of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in remote sensing continues to lead to it being adapted in novel ways to overcome challenging imaging problems. This paper reports on research efforts exploring the phenomenology of using HSI as an aid in detecting and tracking human pedestrians. An assessment of the likelihood of distinguishing between pedestrians based on the measured spectral reflectance of observable materials and the presence of noise is presented. The assessments included looking at the spectral separation between pedestrian material subregions using different spectral-reflectance regions within the full range (450-2500 nm), as well as when the spectral content of the pedestrian subregions are combined. In addition to the pedestrian spectral-reflectance data analysis, the separability of pedestrian subregions in remotely sensed hyperspectral images was assessed using a unique data set garnered as part of this work. Results indicated that skin was the least distinguishable material between pedestrians using the spectral Euclidean distance metric. The clothing, especially the shirt, offered the most salient feature for distinguishing the pedestrian. Additionally, significant spectral separability performance is realized when combining the reflectance information of two or more subregions. PMID:23435007

  4. Waiting pedestrians in the social force model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Fredrik; Peterson, Anders; Tapani, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities. The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations. We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting. We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability.

  5. Diagnostic analysis of the logistic model for pedestrian injury severity in traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C

    2007-11-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the injury risk of pedestrian casualties in traffic crashes and to explore the factors that contribute to mortality and severe injury, using the comprehensive historical crash record that is maintained by the Hong Kong Transport Department. The injury, demographic, crash, environmental, geometric, and traffic characteristics of 73,746 pedestrian casualties that were involved in traffic crashes from 1991 to 2004 are considered. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the associations between the probability of fatality and severe injury and all contributory factors. A consideration of the influence of implicit attributes on the trend of pedestrian injury risk, temporal confounding, and interaction effects is progressively incorporated into the predictive model. To verify the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and logistic regression diagnostics are conducted. It is revealed that there is a decreasing trend in pedestrian injury risk, controlling for the influences of demographic, road environment, and other risk factors. In addition, the influences of pedestrian behavior, traffic congestion, and junction type on pedestrian injury risk are subject to temporal variation.

  6. Effect of Aspiration and Mean Gain on the Emergence of Cooperation in Unidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Wei; Jia, Li-Min

    2013-03-01

    When more than one pedestrian want to move to the same site, conflicts appear and thus the involved pedestrians play a motion game. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation during the conflict resolving process, an evolutionary cellular automation model is established considering the effect of aspiration and mean gain. In each game, pedestrian may be gentle cooperator or aggressive defector. We propose a set of win-stay-lose-shrift (WSLS) like rules for updating pedestrian's strategy. These rules prescribe that if the mean gain of current strategy between some given steps is larger than aspiration the strategy keeps, otherwise the strategy changes. The simulation results show that a high level aspiration will lead to more cooperation. With the increment of the statistic length, pedestrians will be more rational in decision making. It is also found that when the aspiration level is small enough and the statistic length is large enough all the pedestrian will turn to defectors. We use the prisoner's dilemma model to explain it. At last we discuss the effect of aspiration on fundamental diagram.

  7. Establishment of new regulations for radiological protection for decontamination work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi APP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    In response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant (APP) on March 11, 2011, the Japanese government decided to carry out decontamination projects around the plant. For the radiological protection of the decontamination workers, the Japanese government needed to establish new regulations because the existing regulation did not fit into "existing exposure situations" in which radioactive sources were scattered and spread in a wide area around the plant. The new regulations aim to set the appropriate protection standards in accordance with the risk of the ambient dose rate, radioactivity concentration, and type of radio nucleolus resulting from the APP accident, which is equivalent to or more than the typical protection required in planned situations. To maintain practicability, the Japanese government employed a validated and simplified measurement methodology for the internal exposure, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity concentration, considering restrictions in human resources and shortages of supplies in the affected areas. The article also identifies key challenges which require further research. PMID:23915240

  8. Effects of Pedestrian Prompts on Motorist Yielding at Crosswalks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley-Koch, Brian J.; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian safety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two…

  9. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians.

  10. Empirical investigation on safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd through macroscopic and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Ye, Zhirui; Shiwakoti, Nirajan; Tang, Dounan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A recent crowd stampede during a New Year's Eve celebration in Shanghai, China resulted in 36 fatalities and over 49 serious injuries. Many of such tragic crowd accidents around the world resulted from complex multi-direction crowd movement such as merging behavior. Although there are a few studies on merging crowd behavior, none of them have conducted a systematic analysis considering the impact of both merging angle and flow direction towards the safety of pedestrian crowd movement. In this study, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd movements considering merging angle (60°, 90° and 180°) and flow direction under slow running and blocked vision condition. Then, macroscopic and microscopic properties of crowd dynamics are obtained and visualized through the analysis of pedestrian crowd trajectory data derived from video footage. It was found that merging angle had a significant influence on the fluctuations of pedestrian flows, which is important in a critical situation such as emergency evacuation. As the merging angle increased, mean velocity and mean flow at the measuring region in the exit corridors decreased, while mean density increased. A similar trend was observed for the number of weaving and overtaking conflicts, which resulted in the increase of mean headway. Further, flow direction had a significant impact on the outflow of the individuals while blocked vision had an influence on pedestrian crowd interactions and merging process. Finally, this paper discusses safety assessments on crowd merging behaviors along with some recommendations for future research. Findings from this study can assist in the development and validation of pedestrian crowd simulation models as well as organization and control of crowd events.

  11. Modeling pedestrian's conformity violation behavior: a complex network based approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuping; Hu, Qizhou; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries and fatalities present a problem all over the world. Pedestrian conformity violation behaviors, which lead to many pedestrian crashes, are common phenomena at the signalized intersections in China. The concepts and metrics of complex networks are applied to analyze the structural characteristics and evolution rules of pedestrian network about the conformity violation crossings. First, a network of pedestrians crossing the street is established, and the network's degree distributions are analyzed. Then, by using the basic idea of SI model, a spreading model of pedestrian illegal crossing behavior is proposed. Finally, through simulation analysis, pedestrian's illegal crossing behavior trends are obtained in different network structures and different spreading rates. Some conclusions are drawn: as the waiting time increases, more pedestrians will join in the violation crossing once a pedestrian crosses on red firstly. And pedestrian's conformity violation behavior will increase as the spreading rate increases.

  12. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  13. PHOTOVOICE: Reducing pedestrian injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Van Oss, Tracy; Quinn, Danielle; Viscosi, Pauline; Bretscher, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is the second leading cause of injury related death for children. The purpose of this research project was to determine the effectiveness of pedestrian and road traffic safety education with children, as part of the Walk This Way program through Safe Kids USA. Through the implementation of PHOTOVOICE, a project that captured children's narratives coinciding with a photograph, children engaged in community exploration to identify pedestrian hazards in their communities and explore possible solutions utilizing their photography and narrations. Children participated in an engaging educational session, a community fieldtrip, and reflection. Results concluded that, despite a small increase in post test scores, an increase in awareness of hazards in the community and successful identification of community hazards was achieved. The goal of this research project was determine the effectiveness of a hands-on pedestrian and road traffic safety educational program with children. The results of this research project will be integrated with similar projects completed across the country through the program Walk This Way with Safe Kids USA. Both this research project and the Walk This Way program aim to promote behavior change in children and create safer communities to reduce pedestrian related injury. The overall goal of this research project andthe Walk This Way program is to increase education on a national level in regards to pedestrian safety for children and provide a basis for lobbying for public policy changes pertaining to road and pedestrian safety. PMID:23241696

  14. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingólfsson, E. T.; Georgakis, C. T.; Ricciardelli, F.; Jönsson, J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved 71 male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop at the frequency of the movement and are herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. Their dependency on the vibration frequency and amplitude is presented, both in terms of mean values and probabilistically to illustrate the randomness associated with intra- and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion-induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the mean walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) subtract from the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and add to the overall modal mass at higher frequencies.

  15. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  16. Predicting the effect of various ISA penetration grades on pedestrian safety by simulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Andréasson, Ingmar

    2005-11-01

    Intelligent speed adaption (ISA) is one type of vehicle-based intelligent transportation systems (ITS), which warns and regulates driving speed according to the speed limits of the roads. Early field studies showed that ISA could reduce general mean speed levels and their variances in different road environments. This paper studies the effects of various ISA penetration grades on pedestrian safety in a single lane road. A microscopic traffic simulation tool, TPMA, was further developed and used to implement different ISA penetration grades. Momentary spot speed and traffic flow data are first logged in the traffic simulation for later prediction of pedestrian safety. Then a hypothetical vehicle-pedestrian collision model is extended from early researches in order to estimate two safety indicators: probability of collision, and risk of death. Finally, Monte Carlo method is applied iteratively to compute those safety indices. The computational result shows that raising ISA penetration in traffic flow will reduce both the probability of mid-block collision between vehicle and pedestrian and the risk of death in the collision accidents. Furthermore, the decrease of the risk of death will be more prominent than that of the collision probability according to this method.

  17. Finite element analysis of knee injury risks in car-to-pedestrian impacts.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Kei; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Kajzer, Janusz

    2003-12-01

    In vehicle-pedestrian collisions, lower extremities of pedestrians are frequently injured by vehicle front structures. In this study, a finite element (FE) model of THUMS (total human model for safety) was modified in order to assess injuries to a pedestrian lower extremity. Dynamic impact responses of the knee joint of the FE model were validated on the basis of data from the literature. Since in real-world accidents, the vehicle bumper can impact the lower extremities in various situations, the relations between lower extremity injury risk and impact conditions, such as between impact location, angle, and impactor stiffness, were analyzed. The FE simulation demonstrated that the motion of the lower extremity may be classified into a contact effect of the impactor and an inertia effect from a thigh or leg. In the contact phase, the stress of the bone is high in the area contacted by the impactor, which can cause fracture. Thus, in this phase the impactor stiffness affects the fracture risk of bone. In the inertia phase, the behavior of the lower extremity depends on the impact locations and angles, and the knee ligament forces become high according to the lower extremity behavior. The force of the collateral ligament is high compared with other knee ligaments, due to knee valgus motions in vehicle-pedestrian collisions. PMID:14630583

  18. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Sun, Xubin; Wang, Qianling; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The role of guide who is in charge of leading pedestrians to evacuate in the case of emergency plays a critical role for the uninformed people. This paper first investigates the influence of mass behavior on evacuation dynamics and mainly focuses on the guided evacuation dynamics. In the extended crowd model proposed in this paper, individualistic behavior, herding behavior and environment influence are all considered for pedestrians who are not informed by the guide. According to the simulation results, herding behavior makes more pedestrians evacuate from the room in the same period of time. Besides, guided crowd demonstrates the same behavior of group dynamics which is characterized by gathering, conflicts and balance. Moreover, simulation results indicate guides with appropriate initial positions and quantity are more conducive to evacuation under a moderate initial density of pedestrians.

  19. Significance of Adult Pedestrian Torso Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestrian safety countermeasures. PMID:16179153

  20. Car design and risk of pedestrian deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1990-01-01

    Fatal pedestrian injury rates by cars with relatively sharp front-corner designs were compared to such rates by cars of similar-size with relatively smooth front-corner designs. The relative risk of death by front-corner impact was 26 percent greater among the sharp-cornered cars. Pedestrian death rates from impact with other points on the cars and insurance claim frequencies among the studied cars were similar between the two sets of cars. PMID:2327543

  1. Pedestrian and Pedalcyclist Injury Costs in the United States by Age and Injury Severity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Crandall, Jeff; Ivarsson, Johan; Finkelstein, A. Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates the incidence, unit costs, and annual costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle crash injuries in the United States. It includes medical care costs, household and wage work losses, and the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life. The estimates are broken down by body region and severity. They rely heavily on data from the health care system. Costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle injuries in 2000 will total $40 billion over the lifetimes of the injured. Most pedalcyclist injury costs and half of pedestrian injury costs do not involve motor vehicles. Youth ages 5–14 face greater annual risks when walking or driving their own pedaled vehicles than when being driven. Children under age 5 experience higher costs than their elders when injured as pedestrians. Our results suggest European and Japanese component tests used to design pedestrian injury countermeasures for motor vehicles are too narrow. Separate lower limb testing is needed for younger children. Testing for torso/vertebral column injury of adults also seems desirable. PMID:15319130

  2. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  3. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  4. Mistakes or deliberate violations? A study into the origins of rule breaking at pedestrian train crossings.

    PubMed

    Freeman, James; Rakotonirainy, Andry

    2015-04-01

    Train pedestrian collisions are the most likely to result in severe injuries and fatalities when compared to other types of rail crossing accidents. However, there is currently scant research that has examined the origins of pedestrians' rule breaking at level crossings. As a result, this study examined the origins of pedestrians' rule breaking behaviour at crossings, with particular emphasis directed towards examining the factors associated with making errors versus deliberation violations. A total of 636 individuals volunteered to participate in the study and completed either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Quantitative analysis of the data revealed that knowledge regarding crossing rules was high, although up to 18% of level crossing users were either unsure or did not know (in some circumstances) when it was legal to cross at a level crossing. Furthermore, 156 participants (24.52%) reported having intentionally violated the rules at level crossings and 3.46% (n=22) of the sample had previously made a mistake at a crossing. In regards to rule violators, males (particularly minors) were more likely to report breaking rules, and the most frequent occurrence was after the train had passed rather than before it arrives. Regression analysis revealed that males who frequently use pedestrian crossings and report higher sensation seeking traits are most likely to break the rules. This research provides evidence that pedestrians are more likely to deliberately violate rules (rather than make errors) at crossings and it illuminates high risk groups. This paper will further outline the study findings in regards to the development of countermeasures as well as provide direction for future research efforts in this area.

