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Sample records for accidents natural disasters

  1. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed. PMID:7234811

  2. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  3. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  4. Predicting Consequences of Technological Disasters from Natural Hazard Events: Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Industrial Accident Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.

    2009-04-01

    The increased focus on the possibility of technological accidents caused by natural events (Natech) is foreseen to continue for years to come. In this case, experts in prevention, mitigation and preparation activities associated with natural events will increasingly need to borrow data and expertise traditionally associated with the technological fields to carry out the work. An important question is how useful is the data for understanding consequences from such natech events. Data and case studies provided on major industrial accidents tend to focus on lessons learned for re-engineering the process. While consequence data are reported at least nominally in most reports, their precision, quality and completeness is often lacking. Consequences that are often or sometimes available but not provided can include severity and type of injuries, distance of victims from the source, exposure measurements, volume of the release, population in potentially affected zones, and weather conditions. Yet these are precisely the type of data that will aid natural hazard experts in land-use planning and emergency response activities when a Natech event may be foreseen. This work discusses the results of a study of consequence data from accidents involving toxic releases reported in the EU's MARS accident database. The study analysed the precision, quality and completeness of three categories of consequence data reported: the description of health effects, consequence assessment and chemical risk assessment factors, and emergency response information. This work reports on the findings from this study and discusses how natural hazards experts might interact with industrial accident experts to promote more consistent and accurate reporting of the data that will be useful in consequence-based activities.

  5. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

  6. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  7. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  8. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  9. US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

    2002-05-01

    Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

  10. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  11. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Natural Disasters Print this Page Air Pollution Air ...

  12. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  13. The economics of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  14. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  15. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  16. Talking with Children about Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Rita, and other natural disasters will be felt by young children in the affected areas for a long time to come. This article offers tips on how to talk with children about natural disasters in order to clear up any confusion they might have, how to answer their questions with sensitivity, and how to…

  17. Major accidents and disaster response: The Swiss perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, R.

    1995-12-31

    The coordination of the emergency preparedness towards disasters and major accidents takes place into the context of a global security policy. The purpose of this policy is to guarantee the survival of the population and to protect vital installations within a given area (state, region, canton, district, prefecture). According to the Swiss law--except in the case of a nuclear accident--the authorities of the cantons and communes are in charge of disaster relief in their jurisdiction. In addition, various instruments subordinated to Federal Departments (i.e., ministries) can be required either to function as experts or--on request and while respecting the principle of subsidiarity--to contribute to disaster response. Also in peace-time, parts of the army (rescue troops, engineers, medical units, ...) or parts of the means of the civil defense may be involved. In accordance with Switzerland`s federal state organization, each canton has worked out its own structure for disaster response (examples are provided in the paper). Although each of them has its own peculiarities and the available means can vary, several local events in the past few years have allowed them to give proof of their efficiency.

  18. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  19. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  20. Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) is a research and operational facility that explores methods for collecting, integrating, and communicating information about the risks posed by natural hazards and the effects of natural disasters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is mandated by the Robert Stafford Act to warn citizens of impending landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The USGS also coordinates with other Federal, State, and local disaster agencies to monitor threats to communities from floods, coastal storms, wildfires, geomagnetic storms, drought, and outbreaks of disease in wildlife populations.

  1. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  2. Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  3. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  4. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  5. Natural disasters: forecasting economic and life losses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, Stuart P.; Barton, Christopher C.

    1997-01-01

    Events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and tornadoes are natural disasters because they negatively impact society, and so they must be measured and understood in human-related terms. At the U.S. Geological Survey, we have developed a new method to examine fatality and dollar-loss data, and to make probabilistic estimates of the frequency and magnitude of future events. This information is vital to large sectors of society including disaster relief agencies and insurance companies.

  6. Natural disaster reduction and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, J.P.

    1994-10-01

    There are three types of global change that affect human and economic losses due to natural disasters. The three kinds of changes are: (1) increasing economic development, especially along coastlines, in flood plains, and other hazard-prone areas; (2) changes in land surfaces and vegetation; and (3) variability and change in frequency and severity of natural hazards. Any program for reduction of disaster losses must take these factors into account, and trends in losses are due to these changes. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Natural disasters and insurance and reinsurance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Great natural disasters, that is, those exceeding the economic capacity of the affected region and requiring national or international assistance, have increased dramatically in number and scope over the past few decades. As the accompanying graph shows, on average, from the 1960's to the 1980's there has been a five-fold increase in frequency of natural disasters, an increase in total economic losses by a factor of 3.3 and a rise of total insured losses by a factor of 5.8

  8. Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease: Natural Disaster Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... NAPA) About ADEAR Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease Natural Disaster Safety Natural disasters come in ...

  9. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  10. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  11. Natural Disasters: Acts of God or Acts of Man?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijkman, Anders; Timberlake, Lloyd

    This eight-chapter publication considers the man-made and natural causes of natural disasters. Following an introduction, Chapter 1 outlines the increase in natural disasters in the past decade and discusses the ratio of disasters from one continent to another. Chapter 2 discusses man-made factors such as deforestation and overused soil in causing…

  12. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  13. Why are natural disasters not 'natural' for victims?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Edwards, John; Carroll, Matthew S. . E-mail: carroll@mail.wsu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Some type of formal or informal social assessment is often carried out in the wake of natural disasters. One often-observed phenomenon in such situations is that disaster victims and their sympathizers tend to focus on those elements of disasters that might have been avoided or mitigated by human intervention and thus assign 'undue' levels of responsibility to human agents. Often the responsibility or blame is directed at the very government agencies charged with helping people cope with and recover from the event. This phenomenon presents particular challenges for those trying to understand the social impacts of such events because of the reflexive nature of such analysis. Often the social analyst or even the government agency manager must sort through such perceptions and behavior and (at least implicitly) make judgments about which assignments of responsibility may have some validity and which are largely the result of the psychology of the disaster itself. This article presents a conceptual framework derived largely from social psychology to help develop a better understand such perceptions and behavior. While no 'magic bullet' formula for evaluating the validity of disaster victims' claims is presented, the conceptual framework is presented as a starting point for understanding this particular aspect of the psychology of natural disasters.

  14. UAVSAR for the Management of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Y.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The unique capabilities of imaging radar to penetrate cloud cover and collect data in darkness over large areas at high resolution makes it a key information provider for the management and mitigation of natural and human-induced disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, and wildfires. Researchers have demonstrated the use of UAVSAR's fully polarimetric data to determine flood extent, forest fire extent, lava flow, and landslide. The ability for UAVSAR to provide high accuracy repeated flight tracks and precise imaging geometry for measuring surface deformation to a few centimeter accuracy using InSAR techniques. In fact, UAVSAR's repeat-pass interferometry capability unleashed new potential approaches to manage the risk of natural disasters prior to the occurrence of these events by modeling and monitoring volcano inflation, earthquake fault movements, landslide rate and extent, and sink hole precursory movement. In this talk we will present examples of applications of UAVSAR for natural disaster management. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  16. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  17. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2006-08-15

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a 'bottom-up' manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  18. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  19. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization

  20. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  1. A New MOOC on Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stix, J.; Gyakum, J. R.; Caissy, K.; Guadagno, A.; Roop, F.; Vungoc, P. A.; Walker, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the summer of 2014 we taught a MOOC course on natural disasters under the auspices of McGillX and edX. The course was principally designed to provide students with an introduction to the science behind naturally hazardous phenomena and natural disasters. An important guiding element of the course was to link the solid earth (volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches) with the oceanic and atmospheric earth (hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino). These Earth components were also coupled by a section on climate change and global warming near the end of the course. This integrated approach demonstrated to students the highly linked nature of the Earth System. The course comprised a variety of materials with which students could engage. For each topic, the professors provided lecture materials as 5-10 minute video blocks sequenced to form a complete lecture of about 90 minutes. Typically the lectures would progress from scientific principles through case studies to mitigation. For nearly every topic we also provided a practical demonstration (e.g., supercooled water driving ice storms, liquid fragmentation driving volcanic eruptions), in order to illustrate principles in a dynamic fashion. Students also worked independently on a wide variety of exercises, and there were two non-cumulative, multiple-choice exams, as well as a case study which students would themselves research and present to their peers in the course. Finally, the professors provided weekly screenside chats to answer students' questions and to provide a more informal learning environment. This variety of approaches enhanced the course content. Two teaching assistants worked full-time during course delivery, ensuring that students received rapid feedback to their questions and issues. The initial course enrollment was approximately 10,000.

  2. Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... 6th ed.) New York : McGraw-Hill. Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  3. The long-term impact of a man-made disaster: An examination of a small town in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K

    1982-03-01

    This paper explores the long-term effects of a nuclear accident on residents' perceptions of their physical and mental health, their trust of public officials, and their attitudes toward the future risks of nuclear power generation In their community. We find that in the period after the accident at Three Mile Island that there are constant or Increasing levels of distress reported by community residents. We conclude that the effects of a technological disaster may often be more enduring than those natural disaster and that greater research efforts should be made to Investigate the long-term consequences of man-made catastrophies of all types. PMID:20958512

  4. Emotional trauma associated with renal disease and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    McClellan, M J

    2001-10-01

    Emotional trauma frequently follows any disaster such as fire, flood, earthquake, accidents, war, bombings, and life-threatening disease. One such disease is end stage renal disease (ESRD), an irreversible, progressive loss of renal function (Lancaster, 1995). Since this is a "do or die" situation, it requires artificial methods of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplant, which require learned coping skills. Emotional trauma may occur pre or post-disaster and may include flashbacks when events trigger suppressed memories or unresolved emotions. Aftercare of disasters requires dedicated professionals to guide patients toward essential lifelines. PMID:12143429

  5. Disease aftershocks - The health effects of natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.

    2001-01-01

    While the initial activity of a natural disaster event may directly injure or kill a number of people, it is possible that a significant number of individuals will be affected by disease outbreaks that occur after the first effects of the disaster have passed. Coupling the epidemiologist's knowledge of disease outbreaks with geographic information systems and remote sensing technology could help natural disaster relief workers to prevent additional victims from disease aftershocks.

  6. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  7. The case for regional post-natural disaster preparation.

    PubMed

    Claringbull, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    The private sector is becoming increasingly responsible to society and the environment. To this end, instead of simply contributing aid after a disaster, firms should establish relationships in advance, investing in regional growth through a post-natural disaster preparation pact. The pact should be a regionally focused partnership agreement - a natural disaster equivalent to the Kyoto Protocol. By coordinating preparation mechanisms through investment and collaboration before disasters hit, companies not only show confidence in the economy, encouraging regional cooperation and fostering economic growth, but also raise awareness of impending threats. Natural disasters affect all areas of life and livelihood; it is therefore beneficial for everyone to work together in advance to improve mitigation strategies and facilitate management processes in disaster recovery. PMID:21339102

  8. Learning lessons from natural disasters - sectorial or holistic perspectives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Blumenthal, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. To increase the availability of reports and documents, the Swedish Rescue Services Agency has created the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System, in accordance with a government commission from 2005. The system gathers accident reports, investigations and in-depth analyses, together with societal additional costs and mappings of consequences from central and local governments, NGO's and private actors. Evaluation of the collection reveals large differences in quality, systematic approach, depth and extent, clearly consistent with the lack of coherent harmonization of investigation and reporting approaches. Type of hazard, degree of impact and time elapsed since present are decisive for the collected volume. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most data and analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments, response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of

  9. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  10. 7 CFR 3555.307 - Assistance in natural disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance in natural disasters. 3555.307 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL HOUSING PROGRAM (Eff. 9-1-14) Servicing Non-Performing Loans § 3555.307 Assistance in natural disasters. (a) Policy. Servicers must utilize general...

  11. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  12. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  13. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  14. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts. PMID:15081734

  15. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting. PMID:26080117

  16. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  17. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Yang, S.; Shi, P.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-10-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is an important approach linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show the following: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on exports but have no significant impact on imports; (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports; (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  18. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Shi, P.; Yang, S.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is one of the major approaches linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces the most frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances, and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show that: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on imports, but have no significant impact on exports, (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports, (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  19. Disaster dilemma: factors affecting decision to come to work during a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Sekayan, Ani; Agan, Donna; Good, Linda; Shaw, David; Smilde, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Natural disasters threaten the ability to staff a hospital. The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing decision to come to work during a fire disaster. The authors' hospital experienced a 17-fold increase in no-shows during a fire. Phenomenography was used to explore staff experiences immediately following wildfires. Factors affecting decision to work during a disaster included vulnerability of family, personal safety, and fire proximity. Modifiable factors were identified as follows: past experience with disasters, perceived importance, relationship with the organization, and caring connection with the organization. Employees experienced tension between obligations to family, community, and organization. Pets were seen as family and as important as biological family. Further research is indicated to determine predictive modeling and generalizability. Hospital leaders may influence disaster response by establishing a caring connection, providing resources for family members/pets, and promoting perceived importance of the employee. PMID:20118877

  20. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  1. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  2. Fiji's worst natural disaster: the 1931 hurricane and flood.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Stephen W; Blong, Russell J

    2010-07-01

    At least 225 people in the Fiji Islands died as a result of the 1931 hurricane and flood, representing the largest loss of life from a natural disaster in Fiji's recent history. This paper explores the causes of disaster and the potential for recurrence. The disaster occurred because a rare event surprised hundreds of people-especially recently settled Indian farmers-occupying highly exposed floodplains in north-west Viti Levu island. The likelihood of a flood disaster of such proportions occurring today has been diminished by changed settlement patterns and building materials; however, a trend towards re-occupancy of floodplains, sometimes in fragile dwellings, is exposing new generations to flood risks. The contribution of this paper to the global hazards literature is set out in three sections: the ethnicity, gender and age of flood fatalities; the naturalness of disasters; and the merit of choice and constraint as explanations for patterns of vulnerability. PMID:20298265

  3. Survey of computer vision-based natural disaster warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kwak, Sooyeong

    2012-07-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, natural disaster prevention is growing as a new research field dealing with surveillance systems. To forecast and prevent the damage caused by natural disasters, the development of systems to analyze natural disasters using remote sensing geographic information systems (GIS), and vision sensors has been receiving widespread interest over the last decade. This paper provides an up-to-date review of five different types of natural disasters and their corresponding warning systems using computer vision and pattern recognition techniques such as wildfire smoke and flame detection, water level detection for flood prevention, coastal zone monitoring, and landslide detection. Finally, we conclude with some thoughts about future research directions.

  4. 24 CFR 905.204 - Emergencies and natural disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emergency or natural disaster funds, a PHA shall submit a written request in the form and manner prescribed..., tornado, etc.). (3) Describe the activities that will be undertaken to correct the emergency or...

  5. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  6. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary One of the issues raised by recent natural disasters in Australia is the management of companion animal welfare in disaster planning, response and recovery. Official inquiries following these disasters uncovered a number of shortcomings in addressing the management of animal welfare issues. This article suggests that despite some reform following these events, disaster management still fails to take seriously the interests of companion animals. Abstract This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals. PMID:26487028

  7. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters. PMID:26032113

  8. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed.

  9. Natural disasters: a framework for research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1991-09-01

    Natural disasters are defined in this paper by relating the impact of extreme geophysical events to patterns of human vulnerability. Hazard perception is shown to be a factor that limits the mitigation of risk. The historical development of disaster studies is traced and five different schools of thought are identified. The current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) is evaluated critically with regard to its potential for unifying the disparate strands of knowledge and its scope as a vehicle for education. A pedagogical framework for disaster studies is presented. Time and space provide valuable unifying factors, while the subject matter can be differentiated according to the continua and dichotomies that it presents. In disaster studies as in other branches of higher education, an ecocentric approach is preferable to a technocentric one, as many of the poorer nations of the world, which are most afflicted by natural catastrophe, will have to rely for mitigation on maintaining their ecological sustainability, instead of depending on sophisticated technology. Valuable insights into the impact of environmental extremes on mankind are gained from the study of disasters as human ecology. PMID:20958724

  10. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction. PMID:26960530

  11. A new look at natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Gohn, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    We are paying a high price for the way we live on our beautiful but dangerous planet. Last year the world experienced deadly earthquakes in Turkey, Taiwan, Colombia and Greece; floods and devastating landslides in Venezuela; hurricanes along the Atlantic Coast that forced evacuation of millions; and numerous smaller disasters. As bad as these events were, they were not extraordinary viewed in the context of previous 20th century occurrences.

  12. The postgraduate college "natural disasters" at the University of Karlsruhe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, M.; Hauck, C.; Kauffmann, M.; Graduiertenkolleg Naturkatastrophen

    2003-04-01

    The graduate college (Graduiertenkolleg) "Natural Disasters" was established on October 1st 1998 with the aim of developing adequate modelling methods to meet the rising demand for problem-oriented know-how and solutions in the field of natural disaster research. This interdisciplinary programme focuses on the entire chain of effects of natural disasters from risk assessment to risk prediction and finally damage reduction measures. It is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the University of Karlsruhe with PhD scholarships and funds for equipment and travel needs. Involved in the programme are 17 institutes at the University of Karlsruhe (TH) of the faculties of civil engineering, environmental and geosciences, computer science, physics, mathematics and economics. The research projects of the programme are designed according to the aspects "Modelling of Vulnerability and Risk," "Design of Disaster Scenarios," "Measures for Damage Reduction" and "Economic Implications of Natural Disasters." In the current stage of the programme storms, floods, mass movements, earthquakes and natural groundwater contamination are being investigated.

  13. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  14. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  15. Health risk assessment of major accidents with toxic chemicals for disaster preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Torn, P.

    1991-01-01

    Health risks of major accidents with toxic chemicals need to be defined by: (i) nature, (ii) number and (iii) severity. (ad i) Health effects are conveniently categorized by nature into local (L)/systemic (S) and immediate (1)/delayed (2) (health effects). (ad ii) Derivation of population responses generally is unfeasible, instead exposure bands can be specified by effect-level. (ad iii) The continuum of health effects should be described in a global disability scale. The 4 D'-scale seems most appropriate: death (D{sub 1}), disability (D{sub 2}), discomfort (D{sub 3}), detectability (D{sub 4}). For use in disaster response health risk specifications should furthermore be: (1) transparent, (2) in line with the overall situational analysis and (3) congruent with mitigation. (-ad 1) Transparency can be improved by selecting one main sign/symptom by effect level for field instructions. (-ad 2) Situational analysis initially involves the source-area (what effect levels are found near the source ) and the outer limits of the effect area (feedback from telephone complaints mostly D{sub 4}). Otherwise, knowledge is needed of the ratio of exposures that lead to consecutive effect levels to assess the overall health impact by interpolation. Finally, the need to recognize high risk situations is emphasized: e.g. data bases with distributions of dispersion constraints (urban areas), penetration potentials into the housing-stock, concentrations of groups at high-risk (over time). (-ad 3) Mitigation is divided into: (a) protection of the public in a threatened area and (b) medical assistance.

  16. Perspectives on the international decade for natural disaster reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and disaster mitigation are the goals of nations throughout the world during the 1990's. The United States will lead this cooperative effort and marshall its national resources to reduce the disaster potential of earthquakes, floods, windstorms, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and wildfires. These natural hazards cause annual losses of approximately $10 billion in the United States and many times that throughout the world. The type and severity of the hazard varies from State-to-State in the United States. All States are at risk from flooding from sources such as precipitation, snowmelt, thunderstorms, and, along the coast, the storm surges generated in hurricanes. No State is free from the potential impacts of ground shaking induced by earthquakes. The goal of the Decade is to keep such occurrences in the future from being disasters.

  17. Weathering Natural Disasters with a Net of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Faster and more efficient coverage on television and the Internet is increasingly exposing children to traumatic images of natural devastation both at home and abroad. Natural disasters, such as the wildfires in California or the trauma caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, have become commonplace. Catastrophic events like these serve as…

  18. Thoracic radiology of infections emerging after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Ketai, Loren; Currie, Bart J; Alva Lopez, Luis Felipe

    2006-11-01

    When natural disasters demolish shelter, destroy sources of clean drinking water, and disrupt the availability of medical care, vast numbers of people are placed at increased risk of disease. The infectious diseases that propagate under these conditions are usually common ones. Occasionally, a natural disaster alters the local environment in ways that markedly increase the prevalence of a disease that is endemic to a geographic region, occurring only as isolated cases under normal conditions. Many of these infections may affect the thorax. In this article, we discuss the radiologic findings of 4 infectious diseases, coccidioidomycosis, leptospirosis, melioidosis, and Chagas disease, which may flourish after natural disasters strike areas where they are endemic. PMID:17110850

  19. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    PubMed

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection. PMID:15005549

  20. Environmental hazards and psychopathology: Linking natural disasters with mental health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.

    1983-11-01

    For some years, social scientists have been unable to agree on the extent to which experiencing a natural disaster is related to the presence of psychopathological symptoms Indeed, social scientists appear to be well-polarized, some arguing that disasters cause severe negative psychological reactions in victims, with others claiming that any psychological effects, if they exist at all, are minor and transient This paper reviews the controversy and identifies numerous conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with the competing positions. It is argued that the preoccupation of researchers with documenting positive or negative instances of psychological effects has lead them to ignore the issue of identifying processes through which disasters might impinge upon an individual's emotional stability. As a first step toward sketching out these processes, an extensive review of the literature on human response to natural disasters is undertaken. Eleven variables—level of community preparedness, scope of impact, duration of impact, destruction of kin and friendship networks, property damage, pre-impact psychological stability, social support, grief reactions, availability of institutional help, and successful coping skills—are identified as important in determining the psychological impact of disasters. These variables are operationalized and arranged into an interpretative framework that postulates the nature and magnitude of the interrelationships among them based upon the existing research literature

  1. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    PubMed

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

  2. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. PMID:26332326

  3. Worth of data and natural disaster insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Federal Government in the past has provided medical and economic aid to victims of earthquakes and floods. However, regulating the use of hazard-prone areas would probably be more efficient. One method of land use regulation is through the national flood and earthquake insurance program. Because insurance firms base their premium rates on available information, the benefits from additional data used to improve parameter estimates of the probability distribution (governing actual disaster events) can be computed by computing changes in the premiums as a function of additional data. An insurance firm is assumed to set rates so as to trade off penalties of overestimationg and underestimation of expected data. A Bayesian preposterior analysis is applied to determine the worth of additional data, as measured by changes in consumers' surplus, by examining the effects of changes in premiums as a function of a longer hydrologic record. -Authors

  4. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age. PMID:24903841

  5. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  6. Floods & Droughts. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    Each year more lives are lost due to floods than due to the next 18 natural disasters put together. The element of human choice makes the study of floods and droughts an opportunity for decision making experiences for students. This document contains information and activities designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a…

  7. Tornadoes & Hurricanes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of tornadoes and hurricanes are important to children but are often missing from elementary textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science and social studies programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are emphasized throughout the booklet. Three…

  8. Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of earthquakes and volcanoes are important to children but are often missing from elementary science textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are also stressed throughout the document. Three…

  9. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  10. Using Physical Activity for Emotional Recovery after a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic events, such as a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected by the event often have a number of intense emotional reactions. It is important for educators to understand common emotional and psychological responses to disastrous events and to try to help. This article describes a physical activity program…

  11. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Methods Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Results Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression) symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed. PMID:22647086

  12. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  13. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  14. Structure and needs of global loss databases about natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Global loss databases are used for trend analyses and statistics in scientific projects, studies for governmental and nongovernmental organizations and for the insurance and finance industry as well. At the moment three global data sets are established: EM-DAT (CRED), Sigma (Swiss Re) and NatCatSERVICE (Munich Re). Together with the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) started a collaborative initiative in 2007 with the aim to agreed on and implemented a common "Disaster Category Classification and Peril Terminology for Operational Databases". This common classification has been established through several technical meetings and working groups and represents a first and important step in the development of a standardized international classification of disasters and terminology of perils. This means concrete to set up a common hierarchy and terminology for all global and regional databases on natural disasters and establish a common and agreed definition of disaster groups, main types and sub-types of events. Also the theme of georeferencing, temporal aspects, methodology and sourcing were other issues that have been identified and will be discussed. The implementation of the new and defined structure for global loss databases is already set up for Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. In the following oral session we will show the structure of the global databases as defined and in addition to give more transparency of the data sets behind published statistics and analyses. The special focus will be on the catastrophe classification from a moderate loss event up to a great natural catastrophe, also to show the quality of sources and give inside information about the assessment of overall and insured losses. Keywords: disaster category classification, peril terminology, overall and insured losses, definition

  15. Impact of a Natural Disaster on Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vivian A.; Smith, Hayden; Kuhadiya, Nitesh; Leger, Sharice M.; Yau, C. Lillian; Reynolds, Kristi; Shi, Lizheng; McDuffie, Roberta H.; Thethi, Tina; John-Kalarickal, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the health of individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was an observational study in 1,795 adults with an A1C measurement 6 months before and 6−16 months after Hurricane Katrina in three health care systems: private (Tulane University Hospital and Clinic [TUHC]), state (Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans [MCLNO]), and Veterans Affairs (VA). Glycemic control (A1C), blood pressure, and lipids before the hurricane were compared with the patients' first measurement thereafter. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to project life expectancy and health economic impact. RESULTS Mean predisaster A1C levels differed between MCLNO and VA patients (mean 7.7 vs. 7.3%, P < 0.001) and increased significantly among MCLNO patients to 8.3% (P < 0.001) but not among VA and TUHC patients. Mean systolic blood pressure increased in all three systems (130–137.6 mmHg for TUHC and 130.7–143.7 for VA, P < 0.001; 132–136 for MCLNO, P = 0.008). Mean LDL cholesterol increased in the VA (97.1–104.3 mg/dl) and TUHC patients (103.4–115.5; P < 0.001). Hurricane Katrina increased modeled direct, indirect, and total health care costs and also reduced life expectancy as well as quality-adjusted life expectancy, with the economic impact being quite substantial because of the large population size affected. We estimate a lifetime cost of USD $504 million for the adult population affected, with the largest economic impact seen among MCLNO patients. CONCLUSIONS A major disaster had a significant effect on diabetes management and exacerbated existing disparities. These effects may have a lasting impact on both health and economic implications. PMID:19542210

  16. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  17. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  18. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  19. 'Schismo-urbanism': cities, natural disaster, and urban sociology.