  5. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  6. Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Nupur; Ashok, M.; Shiva, Kumar V.; Jhavar, Ketaki; Sampath, S.; Devi, B. Indira

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pedestrians contribute to 30-40 per cent of all road traffic injuries in India. However, there is a paucity of literature on pedestrian head injury as compared to two wheeler trauma. The purpose of the present study was to study the pattern of pedestrian injuries and their outcome with a special focus on head injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in two parts in the Trauma Center at National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. A retrospective study was conducted at the casualty services of the hospital in which 529 consecutive pedestrians who sustained injury in a road traffic accident were studied from June to September 2009. In the second part, records from the hospital mortuary were retrospectively analyzed from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of 326 patients who died as a pedestrian in road accidents during this period was performed. Results: Patients in both paediatric and elderly age groups constituted 47.6 per cent (252/529) of all casualty admissions. Majority of the pedestrian injuries (41.7%, 221/529) occurred between 1600 - 2100 h; 87.1 per cent of all patients received some primary care before admission. The most common offending vehicle was a two wheeler (49.1%, 260/529). At the time of admission, 55.2 per cent (292/529) patients had sustained a moderate or severe head injury (GCS 3-13), and 40.5 per cent (214/529) had an abnormal CT scan. In addition, 90.4 per cent (478/529) patients had also sustained associated injuries. Major thoracoabdominal trauma was seen in 4 per cent and spine injury in 2.3 per cent of the patients. The mortality rate was 6.6 per cent. In the postmortem group, pedestrian deaths constituted 26.2 per cent of all the postmortems conducted. Two wheelers were the offending vehicle in the majority of the fatal crashes (39.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: Pedestrian injuries form a major part of the workload of a neurotrauma emergency. Majority of them sustained moderate to severe head

  7. Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

  8. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  9. 32 CFR 636.26 - Pedestrian's rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pedestrian's rights and duties. 636.26 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.26 Pedestrian's rights and duties. (a) Pedestrians will obey all traffic control... signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle will yield the right of way,...

  10. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by all persons; (c) When an air traffic control tower is in operation, ensure that each pedestrian...-way radio communications between each pedestrian or vehicle and the tower; (2) An escort with two-way radio communications with the tower accompanying any pedestrian or vehicle without a radio; or...

  11. Panic evacuation of single pedestrians and couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing requirements for evacuation of people has focused primarily on independent pedestrians rather than pedestrians emotionally connected. However, the main statistical effects observed in crowds, the so-called “faster is slower”, “clever is not always better” and the “low visibility enhancement”, cannot explain the overall behavior of a crowd during an evacuation process when correlated pedestrians due to, for example feelings, are present. Our research addresses this issue and examines the statistical behavior of a mixture of individuals and couples during a (panic) escaping process. We found that the attractive feeling among couples plays an important role in the time delays during the evacuation of a single exit room.

  12. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  13. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Belooussov, Andrei V.

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  14. Improvement of pedestrian flow by slow rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Daichi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a simple model for pedestrians by dividing walking velocity into two parts, which are step size and pace of walking (number of steps per unit time). Theoretical analysis on pace indicates that rhythm that is slower than normal-walking pace in a low-density regime increases flow if the flow-density diagram is convex downward in a high-density regime. In order to verify this result, we have performed an experiment with real pedestrians and observed the improvement of flow in a congested situation using slow rhythm.

  15. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  16. [Environmental, social, and roadway vulnerability in accidents involving transportation of hazardous products: a case study of the BR-101 highway between Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo; Nodari, Christine Tessele; Pereira, Kimberllyn Rosa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the environmental and social vulnerability and identify critical highway stretches for accidents involving transportation of hazardous products on the BR-101 highway between the cities of Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study's approach consisted of a multiple-criteria analysis combining highway safety analysis and environmental and social vulnerability analysis in the occurrence of accidents with hazardous products, plus cartographic analysis techniques. Thirty-eight kilometers of the highway showed high vulnerability, of which 8 kilometers with critical vulnerability, associated with bridges over rivers, water uptake points, a tunnel, environmental preservation areas, and an urban area. These stretches should be prioritized when developing action plans for accident mitigation and development of public policies for this highway. This proved to be an unprecedented approach when compared to existing studies and a potentially useful tool for decision-making in emergency operations. PMID:27653196

  17. Research of Pedestrian Crossing Safety Facilities Based on the Video Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Zhen; Xie, Quan-Long; Zang, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Guo-Jun

    Since that the pedestrian crossing facilities at present is not perfect, pedestrian crossing is in chaos and pedestrians from opposite direction conflict and congest with each other, which severely affects the pedestrian traffic efficiency, obstructs the vehicle and bringing about some potential security problems. To solve these problems, based on video identification, a pedestrian crossing guidance system was researched and designed. It uses the camera to monitor the pedestrians in real time and sums up the number of pedestrians through video detection program, and a group of pedestrian's induction lamp array is installed at the interval of crosswalk, which adjusts color display according to the proportion of pedestrians from both sides to guide pedestrians from both opposite directions processing separately. The emulation analysis result from cellular automaton shows that the system reduces the pedestrian crossing conflict, shortens the time of pedestrian crossing and improves the safety of pedestrians crossing.

  18. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  19. Impact of grade separator on pedestrian risk taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mariya; Tiwari, Geetam; Chatterjee, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrians on Delhi roads are often exposed to high risks. This is because the basic needs of pedestrians are not recognized as a part of the urban transport infrastructure improvement projects in Delhi. Rather, an ever increasing number of cars and motorized two-wheelers encourage the construction of large numbers of flyovers/grade separators to facilitate signal free movement for motorized vehicles, exposing pedestrians to greater risk. This paper describes the statistical analysis of pedestrian risk taking behavior while crossing the road, before and after the construction of a grade separator at an intersection of Delhi. A significant number of pedestrians are willing to take risks in both before and after situations. The results indicate that absence of signals make pedestrians behave independently, leading to increased variability in their risk taking behavior. Variability in the speeds of all categories of vehicles has increased after the construction of grade separators. After the construction of the grade separator, the waiting time of pedestrians at the starting point of crossing has increased and the correlation between waiting times and gaps accepted by pedestrians show that after certain time of waiting, pedestrians become impatient and accepts smaller gap size to cross the road. A Logistic regression model is fitted by assuming that the probability of road crossing by pedestrians depends on the gap size (in s) between pedestrian and conflicting vehicles, sex, age, type of pedestrians (single or in a group) and type of conflicting vehicles. The results of Logistic regression explained that before the construction of the grade separator the probability of road crossing by the pedestrian depends on only the gap size parameter; however after the construction of the grade separator, other parameters become significant in determining pedestrian risk taking behavior. PMID:22857788

  20. Impact of grade separator on pedestrian risk taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mariya; Tiwari, Geetam; Chatterjee, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrians on Delhi roads are often exposed to high risks. This is because the basic needs of pedestrians are not recognized as a part of the urban transport infrastructure improvement projects in Delhi. Rather, an ever increasing number of cars and motorized two-wheelers encourage the construction of large numbers of flyovers/grade separators to facilitate signal free movement for motorized vehicles, exposing pedestrians to greater risk. This paper describes the statistical analysis of pedestrian risk taking behavior while crossing the road, before and after the construction of a grade separator at an intersection of Delhi. A significant number of pedestrians are willing to take risks in both before and after situations. The results indicate that absence of signals make pedestrians behave independently, leading to increased variability in their risk taking behavior. Variability in the speeds of all categories of vehicles has increased after the construction of grade separators. After the construction of the grade separator, the waiting time of pedestrians at the starting point of crossing has increased and the correlation between waiting times and gaps accepted by pedestrians show that after certain time of waiting, pedestrians become impatient and accepts smaller gap size to cross the road. A Logistic regression model is fitted by assuming that the probability of road crossing by pedestrians depends on the gap size (in s) between pedestrian and conflicting vehicles, sex, age, type of pedestrians (single or in a group) and type of conflicting vehicles. The results of Logistic regression explained that before the construction of the grade separator the probability of road crossing by the pedestrian depends on only the gap size parameter; however after the construction of the grade separator, other parameters become significant in determining pedestrian risk taking behavior.

  1. Are elderly pedestrians allowed enough time at pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Amosun, S L; Burgess, T; Groeneveldt, L; Hodgson, T

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to determine whether the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1) would allow elderly pedestrians to safely clear pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa. Male and female volunteers (n = 47), aged 65-93 years and resident in four homes for older persons, were recruited. Pedestrian clearance intervals at 40 traffic lights within 5-km radius of the selected homes were measured. The mean walking speed required at these traffic lights was 0.86 +/- 0.32 ms(1). The maximal walking speed over 12 m was measured without carrying any load and when carrying a predetermined weight of an average shopping bag. Participants' emotions associated with pedestrian road safety were also assessed through an interview. The mean maximal unloaded and loaded walking speeds were 1.36 +/- 0.31 ms(-1) (0.73-2.03 ms(-1)), and 1.36 +/- 0.33 ms(-1) (0.58-2.12 ms(-1)), respectively. Over 30% of the participants walked slower than the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1). Participants felt that traffic lights did not allow for sufficient time to cross roads (51.1%) and reported emotions of apprehension (44.7%), anxiety (17.0%), and fear (10.6%) when crossing. A review of traffic planning and public policy is recommended to ensure older pedestrians safely clear pedestrian crossings.

  2. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  3. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation. PMID:23344382

  4. Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-14

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  5. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  6. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  7. Multiple pedestrian detection using IR LED stereo camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Zeifman, Michael I.; Gibson, David R. P.

    2007-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Transportations Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) program, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is conducting R&D in vehicle safety and driver information systems. There is an increasing number of applications where pedestrian monitoring is of high importance. Visionbased pedestrian detection in outdoor scenes is still an open challenge. People dress in very different colors that sometimes blend with the background, wear hats or carry bags, and stand, walk and change directions unpredictably. The background is various, containing buildings, moving or parked cars, bicycles, street signs, signals, etc. Furthermore, existing pedestrian detection systems perform only during daytime, making it impossible to detect pedestrians at night. Under FHWA funding, we are developing a multi-pedestrian detection system using IR LED stereo camera. This system, without using any templates, detects the pedestrians through statistical pattern recognition utilizing 3D features extracted from the disparity map. A new IR LED stereo camera is being developed, which can help detect pedestrians during daytime and night time. Using the image differencing and denoising, we have also developed new methods to estimate the disparity map of pedestrians in near real time. Our system will have a hardware interface with the traffic controller through wireless communication. Once pedestrians are detected, traffic signals at the street intersections will change phases to alert the drivers of approaching vehicles. The initial test results using images collected at a street intersection show that our system can detect pedestrians in near real time.

  8. Distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Charlotta; Rosander, Peter; Leden, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

  9. Robot vision system for pedestrian-flow detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuan Y.; Lu, Yean J.; Suen, Ching Y.

    1992-04-01

    Traffic and transportation engineers continually require a more accurate and large amount of pedestrian flow data for numerous purposes. For example, the increasing use of pedestrian facilities such as building complexes, shopping malls, and airports in densely populated cities demands pedestrian flow data for planning, design, operation, and monitoring of these facilities. Currently, measurement of pedestrian flow data is often performed manually. This paper proposes a robot vision system to measure the number and walking direction of pedestrians using difference image and shape reconstruction techniques. The system consists of eight steps: (1) conversion of video images, (2) digitization of frozen frames, (3) conversion of 256-grey-level images into bilevel images, (4) extraction of rough sketch of pedestrian using difference images, (5) removal of line-noise, (6) reconstruction of shape of the pedestrian, (7) measurement of the number of pedestrians, and (8) determination of the direction of pedestrian movement. In this system, the operations in each step depend only on local information. Thus, they can be performed independently in parallel. A very large scale integration architecture can be implemented in this system to speed up calibration. The accuracy in measuring the number of pedestrians and their direction of travel is about 93% and 92%, respectively.

  10. Exploring the application of latent class cluster analysis for investigating pedestrian crash injury severities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Wu, Kun-Feng; Menendez, Monica

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in traffic safety analyses is the heterogeneous nature of safety data, due to the sundry factors involved in it. This heterogeneity often leads to difficulties in interpreting results and conclusions due to unrevealed relationships. Understanding the underlying relationship between injury severities and influential factors is critical for the selection of appropriate safety countermeasures. A method commonly employed to address systematic heterogeneity is to focus on any subgroup of data based on the research purpose. However, this need not ensure homogeneity in the data. In this paper, latent class cluster analysis is applied to identify homogenous subgroups for a specific crash type-pedestrian crashes. The manuscript employs data from police reported pedestrian (2009-2012) crashes in Switzerland. The analyses demonstrate that dividing pedestrian severity data into seven clusters helps in reducing the systematic heterogeneity of the data and to understand the hidden relationships between crash severity levels and socio-demographic, environmental, vehicle, temporal, traffic factors, and main reason for the crash. The pedestrian crash injury severity models were developed for the whole data and individual clusters, and were compared using receiver operating characteristics curve, for which results favored clustering. Overall, the study suggests that latent class clustered regression approach is suitable for reducing heterogeneity and revealing important hidden relationships in traffic safety analyses.

  11. Biorhythmic Cycles and the Incidence of Industrial Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvey, Davis W.; Nibler, Roger G.

    1977-01-01

    The biorhythm theory of accident explanation that has been increasingly popularized in the business press was empirically examined. Municipal employees involved in work-related vehicular accidents and in on-the-job accidents provided the data. Each accident was analyzed to determine whether or not the accident occurred on a biorhythmically…

  12. [Analysis of the mechanism of tibial injury in cases of automobile-pedestrian collisions].

    PubMed

    Horváth, J; Varga, T

    1990-01-01

    The type and the mechanism of development of lower extremity injuries suffered during traffic accidents between cars and pedestrians were studied in 93 accidents with frontal or almost frontal collision. Evaluation was based upon the facts of the investigation and the opinions of medical and technical experts. In 28% of the cases lower extremity injuries were not demonstrable, in 21% of the cases there were only soft part injuries at the site of primary collision, while in 51% bone fractures were also diagnosed. The collision speed and the injury severity score (ISS) are in a statistically significant correlation. In the case of lower extremity injuries, in higher speed categories, such definite correlation was demonstrable only for injured persons over 60 years of age, and no such correlation existed for younger people. This difference is explained by age-related biological differences (osteoporosis, reduced elasticity). PMID:2241819

  13. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  14. Gap acceptance of violators at signalised pedestrian crossings.

    PubMed

    Koh, P P; Wong, Y D

    2014-01-01

    Gap acceptance of violating pedestrians was studied at seven stretches of signalised pedestrian crossings in Singapore. The provision of the traffic light signals provide a 'safer' crossing option to these pedestrians, as compared to uncontrolled crossings and mid-block arterial roads. However, there are still people choosing to cross at the riskier period (Red Man phase). The paper discusses about the size of traffic gaps rejected and accepted by pedestrians and the behaviour of riskier pedestrians (those adapting partial gap). The likelihood of pedestrians accepting gaps between vehicular traffic as a combination of different influencing independent variables such as traffic, environmental and personal factors was studied and modelled using logistic regression. PMID:24172084

  15. Discrete element crowd model for pedestrian evacuation through an exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo

    2016-03-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).