    PubMed

    Kammerbauer, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines a city and a natural disaster, specifically New Orleans, Louisiana, after Hurricane Katrina of August 2005. Recovery here is ongoing and the process of return is incomplete, with long-term dislocation to other cities in the United States, such as Houston, Texas. The question arises as to how planning and stratification influence evacuation and return/dislocation and how they result in a particular practice of adaptation. This interrelated process is conceptually integrated and termed 'schismo-urbanism' and is analysed within a multidimensional theoretical framework to evaluate aspects of urban sociology and natural disasters. Empirical research is based on a quantitative and qualitative mixed-method case study. Data were collected during two rounds of field research in New Orleans and Houston in 2007 and 2009. As a comparative socio-spatial study of affected and receptor communities, it makes a novel theoretical and methodological contribution to research on urban disasters in the context of continuing and rapid social change, and is targeted at disaster researchers, planning theorists and practitioners, and urbanists. PMID:23601041

  20. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  1. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  2. Teaching a Course in Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2009-12-01

    One graduation requirement of the University of Hawaii at Manoa is that students must take an “Ethics Focus” class at the Junior/Senior level. It is to the advantage of departments to offer such classes to majors. I designed and taught a class entitled “Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman” in the Spring of ‘09. The prerequisite was an introductory Geology class. The objectives were: (1) To define ethics, from philosophical points of view and as a personal framework for making decisions about issues related to natural disasters. The Chair of the Philosophy Department assisted in the initial classes to teach the basic principles of ethical thinking. (2) To define what constitutes a “natural” disaster vs what constitutes a disaster brought about by the imposition of human imperatives on the natural world (e.g., to build seawalls or not in efforts to mitigate against beach erosion). (3) To explore a variety of controversial issues at the intersections of two or more of the following: natural processes, human society, and the environment (e.g., forecasting the potential for violent volcanic eruption and understanding the effects of such forecasts on the safety of proximal human populations vs economic disaster caused by evacuation or loss of revenue affected by "false alarms"). (4) To improve the students’ oral communication skills, both as individuals and as members of cooperating groups. (5) To develop and practice using ethically- and scientifically-valid frameworks for reaching decisions about controversial science-based issues. (6) To learn about local organizations, businesses, government agencies, the media and individuals in society who are involved with reacting to and developing solutions for response to these events and their related ethical issues. Students wrote 1- to 2-page journal essays on the issues discussed in class each week and a term paper on issues related to a “natural disaster” of their choice. The 3-credit class

  3. Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world. PMID:17107430

  4. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

  5. Natural disasters: an assessment of family resiliency following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, Maria; Pavkov, Thomas; Wetchler, Joseph; Flannery, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the role of family characteristics in the coping process of a family after having experienced Hurricane Katrina to gain an understanding of the relationship between family resiliency, hope, family hardiness, and spirituality for survivors of this natural disaster. It was hypothesized that families who demonstrate higher levels of hope, family hardiness, and spirituality would be more likely to effectively cope after the storm. Further, great resource loss was hypothesized to diminish a family's ability to cope. Four hundred fifty-two participants completed the survey. Results indicate a relationship between hope, family hardiness and spirituality, and the criterion variable, family coping. The importance of these findings in terms of exploring family resiliency following a natural disaster is discussed. PMID:22512296

  6. Business owners' optimism and business performance after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James W; Faircloth, James B; Valentine, Sean R

    2006-12-01

    Previous work indicates that individuals' optimism is related to superior performance in adverse situations. This study examined correlations after flooding for measures of business recovery but found only weak support (very small common variance) for business owners' optimism scores and sales recovery. Using traditional measures of recovery, in this study was little empirical evidence that optimism would be of value in identifying businesses at risk after a natural disaster. PMID:17305221

  7. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 237

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development.…

  8. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  9. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  10. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony H.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by “natural disasters” is a subject of much interest; however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  11. International Space Station Instruments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A new focus for the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the 'International Disaster Charter', or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the public-domain record of these events for later analyses.

  12. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  13. Natural disaster reduction applications of the Chinese small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanchao; Fan, Yida; Gao, Maofang

    2013-10-01

    The Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting (SSCEDMF) is an important component of Chinese satellites earth observation system. The first stage of SSCEDMF is composed by "2+1" satellites. The 2 optical satellites (HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B) and 1 S band microwave satellite (HJ-1-C) were successful launched on September 6, 2008 and November 19, 2012 respectively. This article introduced SSCEDMF characteristic and the disaster reduction application system and satellites on-orbit test works, and also analyzed the application capacity in natural disasters included flood, ice flooding, wild fire, severely drought, snow disasters, large area landslide and debris flow, sea ice, earthquake recovering, desertification and plant diseases and insect pests. Furthermore, we show some cases of China's and other countries' new natural disasters forecasting, monitoring, assessment and recovery construction.

  14. Hematopoietic cell infusion for the treatment of nuclear disaster victims: New data from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    KLYMENKO, SERGIY V.; BELYI, DAVID A.; ROSS, JOEL R.; OWZAR, KOUROS; JIANG, CHEN; LI, ZHIGUO; MINCHENKO, JANNA N.; KOVALENKO, ALEKSANDR N.; BEBESHKO, VOLODYMYR G.; CHAO, NELSON J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present previously unavailable data on the use of stem cell administration to aid recovery of victims of the Chernobyl disaster. On 26 April 1986, an accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant took place during the planned test of one of the safety systems. The diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was confirmed in 134 individuals exposed to high levels of radiation. There were nine patients heretofore unreported in the scientific literature who underwent intraosseous injections of allogeneic bone marrow cells in Kyiv. Conclusions Transplantation was associated with significantly shortened time to recovery of granulocyte and platelet counts in these patients. While current guidelines would certainly include the use of cytokines, these data provide an indication of the effectiveness of stem cell transplant to treat victims of radiation exposure. PMID:21406047

  15. When Is Exposure to a Natural Disaster Traumatic? Comparison of a Trauma Questionnaire and Disaster Exposure Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk. PMID:25853820

  16. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the ‘Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident’ and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation. PMID:23184925

  17. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression. PMID:24438454

  18. Using natural disasters to study prenatal maternal stress in humans.

    PubMed

    King, Suzanne; Laplante, David P

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies of prenatal maternal stress permit random assignment of pregnant animals to stress and no-stress groups, and allow total control of the type, severity, and timing of the stressor in utero. Human studies have obvious constraints that make the use of experimental methods nearly impossible. Studying pregnant women who experience natural disasters during pregnancy, however, approximates the random assignment to groups enjoyed by animal studies, and can characterize the timing of the stressor in utero with great precision. In this chapter, we briefly describe our three ongoing prospective longitudinal studies of children exposed to prenatal maternal stress from natural disasters. We present results from Project Ice Storm in detail, showing effects of prenatal maternal stress on cognitive and neurodevelopment. We contrast these results with preliminary findings from the Iowa Flood Study and introduce the QF2011 Queensland Flood Project. In the "Discussion" section, we present conclusions to date and discuss the relative effects of the severity of maternal objective disaster exposure and maternal subjective distress levels, the moderating effects of fetal sex and the timing of the stressor in utero, and the longevity of the effects. Finally, we discuss some possible mechanisms that may mediate the effects of prenatal maternal stress on the neurodevelopment of children. PMID:25287546

  19. Near Real-time Satellite Data Delivery for Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) mission has provided imaging support for natural disasters for over a decade, often contributing data for activations of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. New observations are continually acquired on a request and approval basis in order to meet the needs of global teams responding to crisis situations. Examples of recent collections are provided for several types of events, including an ongoing volcano monitoring initiative, with a discussion of related sensor tasking and ground system responsiveness factors. Data flow considerations from spacecraft to end user are briefly summarized, with added insight provided concerning some obstacles to the successful application of data in emergency situations.

  20. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  1. Meeting report: Workshop on reduction and predictability of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.; Klein, W.; Turcotte, D.

    1997-04-21

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes and severe floods are a continual menace to large segments of the population worldwide. Recently the United Nations has focused attention on this global problem by declaring the 90`s the Decade of Natural Hazard Reduction. In addition to the obvious threat to human life natural hazards can cause severe economic hardship locally and, in an ever more complex and interactive world economy, dislocations that are felt in areas far beyond the region of a specific event. To address these concerns a workshop on Reduction and Predictability of Natural Disasters was held at the Santa Fe Institute on January 5--9, 1994. The Santa Fe Institute was originally founded in 1985 to study the emergent properties of complex nonlinear systems seen in a diversity of fields, from physical science to economics to biology. During the workshop, which brought together 25 geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, physicists, and mathematicians, a wide variety of natural disasters and hazards were considered. These include earthquakes, landslides, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The general them of the meeting was the application of the techniques of statistical mechanics to problems in the earth sciences.

  2. Towards a natural disaster intervention and recovery framework.

    PubMed

    Lawther, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    Contemporary responses to facilitate long-term recovery from large-scale natural disasters juxtapose between those of humanitarian agencies and governments and those of the affected community. The extent to which these mechanisms articulate is crucial to the recovery propensity of the affected communities. This research examines such action by exploring the relationship between the scale of post-disaster response interventions, the extent of community participation in them, and their impact on community recovery, using a community wealth capital framework. The investigation was applied to a study of the longer-term community recovery of the island of Vilufushi, Republic of Maldives, which was almost completely destroyed by the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. Data were analysed through the employment of a pattern match technique and a holistic recovery network analysis. The research framework, informed by the case-study results, other long-term recovery evaluations, and existing resilience theory, is reconfigured as a testable roadmap for future post-disaster interventions. PMID:26578102

  3. Dealing with Natural Disasters: Preparedness versus Post-Event Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Management or mitigation of natural disasters is comprised of two distinct elements: disaster preparedness and disaster response. Fundamentally disasters fall into two categories: 1) those whose timing can be predicted and evaluated in advance, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, or even sea level rise; and 2) those that can be anticipated based on analysis, but their exact timing is unknown, such as earthquakes and landslides. Consequently, the type of response and options available for scientific and engineering consultation are fundamentally different. The common aspects of all natural disasters is that there is evidence of past events either historical or geologic, or both. Thus, given past evidence, scientists and engineers have an opportunity to recommend and guide development and implementation of long term or permanent mitigation measures, such as improving the resiliency of the infrastructure and emergency preparedness. However, the appropriate mitigation measures are very much a function of the type of event. Severe atmospheric events, such as hurricanes, typically can be predicted several days in advance and scientists and engineers have a role in guiding preparation of specific additional, temporary, mitigation measures and selective evacuation, as appropriate. In contrast, while earthquake potential of a given region may be well recognized, the actual timing of the event is an unknown and, consequently, the primary defense is in developing sufficiently resilient infrastructure which can be enhanced with early warning systems. Similarly, the type of damage caused by flooding, e.g. hurricane and tsunami, is significantly different from the type of damage caused by an earthquake in that flooding damage is pervasive affecting large contiguous areas wiping out all infrastructure whereas earthquake or landslide damage tends to be clustered with many elements of infrastructure remaining fully or somewhat operable. This distinction is very important when it

  4. Risk management of a fund for natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, C.

    2003-04-01

    Mexico is a country which has to deal with several natural disaster risks: earthquakes, droughts, volcanic eruptions, floods, slides, wild fires, extreme temperatures, etc. In order to reduce the country's vulnerability to the impact of these natural disasters and to support rapid recovery when they occur, the government established in 1996 Mexico's Fund for Natural Disasters (FONDEN). Since its creation, its resources have been insufficient to meet all government obligations. The aim of this project is the development of a dynamic strategy to optimise the management of a fund for natural disasters starting from the example of FONDEN. The problem of budgetary planning is being considered for the modelling. We control the level of the fund's cash (R_t)0<= t0 at t=0 and then we try to pull at every moment the process to this objective. Multifractal models in geophysics are physically based stochastic models. A multiplicative cascade model fitted to a data set can be used for generation of synthetic sequences that resemble the original data in terms of its scaling properties. Since recent years, uncertainty concepts based on multifractal fields are being applied to the development of techniques to calculate marginal and conditional probabilities of an extreme rainfall event in a determined zone. As initial point to the development of the model, a multifractal model for extreme rainfall events will be used as part of the input for the stochastic control model. A theme for further research is linking more warning systems to the model. Keywords: risk management, stochastic control, multifractal

  5. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  6. [EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN VICTIMS OF NATURAL DISASTERS].

    PubMed

    Castaño García, Teresa; Vega Díaz, Carmen; Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The effects of disasters on physical health tend to be well-known, with short, medium and long term sequelae. On the other hand, not always is have recognized in the same way the effects on mental health, despite having shown that, in situations of disaster or catastrophe there is a psychological signs of suffering increase and increases to a certain extent the psychiatric morbidity and other problem social. It is estimated that between a third and half of the exposed population, it suffers from some psychological manifestation. It has been erroneously thought that children and adolescents, not suffering with the same intensity of especially traumatic situations. In fact it was presumed, given their reactions so different from that of adults, had some protection. Currently, this has denied and minors are considered to be a group of high risk in cases of disasters and emergencies. Investigations carried out, demonstrate that in children and adolescents, the psychological sequels tend to be frequent and affect directly to the physical, mental and social development. Natural disasters are unexpected situations that will produce a serie of emotional reactions of diverse severity in their survivors, especially children, one of the most vulnerable groups due to a less understanding of what happened and difficulty expressing what they feel, having a personality still developing, and so directly affecting their physical, mental and social development. Therefore suffering the emotional scars, they will take longer to resolve and have a lifetime to live with them. These consequences should be treated by a corresponding community nurse and sometimes, depending on the severity and persistence (more than 3 months), a referral will be made to a qualified mental health professional, taking into account a number of recommendation and assesment canons. Parents or tutors with health professionals have an important role in the recovery of their children and their reactions will be

  7. Shimoda 1854: Historical Consequences of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of 1854 - beginning of 1855 Japan was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes known as the Ansei Great Earthquakes. The first one, Ansei-Tōkai Quake, occurred on 23 December, 1854. It had a magnitude of 8.4; the epicenter ranged from the centre of Suruga Bay to the south-east into the ocean. It was followed by the Ansei-Nankai Quake on 24 December. The earthquakes with the following tsunami caused a huge damage in several regions of Japan: more than 20,000 buildings were destroyed, about 30,000 casualties caused. This natural disaster was witnessed by a Russian diplomatic mission led by admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. His flagship, frigate Diana, stayed at Shimoda, and Putyatin was conducting long and difficult negotiations trying to convince Japan of signing a commercial treaty with Russia, when Shimoda was hit by the tsunami. Several members of the mission described their impressions in their memoirs. The city was almost completely destroyed (only 16 houses survived the disaster). Diana was also badly damaged and sank in a storm while sailing to Heda for repairs. It was decided to build a new ship for the Russian mission. Works were carried out in Heda with the help of plans salvaged from the Diana, and required a cooperation of Russian sailors and Japanese carpenters. In about two months a two-masted schooner was built, which was christened Heda in honour of the city that helped with its construction. The Heda was the first western-style ship built in Japan, and thus can be called a "grandfather" of a Japanese oceanic navy. On 26 January, 1855 the Russian-Japanese negotiations were successfully concluded, and the Treaty of Shimoda was signed, marking the start of official relations between Russia and Japan. Thus a terrible natural disaster framed one of the most vivid pages in history of the Japanese-Russian relationship.

  8. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate...

  9. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate...

  10. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELİCE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    Highways, Located in the city and intercity locations are generally prone to many kind of natural disaster risks. Natural hazards and disasters that may occur firstly from highway project making to construction and operation stages and later during the implementation of highway maintenance and repair stages have to be taken into consideration. And assessment of risks that may occur against adverse situations is very important in terms of project design, construction, operation maintenance and repair costs. Making hazard and natural disaster risk analysis is largely depending on the definition of the likelihood of the probable hazards on the highways. However, assets at risk , and the impacts of the events must be examined and to be rated in their own. With the realization of these activities, intended improvements against natural hazards and disasters will be made with the utilization of Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method and their effects will be analyzed with further works. FMEA, is a useful method to identify the failure mode and effects depending on the type of failure rate effects priorities and finding the most optimum economic and effective solution. Although relevant measures being taken for the identified risks by this analysis method , it may also provide some information for some public institutions about the nature of these risks when required. Thus, the necessary measures will have been taken in advance in the city and intercity highways. Many hazards and natural disasters are taken into account in risk assessments. The most important of these dangers can be listed as follows; • Natural disasters 1. Meteorological based natural disasters (floods, severe storms, tropical storms, winter storms, avalanches, etc.). 2. Geological based natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, etc) • Human originated disasters 1. Transport accidents (traffic accidents), originating from the road surface defects (icing

  11. Instability, investment, disasters, and demography: natural disasters and fertility in Italy (1820-1962) and Japan (1671-1965).

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    This article examines whether natural disasters affect fertility-a topic little explored but of policy importance given relevance to policies regarding disaster insurance, foreign aid, and the environment. The identification strategy uses historic regional data to exploit natural variation within each of two countries: one European country-Italy (1820-1962), and one Asian country-Japan (1671-1965). The choice of study settings allows consideration of Jones' (The European miracle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981) theory that preindustrial differences in income and population between Asia and Europe resulted from the fertility response to different environmental risk profiles. According to the results, short-run instability, particularly that arising from the natural environment, appears to be associated with a decrease in fertility-thereby suggesting that environmental shocks and economic volatility are associated with a decrease in investment in the population size of future generations. The results also show that, contrary to Jones' (The European miracle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981) theory, differences in fertility between Italy and Japan cannot be explained away by disaster proneness alone. Research on the effects of natural disasters may enable social scientists and environmentalists alike to better predict the potential effects of the increase in natural disasters that may result from global climate change. PMID:20383264

  12. Design and realization of spatial information service system for government administration of natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jiping; Zhu, Yi; Shi, Lihong

    2007-06-01

    The government of nearly every country have responsibility for administering the affairs of preventing and reducing the natural disasters. The geospatial character and positional connection of natural disasters information makes the geospatial information and GIS technology play a key role in government affairs increasingly. Based on project implementation and study of developing science and technology concerning reducing and preventing disasters in China, the paper is mainly on the comprehensive study of requirements analysis,construction pattern, primary assignments, main functions, important application and methods of Spatial Information Service System for Government Administration of Natural Disaster.

  13. The assessment of vulnerability to natural disasters in China by using the DEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yiming; Fan Ying; Lu Cong; Tsai, H.-T

    2004-05-01

    China has been greatly affected by natural disasters, so that it is of great importance to analyze the impact of natural disasters on national economy. Usually, the frequency of disasters or absolute loss inflicted by disasters is the first priority to be considered, while the capability of regions to overcome disasters is ignored. The concept of vulnerability is used to measure the capability to overcome disasters in different regions with distinctive economies. Traditional methods for vulnerability analysis calculate sub-indices based on disaster frequency, loss, the economic impact and the population of each region, and then add the sub-indices to get a composite index for regional vulnerability. But those methods are sensitive to the weights selected for sub-indices when multi-indexes are added up to get an index of total vulnerability. The analytic results are less convincing because of the subjectivity of different weighting methods. A data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model for analysis of regional vulnerability to natural disasters is presented here to improve upon the traditional method. This paper systematically describes the DEA method to evaluate the relative severity of disasters in each region. A model for regional vulnerability analysis is developed, based on the annual governmental statistics from 1989 to 2000. The regional vulnerabilities in China's mainland are illustrated as a case study, and a new method for the classification of regional vulnerability to natural disasters in China is proposed.

  14. Education, Vulnerability, and Resilience after a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Sikoki, Bondan; Sumantri, Cecep; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which education provides protection in the face of a large-scale natural disaster is investigated. Using longitudinal population-representative survey data collected in two provinces on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, we examine changes in a broad array of indicators of well-being of adults. Focusing on adults who were living, before the tsunami, in areas that were subsequently severely damaged by the tsunami, better educated males were more likely to survive the tsunami, but education is not predictive of survival among females. Education is not associated with levels of post-traumatic stress among survivors 1 year after the tsunami, or with the likelihood of being displaced. Where education does appear to play a role is with respect to coping with the disaster over the longer term. The better educated were far less likely than others to live in a camp or other temporary housing, moving, instead, to private homes, staying with family or friends, or renting a new home. The better educated were more able to minimize dips in spending levels following the tsunami, relative to the cuts made by those with little education. Five years after the tsunami, the better educated were in better psycho-social health than those with less education. In sum, education is associated with higher levels of resilience over the longer term. PMID:25170339

  15. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

  16. The Effectiveness of OSU-PTSD Screening Survey in Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Sefa; Palmer, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy; Bulut, Solmaz

    There is little empirical research existing in the areas of natural disaster's effects on children's mental health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold. First, it examined the effectiveness of the Oklahoma State University Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (OSU-PTSD) Screening Scale after two different types of natural disasters. The…

  17. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. 117.33 Section 117.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage...

  18. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. 117.33 Section 117.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage...

  19. Natural Disasters: What Is Inside A Lesson Learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    The learning of lessons is something that is inherent to normal human behavior. All kind of human interaction experiences critical inspection after a severe or even disastrous event has occurred. Particular inspections have been undertaken in the field of natural disasters. Hence human risk management can continuously be improved according to lessons learned from previous disasters or with the outcome of experience shared with other stakeholders in that field. This paper shows the results of a lessons learned project over the past years: the NEDIES (Natural and Environmental Information Exchange System) deals with lessons learned during the classical risk management phases of prevention, preparedness and response At first glance a lesson is just pure text. Basically it mirrors what has been experienced within a certain context. Having a closer look at a lesson one finds out that a lesson refers to a specific emergency-triggering situation. A situation is more than a simple reference to a hazard: a "rapidly rising lake level" could have more meaning than "a flood". In order to take out positive information it is advisable not only to list up all potential benefits that could be drawn from a lesson; the explicit mentioning of benefits could be helpful in order to prepare further actions beforehand. Moreover one should also consider possible actions to take if that particular situation of the lesson exhibits again or elsewhere. In the case of rapidly rising lake level an a-priori prioritization of response actions could be done. The description of the situation is linked with other characteristics of the lesson; local issues as well as historical considerations can play a role. A flood in a densely populated town can produce different implications than a flood in the countryside. The benefits of the lesson and actions proposed could be linked with experiences made in the past. Other issues concern people involved: the addressees. Typical addressees are local decision

  20. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  1. Racial Segregation, Economic Growth, and Resilience to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.; Ganguly, A.

    2008-05-01

    Resilience to natural disasters is often defined as the ability of a community to recover from disaster disruption. Thus, resilience depends on various socioeconomic factors which influence the short- and long-term impacts of natural disasters as well as the resources that a community can bring to bear on the recovery process. One objective of this research is to tease out the determinants of resilience from a variety of possible indicators and data sources. A second objective is to test hypotheses which in turn are based on prior reports in the literature: Racial segregation has a negative impact, while economic growth has a positive impact, on resilience. We choose the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and New Orleans Metropolitan Area, for our case studies. The study areas included nine counties and parishes that are located in the Hurricane Katrina impact area. The nine counties and parishes were Hancock County, Harrison County, and Jackson County in Mississippi, and Jefferson Parish, Orleans Parish, Plaquemines Parish, St. Bernard Parish, St. Charles Parish, and St. Tammany Parish in Louisiana. The three counties make up the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and the six parishes are components of New Orleans Metropolitan Area. The determinants of resilience for this study were based on two considerations. First, we followed the political, military or security, economic, social, informational and infrastructural (PMESII) framework, which succinctly describes the resources available to a community. Second, we were pragmatically constrained by data availability. Five variables were selected as plausible determinants of resilience: (i) return of the original population, (ii) employment recovery, (iii) tax collected, (iv) building permit restoration, and (v) school re-opening information. The five variables were found to be highly correlated. We created three resilience indices, one by simple addition, another by addition of the

  2. Shortcomings in Dealing with Psychological Effects of Natural Disasters in Iran

    PubMed Central

    RABIEI, Ali; NAKHAEE, Nouzar; POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural disasters result in numerous economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. Of them, psychological consequences of disasters will affect the lives of people long after the critical conditions finish. Thus, concerning the importance of psychological support in disasters, this study has identified problems and weaknesses in dealing with the psychological effects of the disasters occurred in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups. Sample volume consisted of 26 experts in the field of disaster management. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Results Nine major problems were identified as weaknesses in handling the psychological effects of the disaster. These weaknesses include: rescuers’ unfamiliarity with the basic principles of psychosocial support, shortage of relevant experts and inadequate training, paying no attention to the needs of specific groups, weaknesses in organizational communications, discontinuation of psychological support after disaster, unfamiliarity with native language and culture of the disaster area, little attention paid by media to psychological principles in broadcasting news, people’s long-term dependence on governmental aid. Conclusions Disaster management has various aspects; in Iran, less attention has been paid to psychological support in disasters. Increasing education at all levels, establishing responsible structures and programming seem necessary in dealing with the psychological effects of disasters. PMID:25927043

  3. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    PubMed

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster. PMID:16681185

  4. Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspots: Transition to a Regional Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Chen, R.; Dilley, M.

    2005-12-01

    The "Hotspots Project" is a collaborative study of the global distribution and occurrence of multiple natural hazards and the associated exposures of populations and their economic output. In this study we assess the global risks of two disaster-related outcomes: mortality and economic losses. We estimate risk levels by combining hazard exposure with historical vulnerability for two indicators of elements at risk-gridded population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per unit area - for six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, and cyclones. By calculating relative risks for each grid cell rather than for countries as a whole, we are able to estimate risk levels at sub-national scales. These can then be used to estimate aggregate relative multiple hazard risk at regional and national scales. Mortality-related risks are assessed on a 2.5' x 2.5' latitude-longitude grid of global population (GPW Version 3). Economic risks are assessed at the same resolution for gridded GDP per unit area, using World Bank estimates of GDP based on purchasing power parity. Global hazard data were compiled from multiple sources. The project collaborated directly with UNDP and UNEP, the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in the creation of data sets for several hazards for which global data sets did not previously exist. Drought, flood and volcano hazards are characterized in terms of event frequency, storms by frequency and severity, earthquakes by frequency and ground acceleration exceedance probability, and landslides by an index derived from probability of occurrence. The global analysis undertaken in this project is clearly limited by issues of scale as well as by the availability and quality of data. For some hazards, there exist only 15- to 25-year global records with relatively crude spatial information. Data on historical disaster losses, and particularly on

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  6. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  7. Natural circulation under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Hanson, D.J.; Tung, V.X.; Chmielewski, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Research is being conducted to better understand natural circulation phenomena in mixtures of steam and noncondensibles and its influence on the temperature of the vessel internals and the hot leg, pressurizer surge line, and steam generator tubes. The temperature of these structures is important because their failure prior to reactor vessel lower head failure could reduce the likelihood of containment failure as a result of direct containment heating. Computer code calculations (MELPROG, SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3) predict high fluid temperatures in the upper plenum resulting from in-vessel natural circulation. Using a simple model for the guide tube phenomena, high upper plenum temperatures are shown to be consistent with the relatively low temperatures that were deduced metallurgically from leadscrews removed from the TMI-2 upper plenum. Evaluation of the capabilities of the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code to predict natural circulation behavior was also performed. The code was used to model the Westinghouse natural circulation experimental facility. Comparisons between code calculations and results from experiments show good agreement.

  8. Natural circulation under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Hanson, D.J.; Tung, V.X.; Chmielewski, S.V.

    1992-12-31

    Research is being conducted to better understand natural circulation phenomena in mixtures of steam and noncondensibles and its influence on the temperature of the vessel internals and the hot leg, pressurizer surge line, and steam generator tubes. The temperature of these structures is important because their failure prior to reactor vessel lower head failure could reduce the likelihood of containment failure as a result of direct containment heating. Computer code calculations (MELPROG, SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3) predict high fluid temperatures in the upper plenum resulting from in-vessel natural circulation. Using a simple model for the guide tube phenomena, high upper plenum temperatures are shown to be consistent with the relatively low temperatures that were deduced metallurgically from leadscrews removed from the TMI-2 upper plenum. Evaluation of the capabilities of the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code to predict natural circulation behavior was also performed. The code was used to model the Westinghouse natural circulation experimental facility. Comparisons between code calculations and results from experiments show good agreement.

  9. Severe accident natural circulation studies at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, P.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Jones, K.R.; O`Brien, J.E.; Pafford, D.J.; Schlenker, L.D.; Tung, V.X.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accident natural circulation flows have been investigated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to better understand these flows and their potential impacts on the progression of a pressurized water reactor severe accident. Parameters affecting natural circulation in the reactor vessel and hot legs were identified and ranked based on their perceived importance. Reviews of the scaling of the 1/7-scale experiments performed by Westinghouse were undertaken. RELAP5/MOD3 calculations of two of the experiments showed generally good agreement between the calculated and observed behavior. Analyses of hydrogen behavior in the reactor vessel showed that hydrogen stratification is not likely to occur, and that an initially stratified layer of hydrogen would quickly mix with a recirculating steam flow. An analysis of the upper plenum behavior in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor concluded that vapor temperatures could have been significantly higher than the temperatures seen by the control rod drive lead screws, supporting the premise that a strong natural circulation flow was likely present during the accident. SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations of a commercial pressurized water reactor severe accident without operator actions showed that the natural circulation flows enhance the likelihood of ex-vessel piping failures long before failure of the reactor vessel lower head.

  10. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies. PMID:27617165

  11. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  12. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  13. Medical response to a natural disaster: the Barrie tornado.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, B A; Armstrong, T M

    1986-01-01

    On May 31, 1985, a tornado devastated an area of Barrie, Ont. Following a prepared disaster plan, the staff of the local hospital managed 155 casualties, including 16 cases of multiple trauma, over 5 hours. The authors summarize the hospital's experience and give recommendations to help the staff of other hospitals improve their disaster plans. PMID:3948094

  14. Promoting Positive Adaptation in Adult Survivors of Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are included.

  15. Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Thirty-six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Smith, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of articles focuses on natural disasters from earthquakes to famines in developing nations and on the human response from immediate reactions to long term social, political, and economic adaptations that result in social change and development. The introduction, "Disaster Context and Causation: An Overview of Changing Perspectives…

  16. Rethinking the Nature of Disaster: From Failed Instruments of Learning to a Post-Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Recent disasters have been of such scale and complexity that both the common assumptions made about learning from them, and the traditional approaches distinguishing natural from technological disasters (and now terrorism) are thus challenged. Beck's risk thesis likewise signals the need for a paradigmatic change. Despite sociological inflections…

  17. In Time of Emergency. A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack and Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A major emergency affecting a large number of people may occur anytime and any place. Natural disasters such as a flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard or earthquake, or an enemy nuclear attack on the United States may all constitute a major emergency. In any type of general disaster, lives can be saved if people are prepared for the emergency…

  18. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Study of Elementary School Seachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Teachers, as adult authority figures and people with whom students spend a majority of their day, can play a major role in the lives of children in a disaster-prone community.…

  19. Predictors of Youths' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, Flood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nina C; Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A

    2016-01-01

    Framed by a previously established conceptual model of youths' posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following a disaster, the current longitudinal study examined the relation of predisaster child characteristics (age, gender, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping), predisaster environmental characteristics (negative life events and supportive and negative friendship interactions), and level of disaster exposure to youths' PTS symptoms in the wake of a natural disaster. Prior to the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood, 239 predominantly Caucasian youth from four elementary and middle schools (ages = 10-15, 56% girls) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, negative life events, and social support in the form of both supportive and negative friendship interactions. Approximately 10 days after returning to school, 125 completed measures of disaster exposure and postflood PTS symptoms. Bivariate correlations revealed that disaster-related PTS symptoms were unrelated to age, gender, or predisaster supportive friendship interactions and significantly positively related to level of disaster exposure and predisaster levels of negative life events, depressive symptoms, rumination, and negative friendship interactions. After controlling for level of disaster exposure and other predisaster child and environmental characteristics, depressive symptoms and negative friendship interactions predicted postdisaster PTS symptoms. The effect of child's flood-related experiences on PTS symptoms was not moderated by any of the preexisting child characteristics or environmental indicators. Faced with limited resources after a natural disaster, school counselors and other health professionals should focus special attention on youths who experienced high levels of disaster-related losses and whose predisaster emotional and interpersonal lives were problematic. PMID:25602594

  20. Assessment of infrastructure functional damages caused by natural-technological disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabò, Marco; Trasforini, Eva; Traverso, Stefania; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Cecinati, Francesca; Cerruti, Valentina

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of infrastructure damages caused by technological disaster poses several challenges, from gathering needed information on the territorial system to the definition of functionality curves for infrastructures elements (such as, buildings, road school) that are exposed to both natural and technological event. Moreover, areas affected by natural or natech (technological disasters triggered by natural events) disasters have often very large extensions and a rapid survey of them to gather all the needed information is a very difficult task, for many reasons, not least the difficult access to the existing databases and resources. We use multispectral optical imagery with other geographical and unconventional data to identify and characterize exposed elements. Our efforts in the virtual survey and during the investigation steps have different aims: to identify the vulnerability of infrastructures, buildings or activities; to execute calculations of exposition to risk; to estimate physical and functional damages. Subsequently, we apply specific algorithms to estimate values of acting forces and physical and functional damages. The updated picture of target areas in terms of risk-prone people, infrastructures and their connections is very important. It is possible to develop algorithms providing values of systemic functionality for each network element. The methodology is here applied to a natech disaster, arising from the combination of a flood event (specifically, the January 2010 flooding of Drin and Buna rivers, with a worsening in the road safety levels in the Shkoder area) with and the subsequent overturning of a truck transporting hazardous material. The accident causes the loss of containment and the total material release. Once the release has taken place, the evolution will depend on the physical state of the substance spilled (liquid, gas or dust). As a specific case we consider the rupture of a trucks transporting liquid fuels such as gasoline

  1. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  2. Caring during crisis: animal welfare during pandemics and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Millman, Suzanne T

    2008-01-01

    From April 29 to May 1, 2007, the University of Guelph hosted a symposium, Caring During Crisis: Animal Welfare During Pandemics and Natural Disasters, with the objectives (a) of raising awareness about how nonhuman animals and the people who care for them are affected during emergencies and (b) of sharing knowledge about how animal welfare may be addressed during these situations. The symposium attracted 150 participants, representing 71 organizations from across Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Chile, and the Cayman Islands. The audience also brought a range of perspectives to the issues - from individuals representing animal protection and commodity organizations to municipal government officials responsible for community safety and correctional services; many of these individuals had little or no animal experience. To take advantage of this diverse audience and range of interests, the symposium was structured with formal presentations by internationally recognized experts, followed by panel discussions at the end of each session to facilitate contributions by the audience. At the conclusion of the 3 days, it was clear that our emotional, economic, and ecological relationships with animals require thoughtful integration of animal care within formal policy and planning for emergency response. PMID:18444029

  3. Snoozing through the storm: torpor use during a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Rojas, A Daniella; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Although storms provide an extreme environmental challenge to organisms and are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity due to climate change, there are no quantitative observations on the behaviour and physiology of animals during natural disasters. We provide the first data on activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging, arboreal mammal during a storm with heavy rain and category 1 cyclone wind speeds. We studied a population of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), a species vulnerable to bad weather due to their small body size and mode of locomotion, in a subtropical habitat during spring when storms are common. Although torpor is generally rare in this species, sugar gliders remained inactive or reduced foraging times during the storm and further minimized energy demands by entering deep torpor. All animals survived the storm and reverted to normal foraging activity during the following night(s). It thus appears that heterothermic mammals have a crucial adaptive advantage over homeothermic species as they can outlast challenging weather events, such as storms and floods, by reducing metabolism and thus energetic needs. PMID:26073747

  4. Natural Disaster Risk and Engagement in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is beset with natural hazards no less than other regions of Earth, but there are some special aspects that require attention. The presence of ice leads to spring river flooding and dynamics of coastal erosion not present in warmer climates. Vast boreal forests are subject to wildfires that are huge pollution events and a positive feedback to climate change through production of CO2, other gases, and black carbon. Darkness and extreme cold that prevail for a significant portion of the year is a challenge to disaster response. Special societal aspects of the Arctic produce vulnerabilities on two scales. One is the development of infrastructure in support of growing extractive industries and Arctic shipping. Reliance on such facilities, which often lack redundancy, and on long supply lines for food and fuel from the south impedes resilience. In 1964, Alaska lost much of its infrastructure to the 9.2 magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. Today, Alaska has greater dependency on external supplies and less internal redundancy. Planning that affects vulnerability of infrastructure is often done by corporations and regulated by government agencies based outside the Arctic. The work of scientists who understood Alaska, both within and outside government, provided information to energy corporations persuading them to include expensive design measures into the Trans Alaska Pipeline for crossing an active fault and preventing thawing of permafrost. This is a success story that should not be forgotten. At the other end of the size scale are isolated off-grid and off-road remote communities with fragile power, water, and sanitation facilities. A disaster there can pose an immediate threat to health and even life. Long-term evacuation and the cost a reconstruction may mean that the community is never re-established. Where such communities are centers of indigneous culture, the culture is threatened. With the goal of identifying best practices with these

  5. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality. PMID:22718336

  6. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations. PMID:22754465

  7. Natural Disaster: Long-Range Impact on Human Response to Future Disaster Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Susan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The study examines the effect of a prior tornado disaster occurring in a community and that community's current response to a tornado threat. The study concludes that it is not past experience with tornadoes that relates to response to warnings, but rather awareness. Experience is but one source of information contributing to their awareness. (RE)

  8. Social and natural disasters as a factor threatening the sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2014-05-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is an important and urgent task facing humanity. By the middle of this century, damage from these disasters will exceed the combined gross national product (GNP) of all countries in the world. The authors have developed the first database to include the largest geodynamic and social phenomena that occurred on Earth before 2005. We suggest the following phenomenological model based on the database (uniform with respect to the quantitative classification). All disasters are classified by size using a single logarithmic scale suggested by Rodkin and Shebalin in 1993. The base consists of 47 dates and 104 disasters. The following phenomenological model is proposed: 1. The scale of disasters does not decrease with time. (Earthquakes in China in 1556 and 1976; the tsunami after the Sumatra earthquake in 2004, which can be compared in regards to the level of consequences only with the World Flood or a series of floods that occurred approximately 13000 years BP). 2. There were a minimal number of disasters in the 15th century; during which there were not a single disaster with J = I and II; from that time the number of such disasters gradually increases; in the 20th century there were 20. 3.The number of disasters is characterized by cycles, which are a few thousand years long; the available longterm measurements confirm this (for example, the overflow of the Nile observed over more than 5000 years or deformations of the Earth's surface in the last few thousand years based on the geodynamic, seismotectonic, and paleoseismic data). 4. Natural and social disasters together are distributed uniformly in time, while only natural and only social disasters are distributed nonuniformly, i.e., disasters group. 5. The proportion of the social disasters has a tendency to increase in time, which confirms the viewpoint of V.I. Vernadskii about the constantly increasing role of humans and society in the

  9. Perfect storm: organizational management of patient care under natural disaster conditions.

    PubMed

    McCaughrin, William Cass; Mattammal, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Managing uncertainty is an essential attribute of organizational leadership and effectiveness. Uncertainty threatens optimal decision making by managers and, by extension, reduces the quality of patient care. Variation in the work flows of everyday patient caregiving reflects management's steps to control uncertainty, which include strategies for contending with potential disaster scenarios. Little exists in the literature that reveals how management's strategic response to controlling uncertainty in a real disaster event differs from strategies practiced in disaster simulations, with the goal of protecting patient care. Using organization theory, this article presents the application of uncertainty management to the catastrophic flooding of a major teaching hospital. A detailed description of management's strategies for patient rescue and evacuation is provided. Unique aspects of managing uncertainty stemming from a natural disaster are highlighted. Recommendations on organization responses to disasters that optimize patient care, safety, and continuity are offered to managers. PMID:14552099

  10. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Child Health and Investments in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters’ effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. PMID:23159307

  11. Development of the Anxiety Scale for Natural Disaster: Examination of its Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Miki; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    The objective of present study was to develop the a nxiety scale for natural disaster, and to examineits reliability. We developed the 14 items for the anxiety scale based on anticipated damage of Nankai earthquake in Ehime prefecture. The subjects consist of 391 people in Yawatahama city, Ehime prefecture. Firstly, we analyzed the latent factors which influenced the anxiety for natural disaster by using the factor analysis method. Secondly, we cal culated Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The result of the factor analysis confirmed the three factors such as "anxiety for lifeline damage", "anxiety for second ary disaster" and "fear for others". Cronbach's coefficient alpha for each factor showed the high interna l consistency reliability. We considered that each factor could prove to be a valuable tool for researc h about the person's anxiety for natural disaster.

  12. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  13. Neonatal nursing care issues following a natural disaster: lessons learned from the Katrina experience.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Susan; Bernard, Marirose L; Mathews, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    The massive evacuation of sick and at-risk infants from a large metropolitan area following a natural disaster provides many lessons for neonatal nurses. Planning and education are of utmost importance, and disaster education and training are essential for all nurses. Unit-specific disaster plans can serve as a guide for nurses but the real test occurs during and after the event. Nurses must learn to adapt neonatal care to the rapidly changing environment during a disaster. Supporting high-risk infants without the aid of technology requires a back-to-the-basics approach. The ability to maintain communication and facilitate transportation of neonates out of a disaster area is essential. Nurses must also consider their own well-being in the aftermath of a disaster. Planning for future disasters should include lessons learned from the past events. This article addresses nursing care issues and lessons learned from the events that unfolded in the New Orleans area neonatal units during and after Hurricane Katrina, and guidance in support of disaster education for neonatal nurses. PMID:18496075

  14. Natural hazards research and response; international decade for reducing loss from natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    IDNDR offers an unprecedented opportunity to apply new knowledge and technology to minimize losses in regions at high risks. The program is very challenging because full implementation requires a multidisciplinary effort on a global scale, an undertaking never before attempted. In concert with the other signatory nations, the Untied States is carrying out a balanced and comprehensive program of research and applications as a contribution to the IDNDR. The U.S program is designed to reduce both loss of life and property damage from natural disasters.  

  15. Overview of the psychosocial impact of disasters.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R

    2004-01-01

    The psychosocial sequelae can be intense and of long duration in the aftermath of natural and technological disasters, as well as terrorist attacks. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and full syndrome disorder, depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, and excessive alcohol use have been demonstrated consistently, particularly following large-scale disasters. This paper examines the psychological research conducted at various intervals after extensive natural disasters, the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl technological accidents, and recent terrorist events in the United States. Factors predictive of the emergence of emotional distress and psychological and physical problems following a disaster also are discussed. PMID:15453154

  16. [Natural disasters and health: an analysis of the situation in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins de; Silva, Eliane Lima; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Barcellos, Christovam; Costa, André Monteiro; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia Carneiro; Corvalán, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Natural disasters are still insufficiently studied and understood within the scope of public health in this country, with impacts in the short and long term. The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between disasters and their impact on health based on disaster data recorded in the country. The methodology involved the systematization of data and information contained in the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters 1991-2010 and directly from the National Department of Civil Defense (NSCD). Disasters were organized into four categories of events (meteorological; hydrological; climatological; geophysical/geological) and for each of the latter, the data for morbidity, mortality and exposure of those affected were examined, revealing different types of impacts. Three categories of disasters stood out: the hydrological events showed higher percentages of mortality, morbidity and exposure; climatological events had higher percentages of incidents and people affected; the geophysical/geological events had a higher average of exposure and deaths per event. Lastly, a more active participation of the health sector in the post-2015 global political agenda is proposed, particularly events related to sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction. PMID:25184572

  17. The «Natural Hazard WIKISAURUS»: explanation and understanding of natural hazards to build disaster resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In the Internet and Web 2.0 era, the need of information is increased. Moreover, recent major and minor disasters highlighted that information is a crucial element also in emergency management. Informing the population is now the focal point of any civil protection activity and program. Risk perception and social vulnerability become widely discussed issues "when a disaster occurs": a "day-after" approach that should be replaced by a "day-before" one. Is that a cultural problem? Is it a communication issue? As a matter of fact, nowadays academics, experts, institutions are called to be more effective in transferring natural hazards knowledge (technical, operational, historical, social) to the public, for switching from «protection/passivity» (focused on disaster event) to «resilience» (focused on vulnerability). However, this change includes to abandon the "Elites Knowledge" approach and to support "Open Knowledge" and "Open Data" perspectives. Validated scientific information on natural hazards is not yet a common heritage: there are several cases of misleading or inaccurate information published by media. During recent Italian national emergencies [Flash Floods Liguria-Toscana 2011, Earthquake Emilia-Romagna 2012], social media registered people not only asking for news on the disaster event, but also talking trivially about scientific contents on natural hazards. By considering these facts, in the framework of a phD program in Earth Science, a joint team UNITO-NatRisk and CNR-IIA conceived the web project "Natural Hazards Wikisaurus" [NHW], combining two previous experiences: "HyperIspro" - a wiki on civil protection set up by Giuseppe Zamberletti, former Italian minister of Civil Protection - and "Earth Thesaurus", developed by CNR-IIA. The team decided to start from the «words» using both the collaboration of the wiki concept (open and participatory knowledge) and the power of explanation of a thesaurus. Why? Because a word is not enough, as a term has

  18. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. PMID:22616629

  19. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  20. Responses of Urban and Rural Ministers to a Natural Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Finds that 44 urban Virginia and rural West Virginia ministers faced similar challenges following 1985's severe floods, but differed in available resources, varieties of disaster relief roles they took, extent of posttraumatic stress symptoms, and strategies used to meet community needs. Contains 14 references and the interview instrument. (SV)

  1. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R.; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. Objective To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. Results For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Conclusions Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach. PMID:26689458

  2. "To silence the deafening silence": Survivor's needs and experiences of the impact of disaster radio for their recovery after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Hugelius, Karin; Gifford, Mervyn; Ortenwall, Per; Adolfsson, Annsofie

    2016-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Haiyan typhoon, disaster radio was used to spread information and music to the affected population. The study described survivors' experiences of being in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster and the impact disaster radio made on recovery from the perspective of the individuals affected. Twenty eight survivors were interviewed in focus groups and individual interviews analyzed with phenomenological-hermeneutic method. Being in disaster mode included physical and psychosocial dimensions of being in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Several needs among the survivors were expressed. Disaster radio contributed to recovery by providing facts and information that helped the survivor to understand and adapt. The music played contributed to emotional endurance and reduced feelings of loneliness. To re-establish social contacts, other interventions are needed. Disaster radio is a positive contribution to the promotion of survivors' recovery after disasters involving a large number of affected people and severely damaged infrastructure. Further studies on the use and impact of disaster radio are needed. PMID:26724170

  3. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    PubMed

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries. PMID:24814669

  4. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    PubMed

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters. PMID:23985368

  5. Perception-based Impact upon Community Resilience in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.

    2008-05-01

    In the event of natural disasters, recovery from the direct and indirect effects of the disaster phenomena are topics of most community emergency response plans. In addition to the direct and indirect impacts that represent changes in activity that can be tied directly to an event, additional perception-based impacts are possible. Usually these perception-based impacts are larger and more difficult to measure or mitigate than direct impacts. These impacts are based primarily on the affected population's changes in attitudes toward a particular neighborhood or region based on fear of a future event or future losses. These impacts can be motivated by fear of future storms or man-caused events, lingering toxic contamination that may or may not have been removed, and any other behavior by individuals that cannot be explained by actual events or calculated measures of risk or uncertainty. Perception-based impacts are often difficult to estimate directly. In many instaces, case studies of comparable events are used to attempt to develop judgemental estimates of possible future impacts on the area of question. For example, impacts from such events as Love Canal, the Three Mile Island nucear accident, the September 11 attacks, and the Goiana radioactive material spill are used to get a sense of the severity and duration of possible perception-based impacts of a particular event. Perception-based impacts can include additional losses in property value, losses in population (or reduced rates of population due to lower migration rates) that cannot be attributed to actual economic and demographic changes that can be tied to the event directly. Additional perception-based impacts can include long-term worker absenteeism by an asymptomatic public (i.e., the worried well), losses in tourism, losses in cargo at transportation hubs due to fears by shippers and recipients who choose alternative modes of transportation for shipping goods into the affected area. Another proxy for

  6. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN DISASTER RESTORATION WORK FOLLOWING THE NIIGATA CHUETSU EARTHQUAKE (2004) AND THE NIIGATA CHUETSU-OKI EARTHQUAKE (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuya; Noda, Masashi; Kikkawa, Naotaka; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Suemasa, Naoaki

    Labour accidents in disaster-relief and disaster restoration work following the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004) and the Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) were analysed and characterised in order to raise awareness of the risks and hazards in such work. The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake affected houses and buildings rather than roads and railways, which are generally disrupted due to landslides or slope failures caused by earthquakes. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall to lower level," which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides and slope failures were much more prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring in geotechnical works rather than in construction works. Therefore, care should be taken in preventing "fall to lower level" accidents associated with repair work on the roofs of low-rise houses, "cut or abrasion" accidents due to the demolition of damaged houses and "caught in or compressed by equipment" accidents in road works and water and sewage works.

  7. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-06-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

  8. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

  9. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  10. Decade for natural disaster reduction: An opportunity for international scientific cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaks, Sherry D.

    Natural hazards, created when environmental processes such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, landslides, wildfires, and drought occur in conflict with human populations, continue to take their toll in lives and human suffering. About three million people around the world have been killed in the past two decades, and the lives of about 800 million other people have been adversely affected [U.N. General Assembly, 1987b]. Short-term economic losses have been estimated at $1-$5 billion annually. Single disasters have caused losses in developing countries equal to their annual GNP. Total losses, including damage to health and welfare of human populations from effects of long-term environmental disasters such as desertification and negative effects of global climate change, are accumulating at an alarming rate. Mounting losses of life and property, and economic and political insecurity exacerbated by the effects of disasters, spurred the idea of an organized worldwide effort for a decade devoted to the reduction of natural hazards.

  11. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

  12. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents. PMID:27074407

  13. Associations between Disaster Exposures, Peritraumatic Distress, and Posttraumatic Stress Responses in Fukushima Nuclear Plant Workers following the 2011 Nuclear Accident: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). Methods A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2–3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. Results For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001). PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005) and presence of preexisting illness(es) (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001). Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Conclusion Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience. PMID:24586278

  14. Reducing the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Following Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; Forbes, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer long-term psychological disturbance following exposure to a natural disaster. Evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship exists, so that children and adolescents who experience the most intense or extensive exposure to the risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are likely to develop…

  15. How much more exposed are the poor to natural disasters? Global and regional measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsuk

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a simple indicator to measure the exposure to natural disasters for the poor and non-poor population, in order to assess the global and regional trend of natural hazard and poverty. Globally, poor people are two times more exposed to natural disasters than the non-poor in the twenty-first century. The time trend varies across regions, with poor people in East Asia and Pacific being most exposed to natural disasters, followed by those in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The change of exposure measure over time is decomposed into two factors: a pure exposure change, which could be fuelled by climate change; and a concentration component. The result shows that the total net increase of exposure between the 1970s and the 2000s is driven significantly by the increased concentration of the poor (26 per cent) in disaster-prone areas, whereas the contribution of that factor remains very small for the non-poor (six per cent). PMID:21995667

  16. Appreciation for Support for Japan in Responding to the Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Nishiyama, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    March 11, 2011, began the most difficult natural disaster ever experienced in Japan. Earthquakes, a massive tsunami, and multiple breaches at nuclear power plants have changed the lives of many Japanese people including children, teachers, and parents. Throughout this difficult time, Japanese school psychologists and teachers have been supported…

  17. Will the 1990’s be a decade of increasingly destructive natural disasters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulle, P. L.

    1990-01-01

    Today, there is a considerable body of knowledge about natural hazards that laso enables us to devise effective means to limit the damage they cause. Yet, the reality of the situation is that disasters are increasing in number worldwide, and their social and economic impacts are becoming more nad more difficult to hear. 

  18. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. 1945.19 Section 1945.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY...