  16. Systems-based approach to investigate unsafe pedestrian behaviour at level crossings.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Teodora; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Filtness, Ashleigh; Wullems, Christian; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Delhomme, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Crashes at level crossings are a major issue worldwide. In Australia, as well as in other countries, the number of crashes with vehicles has declined in the past years, while the number of crashes involving pedestrians seems to have remained unchanged. A systematic review of research related to pedestrian behaviour highlighted a number of important scientific gaps in current knowledge. The complexity of such intersections imposes particular constraints to the understanding of pedestrians' crossing behaviour. A new systems-based framework, called Pedestrian Unsafe Level Crossing framework (PULC) was developed. The PULC organises contributing factors to crossing behaviour on different system levels as per the hierarchical classification of Jens Rasmussen's Framework for Risk Management. In addition, the framework adapts James Reason's classification to distinguish between different types of unsafe behaviour. The framework was developed as a tool for collection of generalizable data that could be used to predict current or future system failures or to identify aspects of the system that require further safety improvement. To give it an initial support, the PULC was applied to the analysis of qualitative data from focus groups discussions. A total number of 12 pedestrians who regularly crossed the same level crossing were asked about their daily experience and their observations of others' behaviour which allowed the extraction and classification of factors associated with errors and violations. Two case studies using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique are presented as an example of potential application of the framework. A discussion on the identified multiple risk contributing factors and their interactions is provided, in light of the benefits of applying a systems approach to the understanding of the origins of individual's behaviour. Potential actions towards safety improvement are discussed. PMID:25996290

  17. Systems-based approach to investigate unsafe pedestrian behaviour at level crossings.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Teodora; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Filtness, Ashleigh; Wullems, Christian; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Delhomme, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Crashes at level crossings are a major issue worldwide. In Australia, as well as in other countries, the number of crashes with vehicles has declined in the past years, while the number of crashes involving pedestrians seems to have remained unchanged. A systematic review of research related to pedestrian behaviour highlighted a number of important scientific gaps in current knowledge. The complexity of such intersections imposes particular constraints to the understanding of pedestrians' crossing behaviour. A new systems-based framework, called Pedestrian Unsafe Level Crossing framework (PULC) was developed. The PULC organises contributing factors to crossing behaviour on different system levels as per the hierarchical classification of Jens Rasmussen's Framework for Risk Management. In addition, the framework adapts James Reason's classification to distinguish between different types of unsafe behaviour. The framework was developed as a tool for collection of generalizable data that could be used to predict current or future system failures or to identify aspects of the system that require further safety improvement. To give it an initial support, the PULC was applied to the analysis of qualitative data from focus groups discussions. A total number of 12 pedestrians who regularly crossed the same level crossing were asked about their daily experience and their observations of others' behaviour which allowed the extraction and classification of factors associated with errors and violations. Two case studies using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique are presented as an example of potential application of the framework. A discussion on the identified multiple risk contributing factors and their interactions is provided, in light of the benefits of applying a systems approach to the understanding of the origins of individual's behaviour. Potential actions towards safety improvement are discussed.

  18. Motor vehicle and roadway factors in pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: an examination based on emergency department data.

    PubMed

    Stutts, J C; Hunter, W W

    1999-09-01

    Information on 2558 persons treated for injuries incurred while bicycling or walking was collected from eight hospital emergency departments over approximately a one-year time period. The emergency departments represented a mix of urban and suburban/rural sites in three states--California, New York, and North Carolina. The data were collected on special survey forms and included detailed information about the location of the injury event. Results show that, overall, 70% of the reported bicycle injury events and 64% of the reported pedestrian injury events did not involve a motor vehicle. In addition, 31% of the bicyclists and 53% of the pedestrians were injured in non-roadway locations such as sidewalks, parking lots, or off-road trails. Although pedestrians and bicyclists struck by motor vehicles in the roadway were generally the most seriously injured, they represented less than a third of the reported cases. Increased knowledge of non-roadway and non-motor vehicle pedestrian and bicyclist injury events can contribute to more effective program and countermeasure development to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

  19. Establishment of the central radiation dose registration system for decontamination work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi APP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2016-10-01

    With respect to radiation protection for decontamination efforts involving radioactive fallout emitted by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant, new regulations were established and obligated employers to monitor, record, and store of workers' dose records, and to check their past dose records at the time of employment. However, cumulative doses may not be properly maintained if a worker declares incorrect values for past doses. In response, with facilitation from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, primary contractors of decontamination works decided to establish a central dose registration system. There are four major issues in the design of the system to be resolved, included the following: primary contractors (a) do not have a legal responsibility to perform dose control for subcontractors, (b) do not have the right to control decontamination sites, (c) often organize joint ventures, and (d) correspond to a wide range of ambient dose rates. To resolve the issues, requirements of the system included the following: (a) centralize the operation of radiation passbooks, which records past doses and the results of medical examinations to each worker; (b) develop a database system that could register all dose data and accept inquiry from primary contractors; (c) establish a permanent data storage system for transferred records; and (d) provide graded type of services that are appropriate to the risk of radiation exposure. The system started its operation in December 2013 and provided dose distributions in April and July 2015. The average yearly dose in 2014 was 0.7 mSv, which increased by 0.2 mSv from 0.5 mSv in 2012 and 2013. However, no cumulative dose from 2012-2014 exceeded 20 mSv, which was far below than the dose limits (100 mSv/5 years and 50 mSv/year). Although current dose distributions of decontamination workers were within appropriate levels, careful monitoring of dose distribution is necessary for preserving the proper

  20. Establishment of the central radiation dose registration system for decontamination work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi APP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2016-10-01

    With respect to radiation protection for decontamination efforts involving radioactive fallout emitted by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant, new regulations were established and obligated employers to monitor, record, and store of workers' dose records, and to check their past dose records at the time of employment. However, cumulative doses may not be properly maintained if a worker declares incorrect values for past doses. In response, with facilitation from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, primary contractors of decontamination works decided to establish a central dose registration system. There are four major issues in the design of the system to be resolved, included the following: primary contractors (a) do not have a legal responsibility to perform dose control for subcontractors, (b) do not have the right to control decontamination sites, (c) often organize joint ventures, and (d) correspond to a wide range of ambient dose rates. To resolve the issues, requirements of the system included the following: (a) centralize the operation of radiation passbooks, which records past doses and the results of medical examinations to each worker; (b) develop a database system that could register all dose data and accept inquiry from primary contractors; (c) establish a permanent data storage system for transferred records; and (d) provide graded type of services that are appropriate to the risk of radiation exposure. The system started its operation in December 2013 and provided dose distributions in April and July 2015. The average yearly dose in 2014 was 0.7 mSv, which increased by 0.2 mSv from 0.5 mSv in 2012 and 2013. However, no cumulative dose from 2012-2014 exceeded 20 mSv, which was far below than the dose limits (100 mSv/5 years and 50 mSv/year). Although current dose distributions of decontamination workers were within appropriate levels, careful monitoring of dose distribution is necessary for preserving the proper

  1. Radiotherapy Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

  2. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  4. Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Felix; Köster, Gerta

    2014-06-01

    We present a microscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based model for pedestrian dynamics: the gradient navigation model. The model uses a superposition of gradients of distance functions to directly change the direction of the velocity vector. The velocity is then integrated to obtain the location. The approach differs fundamentally from force-based models needing only three equations to derive the ODE system, as opposed to four in, e.g., the social force model. Also, as a result, pedestrians are no longer subject to inertia. Several other advantages ensue: Model-induced oscillations are avoided completely since no actual forces are present. The derivatives in the equations of motion are smooth and therefore allow the use of fast and accurate high-order numerical integrators. At the same time, the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the ODE system follow almost directly from the smoothness properties. In addition, we introduce a method to calibrate parameters by theoretical arguments based on empirically validated assumptions rather than by numerical tests. These parameters, combined with the accurate integration, yield simulation results with no collisions of pedestrians. Several empirically observed system phenomena emerge without the need to recalibrate the parameter set for each scenario: obstacle avoidance, lane formation, stop-and-go waves, and congestion at bottlenecks. The density evolution in the latter is shown to be quantitatively close to controlled experiments. Likewise, we observe a dependence of the crowd velocity on the local density that compares well with benchmark fundamental diagrams.

  5. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  6. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to...

  7. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to...

  8. The child accident repeater: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  9. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  10. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  11. Using Theory to Guide Practice in Children's Pedestrian Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Donna; Hall, Margaret; Howat, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Few pedestrian injury prevention programs appear to articulate the theory upon which their design and evaluation are based. This article describes how theory was used to plan, develop, implement, and evaluate the educational component of a comprehensive child pedestrian intervention. Organizational and planning theories were used to guide the…

  12. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Daniel R; Negri, Pablo A; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models. PMID:27627328

  13. Effect of speed matching on fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Luo, Lin; Yang, Yue; Zhuang, Yifan; Zhang, Peitong; Yang, Lizhong; Yang, Hongtai; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Kongjin; Li, Yanlai

    2016-09-01

    Properties of pedestrian may change along their moving path, for example, as a result of fatigue or injury, which has never been properly investigated in the past research. The paper attempts to study the speed matching effect (a pedestrian adjusts his velocity constantly to the average velocity of his neighbors) and its influence on the density-velocity relationship (a pedestrian adjust his velocity to the surrounding density), known as the fundamental diagram of the pedestrian flow. By the means of the cellular automaton, the simulation results fit well with the empirical data, indicating the great advance of the discrete model for pedestrian dynamics. The results suggest that the system velocity and flow rate increase obviously under a big noise, i.e., a diverse composition of pedestrian crowd, especially in the region of middle or high density. Because of the temporary effect, the speed matching has little influence on the fundamental diagram. Along the entire density, the relationship between the step length and the average pedestrian velocity is a piecewise function combined two linear functions. The number of conflicts reaches the maximum with the pedestrian density of 2.5 m-2, while decreases by 5.1% with the speed matching.

  14. Typical features of pedestrian spatial distribution in the inflow process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lv, Wei; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian inflow is frequently observed in various pedestrian facilities. In this work, we first proposed four hypotheses concerning the inflow process. Then, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypotheses. With several analytical methods, e.g., the proxemics theory and Voronoi diagram method, the features of pedestrian inflow are analyzed in detail. Results demonstrate that the distribution of pedestrians in the room is not uniform. Boundaries are attractive for these pedestrians. The impact of two factors of the inflow are analyzed, i.e., movement rule, and first-out reward. It is found pedestrians can enter the room more effectively under the random rule or two queues. Under some hurry circumstances, pedestrians may prefer to gather around the door, and the spatial distribution is not uniform, leading to the imbalance use of the room. Practical suggestions are given for pedestrians to improve the travel efficiency in the inflow process. This experimental study is meaningful to reveal some fundamental phenomena of inflow process, which can provide the realistic basis for building the theory and mathematical-physical models.

  15. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 502.12 Section 502... § 502.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles whether or not motorized in or on... and directions of the security staff and all posted traffic signs; (b) The blocking of...

  16. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 502.12 Section 502... § 502.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles whether or not motorized in or on... and directions of the security staff and all posted traffic signs; (b) The blocking of...

  17. 31 CFR 91.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 91... BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the... directions of guards and all posted traffic signs. (b) The blocking of entrances, driveways, walks,...

  18. 31 CFR 700.10 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 700... pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles on the property shall drive in a careful and safe manner at all times and shall comply with the signals and directions of security officers and all posted...

  19. 31 CFR 407.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 407... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the property... of Treasury guards and all posted traffic signs. (b) The blocking of entrances, driveways,...

  20. 31 CFR 407.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 407... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the property... of Treasury guards and all posted traffic signs. (b) The blocking of entrances, driveways,...

  1. 31 CFR 700.10 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 700... pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles on the property shall drive in a careful and safe manner at all times and shall comply with the signals and directions of security officers and all posted...

  2. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian...

  3. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian...

  4. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian...

  5. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian...

  6. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian...

  7. Pedestrian Safety--A Step in the Right Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This guide contains interdisciplinary teaching materials to help administrators and teachers develop pedestrian safety programs. The materials can be easily integrated with language arts, art, and social studies courses. Objectives of the materials, which can be used in kindergarten through grade nine, include understanding pedestrians' rights and…

  8. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by an employee, tenant, or contractor; (c) When an air traffic control tower is in operation, ensure... following: (1) Two-way radio communications between each pedestrian or vehicle and the tower; (2) An escort with two-way radio communications with the tower accompanying any pedestrian or vehicle without a...

  9. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by an employee, tenant, or contractor; (c) When an air traffic control tower is in operation, ensure... following: (1) Two-way radio communications between each pedestrian or vehicle and the tower; (2) An escort with two-way radio communications with the tower accompanying any pedestrian or vehicle without a...

  10. 32 CFR 636.26 - Pedestrian's rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.26 Pedestrian's rights and duties. (a) Pedestrians will obey all traffic control devices and regulations, unless directed to do otherwise by the Military Police. (b) When...

  11. Primary Grade Teachers' Perceptions and Practices regarding Pedestrian Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lartey, Grace K.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Yingling, Faith

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pedestrian injury is the third leading cause of unintentional injury and death among children 1-14 years old. The purpose of this study was to examine primary grade teachers' perceived role in pedestrian safety education. Methods: A total of 630 surveys were sent to a national random sample of primary school teachers and 54% responded.…

  12. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Negri, Pablo A.; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models.

  13. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  14. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  15. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  16. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  17. Childhood pedestrian deaths during Halloween -- United States, 1975-1996.

    PubMed

    1997-10-24

    During 1995, pedestrian deaths accounted for approximately 15% of all motor-vehicle-related deaths sustained by children aged 0-19 years in the United States. Because of the levels of participation in Halloween-related activities by elementary and middle school-aged children, these children might be more likely to sustain pedestrian injuries on that evening than on other evenings. To characterize the occurrence of fatal pedestrian injury among children on Halloween, CDC analyzed mortality data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 1975-1996. This report summarizes the results of the analysis and suggests measures to prevent Halloween-related pedestrian injuries and deaths among children. The findings indicate that the number of childhood pedestrian deaths increased fourfold among children on Halloween evenings when compared with all other evenings. PMID:9380012

  18. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S; Dueholm, Jacob V; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2016-01-05

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences.

  19. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S; Dueholm, Jacob V; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  20. Childhood pedestrian deaths during Halloween -- United States, 1975-1996.

    PubMed

    1997-10-24

    During 1995, pedestrian deaths accounted for approximately 15% of all motor-vehicle-related deaths sustained by children aged 0-19 years in the United States. Because of the levels of participation in Halloween-related activities by elementary and middle school-aged children, these children might be more likely to sustain pedestrian injuries on that evening than on other evenings. To characterize the occurrence of fatal pedestrian injury among children on Halloween, CDC analyzed mortality data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 1975-1996. This report summarizes the results of the analysis and suggests measures to prevent Halloween-related pedestrian injuries and deaths among children. The findings indicate that the number of childhood pedestrian deaths increased fourfold among children on Halloween evenings when compared with all other evenings.