  19. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  20. What Can School Principals Do to Support Students and Their Learning during and after Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters can happen at any time. The impact they have on students, their families and the teachers relies on strategic and calm leadership by school principals. As schools are situated within communities, principals not only have a role leading within the school, they are also viewed as community leaders. This paper focuses on six New…

  1. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  2. Ideas about Earthquakes after Experiencing a Natural Disaster in Taiwan: An Analysis of Students' Worldviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2001-01-01

    Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…

  3. Occurrence and overlap of natural disasters, complex emergencies and epidemics during the past decade (1995–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Paul B; Le, Phuoc; Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Salama, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The fields of expertise of natural disasters and complex emergencies (CEs) are quite distinct, with different tools for mitigation and response as well as different types of competent organizations and qualified professionals who respond. However, natural disasters and CEs can occur concurrently in the same geographic location, and epidemics can occur during or following either event. The occurrence and overlap of these three types of events have not been well studied. Methods All natural disasters, CEs and epidemics occurring within the past decade (1995–2004) that met the inclusion criteria were included. The largest 30 events in each category were based on the total number of deaths recorded. The main databases used were the Emergency Events Database for natural disasters, the Uppsala Conflict Database Program for CEs and the World Health Organization outbreaks archive for epidemics. Analysis During the past decade, 63% of the largest CEs had ≥1 epidemic compared with 23% of the largest natural disasters. Twenty-seven percent of the largest natural disasters occurred in areas with ≥1 ongoing CE while 87% of the largest CEs had ≥1 natural disaster. Conclusion Epidemics commonly occur during CEs. The data presented in this article do not support the often-repeated assertion that epidemics, especially large-scale epidemics, commonly occur following large-scale natural disasters. This observation has important policy and programmatic implications when preparing and responding to epidemics. There is an important and previously unrecognized overlap between natural disasters and CEs. Training and tools are needed to help bridge the gap between the different type of organizations and professionals who respond to natural disasters and CEs to ensure an integrated and coordinated response. PMID:17411460

  4. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  5. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  6. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Perry W.; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R.; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-01-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism. PMID:27559233

  7. A Century of Australian Natural Disasters and How to Reduce the Toll from Future Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAneney, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study reviews Australian experience of natural disasters over the last century and considers how to reduce this nation's vulnerability to such events in the future. In line with global experience, the cost of Australian weather-related natural disasters has been increasing, while loss of life has decreased, with extreme heat events responsible for more fatalities than all other natural perils combined, baring epidemics. However when disaster costs arising from historical events are normalised to current day exposure, no long-term trend emerges. Moreover the frequency of these losses shows no sign of increasing since 1950. In other words, the rising cost of natural disasters can be firmly sheeted home to the fact that there are now more of us living in vulnerable places with more to lose. In view of the above, emergency management and government risk management and strategic planning should focus on plausible large event scenarios, whatever their cause. If we wish to reduce disaster losses, land-use planning has to become risk-informed and building codes need to consider potential economic impacts, rather than just life safety. Insurers can play a role by pricing risk correctly and sending clear signals to homeowners (and governments) to stimulate risk-reducing behaviours. The tools to achieve fine-grained risk assessments are increasingly available. The success of the regulated use of the building code in tropical cyclone-prone regions in Australia and the performance of modern seismic building codes in New Zealand, shows what can be achieved when there is a demonstrated need and political will.

  8. The role of the veterinarian in hurricanes and other natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Moore, R M; Davis, Y M; Kaczmarek, R G

    1992-06-16

    Hurricanes create a multiplicity of complicated problems and hazards ranging from outbreaks of infectious disease to animal control problems precipitated by destruction of property. A multidisciplinary response is required to solve such problems. The pool of knowledge derived from various professionals interacting with multiple levels of government agencies (federal, state, and local) will provide the expertise needed. Because the veterinarian is trained to deal with disease involving populations of animals (e.g., herds or flocks) as well as individuals, and because of his/her intensive clinical training, the veterinarian is uniquely qualified to deal with the disaster situation. The veterinarian possesses extensive knowledge in disease and disease processes and has the capability of disease and injury management in affected populations, which qualifies him/her for an essential role, with unlimited potential as a member of any disaster relief team. There is considerable potential for veterinarians to play a role in responding to natural disasters. The areas of disease control, animal care, animal control, protection of the food supply, disinfection/sterilization, and planning are all areas where veterinarians can take an active part. Inclusion of the veterinarian in the process of planning for and responding to natural disasters will yield significant public health benefits. PMID:1626885

  9. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. PMID:26577979

  10. Natural Disasters and Educational Building Design. An Introductory Review and Annotated Bibliography for the Asian Region. Educational Building Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.

    This study presents an overview of collected literature relevant to school buildings, or building in general, in disaster-prone areas, together with some discussion of the role that school buildings, as a universally present community asset, may play in situations of crisis. The natural disasters referred to in this study include cyclones and…

  11. A Federal Plan for Natural Disaster Warning and Preparedness, Federal Committee for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This plan to mitigate the impact of potential geophysical natural disasters, including those caused by hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and earthquakes, integrates and coordinates the multiagency functions in warning services and community preparedness related to many of these disasters. The plan is divided into five sections. The first two sections…

  12. Probabilistic Forecasting of Life and Economic Losses due to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C. C.; Tebbens, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of natural hazard events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods are traditionally measured by wind speed, energy release, or discharge. In this study we investigate the scaling of the magnitude of individual events of the 20th and 21stcentury in terms of economic and life losses in the United States and worldwide. Economic losses are subdivided into insured and total losses. Some data sets are inflation or population adjusted. Forecasts associated with these events are of interest to insurance, reinsurance, and emergency management agencies. Plots of cumulative size-frequency distributions of economic and life loss are well-fit by power functions and thus exhibit self-similar scaling. This self-similar scaling property permits use of frequent small events to estimate the rate of occurrence of less frequent larger events. Examining the power scaling behavior of loss data for disasters permits: forecasting the probability of occurrence of a disaster over a wide range of years (1 to 10 to 1,000 years); comparing losses associated with one type of disaster to another; comparing disasters in one region to similar disasters in another region; and, measuring the effectiveness of planning and mitigation strategies. In the United States, life losses due to flood and tornado cumulative-frequency distributions have steeper slopes, indicating that frequent smaller events contribute the majority of losses. In contrast, life losses due to hurricanes and earthquakes have shallower slopes, indicating that the few larger events contribute the majority of losses. Disaster planning and mitigation strategies should incorporate these differences.

  13. Disaster at Bhopal: the accident, early findings and respiratory health outlook in those injured.

    PubMed

    Weill, H

    1987-01-01

    In December, 1984, in Bhopal, India, a massive leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC) resulted from operational and equipment malfunctions in a pesticide plant. Many thousands of residents of the city, most in proximity to the plant, suffered sublethal and lethal respiratory injuries, the expected consequences of high-level exposure to this type of potent irritant chemical vapour. Animal toxicologic information was limited prior to the accident, but has since confirmed that the lung is the major target of these lethal injuries, invariably with pulmonary oedema. Early concerns regarding acute cyanide intoxication were not supported by subsequent scientific inquiry. Superficial corneal erosions did not result in permanent eye injury. The primary medical (and, presumably, legal) issue which is unresolved, and perhaps unresolvable, is the incidence and determinants of long-term respiratory injury in the survivors. Available evidence, which is limited, suggests that chronic damage, when present, is, or resembles, fibrosing bronchiolitis obliterans, the expected consequence when permanent injury results from acute, high-level irritant gas exposure. Definition of the follow-up population is uncertain, and exposure information is lacking. Dose-response relationships are not likely to emerge from follow-up studies. PMID:3453752

  14. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population’s vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals’ movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers. PMID:26820404

  15. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  16. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45–54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking ‘dirty’ tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  17. Macroeconomics of Natural Disasters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Meta-Analysis Versus Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara

    2015-06-01

    We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies. PMID:25847486

  18. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  19. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the

  20. Community cohesion after a natural disaster: insights from a Carlisle flood.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kirk

    2010-04-01

    This project analysed changes in community cohesion following a natural disaster. Data were collected from a flood-affected community using a questionnaire survey. Analyses revealed that community cohesion was not predicted by the length of residence, or any other demographic characteristic of residents, but rather by a sense of community, community cognition and the degree of community participation. Cohesion alteration was not uniform, but varied along levels of hazard severity (degree of flood invasion). Cohesion increased in line with hazard severity at the initial flood stage, as residents recognised the importance of community unity and came together to cope with their losses. When the severity increased, residents transferred their focus to individual interests, which resulted in decreased cohesion. This project distinguishes itself in examining community cohesion in the wake of a natural disaster in the real world. Implications regarding community reconstruction and suggestions for hazard researchers are discussed accordingly. PMID:19863571

  1. Health concerns of women and infants in times of natural disasters: lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, William M; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J; Ventura, Stephanie J; Farr, Sherry L; Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, Thomas J; Hamilton, Brady E; Shealy, Katherine R; Brantley, Dabo; Posner, Sam F

    2007-07-01

    Pregnant women and infants have unique health concerns in the aftermath of a natural disaster such as Hurricane Katrina. Although exact numbers are lacking, we estimate that approximately 56,000 pregnant women and 75,000 infants were directly affected by the hurricane. Disruptions in the supply of clean water for drinking and bathing, inadequate access to safe food, exposure to environmental toxins, interruption of health care, crowded conditions in shelters, and disruption of public health and clinical care infrastructure posed threats to these vulnerable populations. This report cites the example of Hurricane Katrina to focus on the needs of pregnant women and infants during times of natural disasters and provides considerations for those who plan for the response to these events. PMID:17253147

  2. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:26313052

  3. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:24432877

  4. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-15

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  5. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-01

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  6. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. PMID:22142912

  7. Flooding experience at Veracruz: not only a natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Nava Bringas, M.; Ochoa Martinez, C.; Local; regional impacts of global change

    2013-05-01

    The Veracruz state lies on the middle of the Gulf of Mexico in Mexican Republic; has a surface of 72815 Km2 represent almost the 4% of Mexico. Due to the complex topography, the rainfall, runoff and the extreme weather the 33% of Mexican water goes trough Veracruz, and every year the presence of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes impacts on the habitants of Veracruz (7.5 millions). For Veracruz the Sierra Madre is the natural border on the West and on the East the Gulf of Mexico. It is located from 17°10' to 23°38' (N) and between 93° to 99° (W). We will try to get the find out the primary information source for the floods on 2005 and 20010 and correlate with the laws on environment and civil protection for Veracruz. In 1999 a tropical depression more than 200 000 persons and more than 20 died, in 2005 Stan hurricane affected more than a million persons but no one died. In 2010 the effects of hurricane Karl were similar but a few days after the tropical depression Mathew affected 150 000 persons more and 15 people died. The patterns of people habitat in Veracruz since middle of XX century follows the oil industry develop at south east Mexico, so the risk increased as the population density increased, that's a critical reason to concluded that is not only cause - effect issue on Veracruz. So if the extreme events increase as consequence of the climate variability and climate change the vulnerability on this region will not be address in prevention policies, and the future scenario on adaptation will be a deep complex problem to solve from all perspectives.Reported impactst; Extreme events. Data from Veracruz Government.

  8. The construction and periodicity analysis of natural disaster database of Alxa area based on Chinese local records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Mingzhong, Tian; Hengli, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Chinese hand-written local records were originated from the first century. Generally, these local records include geography, evolution, customs, education, products, people, historical sites, as well as writings of an area. Through such endeavors, the information of the natural materials of China nearly has had no "dark ages" in the evolution of its 5000-year old civilization. A compilation of all meaningful historical data of natural-disasters taken place in Alxa of inner-Mongolia, the second largest desert in China, is used here for the construction of a 500-year high resolution database. The database is divided into subsets according to the types of natural-disasters like sand-dust storm, drought events, cold wave, etc. Through applying trend, correlation, wavelet, and spectral analysis on these data, we can estimate the statistically periodicity of different natural-disasters, detect and quantify similarities and patterns of the periodicities of these records, and finally take these results in aggregate to find a strong and coherent cyclicity through the last 500 years which serves as the driving mechanism of these geological hazards. Based on the periodicity obtained from the above analysis, the paper discusses the probability of forecasting natural-disasters and the suitable measures to reduce disaster losses through history records. Keyword: Chinese local records; Alxa; natural disasters; database; periodicity analysis

  9. A randomised trial of nutrient supplements to minimise psychological stress after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Rucklidge, Julia J; Romijn, Amy R; Dolph, Michael

    2015-08-30

    After devastating flooding in southern Alberta in June 2013, we attempted to replicate a New Zealand randomised trial that showed that micronutrient (minerals, vitamins) consumption after the earthquakes of 2010-11 resulted in improved mental health. Residents of southern Alberta were invited to participate in a study on the potential benefit of nutrient supplements following a natural disaster. Fifty-six adults aged 23-66 were randomised to receive a single nutrient (vitamin D, n=17), a few-nutrients formula (B-Complex, n=21), or a broad-spectrum mineral/vitamin formula (BSMV, n=18). Self-reported changes in depression, anxiety and stress were monitored for six weeks. Although all groups showed substantial decreases on all measures, those consuming the B-Complex and the BSMV formulas showed significantly greater improvement in stress and anxiety compared with those consuming the single nutrient, with large effect sizes (Cohen's d range 0.76-1.08). There were no group differences between those consuming the B-Complex and BSMV. The use of nutrient formulas with multiple minerals and/or vitamins to minimise stress associated with natural disasters is now supported by three studies. Further research should be carried out to evaluate the potential population benefit that might accrue if such formulas were distributed as a post-disaster public health measure. PMID:26154816

  10. Community Participation and Strengthening in a Reconstruction Context After a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Rosa María; Fernández, María Zoila; Moll, Sarah; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    During the first academic term of 2010, participatory action investigation processes were conducted in three communities affected by the 2007 high magnitude earthquake that occurred in the province of Chincha (Ica, Peru). In the process, members of the communities identified, as core problems, aspects related to the community coexistence, emphasizing the attention of the most vulnerable segments (children and adolescents) in the context of economic constraints and problems aggravated by the earthquake. Results include an analysis of the needs and reactions following the earthquake, the leadership and the power relations visible in the post disaster context and, finally, the community participation throughout the reconstruction process. This article also proposes some topics resulting from the analysis, aiming to contribute to interventions focused on community participation and strengthening of local resources in contexts of great vulnerability to natural disasters. PMID:26472239

  11. The role of obstetrics and gynecology national societies during natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, André; Adrien, Lauré

    2015-07-01

    When a natural disaster occurs, such as an earthquake, floods, or a tsunami, the international response is quick. However, there is no organized strategy in place to address obstetric and gynecological (ob/gyn) emergencies. International organizations and national ob/gyn societies do not have an organized plan and rely on the good will of volunteers. Too often, local specialists are ignored and are not involved in the response. The massive earthquake in Haiti in 2010 exemplifies the lack of coordinated response involving national organizations following the disaster. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) engaged rapidly with Haitian colleagues in response to the obstetric and gynecological emergencies. An active strategy is proposed. PMID:25935475

  12. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  13. Program plan for the partnership for natural disaster reduction. Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    In a matter of minutes, a natural disaster completely changes people`s lives. For example, 9,750 lives were lost in the 1993 Latur, India earthquake, 106,000 homes were destroyed in the 1995 Hanshin-Awajii (Kobe) Japan earthquake, and over 8000 jobs/businesses were either disrupted or terminated during Hurricane Andrew. Worldwide, economic disaster damages have tripled in the past 30 years - rising from $40 billion in the 1960`s to $120 billion in the 1980`s. Potential losses and recovery costs continue to rise because of rapid population growth, urban expansion, and increased new construction concentrated in high-risk areas. In the U.S., economic losses from 1989 to 1994 resulting from hurricanes and earthquakes exceeded more than $100 billion. With the exception of floods, severe windstorms annually cause more damage than earthquakes because they occur more frequently. On average, 350 lives are lost every year as a result of windstorms. Over the last decade, nearly 90% of the property losses have resulted from windstorms and about 4% from earthquakes. The unexpected vulnerability of many homes, the high number of pay-outs by insurance companies, and the resulting difficulties of getting affordable insurance coverage following Hurricane Andrew in Florida further emphasized the need for the United States to aggressively put more efforts into wind-related pre-disaster mitigation. Everyone shares the burden of recovery in the form of increased taxes for federal assistance and higher insurance premiums. In response to these critical national and international needs, the Partnership for Natural Disaster Reduction is defining a national program which has the mission to develop, validate, and implement technologies that will reduce damage to structures, buildings, and infrastructure elements resulting from windstorms, earthquakes, and aging processes.

  14. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  15. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is still in its infancy. Social scientists have historically regarded natural disasters as exogenous or essentially random perturbations. More recent scholarship treats disaster shocks as endogenous, with pre-existing social, economic and political conditions determining the form and magnitude of disaster impacts. One apparently robust conclusion is that direct economic losses from natural disasters, similar to human losses, are larger (in relative terms) the poorer a country is, yet cross-country regressions show that disasters may accrue economic benefits due to new investments in productive infrastructure, especially if the investment is funded by externally provided capital (Work Bank assistance, private donations, etc) and do not deplete national savings or acquire a debt burden. Some econometric studies also show that the quality of a country's institutions can mitigate the mortality effects of a disaster. The effects on income inequality are such that the poor suffer greater 'asset shocks' and may never recover from a disaster leading to a widening of existing disparities. Natural disasters affect women more adversely than men in terms of life expectancy at birth. On average they kill more women than men or kill women at a younger age than men, and the more so the stronger the disaster. The extent to which women are more likely to die than men or to die at a younger age from the immediate disaster impact or from post-disaster events depends not only on disaster strength itself but also on the socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. Existing research on the economic effects of disasters focus almost exclusively on the impact on economic growth - the growth rate of GDP. GDP however is only a partial indicator of welfare, especially for countries that are in the lower ranks of development status. Very poor communities are typically involved in subsistence level activities or in the

  16. Traditional and non-traditional approaches to the prediction of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century the number of disasters in the world increased approximately two times. Damage from disasters cost an average of 230 billion dollars per year. Recently, the death toll in the disaster has reached 230,000 - 1 000,000 per year. Along with earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, increased the number of forest and steppe fires. These processes are not fully known global, geophysical and space reasons. Of great importance are perennial not until the end of the study of natural cycles. There is evidence that the state of the planet's surface affect processes in the Earth's core. Understanding the causes and prediction of the tragic events require an integrated effort based on the synthesis of various sciences as well as history which has knowledge about the disasters of the past. Factor that reduces the risk is constant monitoring, including both distant and contact methods. However, its possibility is limited. Firstly, due to the high cost of global, especially space monitoring. Secondly, due to the unpredictability of some processes. In December 2004, the countries of Southeast Asia hit by the tsunami. The death gotten 250 000 people. Animals in this cataclysm appeared to stay safety and advance left the danger zone. Animals are able to predict hazards having no materials predecessors. Participants nuclear tests show - a day before the explosion of the animals escape dangerous zone. This means that animals have the ability to predict the catastrophic events. The most important abiotic factor, the physical nature of which is still not clear is time. One of the scientists, who achieved some success in the study of time, was N.Kozyrev (1908-1983). He devoted his life to the study of the phenomenon of time and attempt to systematize the knowledge of him as a physical substance. Kozyrev in his theoretical calculations and experiments found the new field - the field of time (chrono-information). Through it can instantly and accurately transmit

  17. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  18. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas. PMID:19207538

  19. Preparing an orthopedic practice to survive a natural disaster: a retrospective analysis of rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Burger, Evalina; Canton, Carol

    2007-04-01

    In the aftermath of the biggest natural disaster to hit the United States, valuable lessons can be learned to prepare us for future disasters. Physicians and other care givers should become involved in every level of disaster management. Most emergency plans are focused on triaging patients; however, little attention is paid to the logistics in evacuating hospitals or maintaining operations without outside communications. The lack of coordination and the breakdown of traditional communication channels were the biggest hurdles to overcome on the road to recovery. PMID:17424692

  20. Acts of God - The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Ted

    2003-05-01

    With the exception of the 9/11 disaster, the top ten most costly catastrophes in U.S. history have all been natural disasters--five of them hurricanes--and all have occurred since 1989. Why this tremendous plague on our homes? In Acts of God , environmental historian Ted Steinberg explains that much of the death and destruction has been well within the realm of human control. Steinberg exposes the fallacy of seeing such calamities as simply random events. Beginning with the 1886 Charleston and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes, and continuing to the present, Steinberg explores the unnatural history of natural calamity, the decisions of business leaders and government officials that have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows--America's poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg argues, has helped to hide the fact that some Americans are better protected from the violence of nature than their counterparts lower down the socioeconomic ladder. Sure to provoke discussion, Acts of God is a call to action that must be heard. "A sobering lesson in humanity's vulnerability to extreme climatic events, especially the impoverished farmer and the urban poor."--The Los Angeles Times Book Review

  1. The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the management of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayi, A.; Erdogan, M.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-11-01

    An earthquake occurred at Van City on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 local time. The magnitude, moment magnitude and depth of earthquake were respectively MI:6.7, Mw:7.0 and 19.07 km. Van city centre and its surrounding villages were affected from this destructive earthquake. Many buildings were ruined and approximately 600 people died. Acquisition and use of geospatial data is very important and crucial for the management of such kind of natural disasters. In this paper, the role of national and international geospatial data in the management of Van earthquake is investigated.. With an international collaboration with Charter, pre and post-earthquake satellite images were acquired in 24 hours following the Earthquake. Also General Command of Mapping (GCM), the national mapping agency of Turkey, produced the high resolution multispectral orthophotos of the region. Charter presented the orthophotos through 26-28 October 2012. Just after the earthquake with a quick reaction, GCM made the flight planning of the 1296 km2 disaster area to acquire aerial photos. The aerial photos were acquired on 24 October 2012 (one day after the earthquake) by UltraCamX large format digital aerial camera. 152 images were taken with 30 cm ground sample distance (GSD) by %30 sidelap and %60 overlap. In the evening of same flight day, orthophotos were produced without ground control points by direct georeferencing and GCM supplied the orthophotos to the disaster management authorities. Also 45 cm GSD archive orthophotos, acquired in 2010, were used as a reference in order to find out the effects of the disaster. The subjects written here do not represent the ideas of Turkish Armed Forces.

  2. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  3. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment. [Mainly hurricane Hugo and Loma Prieta Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  4. The burden of natural and technological disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M

    2002-01-01

    The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns. PMID:17298162

  5. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  6. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  7. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure. PMID:26789078

  8. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin

    2015-12-15

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters. PMID:26327640

  9. Human-itarian aid? Two forms of dehumanization and willingness to help after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Luca; Baldissarri, Cristina; Lattanzio, Sara; Loughnan, Steve; Volpato, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The present research explores the distinct effects of animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization on willingness to help natural disaster victims. We examined Japanese and Haitians, two national groups recently struck by earthquakes. We showed that Italian participants differently dehumanized the two outgroups: Japanese were attributed low human nature (dehumanized as automata), whereas Haitians were attributed low human uniqueness (dehumanized as animal-like). Ninety participants were then randomly assigned to the Japanese or Haitian target group condition. Mediation analyses showed that animalistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Haitians, whereas mechanistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Japanese, even when controlling for attitudes. Importantly, reduced empathy explained the effects of both forms of dehumanization on intergroup helping. PMID:24588786

  10. Disaster-related injury and predictors of health complaints after exposure to a natural disaster: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    Leenen, Luke P H; de Vries, Jolanda; Mulder, Paul G H; Vermetten, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study short- and long-term effects of experiencing a disaster in repatriated injured survivors and the differential effect of injury, need for medical treatment, loss of loved ones and danger to life on both physical and mental health. Design Prospective online study. Setting Open online survey among Dutch survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami. Participants Of the estimated total of 464 Dutch survivors, the authors recruited 144 unique respondents (59 men and 85 women) with a total of 175 assessments made in various time periods. Main outcome measures Health outcomes were Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Impact of Event Scale (original version, in Dutch) and Beck Depression Inventory II. Correlations were calculated with socio-demographic as well as disaster-related factors: physical injury, medical care, loss of loved ones and duration of threat to life. Assessments were clustered in four post-disaster time periods (0–3, 4–6, 7–30 and 31–48 months). Results Across these periods, SCL-90 scores were significantly higher than the reference population (p<0.001), with a significant linear downward trend between the groups over time (p=0.001). The same pattern occurred for the Impact of Event Scale (p<0.001) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (p=0.002). Physical injury, medical care or loss of loved ones was not associated with higher total SCL-90 scores or somatic subscores. Both duration of threat to life and female sex were correlated with all measured outcome parameters. Conclusions Exposure to the 2004 Asian tsunami had significant short- and long-term impacts on health complaints in a group of repatriated Dutch tsunami victims. Cross-sectionally, there was a trend towards recovery over 4 years, although 22% still reported high psychological and physical distress 4 years post-disaster. Duration of danger to life and female sex were associated with more physical and mental health complaints. In this study, neither disaster-related injury

  11. Paper 8775 - Integrating Natural Resources and Ecological Science into the Disaster Risk CYCLE: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.

  12. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Raju, Mahesh; Ansell, David; Bleck, Thomas P

    2011-03-01

    Tetanus is an expected complication when disasters strike in developing countries, where tetanus immunization coverage is often low or nonexistent. Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal disease. Clusters of infections have recently occurred after tsunamis and earthquakes in Indonesia, Kashmir, and Haiti. The emergency response to clusters of tetanus infections in developing countries after a natural disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach in the absence of an intensive care unit, readily available resources, and a functioning cold-chain system. It is essential that injured people receive immediate surgical and medical care of contaminated, open wounds with immunization and immunoglobulin therapy. Successful treatment of tetanus depends on prompt diagnosis of clinical tetanus, treatment to ensure neutralization of circulating toxin and elimination of C. tetani infection, control of spasms and convulsions, maintenance of the airway, and management of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction. PMID:21357910

  13. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  14. A Writing Intensive Course in "Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2011-12-01

    One course with a contemporary ethics focus is a graduation requirement under the University of Hawaii at Manoa's General Education rules. The goal of the University of Hawaii General Education Committee is to encourage faculty to design ethics-focus courses for each field of undergraduate concentration. Undergraduate students are also required to take 5 writing intensive courses. It is permitted to combine the ethics and writing intensive foci in a given course, as long as one third of the course is devoted to each focus. The course I designed uses current disasters as the subject matter, thus course content varies from year to year. The prerequisite for enrollment is one introductory course in geoscience, to ensure students are familiar with basic geologic processes. I bring in geo-professionals, active in the fields we study, to discuss with students the realities of dealing with civil authorities, elected officials, the media, and the public during a natural disaster. This is one of the aspects of the course the students most enjoy. Such a course could be designed for any locality. Learning outcomes by which the students' work is assessed are as follows. The best student: (1) clearly identifies the inherent ethical choices and implications involved in the professional geoscientist's role during contemporary natural hazard situations; (2) gives evidence of understanding the effects of perspective, context, personal views as pertains to natural hazards; (3) specifies the decision-makers and stakeholders involved in hazard situations; (4) integrates clear descriptions of relevant ethical ambiguities/dilemmas into the overall analysis of a given hazard situation; (5) draws upon frameworks, principles of ethics to develop pertinent arguments and/or positions; (6) develops and presents alternate arguments/positions; (7) discusses and/or debates ethical issues with sensitivity to others' perspectives and the context, while also defending own position with logic and

  15. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  16. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy. PMID:24905816

  17. Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R

    2009-04-01

    Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory. PMID:19298262

  18. A relationship between solar activity and frequency of natural disasters in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongrui; Song, Feng; Tang, Maocang

    2003-11-01

    The relationship between the length of the solar cycle, a good indicator of long-term change in solar activity, and natural disasters (drought, flood, and strong earthquakes) in China during the last 108 years is analyzed. The results suggest that the length of solar cycle may be a useful indicator for drought/flood and strong earthquakes. When the solar activity strengthens, we see the length of the solar cycle shorten and more floods occur in South China and frequent strong earthquakes happen in the Tibetan Plateau, but the droughts in East China as well as the strong earthquakes in Taiwan and at the western boundary of China are very few. The opposite frequencies occur when the solar activity weakens. The current study indicates that the solar activity may play an important role in the climate extremes and behavior in the lithosphere.

  19. Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stages—the Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)—that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

  20. Practitioners' Experiences Creating and Implementing an Emotional Recovery and Physical Activity Program Following a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    On April 27, 2011 a series of tornadoes tore through the southeast United States. Sixty-four percent of the counties in the state of Alabama were directly affected by these storms. After a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected show numerous intense emotional reactions. Recovery programs can be set up to enable them to…

  1. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  2. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The Psychological State of Elementary School Children as Assessed by Their Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.; Seyle, D. Conor; Mayawati, E. Haksi; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters. As a result, Indonesian residents are likely to be exposed repeatedly to significant traumatic events. Researchers and clinicians working in such areas face the challenge of assessing large groups of people exposed to trauma and…

  3. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  4. Passive decay heat removal by natural air convection after severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, F.J.; Neitzel, H.J.; Cheng, X.

    1995-09-01

    The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with severe accidents. It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection and thermal radiation in a passive way. To investigate the coolability of such a passive cooling system and the physical phenomena involved, experimental investigations are carried out at the PASCO test facility. Additionally, numerical calculations are performed by using different codes. A satisfying agreement between experimental data and numerical results is obtained.

  5. Incorporating Real-time Earthquake Information into Large Enrollment Natural Disaster Course Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Villasenor, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although most would agree that the occurrence of natural disaster events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods can provide effective learning opportunities for natural hazards-based courses, implementing compelling materials into the large-enrollment classroom environment can be difficult. These natural hazard events derive much of their learning potential from their real-time nature, and in the modern 24/7 news-cycle where all but the most devastating events are quickly out of the public eye, the shelf life for an event is quite limited. To maximize the learning potential of these events requires that both authoritative information be available and course materials be generated as the event unfolds. Although many events such as hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic eruptions provide some precursory warnings, and thus one can prepare background materials to place the main event into context, earthquakes present a particularly confounding situation of providing no warning, but where context is critical to student learning. Attempting to implement real-time materials into large enrollment classes faces the additional hindrance of limited internet access (for students) in most lecture classrooms. In Earth 101 Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs Reality, taught as a large enrollment (150+ students) general education course at Penn State, we are collaborating with the USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) to develop efficient means to incorporate their real-time products into learning activities in the lecture hall environment. Over time (and numerous events) we have developed a template for presenting USGS-produced real-time information in lecture mode. The event-specific materials can be quickly incorporated and updated, along with key contextual materials, to provide students with up-to-the-minute current information. In addition, we have also developed in-class activities, such as student determination of population exposure to severe ground

  6. Reality of Risk of Natural Disasters in Georgia and a Management Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gobejishvili, Ramin; King, Lorenz; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century, the protection of the population from natural disasters, the preservation of land resources and the safe operation of a complex infrastructure and costly engineering facilities have become the primary socio-economic, demographic, political and environmental problems worldwide. This problem has become more acute in recent years when the natural cataclysms in terms of a population increase, progressive urbanization and use of vulnerable technologies have acquired even larger scales. This holds true especially for mountainous countries as Georgia, too. Natural-catastrophic processes as landslides, mudflows, rockfalls and erosion, and their frequent reoccurrence with harmful impacts to population, agricultural lands and engineering objects form a demanding challenge for the responsible authorities. Thousands of settlements, roads, oil and gas pipelines, high-voltage power transmission lines and other infrastructure may be severely damaged. Respective studies prove that the origin and activation of landslide-gravitational and mudflow processes increase year by year, and this holds true for almost all landscapes and geomorphological zones of Georgia. Catastrophic events may be triggered by (1) intense earthquakes, (2) extreme hydro-meteorological events, probably on the background of global climatic changes (3) large-scale human impacts on the environment. Societies with a low level of preparedness concerning these hazards are especially hit hard. In view of this urgent task, many departmental and research institutions have increased their efforts within the limits of their competence. First of all, it is the activity of the Geological Survey of Georgia (at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment Protection of Georgia) which mapped, identified and catalogued the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and occurrences of hazardous processes

  7. Natural Circulation Level Optimization and the Effect during ULOF Accident in the SPINNOR Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Kurniasih, Neny; Yulianti, Yanti

    2010-12-23

    Natural circulation level optimization and the effect during loss of flow accident in the 250 MWt MOX fuelled small Pb-Bi Cooled non-refueling nuclear reactors (SPINNOR) have been performed. The simulation was performed using FI-ITB safety code which has been developed in ITB. The simulation begins with steady state calculation of neutron flux, power distribution and temperature distribution across the core, hot pool and cool pool, and also steam generator. When the accident is started due to the loss of pumping power the power distribution and the temperature distribution of core, hot pool and cool pool, and steam generator change. Then the feedback reactivity calculation is conducted, followed by kinetic calculation. The process is repeated until the optimum power distribution is achieved. The results show that the SPINNOR reactor has inherent safety capability against this accident.

  8. Natural Circulation Level Optimization and the Effect during ULOF Accident in the SPINNOR Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Kurniasih, Neny; Yulianti, Yanti

    2010-12-01

    Natural circulation level optimization and the effect during loss of flow accident in the 250 MWt MOX fuelled small Pb-Bi Cooled non-refueling nuclear reactors (SPINNOR) have been performed. The simulation was performed using FI-ITB safety code which has been developed in ITB. The simulation begins with steady state calculation of neutron flux, power distribution and temperature distribution across the core, hot pool and cool pool, and also steam generator. When the accident is started due to the loss of pumping power the power distribution and the temperature distribution of core, hot pool and cool pool, and steam generator change. Then the feedback reactivity calculation is conducted, followed by kinetic calculation. The process is repeated until the optimum power distribution is achieved. The results show that the SPINNOR reactor has inherent safety capability against this accident.

  9. Geological and environmental factors involved in natural gas accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Sheldone E.

    1981-07-01

    Variability in soil mineralogy, texture, and pavement cover are involved in events leading to undetected gas leaks and subsequent explosions in Bowie, Md. and Washington, D.C. These geologic parameters are involved in selectively removing the gas odorant additive t-butyl merceptan as the gas came into contact with the soil near the pipeline breaks. This removal resulted in an accumulation of combustable natural gas without detectable odor. Soil samples from drill holes and near surface sites were utilized to map soil type, texture, and mineralogy. Residual methane content of the samples was also measured. The data from two dissimilar sites indicates that finegrained soil enriched in montmorillonite preferentially removes the odorant.

  10. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  11. Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Interventions for Children Survivors of Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers’ level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research. PMID:25085234

  12. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents after a natural disaster: a study of comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Information on mental health sequel in adolescents following natural disasters from developing countries is scant. Method Around one year after a super-cyclone, proportion of adolescents exhibiting post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms, prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, comorbidity and impairment of performance in school were studied in Orissa, India. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents was used for evaluation and diagnosis. The criteria for diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – IV. Results Post-disaster psychiatric presentation in adolescents was a conglomeration of PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms. The prevalences of PTSD, major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder were 26.9%, 17.6% and 12.0% respectively. Proportion of adolescents with any diagnosis was 37.9%. Comorbidity was found in 39.0% of adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. Adolescents from middle socioeconomic status were more affected. There were gender differences in the presentation of the symptoms rather than on the prevalence of diagnoses. Prolonged periods of helplessness and lack of adequate post-disaster psychological support were perceived as probable influencing factors, as well as the severity of the disaster. Conclusion The findings of the study highlight the continuing need for identification and intervention for post-disaster psychiatric morbidities in adolescent victims in developing countries. PMID:16869979

  14. a Brazilian Vulnerability Index to Natural Disasters of Drought - in the Context of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Debortoli, N. S.; Hirota, M.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts are characterized as one of the main types of natural disasters that occur in Brazil. During the 1991-2012, droughts affected more than 14 million Brazilians, so that the concern for the following decades is about the potential impacts triggered by climate change. To analyze the vulnerability of the Brazilian municipalities to drought disasters, we have assessed the effects of climate change to droughts until the end of 21th century. A composite index was created based on three different dimensions: i) Exposure, represented by climate anomalies related to the drought process, such as changes in accumulated rainfall averages, interannual variability of rainfall, and the frequency and magnitude of severe droughts (measured by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index); ii) Sensitivity, encompassing socioeconomic, demographic, land use and water management data; iii) Adaptive Capacity, consisting of socioeconomic and institutional data from Brazilian municipalities, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), social inequality (Gini index) and illiteracy rate. The climate variables used in this study are results from simulations of the Regional Climate Model Eta (with a downscaling of 20km spatial resolution) nested with two global climate models (HadGEM ES and MIROC 5) and was provided by National Institute for Space Research. The baseline period was 1961-1990 and future periods was 2011-2040; 2041-2070 and 2071-2099. For the simulations of future climate it was used the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. All variables used in this study was handled, exploited and related in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The methodology allowed the identification of vulnerability hotspots, the targeting of adaptation strategies and the development of public policy to minimize the potential impacts of future droughts. The final results (see attached image) indicate that the most vulnerable regions are located in

  15. INVESTIGATION ON USE OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY TO COUNTERMEASURES OF NATURAL DISASTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazuo

    The construction industry makes effective social contributions during disaster recovery efforts. The present study investigated the possibility of the construction industry also contributing to disaster prevention efforts and the formulation of emergency policy. The administrative divisions of the construction industry society were surveyed regarding the possibility of the industry contributing to disaster prevention measures, emergency response efforts, and emergency policy. A questionnaire given to municipal disaster prevention sections in Kyushu and the Yamaguchi Prefecture showed that the construction industry could contribute to these efforts.

  16. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    different times of the day and night. This is important for two reasons: 1) certain surface processes (i.e., development of coastal fog banks) occur at times other than local solar noon, making it difficult to collect relevant data from traditional satellite platforms, and 2) it provides opportunities for the ISS to collect data for short-duration events, such as natural disasters, that polar-orbiting satellites may miss due to their orbital dynamics - in essence, the ISS can be "in the right place at the right time" to collect data. An immediate application of ISS remote sensing data collection is that the data can be used to provide information for humanitarian aid after a natural disaster. This activity contributes directly to the station's Benefits to Humanity mission. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the International Disaster Charter, or IDC) is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data related to natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. In the United States, the lead agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request, or activation, is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, Earth scientists in the JSC ARES Directorate, in association with the ISS Program Science Office, coordinate targeting and data collection with the USGS. If data is collected, it is passed back to the USGS for posting on its Hazards Data Distribution System and made available for download. The ISS was added to the USGS's list of NASA remote sensing assets that could respond to IDC activations in May 2012. Initially, the NASA ISS sensor systems available to respond to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), an internal multispectral visible-near infrared wavelength system mounted in the WORF

  17. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  18. An assessment of disaster risk and its management in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Shook, G

    1997-03-01

    Historically, Thailand has been a disaster-free country, suffering only minor losses from natural hazards through the years. Emerging as a newly industrialised nation, the kingdom now faces an increased risk of economic and public damage from manmade disasters associated with rapid development. A risk assessment was carried out on the level of disaster management. That assessment was preceded by an analysis of the traditional definitions of disaster risk, resulting in a redefinition to fit the needs of this study. This holds that the risk of disaster is the product of hazards, vulnerability and the level of management exercised over both the hazard and the vulnerable elements. The results of the risk assessment, conducted through analysis of those three components, are discussed along with impediments which may hinder good disaster or accident management. Floods, in both natural and man-made manifestations, were identified as the highest risk factor, followed by major accidents and explosions, both man-made hazards. Major recommendations arising from the study included the consolidation of disaster management responsibilities currently held by several agencies into a central co-ordinating committee, the review and restructure of related law and regulations, the conduct of provincial and country-wide hazard assessments and the creation of a 'culture of safety' in Thailand. PMID:9086635

  19. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Pesigan, Arturo; Law, Ronald; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB) created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED), a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases. PMID:27193265

  20. Using natural disasters to study the effects of prenatal maternal stress on child health and development.

    PubMed

    King, Suzanne; Dancause, Kelsey; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Veru, Franz; Laplante, David P

    2012-12-01

    Research on the developmental origins of health and disease highlights the plasticity of the human fetus to a host of potential teratogens. Experimental research on laboratory animals has demonstrated a variety of physical and behavioral effects among offspring exposed to prenatal maternal stress (PNMS). However, these studies cannot elucidate the relative effects of the objective stress exposure and the subjective distress in a way that would parallel the stress experience in humans. PNMS research with humans is also limited because there are ethical challenges to designing studies that involve the random assignment of pregnant women to varying levels of independent stressors. Natural disasters present opportunities for natural experiments of the effects of pregnant women's exposure to stress on child development. In this review, we present an overview of the human and animal research on PNMS, and highlight the results of Project Ice Storm which has been following the cognitive, behavioral, motor and physical development of children exposed in utero to the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. We have found that both objective degree of exposure to the storm and the mothers' subjective distress have strong and persistent effects on child development, and that these effects are often moderated by the timing of the ice storm in pregnancy and by the child's sex. PMID:24203917

  1. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters. PMID:27440698

  2. Natural disaster and depression: a prospective investigation of reactions to the 1993 midwest floods.

    PubMed

    Ginexi, E M; Weihs, K; Simmens, S J; Hoyt, D R

    2000-08-01

    A statewide sample of 1735 Iowa residents, approximately half of whom were victims of the 1993 Midwest Floods, participated in interviews 1 year prior to, and 30 to 90 days after, the disaster. Employing a rigorous methodology including both control-group comparisons and predisaster assessments, we performed a systematic evaluation of the disaster's impact. Overall, the disaster led to true but small rises in depressive symptoms and diagnoses 60-90 days postflood. The disaster-psychopathology effect was not moderated by predisaster depressive symptoms or diagnostically defined depression; rather, predisaster symptoms and diagnoses uniquely contributed to increases in postdisaster distress. However, increases in symptoms as a function of flood impact were slightly greater among respondents with the lowest incomes and among residents living in small rural communities, as opposed to on farms or in cities. Implications for individual- and community-level disaster response are discussed. PMID:10965388

  3. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  4. Natural and man-made disasters: the vulnerability of women-headed households and children without families.

    PubMed

    Sapir, D G

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation. PMID:8017082

  5. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  6. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters.

    PubMed

    Frey, Bruno S; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2010-03-16

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions. PMID:20194743

  7. The Christchurch earthquake--providing a rheumatology service during a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Lisa K; Ipenburg, Jan; Hurst, Miriam; O'Donnell, John L; Raja, Rafi; Drake, Jill; Chapman, Peter T

    2012-04-01

    To report on the effects of the Canterbury earthquake on rheumatology service provision and identify factors that allowed continuation of patient care. Data was collected on the number of appointments during the period after the earthquake and the effects of the earthquake on service provision. The rheumatology service faced unique challenges in continuing to provide a service and ensure ongoing care for our patients in the community after the earthquake. All outpatient services were cancelled for 2 weeks, resulting in the cancellation of 23 new patient and 145 follow-up patient appointments. Telephone consultation was attempted for all these patients. A total of 113 patients could be contacted, and 15 required acute review. Challenges included difficult access to the hospital, lack of laboratories for blood testing, limited access to clinical records, loss of power, sewerage and waste water and a contaminated drinking water supply. The impact of these on patients with rheumatic diseases was wide ranging. Despite a natural disaster and challenging logistics, the Rheumatology Department was able to provide a service with the use of remote telephone consultations and an electronic patient record backed up by an effective patient and primary practitioner education base and resource access. PMID:22200815

  8. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  9. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures. PMID:18268873

  10. An approach for detecting changes related to natural disasters using Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, N.; Closson, D.; Holecz, F.; Collivignarelli, F.; Pasquali, P.

    2015-04-01

    Land-cover changes occur naturally in a progressive and gradual way, but they may happen rapidly and abruptly sometimes. Very high resolution remote sensed data acquired at different time intervals can help in analyzing the rate of changes and the causal factors. In this paper, we present an approach for detecting changes related to disasters such as an earthquake and for mapping of the impact zones. The approach is based on the pieces of information coming from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and on their combination. The case study is the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The identification of damaged or destroyed buildings using SAR data is a challenging task. The approach proposed here consists in finding amplitude changes as well as coherence changes before and after the earthquake and then combining these changes in order to obtain richer and more robust information on the origin of various types of changes possibly induced by an earthquake. This approach does not need any specific knowledge source about the terrain, but if such sources are present, they can be easily integrated in the method as more specific descriptions of the possible classes. A special task in our approach is to develop a scheme that translates the obtained combinations of changes into ground information. Several algorithms are developed and validated using optical remote sensing images of the city two days after the earthquake, as well as our own ground-truth data. The obtained validation results show that the proposed approach is promising.

  11. Trauma or growth after a natural disaster? The mediating role of rumination processes

    PubMed Central

    García, Felipe E.; Cova, Félix; Rincón, Paulina; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a cognitive model of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) after exposure to a natural disaster. It was hypothesized that although subjective severity of trauma would be related to the severity of PTS, this relation would be mediated by brooding and cognitive strategies related to the presence of repetitive negative content in thoughts. Furthermore, the relation between severity and PTG would be fully mediated by deliberate rumination (DR), cognitive strategies related to conscious efforts focused on handling the event. To evaluate the cognitive model, adults (N=351) who lost their homes as a result of the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Chile on February 27, 2010, were selected. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The resulting model had adequate indices of goodness adjustment and showed that brooding completely mediated the relation between subjective severity and PTS, and DR completely mediated the relation between subjective severity, brooding, and PTG. These results highlight the role of both the content and process of rumination in mediating the association between subjective severity of trauma, PTS, and PTG. The implications of these results for a more comprehensive model of symptom severity that occurs after trauma are discussed. PMID:26234365

  12. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  13. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  14. Observational case series: an algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography in the medicolegal investigation of human remains after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Berran, Philip J; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Marzouk, Abubakr; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital radiographs, and external examination was used to triage cases for noninvasive or complete autopsy after a natural disaster. The algorithm was applied to 27 individuals who died during or soon after the earthquake that struck the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010. Of the 27 cases reviewed, 7 (26%) required a complete autopsy to determine cause and manner of death. In the remaining 20 (74%), cause and manner of death were determined with a reasonable degree of medical certainty after review of circumstances, an external examination, and postmortem imaging by MDCT and digital radiography (noninvasive autopsy). MDCT was particularly useful in detecting skeletal fractures caused by blunt force injury which were not evident on digital radiographs. The algorithm incorporating postmortem MDCT can be useful in the triage of human remains for autopsy after a natural disaster. PMID:24684535

  15. Geodynamic models of the deep structure of the natural disaster regions of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodnikov, A. G.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of the deep structure and creation of geodynamic models of natural disaster regions are important for understanding of the nature of such phenomena as earthquakes, eruptions of volcanoes, tsunami and others. Carrying out of such researches is necessary for definition of areas of potential risk, forecasting and the prevention of negative consequences of acts of nature. Research region is active continental margins of the Sea of Okhotsk, and especially the area of Neftegorsk earthquake which has occurred on May, 28th 1995 in the North Sakhalin and caused many victims and destructions. The geodynamic model of the lithosphere in the region of Neftegorsk earthquake has been constructed along the profile crossing the North Sakhalin Basin, Deryugin Basin and ophiolite complex between them. The Deryugin Basin was formed at the site of an ancient deep trench after the subduction of the Okhotsk Sea Plate under Sakhalin. The basin is located above a hot plume in the mantle at a depth of 25 km. The ophiolite belt of ultramafic magmatic rocks is an ancient (K2-Pg) paleosubduction zone separating the Deryugin basin from the North Sakhalin Basin. The thickness of the ancient seismic focal zone is 80 km. It is probably that the structures of the North Sakhalin have been formed in the following way. In the Late Cretaceous the oceanic Okhotsk Sea Plate subducted under Sakhalin, the eastern part of which was an andesite island arc. Approximately in Miocene the subduction of the plate apparently ceased. In that time the Tatar Rift Strait was formed. Ophiolite rocks of the subduction zones as a result of compression have been squeezed out on a surface. The ophiolite complex combined by the ultrabasic rocks, fixes position of ancient subduction zone. It is probable that the manifestation of the Neftegorsk earthquake was a result of activization of this ancient subduction zone. On a surface the subduction zone manifests itself as deep faults running along Sakhalin. The

  16. Planning for Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

  17. Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brandon G; Lapré, Genevieve E; Marsee, Monica A; Weems, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Despite an abundance of evidence linking maltreatment and violence-related trauma exposure to externalizing problems in youth, there is surprisingly little evidence to support a direct link between disaster exposure and youth aggressive behavior. This study tested the theory that there is primarily an indirect association between disaster exposure and aggression via posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study also examined the association between aggression and academic achievement. A sample of 191 4th- to 8th-grade minority youth who experienced Hurricane Katrina were assessed for aggressive behavior using the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS), disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and academic achievement. Structural equation modeling of the set of associations was consistent with the theory suggesting that there is an indirect link between disaster exposure and aggression through PTSD symptoms. Aggression was negatively associated with academic achievement, and modeling indicated that the set of associations was age and gender invariant. Findings advance the theoretical understanding of the linkage between aggression and disaster exposure. Findings also support the utility of the PCS in disaster research and the link between PCS scores and academic achievement. PMID:23795776

  18. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  19. What ails the Bhopal disaster investigations? (And is there a cure?).

    PubMed

    Dhara, V Ramana

    2002-01-01

    A review of the health effects of the 1984 disaster in Bhopal, India, shows continuing morbidity of a multi-systemic nature in the exposed population. Scientific questions about epidemiologic issues are discussed with a view to understanding appropriate methods of investigation into the disaster. Other major chemical incidents were reviewed to note some of the common problems associated with public health investigations of disasters, which have included the lack of accident-related and toxicologic information, expertise, and funds. The complexity of the Bhopal crisis was underscored by the severe mortality and morbidity it entailed as well as its occurrence in a developing nation that had little experience in dealing with chemical disasters. Lessons learned from the disaster are discussed, with recommendations for disaster preparedness, long-term monitoring, rehabilitation, and treatment of the gas victims. PMID:12412856

  20. A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  1. Two hot to handle: How do we manage the simultaneous impacts of climate change and natural disasters on human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phalkey, R. K.; Louis, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges we face today. There is recognition alongside evidence that the health impacts of both climate change and natural disasters are significant and rising. The impacts of both are also complex and span well beyond health to include environmental, social, demographic, cultural, and economic aspects of human lives. Nonetheless integrated impact assessments are rare and so are system level approaches or systematic preparedness and adaptation strategies to brace the two simultaneously particularly in low and middle-income countries. Ironically the impacts of both climate change as well as natural disasters will be disproportionately borne by low emitters. Sufficiently large and long-term data from comprehensive weather, socio-economic, demographic and health observational systems are currently unavailable to guide adaptation strategies with the necessary precision. In the absence of these and given the uncertainties around the health impact projections alongside the geographic disparities even within the countries, the main question is how can countries then prepare to brace the unknown? We certainly cannot wait to obtain answers to all the questions before we plan solutions. Strengthening health systems is therefore a pragmatic "zero regrets" strategy and should be adopted hastily before the parallel impacts from climate change and associated extreme weather events (disasters thereof) become too hot to handle.

  2. A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership

    PubMed Central

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  3. The Communication of Information Such as Evacuation Orders at the Time of a Nuclear Power Station Accident: -Recommendations for responses by the national government and electric power utilities to the "Information Disaster".

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Yoshida, Sumito; Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-12-01

    This research was carried out from the perspective that the damage to the people of Fukushima and others from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident was an "information disaster." It evaluated the critical problems raised by and actual condition analysis on the process of events in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS disaster and responses of the governments and others, notification of the occurrence of the accident and evacuation order by the national and local governments and the evacuation of residents, and guidance for distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. The research aimed to provide a basis for the implementation of effective distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets and responses to the "information disaster" in the nuclear power disaster. On March 15 at the time that the most radioactive substances were dispersed, even when the average wind speed at the site area was 1.6 m/s, the radioactive substances had reached the outer boundary of Urgent Protective action planning Zone (UPZ, the region with a radius of 30 km) within about five hours. Because of this, every second counted in the provision of information about the accident and the issuance of evacuation orders. This study evaluated the actual condition of information provision by the national government and others from the perspective of this awareness of the importance of time. On the basis of the results of this kind of consideration, we come to the following recommendations: The Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines and the system for communication of information to medical providers should be revised. The national government should make preparations for the effective advance distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. PMID:26557446

  4. Development of an Android App for notification and reporting of natural disaster such as earthquakes and tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Steffen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Disasters like the Tohoku tsunami in March 2011 and the earthquake in Haiti in January 2010, have shown clearly that the rapid detection of possible negative impact on population and infrastructure is crucial for the rapid organization of effective counter measures integration activities. It has turned out that effective planning of relief and rescue measures requires both information provided by governmental authorities and feedback of the general public. Every citizen experiencing the events directly on site becomes a potential witness and can provide valuable information about the disaster. Citizens can use various information channels to communicate and share their experiences. During the last years, the crowdsourcing approach has gained the attention of users of modern communication and information systems. The term crowdsourcing describes the interactive collaboration of voluntary users on the Internet, working on a common topic. A similar approach is mobile crowdsourcing which evolved in the quickly growing community of smartphone users: Crowdsourcing platforms provide additional application scenarios for modern smartphone. Smartphone users are enabled to compose and share reports immediately at the scene of the disaster. A growing number of modern smartphones also includes sensors for taking pictures and to determine the current geographical position. This additional content can significantly enhance the value of a disaster event report. The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the management of crisis situations. Part of the project is the development of an application for the Android smartphone platform. This application enables access to an continuously updated situation report for current natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis based on incoming crowdsourced reports. The App is used to immediately sent

  5. Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's χ association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles. PMID:20679898

  6. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

  7. Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Related Treatments for Victims of Natural Disasters: A Worldwide Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

  8. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon–thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m−3, respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  9. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  10. Towards a redefinition of security in Central America: the case of natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Pettiford, L

    1995-06-01

    Over the past 25 years Central America has suffered a number of major disasters: the Managua Earthquake (1972), Hurricane Fifi (1974), the Guatemalan Earthquake (1976), the San Salvador Earthquake (1986) and Hurricane Joan (1988). These events are briefly described, with special reference to their political aspects and implications. Recognition of the political importance of disasters in Central America leads to a questioning of the traditional notion that security is essentially a matter of defending the state from outside aggression. It is suggested that the analysis of disasters should be part of the debate that is currently underway in international relations about redefining the concept of security in the post-Cold War world. PMID:7600057

  11. The effects of a natural disaster on child behavior: evidence for posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, M S; Khan, N; Davidson, L L; Zaman, S S; Stein, Z A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A prospective study of children examined both before and after a flood disaster in Bangladesh is used to test the hypothesis that stressful events play a causal role in the development of behavioral disorders in children. METHODS. Six months before the disaster, structured measures of selected behavioral problems were made during an epidemiological study of disability among 2- to 9-year-old children. Five months after the disaster, a representative sample of 162 surviving children was reevaluated. RESULTS. Between the pre- and postflood assessments, the prevalence of aggressive behavior increased from zero to nearly 10%, and 45 of the 134 children who had bladder control before the flood (34%) developed enuresis. CONCLUSIONS. These results help define what may be considered symptoms of posttraumatic distress in childhood; they also contribute to mounting evidence of the need to develop and evaluate interventions aimed at ameliorating the behavioral and psychological consequences of children's exposure to extreme and traumatic situations. PMID:8238676

  12. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  13. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  14. Climate change and natural disasters – integrating science and practice to protect health

    PubMed Central

    Sauerborn, Rainer; Ebi, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. Methods Review of IPCC-projections of climate-change related extreme weather events and related literature on health effects. Results Projections show that climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of a range of extreme weather events over coming decades. Conclusions There is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect human. PMID:23273248

  15. The criteria of natural disasters, caused by hydro-meteorological natural phenomena in winter period in different urban regions of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, S.