  1. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S.; Dueholm, Jacob V.; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  2. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1986-02-01

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  4. THREE-YEAR RETENTION OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM IN THE BODY OF TEPCO WORKERS INVOLVED IN THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Tani, K; Kim, E; Kurihara, O; Sakai, K; Akashi, M

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurements of seven highly exposed workers at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been performed continuously since June 2011. Caesium clearance in the monitored workers is in agreement with the biokinetic models proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. After 500 d from the initial measurement, however, the caesium clearance slowed. It was thought to be unlikely that additional Cs intake had occurred after the initial intake, as activity in foods was kept low. And, the contribution from the detector over the chest was enhanced with time. This indicates that insoluble Cs particles were inhaled and a long metabolic rate showed.

  5. THREE-YEAR RETENTION OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM IN THE BODY OF TEPCO WORKERS INVOLVED IN THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Tani, K; Kim, E; Kurihara, O; Sakai, K; Akashi, M

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurements of seven highly exposed workers at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been performed continuously since June 2011. Caesium clearance in the monitored workers is in agreement with the biokinetic models proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. After 500 d from the initial measurement, however, the caesium clearance slowed. It was thought to be unlikely that additional Cs intake had occurred after the initial intake, as activity in foods was kept low. And, the contribution from the detector over the chest was enhanced with time. This indicates that insoluble Cs particles were inhaled and a long metabolic rate showed. PMID:26979805

  6. The Advocacy for Pedestrian Safety Study: Cluster Randomised Trial Evaluating a Political Advocacy Approach to Reduce Pedestrian Injuries in Deprived Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ronan A.; Kendrick, Denise; Towner, Elizabeth M. L.; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Jones, Sarah; Kimberlee, Richard; Rodgers, Sarah E.; Turner, Samantha; Brussoni, Mariana; Vinogradova, Yana; Sarvotham, Tinnu; Macey, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether advocacy targeted at local politicians leads to action to reduce the risk of pedestrian injury in deprived areas. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 239 electoral wards in 57 local authorities in England and Wales. Participants 617 elected local politicians. Interventions Intervention group politicians were provided with tailored information packs, including maps of casualty sites, numbers injured and a synopsis of effective interventions. Main outcome measures 25–30 months post intervention, primary outcomes included: electoral ward level: percentage of road traffic calmed; proportion with new interventions; school level: percentage with 20 mph zones, Safe Routes to School, pedestrian training or road safety education; politician level: percentage lobbying for safety measures. Secondary outcomes included politicians’ interest and involvement in injury prevention, and facilitators and barriers to implementation. Results Primary outcomes did not significantly differ: % difference in traffic calming (0.07, 95%CI: −0.07 to 0.20); proportion of schools with 20 mph zones (RR 1.47, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.32), Safe Routes to School (RR 1.34, 95%CI: 0.83 to 2.17), pedestrian training (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 0.95 to 1.61) or other safety education (RR 1.16, 95%CI: 0.97 to 1.39). Intervention group politicians reported greater interest in child injury prevention (RR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.16), belief in potential to help prevent injuries (RR 1.36, 95%CI 1.16 to 1.61), particularly pedestrian safety (RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.19 to 2.03). 63% of intervention politicians reported supporting new pedestrian safety schemes. The majority found the advocacy information surprising, interesting, effectively presented, and could identify suitable local interventions. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of an innovative approach to translational public health by targeting local politicians in a randomised controlled trial. The intervention

  7. Disparities in road crash mortality among pedestrians using wheelchairs in the USA: results of a capture–recapture analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, John D; Benton, Connor S

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to quantify and describe the burden of fatal pedestrian crashes among persons using wheelchairs in the USA from 2006 to 2012. Design The occurrence of fatal pedestrian crashes among pedestrians using wheelchairs was assessed using two-source capture-recapture. Descriptive analysis of fatal crashes was conducted using customary approaches. Setting Two registries were constructed, both of which likely undercounted fatalities among pedestrians who use wheelchairs. The first used data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, and the second used a LexisNexis news search. Outcome measures Mortality rate (per 100 000 person-years) and crash-level, driver-level and pedestrian-level characteristics of fatal crashes. Results This study found that, from 2006 to 2012, the mortality rate for pedestrians using wheelchairs was 2.07/100 000 person-years (95% CI 1.60 to 2.54), which was 36% higher than the overall population pedestrian mortality rate (p=0.02). Men's risk was over fivefold higher than women's risk (p<0.001). Compared to the overall population, persons aged 50–64 using wheelchairs had a 38% increased risk (p=0.04), and men who use wheelchairs aged 50–64 had a 75% increased risk over men of the same age in the overall population (p=0.006). Almost half (47.6%; 95% CI 42.8 to 52.5) of fatal crashes occurred in intersections and 38.7% (95% CI 32.0 to 45.0) of intersection crashes occurred at locations without traffic control devices. Among intersection crashes, 47.5% (95% CI 40.6 to 54.5) involved wheelchair users in a crosswalk; no crosswalk was available for 18.3% (95% CI 13.5 to 24.4). Driver failure to yield right-of-way was noted in 21.4% (95% CI 17.7 to 25.7) of crashes, and no crash avoidance manoeuvers were detected in 76.4% (95% CI 71.0 to 81.2). Conclusions Persons who use wheelchairs experience substantial pedestrian mortality disparities calling for behavioural and built environment interventions. PMID:26589426

  8. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores. PMID:26218430

  9. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores. PMID:26218430

  10. A Langevin model for low density pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-Min; Benzi, Roberto; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    The dynamics of pedestrian crowds shares deep connections with statistical physics and fluid dynamics. Reaching a quantitative understanding, not only of the average behaviours but also of the statistics of (rare) fluctuations would have major impact, for instance, on the design and safety of civil infrastructures. A key feature of pedestrian dynamics is its strong intrinsic variability, that we can already observe at the single individual level. In this work we aim at a quantitative characterisation of this statistical variability by studying individual fluctuations. We consider experimental observations of low-density pedestrian flows in a corridor within a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. Few hundreds of thousands of pedestrian trajectories with high space and time resolutions have been collected via a Microsoft Kinect 3D-range sensor and automatic head tracking techniques. From these observations we model pedestrians as active Brownian particles by means of a generalised Langevin equation. With this model we can quantitatively reproduce the observed dynamics including the statistics of ordinary pedestrian fluctuations and of rarer U-turn events. Low density, pair-wise interactions between pedestrians are also discussed.

  11. Simulation of pedestrian crowds’ evacuation in a huge transit terminal subway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Hao, Xinpeng; Deng, Baoshun

    2012-11-01

    As modernized urban rail transportation, subways are playing an important role in transiting large passenger flows. Passengers are in high density within the subway during rush hours. The casualty and injury will be tremendous if an accident occurs, such as a fire. Hence, enough attention should be paid on pedestrian crowds’ evacuation in a subway. In this paper, simulation of the process of pedestrian crowds’ evacuation from a huge transit terminal subway station is conducted. The evacuation process in different cases is conducted by using an agent-based model. Effects of occupant density, exit width and automatic fare gates on evacuation time are studied in detail. It is found that, with the increase of the occupant density, the evacuation efficiency would decline. There is a linear relationship between occupant density and evacuation time. Different occupant densities correspond to different critical exit widths. However, the existence of the automatic fare gates has little effect on evacuation time and tendency. The current results of this study will be helpful in guiding evacuation designs of huge underground spaces.

  12. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

  13. Child pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: results of community surveillance and a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, J. F.; Hooten, E. G.; Brown, K. A.; Peek-Asa, C.; Heye, C.; McArthur, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the dimensions of childhood pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in Long Beach, California, and to identify risk factors for these injuries. POPULATION: Long Beach residents aged 0-14 years who were involved in an auto versus pedestrian or bicyclist incident that resulted in a hospital visit and/or police response, between 1 September 1988 and 31 August 1990. METHODS: Cases were identified retrospectively using hospital charts, police records, and coroner's reports; demographic, clinical, and situational information were abstracted from the same. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the street environments where children were injured, and to identify environmental risk factors at these case sites. RESULTS: 288 children comprised the sample population. Midblock dart-outs emerged as the single most common type of incident. Most incidents happened on residential streets, but the risk of injury was greatest on larger boulevards, and tended to cluster by region within the city. Adjusted odds ratios show that case sites had a larger proportion of traffic exceeding posted speed limits, and were also four times more likely to be near a convenience store, gas station, or fast food store than control sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest three possible routes for the prevention of childhood pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: education, law enforcement, and environmental modification. PMID:9346093

  14. [Orofacial injuries in skateboard accidents].

    PubMed

    Frohberg, U; Bonsmann, M

    1992-04-01

    In a clinical study, 25 accidents involving injuries by a fall with a skateboard were investigated and classified in respect of epidemiology, accident mechanism and injury patterns in the facial region. Accident victims are predominantly boys between 7 and 9 years of age. A multiple trauma involving the teeth and the dental system in general and the soft parts of the face is defined as a characteristic orofacial injury pattern in skateboard accidents. The high proportion of damage to the front teeth poses problems of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation necessitating long-term treatment courses in children and adolescents. Effective prevention of facial injuries may be possible by evolving better facial protection systems and by creating areas of playgrounds where skateboarders can practise safely.

  15. [Traffic accidents--the national killer].

    PubMed

    Shemer, Joshua

    2004-02-01

    Traffic accidents are the most prevalent cause of death in developed countries between the ages of 1-33 years. In spite of a low motorization level in Israel, the rate of injury per 100,000 residents in Israel (2.8) was higher than in the US (1.8), NZ (1.7), Canada (1.7), Japan (1.3) and most European countries. The worst injuries were among pedestrians; particularly children aged 1-9 years and elderly (70+ years). In the past decade there have been significant advances in trauma care in Israel. Major strides included the foundation of trauma centers in hospitals, the establishment of the National Council for Trauma and the National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research at the Gertner Institute that coordinates the national trauma registry. One of the primary aims of the registry was to provide data to support decision-makers in setting national policy for accident prevention. The Israeli Police Department provides data on traffic accident victims to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) which publishes the national figures. In their article in this edition of the journal, Dr Peleg and Dr. Aharonson-Daniel present a grave concern regarding the fact that details of over 50% of hospitalized traffic accident victims were not reported to the CBS by the police, including data on the severely injured casualties. Traffic accidents are a major cause of loss of life and disability, creating a heavy economic burden on the state and the health care system. Hence, the authors recommend establishing a national database which will combine data from medical and other sources and present the complete comprehensive picture of traffic accident injuries. Such a database will improve the decision-making process, providing more focused data to enhance the preparation and dissemination of appropriate injury prevention policies.

  16. Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.

  17. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation...

  18. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation...

  19. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation...

  20. 47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREESPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREE-SPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL AT 25TH AVENUE Plan Sheet D-5117 (delineated by R. H. Bacon, April 1939) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 72. View looking SE down pedestrian walking away from bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View looking SE down pedestrian walking away from bridge towards Brooklyn. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  2. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation...

  3. 17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting shelter with ripped copper roofing and missing columns. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  4. Pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction, including human participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.; Yang, Q. S.; Yang, N.

    2013-02-01

    The pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction problem based on bipedal walking model and damped compliant legs is presented in this work. A time-variant damper is modeled at a given walking speed. A control force is applied by the pedestrian to compensate for energy dissipated with the system damping in walking and to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The effects of stiffness, damping of the leg and the landing angle of attack are investigated in the numerical studies. Simulation results show that the dynamic interaction will increase with a larger vibration level of structure. More external energy must be input to maintain steady walking and uniform dynamic behavior of the pedestrian in the process. The simple bipedal walking model could well describe the human-structure dynamic interaction.

  5. Internal pedestrian circulation and common open space, also illustrating mature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Internal pedestrian circulation and common open space, also illustrating mature landscape features. Building 35 at left foreground. Facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation...

  7. 20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, AND '10 SMOOT' MARKER (see data pages) - Harvard Bridge, Spanning Charles River at Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibel, Gokce; Ozhan, Kayacan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity-density and flux-density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones.

  9. ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-120) AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  10. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM PEDESTRIAN PATH LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BALUSTRADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM PEDESTRIAN PATH LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BALUSTRADE AND WEST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE. - Central Park Bridges, Gothic Arch, Spanning bridlepath south of tennis courts at northwest edge of Reservoir, Central Park, New York County, NY

  11. 3. Threequarter view from pedestrian path level, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view from pedestrian path level, looking southeast, showing balustrade and west elevation of bridge - Central Park Bridges, Gothic Arch, Spanning bridlepath south of tennis courts at northwest edge of Reservoir, Central Park, New York County, NY

  12. Pedestrian Injury and Human Behaviour: Observing Road-Rule Violations at High-Incident Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Cinnamon, Jonathan; Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S. Morad

    2011-01-01

    Background Human behaviour is an obvious, yet under-studied factor in pedestrian injury. Behavioural interventions that address rule violations by pedestrians and motorists could potentially reduce the frequency of pedestrian injury. In this study, a method was developed to examine road-rule non-compliance by pedestrians and motorists. The purpose of the study was to examine the potential association between violations made by pedestrians and motorists at signalized intersections, and collisions between pedestrians and motor-vehicles. The underlying hypothesis is that high-incident pedestrian intersections are likely to vary with respect to their aetiology, and thus are likely to require individualized interventions – based on the type and rate of pedestrian and motorist violation. Methods High-incident pedestrian injury intersections in Vancouver, Canada were identified using geographic information systems. Road-rule violations by pedestrians and motorists were documented at each incident hotspot by a team of observers at several different time periods during the day. Results Approximately 9,000 pedestrians and 18,000 vehicles were observed in total. In total for all observed intersections, over 2000 (21%) pedestrians committed one of the observed pedestrian road-crossing violations, while approximately 1000 (5.9%) drivers committed one of the observed motorist violations. Great variability in road-rule violations was observed between intersections, and also within intersections at different observation periods. Conclusions Both motorists and pedestrians were frequently observed committing road-rule violations at signalized intersections, suggesting a potential human behavioural contribution to pedestrian injury at the study sites. These results suggest that each intersection may have unique mechanisms that contribute to pedestrian injury, and may require targeted behavioural interventions. The method described in this study provides the basis for understanding

  13. The pedestrian behaviour of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sullman, M J M; Gras, M E; Font-Mayolas, S; Masferrer, L; Cunill, M; Planes, M

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the data, but an acceptable fit was obtained for the shortened 21-item version of the scale. In line with research from the UK, the present study found that males reported more unsafe road crossing behaviour and playing on the roads, but there was no gender difference for engaging in planned protective behaviour. This research also confirmed that unsafe road crossing behaviour increased with age, while dangerous playing on the road and planned protective behaviours both decreased with age. The present study also confirmed that the ARBQ is a useful tool for investigating the safety-related behaviour of adolescents on the road.