    2012-04-01

    Russia is one of the most spread countries in the world and it has the big number of different types of natural phenomena, which can cause natural disaster. Unfortunately, nowadays the number of victims of natural hazards and their influence on technological systems doesn't decrease. There are many reasons of that situation - both geographical and human. One of the reasons is the fact that the criteria of which meteorological or hydrological conditions can cause an emergency situation are equal for the whole territory of Russia. And that's why many dangerous situations are underestimated. The analysis of the distribution of criteria in Russia shows that only temperature phenomena (such as frost or heat) have really space differentiation. The criteria of different natural disasters and hazards should depend on many factors - both social-economical and hydro-meteorological. Social-economical factors depend on human occupancy of territory, on the method of usage the land etc. So, it is clear, that in very populated areas (as big cities) the criteria should be different than in other areas. Hydro-meteorological factors deal with climatic and landscape conditions of the territories. The geographical zoning of Russia was conduct and clusters with equal parameters were determined. That means that in these areas the same hydro meteorological characteristics can be used for. The new criteria for the number of natural phenomena (such as hale, snowfalls etc) were found. The updated criteria was determined both by analyzing the factual reports on emergency situation, caused by natural phenomena in each cluster and the characteristics from meteorological stations. Updating criteria of natural disasters, taking into account different characteristics of the analyzing area can be wildly used in Russian ministry of emergency situation and Gydrometeorological services for predicting emergency situation for safety and sustainable development in different regions.* *The work was

  16. Identity Distress among Youth Exposed to Natural Disasters: Associations with Level of Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brandon G.; Sanders, Ashley F. P.; Graham, Rebecca A.; Banks, Donice M.; Russell, Justin D.; Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    Identity distress involves intense or prolonged upset or worry about personal identity issues including long-term goals, career choice, friendships, sexual orientation and behavior, religion, values and beliefs, and group loyalties. Research suggests that trauma exposure and subsequent PTSD symptoms may negatively impact identity development and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about their specific associations with identity distress and internalizing problems among disaster-exposed adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine these relationships in a sample of 325 adolescents (60% female; 89% African American) who experienced a major natural disaster and its aftermath. The results indicated that identity distress was positively associated with age, hurricane exposure, PTSD symptoms, and internalizing problems. Linear regression analyses also showed that identity distress was uniquely associated with internalizing symptoms and that there was an indirect effect of hurricane exposure on identity distress via PTSD symptoms. Finally, PTSD symptoms moderated the link between identity distress and internalizing symptoms, with a significant positive slope found for youth with more PTSD symptoms. Findings were generally consistent with previous work and predictions, and add to the extant knowledge about identity distress by providing data on the linkages between disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress and internalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:25505851

  17. The Effects of a Natural Disaster on Academic Abilities and Social Behavior of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sander; Little, Brenda

    1986-01-01

    Measures such as achievement test scores, school absences, grades, and citizenship were used to examine effects of a 1979 tornado disaster on fourth and fifth graders over a four-year period. Overall results indicated no significant differences between victims, observers of the tornado, and new residents. Related research and implications are…

  18. Monitoring and evaluating recovery from natural disasters using remote sensing - towards creating guidelines on the use of satellite images in the context of disaster recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Brown, D.; Spence, R.; Chenvidyakarn, T.; Adams, B.; Bevington, J.; Platt, S.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Juntarashote, K.; Khan, A.

    2009-04-01

    The use of high-resolution optical satellite images is being investigated for evaluating and monitoring recovery after natural disasters. Funded by EPSRC, UK, the aim of the RECOVERY project is to develop indicators of recovery that can exploit the wealth of data now available, including those from satellite imagery, internet-based statistics and advanced field survey techniques. The final output will be a set of guidelines that suggests how remote sensing can be used to help monitor and evaluate the recovery process after natural disasters. The final guideline that will be produced at the end of the two year project, which started in February 2008, will be freely available to aid agencies and anyone that is interested. Currently there is no agreed standard approach for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery aid, although international frameworks such as PDNA (Post-Disaster Needs Assessment, United Nations Development Program, European Commission and World Bank) is currently being developed, and TRIAMS (Tsunami Recovery and Impact Assessment and Monitoring System, by UNDP and WHO) is being implemented to monitor the recovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. The RECOVERY project consists of three phases. Phase 1 was completed by September 2008 and focused on user needs survey, developing the recovery indicators and satellite image data identification/acquisition. The user needs survey was conducted to identify whether there were any indicators that the aid community would like to see prioritised. The survey result suggested that most indicators are equally important. Based on this result and also referring to the TRIAMS framework, a comprehensive list of indicators were developed which belong to six large categories, i.e. housing, infrastructure, services, livelihood, environment, social/security, risk reduction. For the RECOVERY project, two case study sites have been identified, i.e. the village of Baan Nam Khem on the west coast of Thailand, which was heavily

  19. The causes and circumstances of drinking water incidents impact consumer behaviour: Comparison of a routine versus a natural disaster incident.

    PubMed

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two "Boil Water" notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine "Boil Water" notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a "Boil Water" notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. PMID:25411725

  20. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    PubMed Central

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. PMID:25411725

  1. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  2. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  3. Collaborative Science: Human Sensor Networks for Real-time Natural Disaster Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Aulov, O.; Martineau, J.; Brown, S.; Conte, T.; CenterHybrid Multicore Productivity Research

    2010-12-01

    processing systems used to extract the physical quantifiable data from the “human sensor network” such as natural language tools, the semantic web, image analysis techniques which can be employed to form a collaborative framework for other real time situation analysis undergoing similar natural or human caused disasters. We believe this innovative approach of extracting geophysical data from the social media sources is unprecedented in bridging geosciences with social sciences. In the near future, we plan on expanding the collaboration with researchers from University of Minnesota (U/MN) and Florida International University(FIU). Currently U/MN is working on a project of deploying aquabots (aquatic robots) in the Gulf in order to sample water properties at different depths as well as on the surface and FIU has developed a real time Terrafly processing system incorporating high resolution commercial and gov’t satellites and aircraft data.

  4. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  5. The endocrinologist's office-puberty suppression: saving children from a natural disaster?

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    In the past few years, the introduction and rapid acceptance of puberty suppression has transformed the clinical treatment of children diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder. This essay analyzes the narratives used by some advocates of this treatment, particularly the elements of saving children from the looming disaster of puberty and from future abject lives of violence and suicide as transgender adults. It briefly addresses the potential implications of this account for the well being of the children brought under clinical purview. PMID:23494333

  6. Assessing Natural Disaster Impacts and Recovery Using Multifrequency, Fully-Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Optical Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissel, J. K.; Czuchlewski, K. R.; Kim, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Many natural disasters involving landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires, or floods entail terrain resurfacing, followed by subsequent recovery. Modern satellite and airborne remote sensing technologies, which combine broad spatial coverage and high spatial resolution with time-sequential site revisit capability, can provide important information on the extent and duration of major landscape disturbance. In humid climate settings, these hazards temporarily remove or replace a natural vegetation cover and in doing so, modify the physical properties of the land surface. In optical remote sensing, removal of vegetation alters surface albedo in the visible -- near infrared (V-NIR) waveband, particularly the high reflectance from vegetation in the NIR. For SAR remote sensing, removal of vegetation cover causes a change in dominant microwave scattering mechanism for the areas affected. SAR has operational advantages over optical sensors for rapid disaster assessment because of its day/night acquisition capability, the ability to ``see through'' smoke, clouds and dust, and the side-looking viewing geometry, which is an advantage whenever data collection directly above the site would prove dangerous. We show how multifrequency, fully-polarimetric airborne SAR data can be ``inverted'' for parameters that reflect scattering mechanism signatures diagnostic of different surface cover types. We apply a uniform approach to map landslides resulting from the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, volcanic flows from the major 1996 eruption of Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea, and the extent of damage from the summer 2002 Rodeo -- Chediski wildfire in Arizona. In addition, earlier work has shown that multifrequency SAR polarimetric backscatter is sensitive to total above-ground biomass. This attribute can be exploited to calculate vegetation loss during a disaster and for assessment of regrowth during the recovery phase.

  7. The course of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse, and somatization after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Kawasaki, Aya; Spitznagel, Edward L; Hong, Barry A

    2004-12-01

    Flood research has used a variety of methods, yielding inconsistent findings. Universal definitions of illness are paramount to the science of psychiatric epidemiology of disasters. St. Louis area survivors (N = 162) of the Great Midwestern Floods of 1993 received a structured diagnostic assessment at 4 and 16 months postdisaster, with 88% follow-up. The purpose of the assessment was to examine predisaster and postdisaster rates of disorders and symptoms. Flood-related posttraumatic stress disorder was diagnosed in 22% and 16% at index and follow-up, respectively. Comorbidity with major depression determined whether the posttraumatic stress disorder would have remitted by 1 year later. Nearly one half of the men in the sample had a pre-existing alcohol use disorder. Virtually no new substance abuse followed the floods, and hence, substance abuse did not develop in response to the disaster or as part of coping with its aftermath. Somatization disorder was not observed; new somatoform symptoms represented a fraction of postflood somatic complaints. Findings are inconsistent with causal attribution of floods in the etiology of alcohol abuse and somatization. Methodological differences may account for much of the apparent discrepancy of these findings, with recent reports of increased alcohol use and somatic symptoms observed after other disasters. PMID:15583503

  8. Event-Driven Observations and Comprehensive Evaluation for Natural Disaster Assessment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Shen, Y.; Wu, L.; Li, H.

    2012-08-01

    The Chinese event-driven observations and disaster assessment system is established so as to make information related to environmental risk and vulnerability easily accessible to decision-makers through this centralized platform. At 7:49 AM on April 14, 2010, an earthquake of 7.1 magnitude collapsed buildings in Yushu County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province. For emergence response, we presented a method for generating seismic intensity map based on seismological mechanism solutions. The disaster assessment system automatically drew the distribution map of affected population 1 hour after the Yushu earthquake. In the case of distribution map of affected population, we made the judgment that the Gyêgu town maybe the worst hit town in the Yushu earthquake because it is not only near the epicenter, but also the capital of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Then event-driven observations are taken on Gyêgu town. Referring to usable data, the chains of rapid assessment on earthquake disaster were analyzed, and different models were established for assessing affected population, damaged houses and lifelines and comprehensive earthquake loss evaluation.

  9. Holistic Approach to Disaster Management for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2006-01-01

    Disasters are becoming the key concern of many nations. The term disaster usually meant for natural calamities. There of course may be a human hand behind each of the disasters, whether its' impact is small or large. Disasters can be categorized into natural and man made. In the case of natural disasters there may be some natural indicators to…

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M.; Aarkog, A.; Alexakhin, R.; Anspaugh, L.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Johansson, K.-J.

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  11. “We lost all we had in a second”: coping with grief and loss after a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    Ekanayake, Samanthika; Prince, Martin; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters cause immense suffering among affected communities. Most occur in developing countries, which have fewer resources to respond to the resulting traumas and difficulties. As a consequence, most survivors have to rely on their own coping resources and draw from what support remains within family, social networks and the wider community to manage and deal with their losses and consequent emotional distress. Taking the 2004 Asian tsunami as an example, this article reports findings from a qualitative study designed to investigate how survivors responded in Sri Lanka, and the range of coping strategies adopted and resources mobilized. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 survivors purposively sampled from the Matara district of southern Sri Lanka. Survivors' accounts emphasized the importance of extended supportive networks, religious faith and practices, and cultural traditions in facilitating recovery and sustaining emotional well-being. Government and external aid responses that promoted these, through contributing to the re-establishment of social, cultural, and economic life, were particularly valued by participants. Recourse to professional mental health care and Western psychological interventions was limited and survivors preferred to seek help from traditional and religious healers. Our findings tentatively suggest that long-term mental health following disaster may, in the first instance, be promoted by supporting the re-establishment of those naturally occurring resources through which communities traditionally respond to suffering. PMID:23471804

  12. A new information diffusion modelling technique based on vibrating string equation and its application in natural disaster risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng-Zu; Zhang, Ren; Hong, Mei; Qian, Long-xia; Wang, Zhengxin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, to naturally fill the gap in incomplete data, a new algorithm is proposed for estimating the risk of natural disasters based on the information diffusion theory and the equation of the vibrating string. Two experiments are performed with small samples to investigate its effectiveness. Furthermore, to demonstrate the practicality of the new algorithm, it is applied to study the relationship between epicentral intensity and earthquake magnitude, with strong-motion earthquake observations measured in Yunnan Province in China. The regression model, the back-propagation neural network and the conventional information diffusion model are also involved for comparison. All results show that the new algorithm, which can unravel fuzzy information in incomplete data, is better than the main existing methods for risk estimation.

  13. Natural Circulation Patterns in the VHTR Air-Ingress Accident and Related Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hyung Seok Kang

    2010-10-01

    A natural circulation pattern in a Very High Gas-Cooled Reactor during a hypothetical air-ingress accident has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods in order to compare with the previous 1-D flow path model for the air-ingress analyses. The GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected to be the reference design and modeled by a half symmetric 3-D geometry using FLUENT 6.3, a commercial CFD code. The simulation was carried out as steady-state calculations, and the boundary conditions were either assumed or provided from the 1-D GAMMA code results. Totally, 12 different cases have been estimated, and many notable findings and results have been obtained in this study. According to the simulations, the natural circulation pattern in the reactor was quite different from the previous 1-D assumptions. A large re-circulation flow with thermal stratification phenomena was clearly observed in the hot-leg and the lower plenum in the 3-D model. This re-circulation flow provided approximately an order faster air-ingress speed (0.46 m/s in superficial velocity) than previously predicted values by 1-D modeling (0.02~0.03 m/s). It indicates that the 1-D air-ingress modeling may significantly distort the air-ingress scenario and consequences. In addition, the complicated natural circulation pattern is eventually expected to lead to very complex graphite oxidations and corrosion patterns.

  14. Natural Circulation Patterns in the VHTR Air-Ingress Accident and Related Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2012-08-01

    Natural circulation patterns in the VHTR during a hypothetical air-ingress accident have been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods in order to compare results from the previous 1-D model which was developed using GAMMA code for the air-ingress analyses. The GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected to be the reference design and modeled by a half symmetric 3-D geometry using FLUENT 6.3, a commercial CFD code. CFD simulations were carried out as the steady-state calculation, and the boundary conditions were either assumed or provided from the 1-D GAMMA code results. Totally, 12 different cases have been reviewed, and many notable results have been obtained through in this work. According to the simulations, natural circulation patterns in the reactor were quite different from the previous 1-D assumptions. A large re-circulation flow with thermal stratification phenomena was clearly observed in the hot-leg and the lower plenum in the 3-D model. This re-circulation flow provided about an order faster air-ingress speed (0.46 m/s in superficial velocity) than previously predicted by 1-D modeling (0.02~0.03 m/s). It indicates that the 1-D air-ingress modeling may significantly distort the air-ingress scenario and consequences. In addition, complicated natural circulation patterns are eventually expected to result in very complex graphite oxidations and corrosion behaviors.

  15. Preparedness for a natural disaster: how Coriell planned for hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Joseph L; Kronenthal, Courtney J; Kelly, Victoria; Seneca, Michael; Butler, Gary; Fecenko-Tacka, Karen; Altamuro, Donna; Madore, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    When a biological specimen is donated to a biobank such as the nonprofit Coriell Institute for Medical Research, regardless of whether that submission is sent directly or through a physician, scientist, foundation, or patient-centered advocacy organization, the donor expects their biomaterial to be processed effectively and stored in proper conditions until distribution to researchers answering scientific questions. The donor and scientific researchers rarely, if ever, consider what might happen to those specimens if the biobank experiences an adverse event, such as a disaster that compromises its business operations, including handling of samples. Management of biomaterials is not simply a laboratory process; their long-term survival is dependent on both the laboratory preparation and the infrastructure designed for maintenance, safety, and security. Coriell Institute has documented disaster preparedness plans since its inception in 1953, and currently manages hundreds of thousands of cell lines and DNA samples under ISO 9001 quality management standards, complete with a robust Emergency Operations Plan. The Institute's recent approach to preparing for Hurricane Sandy, a Category 1 hurricane that struck the East Coast of the United States in late October 2012, was two-fold. It included the validation of its long-term strategies focused on emergency back-up systems, communication solutions, and employee training, and implementation of short-term tactics such as confirming on-call emergency response personnel and safe storage options for working biomaterials and reagents. The purpose of this article is to review several best practices in use at Coriell Institute associated with disaster planning and to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of those elements in coping with Hurricane Sandy. PMID:24845588

  16. Defending against disasters: global public health emergencies and opportunities for collaboration and action.

    PubMed

    Iain, Blair

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization project on the Global Burden of Disease quantifies the main causes of premature death and disability. Changing patterns of physical activity, diet, and alcohol and tobacco consumption are producing a growing burden of noncommunicable disease in low-and middle-income countries. This article focuses on a different group of health risks: major health emergencies that do not respect national borders and have an impact on health and the determinants of health such as housing, access to food and water, and other life essentials. Health emergencies, including accidents and natural events, are described, and data on disasters in the Middle East are presented. Disaster response is contrasted with disaster prevention, and disaster risk reduction is discussed in the context of vulnerability, climate change, and sustainable development. Finally, the international policy context of disaster risk reduction is discussed along with opportunities for multidisciplinary and multiinstitutional collaboration and research. PMID:20566558

  17. Sequestering of suffering: critical discourse analysis of natural disaster media coverage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J

    2008-05-01

    This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed. PMID:18420755

  18. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  19. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated Through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of 'big ideas', in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward resilience and sustainability. The framework draws together competences familiarly expressed as cognitive knowledge and skills, plus dispositions and adds connectedness and action-related behaviors, and applies this by means of a progression shift associated with NH&DRR from abilities to capabilities. The target is enhanced scientific literacy approached through an education through science focus, amplified through the study of a big idea, promotion of sustained resilience in the face of disaster and the taking of responsibilities for behavioral actions. The framework is applied to a learning progression for each interrelated education dimension, thus serving as a guide for both the development of abilities and as a platform for stimulating student capabilities within instruction and assessment.

  20. Nutrition interventions for children aged less than 5 years following natural disasters: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition among children is a serious public health problem in the aftermath of any natural disaster. We will review the various nutrition interventions for children aged <5 years in countries where natural disasters occurred and analyse the effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review on nutrition intervention studies following natural disasters that were published between January 2000 and December 2015. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool will be used for randomised controlled trials and Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS) will be used for non-randomised studies. The quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. If sufficient data are available, we will conduct meta-analyses to establish the relationship between nutrition interventions and nutrition outcome indicators. All statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager (Rev Man) V.5.3 for Windows. Heterogeneity of the data will be tested using the standard χ2 test. A fixed-effect model will be used for the studies with high heterogeneity (p value>0.10, I2≤50%). For dichotomous and continuous data, relative risk (RR) and mean difference with 95% CI will be used respectively. Subgroup analysis will be performed for studies with low heterogeneity (p value ≤0.10). We will use Z score with the level of significance set at p value <0.05 to test the total effect. Funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. Ethics and dissemination As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval will not be required. The results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the media. Registration details International Prospective Register for Systematic

  1. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based. PMID:959212

  2. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A.; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions. PMID:26548685

  3. Use of ALOS/PALSAR imagery for monitoring areas damaged due to recent natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2006-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the remarkable ability to examine the Earth's surface, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. A SAR-based remote sensing system can assess the damage to areas affected by large-scale disasters at an early stage. This can aid in recovery planning. On May 27, 2006 an earthquake struck Yogyakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, causing human suffering and severe building damage. PALSAR (Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) onboard the Japanese ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) imaged the affected areas on the morning following the earthquake. The European satellite, Envisat, also imaged a wider area of central Java two days after the event. This paper applies a damage detection technique based on three time-series images from the SAR dataset covering the Mid Java earthquake. From a macroscopic point of view, the estimated damage distribution closely matched damage assessment derived from high-resolution satellite images and field surveys.

  4. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions. PMID:26548685

  6. Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, A. C.; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Disasters test civil administrations' and health services' capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence. PMID:22811897

  7. Prolonged femoral external fixation after natural disaster: successful late conversion to intramedullary nail aboard the USNS Mercy hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Sechriest, V Franklin; Lhowe, David W

    2008-01-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, orthopaedic injuries were a major healthcare problem in parts of South East Asia. We report our late encounter with an Indonesian patient treated acutely with external fixation of a femur fracture. We describe our procedure for conversion of prolonged external fixation (59 days) to an intramedullary nail (IMN) aboard the USNS Mercy and provide two-year follow-up. A review of current literature on conversion of femoral external fixation to IMN is included. This report highlights the potential pitfalls of external fixation of femur fractures in an austere post-natural disaster environment where orthopaedic follow-up care may be delayed or nonexistent. PMID:19069035

  8. Effects of Rumination on Child and Adolescent Depressive Reactions to a Natural Disaster: the 2010 Nashville Flood

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Julia W.; Cole, David A.; Martin, Nina C.

    2014-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tested hypotheses about Nolen-Hoeksema’s (1987, 1991) response styles theory (RST) of depression in a sample of child and adolescent public school students. Wave 1 measures of rumination, distraction, and depression were obtained 6 months prior to the 2010 Nashville flood. Similar measures plus a measure of flood-related stressors were administered at Wave 2, approximately ten days after students returned to school after the flood. Results revealed an indirect effect of preflood rumination on postflood depressive symptoms via the intervening variable of postflood rumination, and partial mediation of the effect of preflood depression on postflood depression. Further, the interaction of rumination with flood-related stressors was moderated by age, suggesting that rumination may not become a strong cognitive diathesis for depression until adolescence. Developmental implications emerged for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of natural disasters and for the application of RST to children and adolescents. PMID:22867116

  9. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. PMID:25510716

  10. Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

    A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

  11. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  12. Communication and Collaboration During Natural Disasters: The Lessons Learned From Past Experience. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on the response and recovery efforts to wildfires by the San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE) and its school and community partners. Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes,…

  13. Socio-ecological Typologies for Understanding Adaptive Capacity of a Region to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendran Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.; King, A. W.; Mei, R.

    2015-12-01

    It is expected that the frequency and magnitude of extreme climatic events will increase in coming decades with an anticipated increase in losses from climate hazards. In the Gulf Coastal region of the United States, climate hazards/disasters are common including hurricanes, drought and flooding. However, the capacity to adapt to extreme climatic events varies across the region. This adaptive capacity is linked to the magnitude of the extreme event, exposed infrastructure, and the socio-economic conditions across the region. This study uses hierarchical clustering to quantitatively integrates regional socioeconomic and biophysical factors and develop socio-ecological typologies (SET). The biophysical factors include climatic and topographic variables, and the socio-economic variables include human capital, social capital and man-made resources (infrastructure) of the region. The types of the SET are independent variables in a statistical model of a regional variable of interest. The methodology was applied to US Gulf States to evaluate the social and biophysical determinants of the regional variation in social vulnerability and economic loss to climate hazards. The results show that the SET explains much of the regional variation in social vulnerability, effectively capturing its determinants. In addition, the SET also explains of the variability in economic loss to hazards across of the region. The approach can thus be used to prioritize adaptation strategies to reduce vulnerability and loss across the region.

  14. The Effects of Mortality on Fertility: Population Dynamics After a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how mortality and fertility are linked is essential to the study of population dynamics. We investigate the fertility response to an unanticipated mortality shock that resulted from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed large shares of the residents of some Indonesian communities but caused no deaths in neighboring communities. Using population-representative multilevel longitudinal data, we identify a behavioral fertility response to mortality exposure, both at the level of a couple and in the broader community. We observe a sustained fertility increase at the aggregate level following the tsunami, which was driven by two behavioral responses to mortality exposure. First, mothers who lost one or more children in the disaster were significantly more likely to bear additional children after the tsunami. This response explains about 13 % of the aggregate increase in fertility. Second, women without children before the tsunami initiated family-building earlier in communities where tsunami-related mortality rates were higher, indicating that the fertility of these women is an important route to rebuilding the population in the aftermath of a mortality shock. Such community-level effects have received little attention in demographic scholarship. PMID:25585644

  15. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated. PMID:24856876

  16. Psychological and social consequences of losing a child in a natural or human-made disaster: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Herrman, Helen; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fisher, Jane

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to natural and human-made disasters is associated with long-term health consequences, including for mental health. Parents who have lost children, particularly their only children, in any circumstances are also at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence about the psychological and social consequences for parents who had faced these circumstances simultaneously through losing children in a disaster. Systematic searching of the English and Chinese language literatures about the psychological and social functioning of bereaved parents after disasters revealed that a small number of studies met inclusion criteria. The results showed that bereaved parents had more mental health problems than bereaved spouses and non-bereaved parents, and mothers appeared to be more vulnerable to mental health problems than fathers. Potential protective factors for bereaved parents' mental health included having psychological interventions, having adequate social support, seeing their children's bodies and having a subsequent baby. Although the literature was modest and methodologically diverse, there was a consistent finding that parents who have lost children in disasters were at high risk of suffering mental health problems, especially bereaved mothers. As there was little evidence, further studies are needed to understand the best advice and interventions to offer bereaved parents and provide enhanced mental health care of such bereaved populations after disasters. PMID:23857912

  17. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-05-15

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. PMID:27026337

  18. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. PMID:27026337

  19. Modelling the spatial distribution of five natural hazards in the context of the WHO/EMRO Atlas of Disaster Risk as a step towards the reduction of the health impact related to disasters

    PubMed Central

    El Morjani, Zine El Abidine; Ebener, Steeve; Boos, John; Abdel Ghaffar, Eman; Musani, Altaf

    2007-01-01

    Background Reducing the potential for large scale loss of life, large numbers of casualties, and widespread displacement of populations that can result from natural disasters is a difficult challenge for the individuals, communities and governments that need to respond to such events. While it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to predict the occurrence of most natural hazards; it is possible to take action before emergency events happen to plan for their occurrence when possible and to mitigate their potential effects. In this context, an Atlas of Disaster Risk is under development for the 21 Member States that constitute the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Region and the West Bank and Gaza Strip territory. Methods and Results This paper describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) based methods that have been used in order to create the first volume of the Atlas which looks at the spatial distribution of 5 natural hazards (flood, landslide, wind speed, heat and seismic hazard). It also presents the results obtained through the application of these methods on a set of countries part of the EM Region before illustrating how this type of information can be aggregated for decision making. Discussion and Conclusion The methods presented in this paper aim at providing a new set of tools for GIS practitioners to refine their analytical capabilities when examining natural hazards, and at the same time allowing users to create more specific and meaningful local analyses. The maps resulting from the application of these methods provides decision makers with information to strengthen their disaster management capacity. It also represents the basis for the reflection that needs to take place regarding populations' vulnerability towards natural hazards from a health perspective. PMID:17343733

  20. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  1. Parenting after a Natural Disaster: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Families Surviving the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafstad, Gertrud S.; Haavind, Hanne; Jensen, Tine K.

    2012-01-01

    How do parents support their children after a high-impact disaster? To answer this question, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 51 Norwegian parents. These parents and children were all severely exposed to the trauma of the tsunami disaster. The analyses show how parents interpret their children's signs of distress, as well as their own…

  2. The association between natural disasters and violence: A systematic review of the literature and a call for more epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The links between disasters and violence either self-directed or interpersonal are now more recognized. Nevertheless, the amount of research is limited. This article discusses the underlying association of disasters and violence and it also outlines a systematic review of the literature from 1976 to 2011. Finally, it concludes and recommends particular approaches for further epidemiological research. PMID:24523804

  3. What Is the Association between Absolute Child Poverty, Poor Governance, and Natural Disasters? A Global Comparison of Some of the Realities of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Adel; Halleröd, Björn; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the degree to which exposure to natural disasters and poor governance (quality of governance) is associated with absolute child poverty in sixty-seven middle- and low-income countries. The data is representative for about 2.8 billion of the world´s population. Institutionalist tend to argue that many of society's ills, including poverty, derive from fragile or inefficient institutions. However, our findings show that although increasing quality of government tends to be associated with less poverty, the negative effects of natural disasters on child poverty are independent of a country´s institutional efficiency. Increasing disaster victims (killed and affected) is associated with higher rates of child poverty. A child´s estimated odds ratio to be in a state of absolute poverty increases by about a factor of 5.7 [95% CI: 1.7 to 18.7] when the average yearly toll of disasters in the child´s country increases by one on a log-10 scale. Better governance correlates with less child poverty, but it does not modify the correlation between child poverty and natural disasters. The results are based on hierarchical regression models that partition the variance into three parts: child, household, and country. The models were cross-sectional and based on observational data from the Demographic Health Survey and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which were collected at the beginning of the twenty-first millennium. The Sustainable Development Goals are a principle declaration to halt climate change, but they lack a clear plan on how the burden of this change should be shared by the global community. Based on our results, we suggest that the development agencies should take this into account and to articulate more equitable global policies to protect the most vulnerable, specifically children. PMID:27077913

  4. What Is the Association between Absolute Child Poverty, Poor Governance, and Natural Disasters? A Global Comparison of Some of the Realities of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Adel; Halleröd, Björn; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the degree to which exposure to natural disasters and poor governance (quality of governance) is associated with absolute child poverty in sixty-seven middle- and low-income countries. The data is representative for about 2.8 billion of the world´s population. Institutionalist tend to argue that many of society’s ills, including poverty, derive from fragile or inefficient institutions. However, our findings show that although increasing quality of government tends to be associated with less poverty, the negative effects of natural disasters on child poverty are independent of a country´s institutional efficiency. Increasing disaster victims (killed and affected) is associated with higher rates of child poverty. A child´s estimated odds ratio to be in a state of absolute poverty increases by about a factor of 5.7 [95% CI: 1.7 to 18.7] when the average yearly toll of disasters in the child´s country increases by one on a log-10 scale. Better governance correlates with less child poverty, but it does not modify the correlation between child poverty and natural disasters. The results are based on hierarchical regression models that partition the variance into three parts: child, household, and country. The models were cross-sectional and based on observational data from the Demographic Health Survey and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which were collected at the beginning of the twenty-first millennium. The Sustainable Development Goals are a principle declaration to halt climate change, but they lack a clear plan on how the burden of this change should be shared by the global community. Based on our results, we suggest that the development agencies should take this into account and to articulate more equitable global policies to protect the most vulnerable, specifically children. PMID:27077913

  5. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  6. The dynamic nature of risk perceptions after a fatal transit accident.

    PubMed

    Wernstedt, Kris; Murray-Tuite, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, two trains of Washington, DC's Metrorail system collided, resulting in nine deaths and 50 serious injuries. Based on a multiwave survey of Metrorail users in the months after the crash, this article reports how the accident appears to have (1) changed over time the tradeoffs among safety, speed, frequency of service, cost, and reliability that the transit users stated they were willing to make in the postaccident period and (2) altered transit users' concerns about safety as a function of time and distance from the accident site. We employ conditional logit models to examine tradeoffs among stated preferences for system performance measures after the accident, as well as the influence that respondent characteristics of transit use, location, income, age, and gender have on these preference tradeoffs. As expected, respondents appear averse to longer headways between trains, longer travel durations, higher travel costs, a higher number of late trains, and a higher number of fatalities. The models also show evidence of higher aversion to fatalities from transit system operation among females compared to males. In addition, respondents less experienced with Metrorail travel and those with lower household incomes show higher aversion to fatalities, and this aversion increases as a subject's psychological distance from the accident site decreases. Contrary to expectations shaped by previous studies, aversion to fatalities appears to have increased between the early months after the accident and the end of the survey period, and the expected relationship between age and aversion to fatalities is not statistically significant. PMID:25264264

  7. Towards a cross-domain interoperable framework for natural hazards and disaster risk reduction information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Robert; Harrison, Matthew; Barredo, José I.; Thomas, Florian; Llorente Isidro, Miguel; Cerba, Otakar; Pfeiffer, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    The vast amount of information and data necessary for comprehensive hazard and risk assessment presents many challenges regarding the lack of accessibility, comparability, quality, organisation and dissemination of natural hazards spatial data. In order to mitigate these limitations an interoperable framework has been developed in the framework of the development of legally binding Implementing rules of the EU INSPIRE Directive1* aiming at the establishment of the European Spatial Data Infrastructure. The interoperability framework is described in the Data Specification on Natural risk zones - Technical Guidelines (DS) document2* that was finalized and published on 10.12. 2013. This framework provides means for facilitating access, integration, harmonisation and dissemination of natural hazard data from different domains and sources. The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the interoperable framework developed in the DS and highlights the key aspects of the interoperability to the various natural hazards communities. Secondly, the paper "translates" into common language the main features and potentiality of the interoperable framework of the DS for a wider audience of scientists and practitioners in the natural hazards domain. Further in this paper the main five aspects of the interoperable framework will be presented. First, the issue of a common terminology for the natural hazards domain will be addressed. A common data model to facilitate cross domain data integration will follow secondly. Thirdly, the common methodology developed to provide qualitative or quantitative assessments of natural hazards will be presented. Fourthly, the extensible classification schema for natural hazards developed from a literature review and key reference documents from the contributing community of practice will be shown. Finally, the applicability of the interoperable framework for the various stakeholder groups will be also

  8. 30 years After the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Time for Reflection and Re-evaluation of Current Disaster Preparedness Plans.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, Lydia B

    2016-06-01

    It has been 30 years since the worst accident in the history of the nuclear era occurred at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine close to densely populated urban areas. To date, epidemiological studies reported increased long-term risks of leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and cataracts among cleanup workers and of thyroid cancer and non-malignant diseases in those exposed as children and adolescents. Mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident in the three most contaminated countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. Timely and clear communication with affected populations emerged as one of the main lessons in the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. PMID:27130482

  9. Fear based Education or Curiosity based Education as an Example of Earthquake and Natural Disaster Education: Results of Statistical Study in Primary Schools in Istanbul-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.

    2012-04-01

    Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake

  10. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  11. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. PMID:23126406

  12. Children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression after a natural disaster: Comorbidity and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Betty S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Auslander, Beth A.; Short, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study examined rates of comorbidity among children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression after a natural disaster, Hurricane Ike. We also compared children with comorbid symptoms to children without comorbid symptoms, examining recovery, severity of symptoms, and risk factors. Method Children (n=277; 52% girls; 38% Hispanic, 28% White, 19% Black; grades 2–4) were assessed at 8 and 15 months postdisaster. Children completed measures of PTS and depressive symptoms at both time points and measures of exposure and recovery stressors at 8 months postdisaster. Results At 8 months postdisaster, 13% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 10% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. At 15 months postdisaster, 7% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 7% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression had poorer recovery, more severe symptoms, and they reported greater exposure and recovery stressors. Limitations We lacked information on children’s predisaster functioning and diagnostic interview of psychological distress symptoms. Conclusions Children with comorbid symptoms need to be identified early postdisaster. Levels of stressors should be monitored postdisaster, as highly stressed youth have difficulties recovering and may need help. Interventions should be tailored for children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. PMID:22974469

  13. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  14. Assimilation of Real-Time Satellite And Human Sensor Networks for Modeling Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulov, O.; Halem, M.; Lary, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of underlying technologies needed to address the merging of a web of real time satellite sensor Web (SSW) and Human Sensor Web (HSW) needed to augment the US response to extreme events. As an initial prototyping step and use case scenario, we consider the development of two major system tools that can be transitioned from research to the responding operational agency for mitigating coastal oil spills. These tools consist of the capture of Situation Aware (SA) Social Media (SM) Data, and assimilation of the processed information into forecasting models to provide incident decision managers with interactive virtual spatial temporal animations superimposed with probabilistic data estimates. The system methodologies are equally applicable to the wider class of extreme events such as plume dispersions from volcanoes or massive fires, major floods, hurricane impacts, radioactive isotope dispersions from nuclear accidents, etc. A successful feasibility demonstration of this technology has been shown in the case of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill where Human Sensor Networks have been combined with a geophysical model to perform parameter assessments. Flickr images of beached oil were mined from the spill area, geolocated and timestamped and converted into geophysical data. This data was incorporated into General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME), a Lagrangian forecast model that uses near real-time surface winds, ocean currents, and satellite shape profiles of oil to generate a forecast of plume movement. As a result, improved estimates of diffusive coefficients and rates of oil spill were determined. Current approaches for providing satellite derived oil distributions are collected from a satellite sensor web of operational and research sensors from many countries, and a manual analysis is performed by NESDIS. A real time SA HSW processing system based on geolocated SM data from sources such as Twitter, Flickr, YouTube etc., greatly

  15. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  16. From Aberfan to the "Canvey Factor": Schools, Children and Industrial Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2016-01-01

    Children, and schools, are potent symbols of victimhood in industrial disasters. In the case of historical industrial disasters such as Aberfan and Flixborough, and in terms of preparation for future industrial disasters under Control of Major Accident Hazard regulations, communities are seen as passive responders to accidents. Moreover, following…

  17. The Search for Non-Existent Facts in the Reporting of Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Notes that disasters are not simply large accidents but different kinds of events. Reviews journalism textbooks, finding that the authors who dealt with disaster coverage often state as fact what social scientists have shown to be inaccurate: most texts confuse accidents with disasters, are unaware panic is not a problem, and assume that complete…

  18. Computer-aided crisis management for natural and man-made disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Freiwald, Joyce

    1994-03-01

    Maps and other information are available on the national, regional, state, and local levels that show the supporting infrastructure such as sources and distribution of water, power, natural gas, crude oil and petroleum products, coal, LNG, railroads, roads, sewage lines, ocean and inland waterway routes, barge and ship traffic and capacity, and telephone systems. Information is also available on military base and National Guard unit locations and their equipment such as diesel generators, tanker and other trucks. The data includes capacity and flow-rates. All of this can be put into a computer, with computer displays including overlay maps an numeric data tags on the screen. With this alone, officials can war-game to see the impact of potential threats, both on an area, and on others `downstream' where utility-product flow through the affected area may be disrupted.

  19. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  20. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  1. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers.

  2. These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.M.

    2009-09-15

    The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

  3. Changes in alcohol consumption after a natural disaster: a study of Norwegian survivors after the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies suggest that disaster exposure is related to a subsequent increase in alcohol consumption. Most of these studies have relied on retrospective self-reports to measure changes in alcohol use. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between disaster exposure and drinking behaviors more closely, analyzing data on both self-perceived changes in alcohol consumption and current drinking habits in groups with different extents of disaster exposure. Methods A sample of Norwegian adults (≥ 18 years) who resided in areas affected by the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami (N = 899) were assessed by a postal questionnaire 6 months after the disaster. Based on detailed questions about experiences with the tsunami, participants were grouped according to their extent of disaster exposure. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was applied to measure the level of post-traumatic stress. Participants were asked whether they had increased or decreased their alcohol consumption after the disaster. Moreover, weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of intoxication during the past month were used as indicators of current drinking behaviors. Results Severely exposed individuals more often reported changing their alcohol consumption compared with those who were less exposed. Severe exposure to the tsunami was associated with both a self-perceived increase (OR 21.38, 95% CI 2.91–157.28) and decrease in alcohol consumption (OR 7.41, 95% CI 1.74–31.51). The odds ratios decreased and were not significant when adjusting for post-traumatic stress symptoms. Weekly consumption and frequency of intoxication during the past month did not vary with extent of disaster exposure. Conclusions Our findings indicate a polarization effect of severe disaster exposure on self-perceived changes in alcohol consumption; that is, disaster exposure was associated with self-perceived increases and decreases in drinking. However, the absence of associations between disaster

  4. Seismotectonics and ground-space monitoring of natural disasters precursors in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doda, L. N.; Malashin, A. A.; Natyaganov, V. L.; Stepanov, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, short-term prediction of earthquakes with answers to the main triad of questions (When? Where? What magnitude?) was considered to be an unsolvable problem. And if for the forecast of place and energy (or magnitude) a number of empirical regularities confirmed with theoretical models were set, but the principal possibility of short-term forecast of the time (a period from several days to months) of the beginning of earthquakes was denied by most professionals. To answer the first question of the main triad of forecast there were not reliable empirical regularities and model approaches. This was due to a flashing character in time and mosaic manifestation in the space of many types of earthquake precursors of different geophysical nature and ambiguity of their interpretations. However, the development of Internet technologies and means of ground and space monitoring of different environmental parameters have allowed in real-time to obtain, compare and analyze various anomalies in the Geosphere shells of the Earth: the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and deep layers of the Earth. This has led to a breakthrough in solving the main problems of Geophysics: short-term prediction of strong earthquakes.

  5. Multiple Shocks, Coping and Welfare Consequences: Natural Disasters and Health Shocks in the Indian Sundarbans

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Sumit; Mazumdar, Papiya Guha; Kanjilal, Barun; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on a household survey in Indian Sundarbans hit by tropical cyclone Aila in May 2009, this study tests for evidence and argues that health and climatic shocks are essentially linked forming a continuum and with exposure to a marginal one, coping mechanisms and welfare outcomes triggered in the response is significantly affected. Data & Methods The data for this study is based on a cross-sectional household survey carried out during June 2010. The survey was aimed to assess the impact of cyclone Aila on households and consequent coping mechanisms in three of the worst-affected blocks (a sub-district administrative unit), viz. Hingalganj, Gosaba and Patharpratima. The survey covered 809 individuals from 179 households, cross cutting age and gender. A separate module on health-seeking behaviour serves as the information source of health shocks defined as illness episodes (ambulatory or hospitalized) experienced by household members. Key findings Finding reveals that over half of the households (54%) consider that Aila has dealt a high, damaging impact on their household assets. Result further shows deterioration of health status in the period following the incidence of Aila. Finding suggests having suffered multiple shocks increases the number of adverse welfare outcomes by 55%. Whereas, suffering either from the climatic shock (33%) or the health shock (25%) alone increases such risks by a much lesser extent. The multiple-shock households face a significantly higher degree of difficulty to finance expenses arising out of health shocks, as opposed to their counterparts facing only the health shock. Further, these households are more likely to finance the expenses through informal loans and credit from acquaintances or moneylenders. Conclusion This paper presented empirical evidence on how natural and health shocks mutually reinforce their resultant impact, making coping increasingly difficult and present significant risks of welfare loss, having short

  6. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  7. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries. PMID:22748536

  8. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  9. Feeling like a group after a natural disaster: Common ingroup identity and relations with outgroup victims among majority and minority young children.

    PubMed

    Vezzali, Loris; Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a field study to test whether the common ingroup identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000, reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press) could be a useful tool to improve intergroup relations in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Participants were majority (Italian) and minority (immigrant) elementary school children (N = 517) living in the area struck by powerful earthquakes in May 2012. Results revealed that, among majority children, the perceived external threat represented by the earthquake was associated with greater perceptions of belonging to a common ingroup including both ingroup and outgroup. In turn, heightened one-group perceptions were associated with greater willingness to meet and help outgroup victims, both directly and indirectly via more positive outgroup attitudes. Among immigrant children, perceived disaster threat was not associated with any of the dependent variables; one-group perceptions were positively associated with outgroup attitudes, helping and contact intentions towards outgroup victims. Thus, one-group perceptions after a natural disaster may promote more positive and supporting relations between the majority and the minority group. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. PMID:25330995

  10. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup

  11. Applying Advanced and Existing Sensors in Dealing with Potential Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    together to address such colossal problems. Increasing our knowledge of the home planet, via amplified set of observations, is certainly a right step in a right direction. Furthermore, this is a prerequisite in understanding multiple hazard phenomena's. This paper examines various sensorweb options and observing architectures that can be useful specifically in addressing some of these complex issues. The ultimate goal is to serve the society by providing potential natural hazards information to the decision makers in the most expeditious manner so they can prepare themselves to mitigate potential risks to human life, livestock and property.

  12. Is Your Class a Natural Disaster? It can be... The Real Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, J. S.; Furlong, K.

    2003-12-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden, Colorado, we have implemented an autonomous version of the NEIC's real-time earthquake database management and earthquake alert system (Earthworm). This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system, Penn State University students participating in natural hazard classes receive real-time alerts of worldwide earthquake events on cell phones distributed to the class. The students are then responsible for reacting to actual earthquake events, in real-time, with the same data (or lack thereof) as earthquake professionals. The project was first implemented in Spring 2002, and although it had an initial high intrigue and "coolness" factor, the interest of the students waned with time. Through student feedback, we observed that scientific data presented on its own without an educational context does not foster student learning. In order to maximize the impact of real-time data and the accompanying e-media, the students need to become personally involved. Therefore, in collaboration with the Incorporated Research Institutes of Seismology (IRIS), we have begun to develop an online infrastructure that will help teachers and faculty effectively use real-time earthquake information. The Real-Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) website promotes student learning by integrating inquiry-based education modules with real-time earthquake data. The first module guides the students through an exploration of real-time and historic earthquake datasets to model the most important criteria for determining the potential impact of an earthquake. Having provided the students with content knowledge in the first module, the second module presents a more authentic, open-ended educational experience by setting up an earthquake role-play situation. Through the Earthworm system, we have the ability to "set off

  13. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool.

    PubMed

    Stoop, John A

    2004-07-26

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  14. The role of media in the dissemination of environmental and natural disaster information to the public: NPOESS: the future of earth observation and the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameller, Rafael; Cervone, Guido; Kafatos, M.; Jones, Dave

    TV broadcast news, part news and part entertainment, continuously transformed by new technology and driven by ratings, still remains the primary form of dissemination of real time information to the general public. Media coverage of environmental issues and natural disasters varies considerably, depending on the perceived interests of the audience. While some receive a lot of coverage with in depth scientific analysis, others receive almost no coverage at all, or are only superficially covered. Although the media is often criticized by scientists for the uneven coverage of events, scientists, agencies and NGOs, must rely on the media to quickly reach the general public. Public awareness and understanding of natural hazards can help save lives and reduce property damages and economic losses, particularly as global climate change and its connection to hazards is accelerating. Earth orbiting satellites provide an unprecedented access to high resolution data about the Earth and its environment. Although such data are readily available and provides excellent visuals for natural hazards, their use in media broadcast is still not widespread. The goal of this research is to bridge the gap between the scientific data available and the visuals currently used in media broadcast. In this work we analyze the media coverage of natural hazards and disasters and the impact on the public. We present examples of past cooperation that led to the dissemination of earth observation products through TV broadcasts, and discuss the different requirements which have to be met in order to transform high resolution satellite images and scientific data into a TV friendly format. Finally, we identify the potential use of future products from the upcoming NPOESS satellite platforms for the coverage of natural hazards and disasters.

  15. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  16. Modeling the Role of Inventories and Heterogeneity in the Assessment of the Economic Costs of Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the cost of potential disasters, including indirect economic consequences, are an important input in the design of risk management strategies. The adaptive regional input-output (ARIO) inventory model is a tool to assess indirect disaster losses and to analyze their drivers. It is based on an input-output structure, but it also (i) explicitly represents production bottlenecks and input scarcity and (ii) introduces inventories as an additional flexibility in the production system. This modeling strategy distinguishes between (i) essential supplies that cannot be stocked (e.g., electricity, water) and whose scarcity can paralyze all economic activity; (ii) essential supplies that can be stocked at least temporarily (e.g., steel, chemicals), whose scarcity creates problems only over the medium term; and (iii) supplies that are not essential in the production process, whose scarcity is problematic only over the long run and are therefore easy to replace with imports. The model is applied to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana and identifies two periods in the disaster aftermath: (1) the first year, during which production bottlenecks are responsible for large output losses; (2) the rest of the reconstruction period, during which bottlenecks are inexistent and output losses lower. This analysis also suggests important research questions and policy options to mitigate disaster-related output losses. PMID:23834029

  17. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  18. Changes in Children's Peer Interactions Following a Natural Disaster: How Predisaster Bullying and Victimization Rates Changed Following Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their interactions with peers. In this study, we examined changes in bullying and peer victimization in two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre- and postdisaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old,…

  19. Promoting a culture of disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Medina, Angeli

    2016-01-01

    Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management. PMID:26897624

  20. Using the Co-Production of Knowledge for Developing Realistic Natural Disaster Scenarios for Small-to-Medium Scale Emergency Management Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Davies, T. R.; Orchiston, C.; Thompson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster scenarios for Emergency Management (EM) exercises are a widely-used and effective tool for communicating hazard information to policy makers, EM personnel, lifelines operators and communities in general. It is crucial that the scenarios are as realistic as possible. Major disasters however, contain a series of cascading consequences, both environmental and social, which are difficult to model. Consequently, only recently have large-scale exercises included such processes; incorporating these in small- and medium-scale scenarios has yet to be attempted. This study details work undertaken in a recent medium-scale earthquake exercise in New Zealand to introduce such cascading processes into the disaster scenario. Given limited time, data, and funding, we show that the co-production of knowledge between natural disaster scientists, EM personnel, and governance and lifelines organisations can yield detailed, realistic scenarios. Using the co-production process, scenario development was able to identify where the pre-exercise state of knowledge was insufficient. This enabled a focussed research response driven by end-user needs. This found that in general, seismic hazard (ground shaking) and its likely impacts were well known and understood by all parties. However, subsequent landsliding and associated effects were poorly known and understood and their potential impacts unconsidered. Scenario development therefore focussed primarily on understanding these processes and their potential effects. This resulted in cascading hazards being included in a medium-scale NZ exercise for the first time. Further, all participants were able to focus on the potential impacts on their specific sectors, increasing the level of knowledge of cascading processes across all parties. Using group based discussions throughout the design process allowed a detailed scenario to be created, fostered stronger inter-disciplinary relationships, and identified areas for further research

  1. Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disasters for Small and Mid-Sized Streams due to Climate Change and Stream Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Jun, H. D.; Kim, S.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment plays an important role in drawing up climate change adaptation plans. Although there are some studies on broad vulnerability assessment in Korea, there have been very few studies to develop and apply locally focused and specific sector-oriented climate change vulnerability indicators. Especially, there has seldom been any study to investigate the effect of an adaptation project on assessing the vulnerability status to climate change for fundamental local governments. In order to relieve adverse effects of climate change, Korean government has performed the project of the Major Four Rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong and Yeongsan river) Restoration since 2008. It is expected that water level in main stream of 4 rivers will be dropped through this project, but flood effect will be mainly occurred in small and mid-sized streams which flows in main stream. Hence, we examined how much the project of the major four rivers restoration relieves natural disasters. Conceptual framework of vulnerability-resilience index to climate change for the Korean fundamental local governments is defined as a function of climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Then, statistical data on scores of proxy variables assumed to comprise climate change vulnerability for local governments are collected. Proxy variables and estimated temporary weights of them are selected by surveying a panel of experts using Delphi method, and final weights are determined by modified Entropy method. Developed vulnerability-resilience index was applied to Korean fundamental local governments and it is calculated under each scenario as follows. (1) Before the major four rivers restoration, (2) 100 years after represented climate change condition without the major four rivers restoration, (3) After the major four rivers restoration without representing climate change (this means present climate condition) and (4) After the major four rivers restoration and 100 years after represented

  2. Supporting Adolescents Exposed to Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Anne K.; Vernberg, Eric; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents possess numerous strengths and vulnerabilities based on their unique stage of development. When youth experience a disaster, whether natural or human-caused, there are certain considerations to be taken into account when providing them with support. This article describes common adolescent reactions to the impact phase of disasters as…