  14. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  15. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities. PMID:24856781

  16. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident: application expansion to recovery and reconstruction work.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work. In April 2012, the Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters (NERH) started dividing the restricted areas into three sub-areas based on the ambient dose rate. In accordance with the rearrangement of the restricted area, NERH decided to allow resumption of business activities, including manufacturing and farming, as well as operation of hospitals, welfare facilities, and shops and related subordinate tasks, such as maintenance, repair, and transportation. As a result, the government needed regulations for radiation protection for workers engaged in those activities. The issues that arose in the deliberation of the regulations were distilled into two points: 1) whether radiation protection systems established for a planned exposure situation should apply to construction and agricultural work activities in an existing exposure situation, and 2) how to simplify the regulation in accordance with the nature of the work activities. Further research and development concerning the following issues are warranted: a) the relationship between the radioactive concentrations of materials handled and the risk of internal exposure, and b) the relationship between the radioactive concentration of the soil and the surface contamination level.

  17. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities.

  18. Feature Selection and Pedestrian Detection Based on Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony. PMID:26295480

  19. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  20. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  1. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Zhang, Guanghai; Yan, Xiaoxing; Gao, Jun

    2016-08-16

    Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods.

  2. Feature Selection and Pedestrian Detection Based on Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony. PMID:26295480

  3. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rui; Zhang, Guanghai; Yan, Xiaoxing; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods. PMID:27537888

  4. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  5. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Zhang, Guanghai; Yan, Xiaoxing; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods. PMID:27537888

  6. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  7. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  8. Pilot Study: A Pediatric Pedestrian Safety Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bovis, Stephanie E; Harden, Taijha; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and implement the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without a control group was used to measure children's pedestrian safety knowledge. Knowledge assessments consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were administered pre- and post-curriculum implementation by classroom teachers. Knowledge assessments gauged prekindergarten students' knowledge of pedestrian safety activities prior to safety curriculum implementation and, again, after the students received the curriculum. A total of 605 children (aged 3- to 5-year) from 38 prekindergarten classrooms in 16 randomly selected elementary schools participated in the pedestrian safety education pilot program. Subjects were of multiethnic and diverse backgrounds from the Miami-Dade County Public School District. Of the 605 educated subjects, 454 children completed both pre- and posttests. A statistically significant difference was found between pretest knowledge (M = 5.49, SD = 1.54) and posttest knowledge (M = 6.64, SD = 1.35) assessment scores across all 454 subjects, t(452) = -16.22, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.29, -1.01]. Previous studies have shown that classroom-based training of children as young as 4 years old can yield significant improvements in traffic safety knowledge. The statistical findings of the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum revealed statistically significant improvements in pedestrian safety knowledge of these young children. Future research efforts will focus on longitudinal behavioral changes in these students and an increase in pedestrian safety behaviors (e.g., utilization of crosswalks or sidewalks). PMID:27618373

  9. Pedestrian choice behavior analysis and simulation of vertical walking facilities in transfer station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Hong-Fei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yuan, Zhi-Lu; Li, Yan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Considering the interlayer height, luggage, the difference between queuing pedestrians, and walking speed, the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities is established based on a support vector machine. This model is verified with the pedestrian flow data of Changchun light-rail transfer station and Beijing Xizhimen transfer station. Adding the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata, the pedestrian choice behavior is simulated. In the simulation, the effects of the dynamic influence factors are analyzed. To reduce the conflicts between pedestrians in opposite directions, the layout of vertical walking facilities is improved. The simulations indicate that the improved layout of vertical walking facilities can improve the efficiency of pedestrians passing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278221 and 51378076) and the Science Technology Development Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140204027SF).

  10. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  11. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  12. Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee-Najar, A; Esmaeili, H; Ibrahimipour, H; Dehnavieh, R; Nozadi, M Seyyed

    2010-01-01

    Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the motorcycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gathering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and χ2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests. Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety helmets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1%) were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1%) was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life. Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitoring in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehicle by the youth is of great importance. PMID:23113012

  13. Analyzing pedestrian crash injury severity at signalized and non-signalized locations.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Kirolos; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2015-08-01

    This study identifies and compares the significant factors affecting pedestrian crash injury severity at signalized and unsignalized intersections. The factors explored include geometric predictors (e.g., presence and type of crosswalk and presence of pedestrian refuge area), traffic predictors (e.g., annual average daily traffic (AADT), speed limit, and percentage of trucks), road user variables (e.g., pedestrian age and pedestrian maneuver before crash), environmental predictors (e.g., weather and lighting conditions), and vehicle-related predictors (e.g., vehicle type). The analysis was conducted using the mixed logit model, which allows the parameter estimates to randomly vary across the observations. The study used three years of pedestrian crash data from Florida. Police reports were reviewed in detail to have a better understanding of how each pedestrian crash occurred. Additionally, information that is unavailable in the crash records, such as at-fault road user and pedestrian maneuver, was collected. At signalized intersections, higher AADT, speed limit, and percentage of trucks; very old pedestrians; at-fault pedestrians; rainy weather; and dark lighting condition were associated with higher pedestrian severity risk. For example, a one-percent higher truck percentage increases the probability of severe injuries by 1.37%. A one-mile-per-hour higher speed limit increases the probability of severe injuries by 1.22%. At unsignalized intersections, pedestrian walking along roadway, middle and very old pedestrians, at-fault pedestrians, vans, dark lighting condition, and higher speed limit were associated with higher pedestrian severity risk. On the other hand, standard crosswalks were associated with 1.36% reduction in pedestrian severe injuries. Several countermeasures to reduce pedestrian injury severity are recommended.

  14. Pedestrian injury patterns according to car and casualty characteristics in france.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Lardy, Audrey; Laumon, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the injury patterns of pedestrians involved in collisions with cars, compares them with other road casualties and estimates the possible effect of car front profile on injury location. Injury patterns were identified using the Rhône Road Trauma Registry which covers all the casualties resulting from crashes in the Rhône Département (1.6 million inhabitants) who seek medical care in health facilities. Fatality rates were estimated from national police reports for the same years (1996-2007), and the two data sources were linked to obtain information on the front profile of the striking car. As with all groups of road users, most of the pedestrians involved in car crashes were young. However elderly people were overrepresented when the size of the exposed population was taken into account. The most frequently injured body regions were the lower extremities (50% of victims), the head/face/neck (38%) and the upper extremities (27%). Pelvic injuries were much more common for women. The most severe injuries (AIS4+) were mostly to the head and thorax, for all groups of road users. However, pedestrians sustained twice as many head injuries as thoracic injuries. When the front profiles were grouped together according to the most common car types in Europe, the risk of being killed was higher for MPVs. More specifically, the risk of sustaining an AIS2+ thoracic injury was higher in a collision with an MPV. Our study confirms that it is quite justified for the tests based on European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee guidelines to be focused on the head and the lower extremities. However, no test procedure exists for thoracic injuries, which is the body region with the second highest number of severe or fatal injuries.

  15. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  16. An accelerated failure time model for investigating pedestrian crossing behavior and waiting times at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Huan, Mei; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-09-01

    The waiting process is crucial to pedestrians in the street-crossing behavior. Once pedestrians terminate their waiting behavior during the red light period, they would cross against the red light and put themselves in danger. A joint hazard-based duration model is developed to investigate the effect of various covariates on pedestrian crossing behavior and to estimate pedestrian waiting times at signalized intersections. A total of 1181 pedestrians approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. Pedestrian crossing behaviors are classified into immediate crossing behavior and waiting behavior. The probability and effect of various covariates for pedestrians' immediate crossing behavior are identified by a logit model. Four accelerated failure time duration models based on the exponential, Weibull, lognormal and log-logistic distributions are proposed to examine the significant risk factors affecting duration times for pedestrians' waiting behavior. A joint duration model is developed to estimate pedestrian waiting times. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity is considered in the proposed model. The results indicate that the Weibull AFT model with shared frailty is appropriate for modelling pedestrian waiting durations. Failure to account for heterogeneity would significantly underestimate the effects of covariates on waiting duration times. The proposed model provides a better understanding of pedestrian crossing behavior and more accurate estimation of pedestrian waiting times. It may be applicable in traffic system analysis in developing countries with high flow of mixed traffic.

  17. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters.

  18. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.

  19. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  20. Asymmetric effect on single-file dense pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hua; Cai, Mei-Jing; Li, Xing-Li; Song, Tao

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, an extended optimal velocity model is proposed to simulate single-file dense pedestrian flow by considering asymmetric interaction (i.e. attractive force and repulsive force), which depends on the different distances between pedestrians. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The phase diagram comparison and analysis show that asymmetric effect plays an important role in strengthening the stabilization of system. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation near the critical point is derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. The pedestrian jam could be described by the kink-antikink soliton solution for the mKdV equation. From the simulation of space-time evolution of the pedestrians distance, it can be found that the asymmetric interaction is more efficient compared to the symmetric interaction in suppressing the pedestrian jam. Furthermore, the simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis as well as reproduce experimental phenomena better.

  1. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation. PMID:27055024

  2. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5 ∼ 10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation. PMID:27055024

  3. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  4. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  5. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  6. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  7. Vision-based analysis of small groups in pedestrian crowds.

    PubMed

    Ge, Weina; Collins, Robert T; Ruback, R Barry

    2012-05-01

    Building upon state-of-the-art algorithms for pedestrian detection and multi-object tracking, and inspired by sociological models of human collective behavior, we automatically detect small groups of individuals who are traveling together. These groups are discovered by bottom-up hierarchical clustering using a generalized, symmetric Hausdorff distance defined with respect to pairwise proximity and velocity. We validate our results quantitatively and qualitatively on videos of real-world pedestrian scenes. Where human-coded ground truth is available, we find substantial statistical agreement between our results and the human-perceived small group structure of the crowd. Results from our automated crowd analysis also reveal interesting patterns governing the shape of pedestrian groups. These discoveries complement current research in crowd dynamics, and may provide insights to improve evacuation planning and real-time situation awareness during public disturbances. PMID:21844622

  8. Pedestrian worker fatalities in workplace locations, Australia, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Fiona; Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian deaths of workers in Australian workplaces (1 July 2000-31 December 2010) are described using coronial and safety authority fatality databases. One hundred and fifteen deaths were identified, with the majority male (93%) and aged over 50 years (59%). Four industries predominated (85% of deaths): Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (31%), Construction (29%), Transport, Postal and Warehousing (16%) and Manufacturing (10%). Similarly, three occupations dominated: Farmers (28%), Labourers (27%) and Machinery Operators and Drivers (25%). Common circumstantial factors (reversing machines or vehicles, driver also the pedestrian, driver's vision impeded and working accompanied) occurred in the Construction, Transport and Manufacturing industries, providing collaborative opportunities for prevention. Deaths occurring in the Agriculture industry showed different circumstantial factors, likely needing different solutions. While some effective countermeasures are known, workplace pedestrian fatalities continue to occur. Prevention strategies are needed to share known information across industries and to produce data enhancements and new knowledge.

  9. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people. PMID:26797619

  10. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people. PMID:26797619

  11. Robust pedestrian detection by combining visible and thermal infrared cameras.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jong-Suk; Jeon, Eun Som; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Lee, Hyeon Chang; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-05-05

    With the development of intelligent surveillance systems, the need for accurate detection of pedestrians by cameras has increased. However, most of the previous studies use a single camera system, either a visible light or thermal camera, and their performances are affected by various factors such as shadow, illumination change, occlusion, and higher background temperatures. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method of detecting pedestrians using a dual camera system that combines visible light and thermal cameras, which are robust in various outdoor environments such as mornings, afternoons, night and rainy days. Our research is novel, compared to previous works, in the following four ways: First, we implement the dual camera system where the axes of visible light and thermal cameras are parallel in the horizontal direction. We obtain a geometric transform matrix that represents the relationship between these two camera axes. Second, two background images for visible light and thermal cameras are adaptively updated based on the pixel difference between an input thermal and pre-stored thermal background images. Third, by background subtraction of thermal image considering the temperature characteristics of background and size filtering with morphological operation, the candidates from whole image (CWI) in the thermal image is obtained. The positions of CWI (obtained by background subtraction and the procedures of shadow removal, morphological operation, size filtering, and filtering of the ratio of height to width) in the visible light image are projected on those in the thermal image by using the geometric transform matrix, and the searching regions for pedestrians are defined in the thermal image. Fourth, within these searching regions, the candidates from the searching image region (CSI) of pedestrians in the thermal image are detected. The final areas of pedestrians are located by combining the detected positions of the CWI and CSI of the thermal

  12. New vehicle bumper design for pedestrian protection during Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaka, H.; Manap, A.; Tarlochan, F.

    2015-09-01

    This study discusses the influence of the active bumper design on the performance of the selected current bumper in terms of pedestrian protection by using finite element method. The legform impactor is used to test the bumper models created according to EEVC/WG regulations (European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee). The simulation was performed using LS-DYNA. The lower leg injury risk was discussed based on the performance of the bumper. Results of the study show a significant improvement in the bumper performance to mitigate the impact injury of the pedestrian's lower leg.

  13. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  14. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  15. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  16. Pedestrian Evacuation Analysis for Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.

  17. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements.

  18. Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most

  20. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as...

  1. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as...

  2. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as...

  3. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as...

  4. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 382.303 Section 382.303... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.303 Post-accident testing. (a) As soon as practicable... functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) Who...

  5. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 382.303 Section 382.303... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.303 Post-accident testing. (a) As soon as practicable... functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) Who...

  6. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 382.303 Section 382.303... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.303 Post-accident testing. (a) As soon as practicable... functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) Who...

  7. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as...

  8. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001). The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%), motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%), and car-motorcycle (13.14%) accidents (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian

  9. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-3. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  10. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING JUXTAPOSITION OF MACHINE SHOP, PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE, HISTORIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING JUXTAPOSITION OF MACHINE SHOP, PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE, HISTORIC RAIL BED, LUNCH/SHOWER BUILDING, AND HULETTS. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.12 Vehicular and...

  12. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.12 Vehicular and...

  13. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.12 Vehicular and...

  14. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.12 Vehicular and...

  15. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.12 Vehicular and...

  16. Effects of a Driver Enforcement Program on Yielding to Pedestrians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2004-01-01

    A driver-yielding enforcement program that included decoy pedestrians, feedback flyers, written and verbal warnings, and saturation enforcement for a 2-week period was evaluated in the city of Miami Beach using a multiple baseline design. During baseline, data were collected at crosswalks along two major corridors. Treatment was introduced first…

  17. Modern Roundabouts: Access by Pedestrians Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard G.; Guth, David A.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Ponchillia, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the key differences between roundabouts and traditional intersections that have traffic signals or stop signs and discusses how these differences may affect the mobility of pedestrians who are visually impaired. It also provides a brief summary of the authors' research on this topic and suggests strategies for addressing the…

  18. Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets with pipe rails. View of Inwood Hill Park in background, with a faint view of the Empire State Building amidst distant highrises at left, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  19. 31 CFR 91.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 91.12 Section 91.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.12 Vehicular and...

  20. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN...

  1. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN...

  2. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN...

  3. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN...

  4. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN...

  5. 7 CFR 501.11 - Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic. 501.11 Section 501.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  6. 7 CFR 501.11 - Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic. 501.11 Section 501.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  7. 7 CFR 501.11 - Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic. 501.11 Section 501.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  8. 7 CFR 501.11 - Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic. 501.11 Section 501.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  9. 7 CFR 501.11 - Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mobile equipment and pedestrian traffic. 501.11 Section 501.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  10. Evacuation of pedestrians from a hall by game strategy update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-Nan; Chen, Dong; Pan, Wei; Xue, Yu; He, Hong-Di

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model considering game strategy update is proposed to study the pedestrian evacuation in a hall. Pedestrians are classified into two categories, i.e., cooperators and defectors, and they walk to an exit according to their own strategy change. The conflicts that two or three pedestrians try to occupy the same site at the same time are investigated in the Game theory model. Based on it, the relationship between the pedestrian flow rate and the evacuation time as well as the variation of cooperative proportion against evacuation time is investigated from the different initial cooperative proportions under the influence of noise. The critical value of the noise is found when there is a small number of defectors in the initial time. Moreover, the influences of the initial cooperative proportion and strength of noise on evacuation are discussed. The results show that the lower the initial cooperative proportion as well as the bigger the strength of noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation.

  11. 7 CFR 500.11 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USNA. (e) In addition to the penalties provided in § 500.15, vehicles parked in violation of this... and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on USNA property shall drive only on... prohibited. (d) USNA approval is required for all vehicles needed for access setup and breakdown...

  12. 4 CFR 25.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or instructions of guards is prohibited. Vehicles parked in violation of posted restrictions or... and effect as if made a part hereof. Proof that a motor vehicle was parked in violation of these... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.13 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all...

  13. 4 CFR 25.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or instructions of guards is prohibited. Vehicles parked in violation of posted restrictions or... and effect as if made a part hereof. Proof that a motor vehicle was parked in violation of these... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.13 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all...

  14. 31 CFR 407.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 407.12 Section 407.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN THE TREASURY BUILDING AND...

  15. 31 CFR 407.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 407.12 Section 407.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN THE TREASURY BUILDING AND...

  16. 31 CFR 407.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 407.12 Section 407.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN THE TREASURY BUILDING AND...

  17. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges. PMID:20489227

  18. Characteristics of older pedestrians who have difficulty crossing the street.

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, J A; Keyl, P M; Guralnik, J M; Foley, D J; Marottoli, R A; Wallace, R B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the sociodemographic and health characteristics and problems of older pedestrians. METHODS: Interviews and assessments were conducted with 1249 enrollees aged 72 or older from the New Haven, Conn, community of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly who agreed to participate in a seventh follow-up. RESULTS: Approximately 11% of the New Haven residents reported difficulty crossing the street. Older pedestrians needing help in one or more activities of daily living were more than 10 times as likely as others, and those with the slowest walking speeds were nearly 3 times as likely as others, to report difficulty crossing the street. Fewer than 1% of these pedestrians aged 72 or older had a normal walking speed sufficient to cross the street in the time typically allotted at signalized intersections (1.22 m/sec). CONCLUSIONS: Crossing times at signalized intersectíons in areas with large populations of elders should be extended, and the recommended walking speed for timing signalized crossings should be modified to reflect the range of abilities among older pedestrians. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9096539

  19. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  20. California Guide for Pedestrian Safety Education. Volumes I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to serve as the basis for a pedestrian safety education program for pupils in kindergarten through grade two. The basic printed materials for use in the program are provided in three volumes, each of which is intended for a different audience. Volume I, directed to school administrators and teachers, contains information for…

  1. 23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See photographs AZ-21-13 and AZ-21-14 for views of the completed bridge. Source: city of Phoenix Engineering Department. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Block 3. This photograph is a general view of pedestrian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. This photograph is a general view of pedestrian entrance into Skyline Park at the northwest entrance next to the western building facades showing light features and the May D & F Tower. Two vertical light structures and fountain are shown in central portion of photograph - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  3. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 502.12 Section 502.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE,...

  4. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 502.12 Section 502.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE,...

  5. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 502.12 Section 502.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE,...

  6. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  7. Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas M.; Trent, Roger B.; Bernacki, Kate; Rice, Jennifer K.; Lovette, Bonnie; Hoover, Eileen; Fennell, Janette; Aistrich, Anna Zacher; Wiltsek, Dana; Corman, Ellen; Anderson, Craig L.; Sherck, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passenger vehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates are difficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources is incomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviews to obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children. Methods Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collision injury to children aged 14 years or younger from January 2005 to July 2007. Three of these centers conducted follow-up interviews with family members. Results Ninety-four injured children were identified. Nine children (10%) suffered fatal injury. Seventy children (74%) were 4 years old or younger. Family members of 21 victims from this study (23%) completed an interview. Of these 21 interviewed victims, 17 (81%) were male and 13 (62%) were 1 or 2 years old. In 13 cases (62%), the child was backed over, and the driver was the mother or father in 11 cases (52%). Fifteen cases (71%) involved a sport utility vehicle, pickup truck, or van. Most collisions occurred in a residential driveway. Conclusion Trauma center surveillance can be used for case ascertainment and for collecting information on circumstances of nontraffic pedestrian injuries. Adoption of a specific external cause-of-injury code would allow passive surveillance of these injuries. Research is needed to understand the contributions of family, vehicular, and environmental characteristics and injury risk to inform prevention efforts. PMID:22900102

  8. Geographies of inequality: child pedestrian injury and walking school buses in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Collins, Damian C A; Kearns, Robin A

    2005-01-01

    In the face of mounting concern at traffic congestion in the vicinity of schools and the associated risks of child pedestrian injury, the 'walking school bus' (WSB) idea has been rapidly adopted within metropolitan Auckland. WSBs involve volunteers guiding children to and from school in an orderly manner following established walking routes. This paper reports on a survey of the 34 Auckland primary schools which had adopted the scheme by November 2002. Despite rates of child pedestrian injury being highest in areas of socio-economic deprivation, our survey found WSB developments highly concentrated in low deprivation neighbourhoods. The inequitable socio-spatial distribution of WSBs in Auckland suggests that the ability to respond to road safety issues is closely correlated with socio-economic privilege. While our respondents identified a number of individual and community health benefits accruing from WSBs, we conclude that the initiative has a limited ability to address public health challenges originating within an inequitable and car-dominated urban political system.

  9. Is More Better? — Night Vision Enhancement System’s Pedestrian Warning Modes and Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; He, Yefei; Roe, Cheryl; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pedestrian fatalities as a result of vehicle collisions are much more likely to happen at night than during day time. Poor visibility due to darkness is believed to be one of the causes for the higher vehicle collision rate at night. Existing studies have shown that night vision enhancement systems (NVES) may improve recognition distance, but may increase drivers’ workload. The use of automatic warnings (AW) may help minimize workload, improve performance, and increase safety. In this study, we used a driving simulator to examine performance differences of a NVES with six different configurations of warning cues, including: visual, auditory, tactile, auditory and visual, tactile and visual, and no warning. Older drivers between the ages of 65 and 74 participated in the study. An analysis based on the distance to pedestrian threat at the onset of braking response revealed that tactile and auditory warnings performed the best, while visual warnings performed the worst. When tactile or auditory warnings were presented in combination with visual warning, their effectiveness decreased. This result demonstrated that, contrary to general sense regarding warning systems, multi-modal warnings involving visual cues degraded the effectiveness of NVES for older drivers. PMID:21050616

  10. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    PubMed

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Guillot, Elsa G; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds. PMID:22457615

  11. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    PubMed

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Guillot, Elsa G; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  12. Traffic Instabilities in Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowds

    PubMed Central

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Guillot, Elsa G.; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds. PMID:22457615

  13. Studies of vehicle lane-changing to avoid pedestrians with cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents studies of interactions between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. A cellular automata system model of the traffic is developed, which includes a number of subsystem models such as the single-lane vehicle model, pedestrian model, interaction model and lane-changing model. The random street crossings of pedestrians are modeled as a Poisson process. The drivers of the passing vehicles are assumed to follow a safety-rule in order not to hit the pedestrians. The results of both single and multiple car simulations are presented. We have found that in general, the traffic can benefit from vehicle lane-changing to avoid road-crossing pedestrians. The traffic flow and average vehicle speed can be increased, which leads to higher traffic efficiency. The interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are reduced, which results in shorter vehicle decelerating time due to pedestrians and less switches of the driving mode, thus leads to the better energy economy. The traffic safety can be improved in the perspective of both vehicles and pedestrians. Finally, pedestrians can cross road faster. The negative effect of lane-changing is that pedestrians have to stay longer between the lanes in the crossing.

  14. Safety effects of exclusive and concurrent signal phasing for pedestrian crossing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaohua; Mamun, Sha A; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Haque, Khademul

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the estimation of pedestrian crash count and vehicle interaction severity prediction models for a sample of signalized intersections in Connecticut with either concurrent or exclusive pedestrian phasing. With concurrent phasing, pedestrians cross at the same time as motor vehicle traffic in the same direction receives a green phase, while with exclusive phasing, pedestrians cross during their own phase when all motor vehicle traffic on all approaches is stopped. Pedestrians crossing at each intersection were observed and classified according to the severity of interactions with motor vehicles. Observation intersections were selected to represent both types of signal phasing while controlling for other physical characteristics. In the nonlinear mixed models for interaction severity, pedestrians crossing on the walk signal at an exclusive signal experienced lower interaction severity compared to those crossing on the green light with concurrent phasing; however, pedestrians crossing on a green light where an exclusive phase was available experienced higher interaction severity. Intersections with concurrent phasing have fewer total pedestrian crashes than those with exclusive phasing but more crashes at higher severity levels. It is recommended that exclusive pedestrian phasing only be used at locations where pedestrians are more likely to comply.

  15. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators.

  17. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  18. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most

  19. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  20. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice.

  1. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice. PMID:25555021

  2. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory.

  3. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory. PMID:19819367

  4. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  5. Assessment of models for pedestrian dynamics with functional principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Ensslen, Tim; Gottschalk, Hanno; Saadi, Mohamed; Seyfried, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Many agent based simulation approaches have been proposed for pedestrian flow. As such models are applied e.g. in evacuation studies, the quality and reliability of such models is of vital interest. Pedestrian trajectories are functional data and thus functional principal component analysis is a natural tool to assess the quality of pedestrian flow models beyond average properties. In this article we conduct functional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the trajectories of pedestrians passing through a bottleneck. In this way it is possible to assess the quality of the models not only on basis of average values but also by considering its fluctuations. We benchmark two agent based models of pedestrian flow against the experimental data using PCA average and stochastic features. Functional PCA proves to be an efficient tool to detect deviation between simulation and experiment and to assess quality of pedestrian models.

  6. Walking the line: Understanding pedestrian behaviour and risk at rail level crossings with cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Pedestrian fatalities at rail level crossings (RLXs) are a public safety concern for governments worldwide. There is little literature examining pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and no previous studies have adopted a formative approach to understanding behaviour in this context. In this article, cognitive work analysis is applied to understand the constraints that shape pedestrian behaviour at RLXs in Melbourne, Australia. The five phases of cognitive work analysis were developed using data gathered via document analysis, behavioural observation, walk-throughs and critical decision method interviews. The analysis demonstrates the complex nature of pedestrian decision making at RLXs and the findings are synthesised to provide a model illustrating the influences on pedestrian decision making in this context (i.e. time, effort and social pressures). Further, the CWA outputs are used to inform an analysis of the risks to safety associated with pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and the identification of potential interventions to reduce risk.

  7. Simulation study of interference of crossings pedestrian and vehicle traffic at a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lakouari, N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle-pedestrian cellular automata model to investigate the characteristics of the mixed traffic at a single lane roundabout. The roundabout boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β whereas pedestrians are generated with arrival probability Pcr. The pedestrian and vehicle flux are calculated in terms of rates. Also, the phase diagrams of the system in the (α1,Pcr) and (α1, β) spaces are constructed. The results show that, the gridlock state is reached only when the pedestrians have the right of way over vehicles, while the maximum current state is reached when including a pedestrians' crossing decision rule. Likewise, we have found that the crosswalk location play a chief role in improving the dynamic characteristics of pedestrian and vehicle flux. Furthermore, it has turned out that the traffic is sensitive to the driver behavior.

  8. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  9. Dynamic analysis of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; He, Jing; Luo, Zhiyong; Yang, Wunian; Zhang, Xiping

    2015-05-01

    It is important to study the effects of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow for solving the urban traffic jam problem. Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic cellular automata (TCA) model, a new one-dimensional TCA model is proposed considering the uncertainty conflict behaviors between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks and defining the parallel updating rules of motion states of pedestrians and vehicles. The traffic flow is simulated for different vehicle densities and behavior trigger probabilities. The fundamental diagrams show that no matter what the values of vehicle braking probability, pedestrian acceleration crossing probability, pedestrian backing probability and pedestrian generation probability, the system flow shows the "increasing-saturating-decreasing" trend with the increase of vehicle density; when the vehicle braking probability is lower, it is easy to cause an emergency brake of vehicle and result in great fluctuation of saturated flow; the saturated flow decreases slightly with the increase of the pedestrian acceleration crossing probability; when the pedestrian backing probability lies between 0.4 and 0.6, the saturated flow is unstable, which shows the hesitant behavior of pedestrians when making the decision of backing; the maximum flow is sensitive to the pedestrian generation probability and rapidly decreases with increasing the pedestrian generation probability, the maximum flow is approximately equal to zero when the probability is more than 0.5. The simulations prove that the influence of frequent crossing behavior upon vehicle flow is immense; the vehicle flow decreases and gets into serious congestion state rapidly with the increase of the pedestrian generation probability.

  10. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage.

  11. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage. PMID:26479677

  12. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation based on an improved dynamic parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nuo; Jia, Bin; Shao, Chun-Fu; Yue, Hao

    2012-05-01

    An improved dynamic parameter model is presented based on cellular automata. The dynamic parameters, including direction parameter, empty parameter, and cognition parameter, are formulated to simplify tactically the process of making decisions for pedestrians. The improved model reflects the judgement of pedestrians on surrounding conditions and the action of choosing or decision. According to the two-dimensional cellular automaton Moore neighborhood we establish the pedestrian moving rule, and carry out corresponding simulations of pedestrian evacuation. The improved model considers the impact of pedestrian density near exits on the evacuation process. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the improvement makes sense due to the fact that except for the spatial distance to exits, people also choose an exit according to the pedestrian density around exits. The impact factors α, β, and γ are introduced to describe transition payoff, and their optimal values are determined through simulation. Moreover, the effects of pedestrian distribution, pedestrian density, and the width of exits on the evacuation time are discussed. The optimal exit layout, i.e., the optimal position and width, is offered. The comparison between the simulated results obtained with the improved model and that from a previous model and experiments indicates that the improved model can reproduce experimental results well. Thus, it has great significance for further study, and important instructional meaning for pedestrian evacuation so as to reduce the number of casualties.

  13. Comparison study of the reactive and predictive dynamic models for pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Qun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    This paper formulates the reactive and predictive dynamic models for pedestrian flow and presents a comparison of the two models. The path-choice behavior of pedestrians in the reactive dynamic model is described that pedestrians tend to walk along a path with the lowest instantaneous cost. The desired walking direction of pedestrians in the predictive dynamic model is chosen to minimize the actual cost based on predictive traffic conditions. An algorithm used to solve the two models encompasses a cell-centered finite volume method for a hyperbolic system of conservation laws and a time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation, a fast sweeping method for an Eikonal-type equation, and a self-adaptive method of successive averages for an arisen discrete fixed point problem. The two models and their algorithm are applied to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of flux or density and path-choice behaviors of pedestrian flow marching in a facility scattered with an obstacle. Numerical results show that the two models are able to capture macroscopic features of pedestrian flow, traffic instability and other complex nonlinear phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as the formation of stop-and-go waves and clogging at bottlenecks. Different path-choice strategies of pedestrians cause different spatial distributions of pedestrian density specially in the high-density regions (near the obstacle and exits).

  14. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  15. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  16. Comparison of intersecting pedestrian flows based on experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Seyfried, A.

    2014-07-01

    Intersections of pedestrian flows feature multiple types, varying in the numbers of flow directions as well as intersecting angles. In this article results from intersecting flow experiments with two different intersecting angles are compared. To analyze the transport capabilities the Voronoi method is used to resolve the fine structure of the resulting velocity-density relations and spatial dependence of the measurements. The fundamental diagrams of various flow types are compared and show no apparent difference with respect to the intersecting angle 90° and 180°. This result indicates that head-on conflicts of different types of flow have the same influence on the transport properties of the system, which demonstrates the high self-organization capabilities of pedestrians.

  17. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  18. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  19. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors. PMID:24730898

  20. Quantitative comparison of estimations for the density within pedestrian streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordeux, Antoine; Zhang, Jun; Steffen, Bernhard; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the precision of estimators for the density within unidirectional pedestrian streams is evaluated. The analysis is done in controllable systems where the density is homogeneous and all the characteristics are known. The objectives are to estimate the global density with local measurements or density profile at high spatial resolution with no bias and low fluctuations. The classical estimation using discrete numbers of observed pedestrians is compared to continuous estimators using spacing distance, Voronoi diagram, Gaussian kernel as well as maximum likelihood. Mean squared error and bias of the estimators are calculated from empirical data and Monte Carlo experiments. The results show quantitatively how continuous approaches improve the precision of the estimations.

  1. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  2. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  3. Pedestrian navigation system using XML-based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Maiko; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Utagawa, Yuka; Shigeno, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Yutaka

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss a pedestrian navigation using cellular phone. In order to offer navigation information intelligible for a user and to solve the problem that cellular phone has a small display area, we provide navigation sentences and landscape images from user's viewpoint. When a pedestrian goes to the destination, landmarks e.g. a building, a crossing, etc. exist on the way. Thus, we provide two navigation sentences at every mark, for example 'Go to the bank at the corner,' and 'Turn to the right at the bank.' At the point which is important or easy to mistake for user, it provide landscape images. Then users can do a check of the direction. Providing a minute information, navigation sentences and landscape images, it is easy for users to go to the destination. Additionary, not having all of navigation data, our system only have a little data to manage it. The navigation data is created by the informer who is the man of the destination, and upload it to their web site. The informer who is knowledgeable about the way to the destination can give the route for users who visit it for the first time. And, it can be created using two or more navigation data which others have been created, which is the difference-use. The data in which information about way guidance from a station to a destination is described by XML (eXtensible Markup Language). Pedestrian navigation system using navigation data with cellular phone is implemented. Proposed system can realize intelligible way guidance for users, and provide the route guide, which are available for a small display area of a cellular phone and for pedestrians.

  4. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  5. Measuring the steady state of pedestrian flow in bottleneck experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Weichen; Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. Thus a modified version of the Cumulative Sum Control Chart algorithm is proposed to robustly detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives robust and reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The results reconfirm that the specific flow is constant as bottleneck width changes. Moreover, we proposed a criterion to judge the difference between the flows in all states and in steady states, which is the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. The critical value of the ratio is found to be approximately 115 persons/m. This conclusion applies not only for the analysis of existing bottleneck experiments but also for the design of new bottleneck experiments and the validation of evacuation models. Furthermore, the range of steady state in time series of pedestrian characteristics could be effectively controlled by adjusting the value of the ratio.

  6. Quantification of the level of crowdedness for pedestrian movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-06-01

    Within the realm of pedestrian research numerous measures have been proposed to estimate the level of crowdedness experienced by pedestrians. However, within the field of pedestrian traffic flow modelling there does not seem to be consensus on the question which of these measures performs best. This paper shows that the shape and scatter within the resulting fundamental diagrams differs a lot depending on the measure of crowdedness used. The main aim of the paper is to establish the advantages and disadvantages of the currently existing measures to quantify crowdedness in order to evaluate which measures provide both accurate and consistent results. The assessment is not only based on the theoretical differences, but also on the qualitative and quantitative differences between the resulting fundamental diagrams computed using the crowdedness measures on one and the same data set. The qualitative and quantitative functioning of the classical Grid-based measure is compared to with the X-T measure, an Exponentially Weighted Distance measure, and a Voronoi-Diagram measure. The consistency of relating these measures for crowdedness to the two macroscopic flow variables velocity and flow, the computational efficiency and the amount of scatter present within the fundamental diagrams produced by the implementation of the different measures are reviewed. It is found that the Voronoi-Diagram and X-T measure are the most efficient and consistent measures for crowdedness.

  7. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.

  8. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) Who receives... performing safety-sensitive functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human... section. (g)(1) The results of a breath or blood test for the use of alcohol, conducted by Federal,...

  10. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) Who receives... performing safety-sensitive functions with respect to the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of human... section. (g)(1) The results of a breath or blood test for the use of alcohol, conducted by Federal,...

  11. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic... accidents described in this section: (a) Accidents involving Government vehicles or Government property on the installation involving a fatality, personal injury, or estimated property damage in the...

  12. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  13. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  14. Use of Google Street View to Assess Environmental Contributions to Pedestrian Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Teitler, Julien O.; Sheehan, Daniel M.; Jack, Darby W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate an information technology–based approach to assess characteristics of streets and intersections associated with injuries that is less costly and time-consuming than location-based studies of pedestrian injury. Methods. We used imagery captured by Google Street View from 2007 to 2011 to assess 9 characteristics of 532 intersections within New York City. We controlled for estimated pedestrian count and estimated the relation between intersections’ characteristics and frequency of injurious collisions. Results. The count of pedestrian injuries at intersections was associated with the presence of marked crosswalks (80% increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 218%), pedestrian signals (156% increase; 95% CI = 69%, 259%), nearby billboards (42% increase; 95% CI = 7%, 90%), and bus stops (120% increase; 95% CI = 51%, 220%). Injury incidence per pedestrian was lower at intersections with higher estimated pedestrian volumes. Conclusions. Consistent with in-person study observations, the information-technology approach found traffic islands, visual advertising, bus stops, and crosswalk infrastructures to be associated with elevated counts of pedestrian injury in New York City. Virtual site visits for pedestrian injury control studies are a viable and informative methodology. PMID:26794155

  15. Analysis of the pedestrian arching at bottleneck based on a bypassing behavior model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Jia, Hongfei; Ran, Bin; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A bypassing behavior model was proposed, in which the local optimal decision behavior in the strategy level was modeled in velocity-time domain, to describe how pedestrians bypass the local obstacles considering the relative speed. The model contains (1) pedestrian visual and contact information acquisition; (2) motion state prediction of the local obstacles based on the visual and contact information; (3) pedestrian bypass strategy modeling in the velocity-time domain; (4) moving and overlapping solution. In the numerical solution, velocity domain was divided into n equal angle, the value of n ranges from 2 to infinity, the Manhattan space was refined gradually to Euclid Space accordingly, in which the movement of pedestrians was described. The model was applied to the analysis of pedestrian arching at the bottleneck in the emergent evacuation situation. (1) The results showed that the formation of the pedestrian arching at the bottleneck was deformation pressure, because many pedestrians try to pass through the bottleneck simultaneously, even in the absence of friction, the pedestrian arching still occurs; (2) In the emergent situation, we are more concerned about the bottleneck attribution of resistance to form the arching, the calculation and simulation results showed that the probability of an arching and the bottleneck width is an exponential function relationship, so when the stampede occurs in the middle of the bottleneck, the probability of arching will increase exponentially.

  16. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings? This rule does not require the routine sounding of locomotive horns at pedestrian grade...

  17. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings? This rule does not require the routine sounding of locomotive horns at pedestrian grade...

  18. The influence of pedestrian countdown signals on children's crossing behavior at school intersections.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lianning; Zou, Nan

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that pedestrian countdown signals had different influences on pedestrian crossing behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the installation of countdown signals at school intersections on children's crossing behavior. A comparison analysis was carried out on the basis of observations at two different school intersections with or without pedestrian countdown signals in the city of Jinan, China. Four types of children's crossing behavior and child pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were analyzed in detail. The analysis results showed that using pedestrian countdown timers during the Red Man phase led to more children's violation and running behavior. Theses violators created more conflicts with vehicles. However, pedestrian countdown signals were effective at helping child pedestrian to complete crossing before the red light onset, avoid getting caught in the middle of crosswalk. No significant difference was found in children who started crossing during Flashing Green Man phase between the two types of pedestrian signals. Moreover, analysis results indicated that children who crossed the road alone had more violation and adventure crossing behavior than those had companions. Boys were found more likely to run crossing than girls, but there was no significant gender difference in other crossing behavior. Finally, it's recommended to remove countdown at the end of the Red Man phase to improve children's crossing behavior and reduce the conflicts with vehicles. Meanwhile other measures are proposed to improve children safety at school intersections.

  19. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings? This rule does not require the routine sounding of locomotive horns at pedestrian grade...

  20. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings? This rule does not require the routine sounding of locomotive horns at pedestrian grade...

  1. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings? This rule does not require the routine sounding of locomotive horns at pedestrian grade...

  2. The walking environment in Lima, Peru and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Boyle, Linda Ng; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pedestrians comprise 78% of the road fatalities in Peru. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the walking environment and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Methods A matched case-control study was used to detect the odds of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision at a pedestrian crossing location. Data were collected within eleven sampled police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Results In a multivariable model adjusting for vehicle and pedestrian flow, pedestrian collisions were less likely in the presence of a curb and sidewalk on both roadway sides (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.19, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.11–0.33) or a pedestrian barricade (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01–0.81). There was a greater risk of collisions for each street vendor present (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.59–5.00) or if any parked vehicles (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.18–11.4) were present. Conclusions Improving or addressing these potentially modifiable features of the walking environment could improve pedestrian safety in Lima and in similar urban settings in low and middle-income countries. PMID:24950345

  3. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  4. Pedestrian and bicycle plans and the incidence of crash-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Aytur, Semra A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the presence of pedestrian and bicycle plans to pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries from 1997 to 2009 among 553 North Carolina (NC) municipalities. We considered all municipal plans (n=92; 49 pedestrian; 34 bicycle; and 9 combined plans featuring pedestrian and bicyclist components) published through 2009. Counts of pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries came from the NC Department of Transportation crash database, and the estimated number of pedestrian and bicycle trips per municipality in one year were used to calculate pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates. In the 13-year study period, pedestrian/combined municipality plans and bicycle/combined municipality plans were present for 189 (2.6%) and 238 (3.3%) municipality-years, respectively. There were 11,795 nonfatal injuries, 9237 possible nonfatal injuries, and 1075 fatal injuries sustained by pedestrians in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes. There were 4842 nonfatal injuries, 3666 possible nonfatal injuries, and 134 fatal injuries sustained by bicyclists in bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes. Although not statistically significant, unadjusted nonfatal and fatal injury rates among pedestrians and bicyclists were lower in those municipality-years in which plans had been published that year or in a year prior, compared to municipality-years lacking a plan. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) indicated that pedestrian nonfatal and fatal injury rates decreased in municipality-years with publication of pedestrian/combined plans (nonfatal injury RR: 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 0.82; fatal injury RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85). However, bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates did not significantly change with publication of bicyclist/combined plans. Our research suggests that plan publication is associated with lower rates of nonfatal and fatal injury in pedestrians; this association was not observed for bicyclists. Further

  5. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters. PMID:26656151

  6. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  7. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  8. Spatial-size scaling of pedestrian groups under growing density conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanlungo, Francesco; Brščić, Dražen; Kanda, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    We study the dependence on crowd density of the spatial size, configuration, and velocity of pedestrian social groups. We find that, in the investigated density range, the extension of pedestrian groups in the direction orthogonal to that of motion decreases linearly with the pedestrian density around them, both for two- and three-person groups. Furthermore, we observe that at all densities, three-person groups walk slower than two-person groups, and the latter are slower than individual pedestrians, the differences in velocities being weakly affected by density. Finally, we observe that three-person groups walk in a V-shaped formation regardless of density, with a distance between the pedestrians in the front and back again almost independent of density, although the configuration appears to be less stable at higher densities. These findings may facilitate the development of more realistic crowd dynamics models and simulators.

  9. Effects of vehicle-pedestrian interaction and speed limit on traffic performance of intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    The intersection model consisting of vehicle model, pedestrian model, pedestrian-vehicle interaction model and intersection rules has been presented in this paper. The well-established vehicle and pedestrian movement models in the literature are combined and applied to the intersection system with additional rules. Extensive numerical simulations with different scenarios are carried out. The effects of road speed limit, vehicle arrival rate, pedestrian regularity rate and vehicle rational rate on the intersection performance are quantitatively investigated. Three measures of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy economy and traffic safety. We have found that the energy economy can be achieved with the high transportation efficiency, and that the traffic safety is in conflict with the efficiency. Furthermore, we have found that the pedestrian interference makes the intersection performance worse, resulting in lower transportation efficiency, more energy consumptions and higher safety risk.

  10. Spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities in bidirectional streams: Exploring the effects of self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, Meead; Aghabayk, Kayvan; Sobhani, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Individual pedestrian velocities vary over time and space depending on the crowd size, location of individuals' within the crowd, and formation of self-organized lanes. We use empirical data to explore the spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities in bidirectional streams. We find that, unlike ordinary fluids, the velocity profile in bidirectional pedestrian streams does not necessarily follow a hyperbolic form. Rather, the shape of the velocity profile is highly dependent on the formation of self-organized lanes. We also show that the spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities along and transverse to the flow direction are widely distributed and can be modeled by a sum of Gaussian distributions. Results suggest that the effect of self-organization phenomenon is strong enough that for the same crowd size, the velocity distribution does not significantly change when pedestrians are highly mixed compared to when separate lanes are formed.

  11. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    PubMed

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents.

  12. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  13. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  14. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  15. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  16. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  17. Effects of Mobile Internet Use On College Student Pedestrian Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Byington, Katherine W.; Schwebel, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background College-age individuals have the highest incidence of pedestrian injuries of any age cohort. One factor that might contribute to elevated pedestrian injuries among this age group is injuries incurred while crossing streets distracted by mobile devices. Objectives Examine whether young adult pedestrian safety is compromised while crossing a virtual pedestrian street while distracted using the internet on a mobile “smartphone.” Method A within-subjects design was implemented with 92 young adults. Participants crossed a virtual pedestrian street 20 times, half the time while undistracted and half while completing an email-driven “scavenger hunt” to answer mundane questions using mobile internet on their cell phones. Six measures of pedestrian behavior were assessed during crossings. Participants also reported typical patterns of street crossing and mobile internet use. Results Participants reported using mobile internet with great frequency in daily life, including while walking across streets. In the virtual street environment, pedestrian behavior was greatly altered and generally more risky when participants were distracted by internet use. While distracted, participants waited longer to cross the street (F = 42.37), missed more safe opportunities to cross (F = 42.63), took longer to initiate crossing when a safe gap was available (F = 53.03), looked left and right less often (F = 124.68), spent more time looking away from the road (F = 1959.78), and were more likely to be hit or almost hit by an oncoming vehicle (F = 29.54; all ps< 0.01). Results were retained after controlling for randomized order; participant gender, age, and ethnicity; and both pedestrian habits and mobile internet experience. Conclusion Pedestrian behavior was influenced, and generally considerably riskier, when participants were simultaneously using mobile internet and crossing the street than when crossing the street with no distraction. This finding reinforces the need for

  18. Accidents related to manure in eastern Switzerland: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, A; Steiner, B; Bachmann, S; Trachsler, G; Burgheer, R; Osterwalder, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Liquid manure systems and manure pits are major hazards in the agricultural workplace. The incidence of accidents related to manure is unknown. The objective of this study was to survey the liquid manure facilities of farms in eastern Switzerland and find the incidence of accidents related to manure in the region. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study and cross sectional survey of 210 farms in eastern Switzerland. RESULTS: The incidence of accidents related to manure was found to be 10.4/1000 person-years. Most accidents were categorised as minor--that is, had a benign outcome for the people involved or involved animals only. One in 33 of the farms surveyed was the scene of an accident related to manure each year. CONCLUSIONS: The medical literature on accidents related to manure mostly reports accidents with catastrophic outcomes. This study shows that this type of accident is only the tip of the iceberg. Most of the accidents reported in this study belong to a category that has hitherto been un-noticed and unreported. The term "accident related to manure" covers a broad range of events, and those resulting in serious human illness or death represent only a small part of this spectrum. A wide variety of liquid manure systems were found on the farms surveyed. Very few liquid manure facilities conformed to published safety standards. PMID:8882112

  19. Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosini, Massimiliano D.

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.

  20. Exposure to traffic among urban children injured as pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Posner, J; Liao, E; Winston, F; Cnaan, A; Shaw, K; Durbin, D

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the immediate pre-crash activities and the routine traffic exposure (street crossing and play) in a sample of urban children struck by automobiles. In particular, the traffic exposure of children who were struck while playing was compared with that of those struck while crossing streets. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Urban pediatric emergency department. Patients: A total of 139 children ages 4–15 years evaluated for acute injuries resulting from pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions during a 14 month period. Main outcome measures: Sites of outdoor play, daily time in outdoor play, weekly number of street crossings, pre-crash circumstance (play v walking). Results: Altogether 39% of the children routinely used the street and 64% routinely used the sidewalks as play areas. The median number of street crossings per week per child was 27. There were no differences in exposures for the 29% who were hit while playing compared with the 71% who were hit while walking. Although 84% of the children walked to or from school at least one day per week, only 15% of the children were struck while on the school walking trip. The remainder were injured either while playing outdoors or while walking to other places. Conclusions: Urban children who are victims of pedestrian crashes have a high level of traffic exposure from a variety of circumstances related to their routine outdoor playing and street crossing activities. The distributions of traffic exposures were similar across the sample, indicating that the sample as a whole had high traffic exposure, regardless of the children's activity preceding the crash. Future pedestrian injury programs should address the pervasive nature of children's exposure to traffic during their routine outdoor activities. PMID:12226122

  1. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  2. A mixed system modeling two-directional pedestrian flows.

    PubMed

    Goatin, Paola; Mimault, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present a simplified model to describe the dynamics of two groups of pedestrians moving in opposite directions in a corridor. The model consists of a 2 x 2 system of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. We study the basic properties of the system to understand why and how bounded oscillations in numerical simulations arise. We show that Lax-Friedrichs scheme ensures the invariance of the domain and we investigate the existence of measure-valued solutions as limit of a subsequence of approximate solutions. PMID:25811441

  3. A comparison of two micro-beam X-ray emission techniques for actinide elemental distribution in microscopic particles originating from the hydrogen bombs involved in the Palomares (Spain) and Thule (Greenland) accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Eriksson, M.; García-López, J.; Ranebo, Y.; García-Tenorio, R.; Betti, M.; Holm, E.

    2010-09-01

    In order to validate and to gain confidence in two micro-beam techniques: particle induced X-ray emission with nuclear microprobe technique (μ-PIXE) and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence in a confocal alignment (confocal SR μ-XRF) for characterization of microscopic particles containing actinide elements (mixed plutonium and uranium) a comparative study has been performed. Inter-comparison of the two techniques is essential as the X-ray production cross-sections for U and Pu are different for protons and photons and not well defined in the open literature, especially for Pu. The particles studied consisted of nuclear weapons material, and originate either in the so called Palomares accident in Spain, 1966 or in the Thule accident in Greenland, 1968. In the determination of the average Pu/U mass ratios (not corrected by self-absorption) in the analysed microscopic particles the results from both techniques show a very good agreement. In addition, the suitability of both techniques for the analysis with good resolution (down to a few μm) of the Pu/U distribution within the particles has been proved. The set of results obtained through both techniques has allowed gaining important information concerning the characterization of the remaining fissile material in the areas affected by the aircraft accidents. This type of information is essential for long-term impact assessments of contaminated sites.

  4. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging and Association Phenomenology of Pedestrians in a Cluttered Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herweg, Jared A.

    Remote hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has shown promise in several applications such as object detection and tracking. Typically research has focused on large objects, such as vehicles, for tracking due to the spatial resolution of current operational HSI systems. This research seeks to extend the utility of applying HSI to human pedestrian detection using the reflective solar spectral range between 400 - 2500 nm. A phenomenological investigation of a novel scheme to differentiate between pedestrians is studied. By applying the basics of detection theory, this research focuses on being able to differentiate between pedestrians, as well as background materials. Specifically, this research explores the likelihood of detecting and differentiating pedestrians based on four defined subregions comprised of the exposed hair, skin, and the fabrics used for shirts and trousers. The scope of this work encompassed detecting a pedestrian of interest outdoors among other pedestrians in an urban environment consisting of a mixture of asphalt, concrete, grass, and trees. Two unique datasets were created during the course of this effort. One dataset was a collection of fully ground-truthed hyperspectral images of pedestrians in an urban environment. A second dataset was a synthetic rendering of the real-world ground truthed pedestrian scene developed using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. Subregion separability analysis results, using spectral reflectance data, provided strong evidence that combining the observable spectral features of detectable subregions is a viable means of distinguishing between pedestrians. Further analysis using real-world HSI data demonstrated that the detection and classification of the pedestrian subregions when changes in illumination, location, and background occur within the field of view of a hyperspectral sensor is achievable with a greater than 60% accuracy. In addition to the direct detection and association

  6. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  7. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  8. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  9. Pedestrian traffic deaths among residents, visitors, and homeless persons--Clark County, Nevada, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Hickox, Kaci L; Williams, Nancy; Beck, Laurie F; Coleman, Tom; Fudenberg, John; Robinson, Byron; Middaugh, John

    2014-07-18

    Motor vehicle collisions and crashes are a leading cause of death among Nevada residents aged 5-34 years, representing 14% of all injury deaths in that age group in 2010. During 2008-2011, a total of 173 pedestrian deaths from motor vehicle collisions occurred in Nevada, accounting for 16% of motor vehicle deaths in the state. Approximately 75% (2 million persons) of Nevada residents live in Clark County, which includes the city of Las Vegas. To analyze pedestrian traffic deaths in Clark County among residents, visitors, and homeless persons, the Southern Nevada Health District used coroner's office data and death certificate data for the period 2008-2011. The results indicated that the average annual pedestrian traffic death rates from motor vehicle collisions during this period were 1.4 per 100,000 population for residents, 1.1 for visitors, and 30.7 for homeless persons. Among the three groups, time of day, location of motor vehicle collisions, and pedestrian blood alcohol concentration (BAC) differed. Effective interventions to increase roadway safety, such as lowering speed limits in areas with greater pedestrian traffic, targeting interventions during hours when alcohol-impaired walking is more likely, and modifying roadway designs to increase protection of pedestrians, might decrease pedestrian deaths among all three groups. PMID:25029111

  10. Children's Pedestrian Route Selection: Efficacy of a Video and Internet Training Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial examined one aspect of child pedestrian behavior, route selection across intersections, to evaluate whether a combination of widely-available videos and websites effectively train children in safe pedestrian route selection compared to active pedestrian safety control training and a no-contact control group. Methods A sample of 231 seven- and eight-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of four groups: training with videos and internet websites, active control groups of individualized streetside training or training within a virtual pedestrian environment, or a no-contact control group. All training groups received six 30-minute training sessions. Pedestrian route selection was assessed using two strategies, vignettes accompanied by illustrations and tabletop models of intersections, on three occasions: prior to intervention group assignment, immediately post-training, and six months after training. Results Although there were differences in route selection over time, no time by condition interaction effects were significant (ps > .05), suggesting children in the video/internet training group did not learn pedestrian route selection skills at a rate different from those in the other training groups or those in the no-contact control group. Conclusion Safe route selection is a critical component of pedestrian safety. Our results suggest children may not learn route selection from widely-available videos or websites. Explanations for the null finding and implications for both research and future practice are discussed. PMID:25170289

  11. Pedestrian traffic deaths among residents, visitors, and homeless persons--Clark County, Nevada, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Hickox, Kaci L; Williams, Nancy; Beck, Laurie F; Coleman, Tom; Fudenberg, John; Robinson, Byron; Middaugh, John

    2014-07-18

    Motor vehicle collisions and crashes are a leading cause of death among Nevada residents aged 5-34 years, representing 14% of all injury deaths in that age group in 2010. During 2008-2011, a total of 173 pedestrian deaths from motor vehicle collisions occurred in Nevada, accounting for 16% of motor vehicle deaths in the state. Approximately 75% (2 million persons) of Nevada residents live in Clark County, which includes the city of Las Vegas. To analyze pedestrian traffic deaths in Clark County among residents, visitors, and homeless persons, the Southern Nevada Health District used coroner's office data and death certificate data for the period 2008-2011. The results indicated that the average annual pedestrian traffic death rates from motor vehicle collisions during this period were 1.4 per 100,000 population for residents, 1.1 for visitors, and 30.7 for homeless persons. Among the three groups, time of day, location of motor vehicle collisions, and pedestrian blood alcohol concentration (BAC) differed. Effective interventions to increase roadway safety, such as lowering speed limits in areas with greater pedestrian traffic, targeting interventions during hours when alcohol-impaired walking is more likely, and modifying roadway designs to increase protection of pedestrians, might decrease pedestrian deaths among all three groups.

  12. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m /s for global density ρg≈1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m /s for ρg>2.3 m-1 . The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.

  13. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4m/s for global density ρ_{g}≈1.75m^{-1} and 0.3m/s for ρ_{g}>2.3m^{-1}. The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.

  14. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4m/s for global density ρ_{g}≈1.75m^{-1} and 0.3m/s for ρ_{g}>2.3m^{-1}. The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design. PMID:27575153

  15. Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Ezaki, Takahiro; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-10-01

    Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in the form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of unrealistic negative speeds for empirical desired walking speeds.

  16. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. PMID:24035347

  17. Robust pedestrian detection and tracking from a moving vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuong, Nguyen Xuan; Müller, Thomas; Knoll, Alois

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multi-person detection, tracking and distance estimation in a complex scenario using multi-cameras. Specifically, we are interested in a vision system for supporting the driver in avoiding any unwanted collision with the pedestrian. We propose an approach using Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) to detect pedestrians on static images and a particle filter as a robust tracking technique to follow targets from frame to frame. Because the depth map requires expensive computation, we extract depth information of targets using Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) to reconstruct 3D-coordinates of correspondent points found by running Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) on two input images. Using the particle filter the proposed tracker can efficiently handle target occlusions in a simple background environment. However, to achieve reliable performance in complex scenarios with frequent target occlusions and complex cluttered background, results from the detection module are integrated to create feedback and recover the tracker from tracking failures due to the complexity of the environment and target appearance model variability. The proposed approach is evaluated on different data sets both in a simple background scenario and a cluttered background environment. The result shows that, by integrating detector and tracker, a reliable and stable performance is possible even if occlusion occurs frequently in highly complex environment. A vision-based collision avoidance system for an intelligent car, as a result, can be achieved.

  18. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed.

  19. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts. PMID:25738763

  20. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).