  3. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  4. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  5. Disaster Recovery Planning for Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooun; Ross, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the need for businesses to have a disaster recovery plan (DRP) to survive any type of disaster that affects an information system; for example natural disasters, inadvertent errors, or deliberate actions. A five-step guideline is suggested for developing and implementing a DRP. (Author/LRW)

  6. [Principles of management of All-Russia Disaster Medicine Services].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, I I

    2000-11-01

    Experience of liquidation of earthquake consequences in Armenia (1988) has shown that it is extremely necessary to create the system of management in regions of natural disaster, large accident or catastrophe before arrival of main forces in order to provide reconnaissance, to receive the arriving units. It will help to make well-grounded decisions, to set tasks in time, to organize and conduct emergency-and-rescue works. The article contains general material concerning the structure of All-Russia service of disaster medicine (ARSDM), organization of management at all levels and interaction between the components of ARSDM and other subsystems of Russian Service of Extreme Situations. It is recommended how to organize management of ARSDM during liquidation of medical-and-sanitary consequences of large-scale extreme situations. PMID:11302100

  7. The BEYOND center of excellence for the effective exploitation of satellite time series towards natural disasters monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Balasis, George; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Herekakis, Themistocles; Christia, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    BEYOND project (2013-2016, 2.3Meuro) funded under the FP7-REGPOT scheme is an initiative which aims to build a Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation (EO) based monitoring of natural disasters in south-eastern Europe (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/), established at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). The project focuses on capacity building on top of the existing infrastructure, aiming at unlocking the institute's potential through the systematic interaction with high-profile partners across Europe, and at consolidating state-of-the-art equipment and technological know-how that will allow sustainable cutting-edge interdisciplinary research to take place with an impact on the regional and European socioeconomic welfare. The vision is to set up innovative integrated observational solutions to allow a multitude of space borne and ground-based monitoring networks to operate in a complementary and cooperative manner, create archives and databases of long series of observations and higher level products, and make these available for exploitation with the involvement of stakeholders. In BEYOND critical infrastructural components are being procured for fostering access, use, retrieval and analysis of long EO data series and products. In this framework NOA has initiated activities for the development, installation and operation of important acquisition facilities and hardware modules, including space based observational infrastructures as the X-/L-band acquisition station for receiving EOS Aqua/Terra, NPP, JPSS, NOAA, Metop, Feng Yun data in real time, the setting up of an ESA's Mirror Site of Sentinel missions to be operable from 2014 onwards, an advanced Raman Lidar portable station, a spectrometer facility, several ground magnetometer stations. All these are expected to work in synergy with the existing capacity resources and observational networks including the MSG/SEVIRI acquisition station, nationwide seismographic, GPS, meteo and atmospheric networks. The

  8. The role of natural disaster in individual and relational adjustment in Sri Lankan mothers following the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Banford, Alyssa; Ivey, David C; Wickrama, Thulitha; Fischer, Judith; Prouty, Anne; Smith, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between maternal mental health distress symptoms, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, the extent to which the presence of a child's disaster-related physical health problem(s) have interfered with daily functioning, and family cohesion over time among Sri Lankan mothers who survived the tsunami on 26 December 2004. Study variables were measured using a self-report questionnaire administered approximately four months after the event and three years later in summer 2008. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Path analysis was employed to assess the relationships between the key variables over time and the correlations in the study variables at each time point. Among other findings, the results of the path analysis indicated that post-traumatic stress symptom distress four months after the disaster significantly predicted variance in family cohesion three years later. Clinical and empirical research implications are presented and discussed. PMID:26272224

  9. The impact of the disease early warning system in responding to natural disasters and conflict crises in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahim, M; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Munir, M; Khan, A R

    2010-01-01

    The disease early warning system (DEWS) was introduced in the immediate aftermath of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, with the objective to undertake prompt investigation and mitigation of disease outbreaks. The DEWS network was replicated successfully during subsequent flood and earthquake disasters as well as during the 2008-09 internally displaced persons' crisis. DEWS-generated alerts, prompt investigations and timely responses had an effective contribution to the control of epidemics. Through DEWS, 1360 reported alerts during 2005-09 averted the risk of disease outbreaks through pre-emptive necessary measures, while the 187 confirmed outbreaks were effectively controlled. In the aftermath of the disasters, DEWS technology also facilitated the development of a disease-surveillance system that became an integral part of the district health system. This study aims to report the DEWS success and substantiate its lead role as a priority emergency health response intervention. PMID:21495597

  10. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  11. Natural remediation of an unremediated soil twelve years after a mine accident: trace element mobility and plant composition.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Paula; Madejón, Engracia; Girón, Ignacio; Cabrera, Francisco; Murillo, José Manuel

    2013-01-15

    The long-term influence of a mine spill in soil was studied 12 years after the Aznalcóllar accident. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed, a fenced plot established for research purposes (2000 m(2)) and soils where the process of remediation was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Soils were characterized at different depths, down to 100 cm depth, determining chemical parameters and total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover plants colonizing remediated (RE) and non remediated (NRE) soils were also analysed attending their potential risk for herbivores. Strong acidification was observed in the NRE soil except in surface (0-10 cm). The progressive colonization of natural vegetation, more than 90% of the fenced plot covered by plants, could facilitate this increased pH values in the top soil (pH 6). In the NRE soil, the successive oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide in the deposited sludge on the surface after the accident resulted in a re-dissolution of the most mobile element (Cd, Cu and Zn) and a penetration to deeper layers. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the NRE soil showed normal contents for higher plants and tolerable for livestock. Nitrogen and mineral nutrients were of the same order in both soils, and also normal for high plants and adequate for animal nutrition. Despite of the natural remediation of the NRE soil, results demonstrate that the remediation tasks carried out in all the area, the Guadiamar Green Corridor at present, were necessary to avoid the leaching of the most mobile elements and minimize the risk of contamination of groundwater sources, many of them close to the Doñana National Park. PMID:23201603

  12. The evolution of global disaster risk assessments: from hazard to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The perception of disaster risk as a dynamic process interlinked with global change is a fairly recent concept. It gradually emerged as an evolution from new scientific theories, currents of thinking and lessons learned from large disasters since the 1970s. The interest was further heighten, in the mid-1980s, by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the discovery of the ozone layer hole, both bringing awareness that dangerous hazards can generate global impacts. The creation of the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) and the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990 reinforced the interest for global risk assessment. First global risk models including hazard, exposure and vulnerability components were available since mid-2000s. Since then increased computation power and more refined datasets resolution, led to more numerous and sophisticated global risk models. This article presents a recent history of global disaster risk models, the current status of researches for the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR 2013) and future challenges and limitations for the development of next generation global disaster risk models.

  13. Morphological variation in Staurastrum rotula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) in the deepest natural Brazilian lake: essence or accident?

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L G; Araujo, G J M; Barbosa, F A R; Bicudo, C E M

    2014-05-01

    For many decades, polymorphism and its consequences have only been studied from the taxonomic point of view. Presently, interest has switched to the environmental causes of morphological variation and its consequences in the form and essence of the species. This study aimed at evaluating desmids morphological modifications of Staurastrum rotula Nordstedt during inter-annual succession patterns in two warm monomitic tropical lakes: Dom Helvécio (19°45'- 19°48'45″S, 42°33'45″W) and Carioca (19°45'20″S, 42°37'12″W). The effect of thermal stability and light and nutrients availability was based on samples collected monthly from January 2002 to December 2006 compared the morphological modifications. Results indicated that morphological variation, asexual reproduction, theratological forms, mucilaginous envelope and fungal infection were highest in Lake Dom Helvécio and coincided with the biomass increase of species with complex morphology between September and March (stratification period). The Zmix oscillation, wind and rainfall occurring at the end of the mixing period and beginning of the stratification were suggested as autochthonous and allochthonous disturbance agents, respectively, identified as inducers of asexual reproduction and consequently of the morphological variation. It was suggested that incidence of parasitism may act as a potential controlling agent for the Staurastrum rotula population size. It was concluded that morphological variation represents accidents in the original form, i.e. in the desmid species essence, promoting the existence of ecoforms, not of new infraspecific taxa. PMID:25166322

  14. Disaster Master

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. But watch out! The wrong choice could end the game. Survive all 7 levels plus a turn in the hot seat and become a Disaster Master! Print ... 6 - Tsunami/Earthquake Level 7: Thunderstorm/Lightning ...

  15. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  16. 78 FR 75329 - Information Collection; Disaster Assistance (General)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... requests for natural disaster assistance during the 2013 fiscal year. DATES: We will consider comments that...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Disaster Assistance (General) AGENCY... support of Disaster Assistance programs. The information collection is needed to identify disaster...

  17. Bottom-up disaster resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2013-05-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake highlights some of the successes of government-led schemes to mitigate the impact of natural disasters. A stronger focus on individuals and local communities could reduce losses even further in the future.

  18. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  19. [Risk of accidents for a Parisian pedestrian].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P

    2001-12-01

    The risk of accident for a parisian pedestrian is of reduced frequency and of moderate severity (terrorism and natural disasters not included) according to the statistics of 1999. This is due to security measures and the excellent organisation of assistance to wounded persons. The improvement in protection of pedestrians, even the disabled and elderly persons will soon make Paris the best protected megalopolis of our continent. Pedestrians are involved in 28% of accidents on public streets with a mortality of 1.2%, with serious injuries in 12.6% of the cases. Injuries without collision occur in 57% of the cases. 18% of the wounded older than 75 years with 1.8% of deaths and 66% of severe injury. Accidents related to public transportation represent a very slight risk of 0.00044%. By modification of the concept of transportation and its materials over a five year period there is a decrease in the number of the victims (-3.75%), in spite of the increase of accidents (3.5%). For lone pedestrian being victims of aggression in public places, after a decrease of 10% in 1999, there is in 2001 an increase which raises the question of police proximity again. Over a five year period the RATP (subway authority) has noticed a 14.77% decrease of thefts and a 54.78% decrease in attacks... This makes the Parisian railnet (subway mostly) seven times less dangerous than the streets. PMID:11803819

  20. Special report: silent disasters.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anneli

    2007-12-01

    Disasters occur not only in war and conflict or after natural events, such as earthquakes or floods. In fact, the death of hundreds of thousands of children in Niger every year, often for treatable conditions, could just as well qualify as a disaster situation. A lack of funding for health care and health-care staff and user fee policies for health care in very poor or unstable settings challenge international agreements that make statements about the right to health and access to health care for all people. This paper argues that although sustainable development is important, today many are without essential health care and die in the silent disasters of hunger and poverty. In other words, the development of health care appears to be stalled for the sake of sustainability. PMID:17958672

  1. A Global System of in situ Sensors, Communication Satellites and in situ Actuators Dedicated to the Nearly-Real-Time Detection and Mitigation of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, M.

    2009-05-01

    Most of the ~ 230,000 lives lost in the Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 could have been saved if the victims had had 5 - 15 minutes notice of the tsunami's arrival, provided that the local authorities had had some evacuation plan in place, e.g. running up hill when a klaxon sounded, or retreating to low cost shelters constructed to provide a vertical escape from inundation. Similar structures, equipped with supplies of drinking water, food, blankets, etc., could save countless thousands of people from drowning in flood-prone locations such as Bangladesh or the delta region of Burma, or dying in the aftermath of such events. Given sufficiently rapid communications, a disaster nowcasting system could also order the closing of gas mains, or the powering down of electricity networks, as well as the sounding of klaxons, only tens of seconds before an earthquake wave strikes a major city such as Los Angeles. The central and critical requirement for mitigating natural disasters is two-way communication. Imagine a globally accessible internet collecting event-triggered messages from arrays of sensors (that detect inundation, for example) so they can be analyzed by centralized computer systems in nearly real-time, which then send instructions to alarm systems and actuators in the areas at risk. (Of course, local authorities would have to be involved in planning the local responses to alarms, in constructing rescue facilities, and in educating their populations accordingly). Only a constellation of satellites could provide a communications system with global accessibility and the required robustness. Such an infrastructure would allow the international community to exploit the many common elements in the detection, assessment and response to unfolding disasters. I shall describe some of the elements of such a system, for which I propose the working name CELERITY.

  2. Mold After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Disaster Mold Removal After a Disaster Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  3. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  4. Does time heal all wounds? Community attachment, natural resource employment, and health impacts in the wake of the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Cope, Michael R; Slack, Tim; Blanchard, Troy C; Lee, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    On April 20, 2010, the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon (BP-DH) oil rig exploded, resulting in the largest marine oil spill in history. In this paper we utilize one-of-a-kind household survey data-the Louisiana Community Oil Spill Survey-to examine the impacts of the BP-DH disaster on the mental and physical health of spill affected residents in coastal Louisiana, with a special focus on the influence of community attachment and natural resource employment. We find that levels of both negative mental and physical health were significantly more pronounced at baseline compared to later time points. We show that greater community attachment is linked to lower levels of negative health impacts in the wake of the oil spill and that the disaster had a uniquely negative impact on households involved in the fishing industry. Further, we find evidence that the relationship between community attachment and mental health is more pronounced at later points in time, and that the negative health impacts on fishers have worsened over time. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:23522000

  5. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... industrial accidents, oil spill) or intentional (e.g., mass shootings, arson, acts of terrorism). Engaging in disaster ... and your possessions for possible emergencies. Create a communication plan that allows you to stay connected to ...

  6. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  7. Natural hazard impact on the technosphere: "blackouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, natural-technological accidents (NTA) and disasters are increasing in their number and severity all over the world. The term "natural-technological accident (disaster)" applies for an accident (disaster) in the technosphere triggered by any natural process or phenomenon. Their growth is caused, on the one hand, by observed increasing in the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards and hazardous events due to climate change and, on the other hand, by a growing complication of the modern technosphere exposed to natural impacts and advancement of economic activities into the area at natural risk. The most large-scaled natural-technological disaster happened on March 11, 2011 in Japan, as a result of a massive earthquake and tsunami that caused a number of serious technological accidents, including accidents at "Fukushima-1" nuclear power plant, etc. Severe social, ecological and economic consequences of large-scaled NTA make investigation of these events especially important. The most frequent among NTA occurring in Russia are breakdowns in electric power supply systems that lead to so-called "blackouts" (accidental power outages). They are mainly caused by strong winds, snowstorms, deposition of ice, sleet, and snow, rainfalls, floods, and hailstones. Among other triggers earthquakes, hard frost, fierce heat, thunderstorms, landslides, snow avalanches, and debris flows should be mentioned. The great part of transmission facilities in Russia falls on overhead lines that are especially vulnerable to natural impacts. In general, natural triggers are responsible for more than 70 percent of all accidents in power supply systems. They occur more often in Far East, in the Southern and North-Western federal districts, and in some regions of the Central Russia, which are prone to hurricanes, cyclones, snowstorms, and heavy rainfalls accompanying by hailstones, icing, and sleet. A distinctive feature of these events is their synergistic nature, as power

  8. Remote Sensing Contributions to Prediction and Risk Assessment of Natural Disasters Caused by Large Scale Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer; Britch, S. C.; Tucker, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation measurements for the last 30 years combined with other climate data sets such as rainfall and sea surface temperatures have come to play an important role in the study of the ecology of arthropod-borne diseases. We show that epidemics and epizootics of previously unpredictable Rift Valley fever are directly influenced by large scale flooding associated with the El Ni o/Southern Oscillation. This flooding affects the ecology of disease transmitting arthropod vectors through vegetation development and other bioclimatic factors. This information is now utilized to monitor, model, and map areas of potential Rift Valley fever outbreaks and is used as an early warning system for risk reduction of outbreaks to human and animal health, trade, and associated economic impacts. The continuation of such satellite measurements is critical to anticipating, preventing, and managing disease epidemics and epizootics and other climate-related disasters.

  9. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  10. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:23140062

  11. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial and Hurricane Katrina: lessons for managing clinical trials during and after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, Roberta; Summerson, John; Reilly, Patricia; Blackwell, Caroline; Goff, David; Kimel, Angela R; Crago, Lenore; Fonseca, Vivian

    2008-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the most catastrophic natural disasters to hit the United States. It had a major impact on health care in New Orleans, LA and the surrounding region, not only in relation to acute illness but also chronic disease. When Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on August 29, 2005, there were 193 participants being followed in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial at Tulane University Health Sciences Center. In the immediate aftermath of the storm, the Tulane University ACCORD Study site, in collaboration with the Study Coordinating Center and the Southeast Clinical Center Network office of the trial at Wake Forest University Health Sciences in North Carolina, took several actions in order to locate the participants, ensure their safety, and maintain the scientific integrity of the trial. We describe the actions taken and the relative success/failure of such actions. PMID:18577469

  12. 44 CFR 206.181 - Use of gifts and bequests for disaster assistance purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... victims of natural disasters and other disasters not caused by or attributable to war. FEMA intends to use... disaster assistance purposes. 206.181 Section 206.181 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  13. Surviving Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  14. Indian research on disaster and mental health.

    PubMed

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on disaster mental health research is the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Key words like disasters, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami and flood were searched from its electronic database and relevant articles are discussed. The cross-referenced articles and relevant researches conducted on disasters in India which are published elsewhere were the secondary sources of information. There have been many epidemiological studies and only a few interventional studies on disasters in India. Prevalence figures of psychiatric disorders varied considerably across studies, secondary to nature and severity of disaster, degree of loss, support available and probably also due to the study methodology. Suggestions for intervention included pre-disaster planning, training of disaster workers, utilization of community-level volunteers as counselors, and strengthening existing individual, social and spiritual coping strategies. There is a need for more longitudinal follow-up studies and interventional studies. PMID:21836696

  15. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy

  16. A strategic plan for disaster medicine in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David A; Abraham, Ken; Franks, Rodney

    2003-06-01

    Disaster epidemiology reveals epidemic increases in incidence of disasters. Rare disasters with catastrophic consequences also threaten modern populations. This paper profiles natural disasters, transportation incidents, emerging infectious diseases, complex disasters and terrorism for their historical and future potential impact on Australasia. Emergency physicians are in a position to assume leadership roles within the disaster management community in Australasia. The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine is in a position to lead medical specialty advances in disaster medicine in Australasia. To optimize its impact in disaster medicine, the specialty and its College have opportunities for advances in key areas of College administration, intra and interinstitutional representation, disaster preparedness and planning, disaster relief operations, education and training programs, applied clinical research, and faculty development. PMID:12786649

  17. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  18. Children’s Play Environment after a Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Isami; Woolley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, together with the subsequent tsunami and nuclear power station accident, damaged a wide area of land. Children who experienced these terrible disasters and the post-disaster situation are still suffering in mental, physical and social ways. Children’s play is an activity that they undertake naturally and which can help them recover from such disasters. This paper addresses the role of play, adventure playgrounds and other play interventions, including play buses, for the health triangle, which addresses mental, physical and social issues of children after the disasters. These interventions were shown to be effective because children could express their stress. This included play for their mental health, different body movements for their physical health and communication with playworkers and new friends for restructuring their social health. These three aspects relate to and support each other within the health triangle. An increase in childhood obesity and lack of exercise is an additional health issue in Fukushima. For a balanced recovery within the health triangle, more play environments should be provided and some improved. A child’s right to play should be implemented in the recovery stage after a disaster. PMID:27417348

  19. Children's Play Environment after a Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Isami; Woolley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, together with the subsequent tsunami and nuclear power station accident, damaged a wide area of land. Children who experienced these terrible disasters and the post-disaster situation are still suffering in mental, physical and social ways. Children's play is an activity that they undertake naturally and which can help them recover from such disasters. This paper addresses the role of play, adventure playgrounds and other play interventions, including play buses, for the health triangle, which addresses mental, physical and social issues of children after the disasters. These interventions were shown to be effective because children could express their stress. This included play for their mental health, different body movements for their physical health and communication with playworkers and new friends for restructuring their social health. These three aspects relate to and support each other within the health triangle. An increase in childhood obesity and lack of exercise is an additional health issue in Fukushima. For a balanced recovery within the health triangle, more play environments should be provided and some improved. A child's right to play should be implemented in the recovery stage after a disaster. PMID:27417348

  20. Mass Fatality Management following the South Asian Tsunami Disaster: Case Studies in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Oliver W; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Perera, Clifford; Sulasmi, Yeddi; Van Alphen, Dana; Sondorp, Egbert

    2006-01-01

    Background Following natural disasters, mismanagement of the dead has consequences for the psychological well-being of survivors. However, no technical guidelines currently exist for managing mass fatalities following large natural disasters. Existing methods of mass fatality management are not directly transferable as they are designed for transport accidents and acts of terrorism. Furthermore, no information is currently available about post-disaster management of the dead following previous large natural disasters. Methods and Findings After the tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004, we conducted three descriptive case studies to systematically document how the dead were managed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. We considered the following parameters: body recovery and storage, identification, disposal of human remains, and health risks from dead bodies. We used participant observations as members of post-tsunami response teams, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants, and collected information from published and unpublished documents. Refrigeration for preserving human remains was not available soon enough after the disaster, necessitating the use of other methods such as dry ice or temporary burial. No country had sufficient forensic capacity to identify thousands of victims. Rapid decomposition made visual identification almost impossible after 24–48 h. In Thailand, most forensic identification was made using dental and fingerprint data. Few victims were identified from DNA. Lack of national or local mass fatality plans further limited the quality and timeliness of response, a problem which was exacerbated by the absence of practical field guidelines or an international agency providing technical support. Conclusions Emergency response should not add to the distress of affected communities by inappropriately disposing of the victims. The rights of survivors to see their dead treated with dignity and respect requires practical guidelines

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Bidirectional Relationship Between Social Support and Posttraumatic Stress Following a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jonathan M; Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-06-01

    There is ample evidence that social support is protective against posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms through social causation processes. It is also likely that PTS is associated with decreased social support through social selection processes. Few studies, however, have examined the longitudinal and bidirectional associations between social support and PTS in a postdisaster context, and whether such associations vary by type of support (e.g., emotional, informational, or tangible). We examined these relationships using Galveston Bay Recovery Study data. Participants (N = 658) were interviewed 2-6 months (W1), 5-9 months (W2), and 14-19 months (W3) after Hurricane Ike in 2008. Longitudinal relationships between each support type and PTS were examined in cross-lagged models. W1 emotional support was negatively associated with W2 PTS (Estimate = -.13, p = .007), consistent with social causation. W1 PTS was negatively associated with W2 emotional support (Estimate = -.14, p = .019), consistent with social selection. In contrast, pathways were nonsignificant at subsequent waves and for informational and tangible support. Results suggested that postdisaster social causation and selection were limited to emotional support and diminish over time. Based on these findings, postdisaster services should emphasize restoring supportive social connections to minimize the psychiatric consequences of disaster, especially among those with prior evidence of distress. PMID:27163339

  2. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  3. The Design of Data Disaster Recovery of National Fundamental Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Y.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.

    2014-04-01

    With the development of information technology, data security of information system is facing more and more challenges. The geographic information of surveying and mapping is fundamental and strategic resource, which is applied in all areas of national economic, defence and social development. It is especially vital to national and social interests when such classified geographic information is directly concerning Chinese sovereignty. Several urgent problems that needs to be resolved for surveying and mapping are how to do well in mass data storage and backup, establishing and improving the disaster backup system especially after sudden natural calamity accident, and ensuring all sectors rapidly restored on information system will operate correctly. For overcoming various disaster risks, protect the security of data and reduce the impact of the disaster, it's no doubt the effective way is to analysis and research on the features of storage and management and security requirements, as well as to ensure that the design of data disaster recovery system suitable for the surveying and mapping. This article analyses the features of fundamental geographic information data and the requirements of storage management, three site disaster recovery system of DBMS plan based on the popular network, storage and backup, data replication and remote switch of application technologies. In LAN that synchronous replication between database management servers and the local storage of backup management systems, simultaneously, remote asynchronous data replication between local storage backup management systems and remote database management servers. The core of the system is resolving local disaster in the remote site, ensuring data security and business continuity of local site. This article focuses on the following points: background, the necessity of disaster recovery system, the analysis of the data achievements and data disaster recovery plan. Features of this program is to use a

  4. Construction of Disaster Prevention Map Based on Digital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, H.-C.; Kim, J.-B.; Lee, J.-S.; Kang, I.-J.

    2012-08-01

    As global warming and has caused the number of abnormal changes, lots of damage has arisen recently due to natural disaster. To prevent and cope with these annually repeated natural hazards, the disaster management is required including the systematic management. Currently the national and related agencies are producing the flood hazard map and flood e map in case of disaster management and recovery, and coping with the disaster using them for building recovery plan, grasping disaster status and cause analysis. The hazard map is the one which indicates the calamity danger districts including the degree of risk in general and called the degree of disaster risk map or disaster expectation map and it means the map which marks the hazard zones by estimating the areas to coping with the natural disaster in the inclusive concept. Now that such hazard map should be understood easily from the place of the person concerned in the disaster, the production of new type of map which can be easily understood visually rather than the map by diagram. In this study, new concept disaster prevention map based on digital image and disaster attribute information was constructed. The various disaster information such as the areas of inundation of river, submergence and landslip caused by severe rain storm and typhoon is marked in the hazard information map, and the rescue route and refuge area are also marked by setting the damage-expected areas. The disaster prevention map is able to support quick decision making for disaster management and resident education.

  5. Disasters: where they find us.

    PubMed

    Bersch, Carren

    2010-05-01

    Preparing for a natural disaster starts with a thorough understanding of the geography of your particular location, as well as its weather patterns. Early planning must also look beyond the disaster to examine the possible consequences of such a disaster. While no disaster/emergency preparedness planners like to think of the bleakest outcome (i.e., mass fatalities), building in solutions at the outset of a plan alleviates having to figure them out in the middle of an earthquake, a fire, or a hurricane. January's earthquake in Haiti holds lessons for anyone who is part of a first responder or healthcare profession, and those lessons have been hard ones for the world to learn. PMID:20450332

  6. Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

    2013-11-01

    This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. PMID:24157398

  7. The disaster at Japan's Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the resulting spread of radioisotope contamination.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011 eastern Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and an enormous tsunami, over 13 m in height, which together killed over 20,500 people and resulted in the evacuation of over 320,000 people from the devastated areas. This paper describes the damage sustained by the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant during this unpredicted major natural disaster and the events that happened in the months after this accident. The events occurring at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, the actions taken to minimize the effects of the damage to the plant and to protect the public, and the points at which the responses proved to be inadequate all offer lessons that will be of value to those planning for and responding to future natural disasters and accidents in Japan and around the world. PMID:22059981

  8. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  9. Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltzkait, Anika; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria A. Maltzkait (1) & C. Pfurtscheller (1) (1) Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research (IGF), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria The extreme flood events of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria underlined the importance of local emergency services being able to withstand and reduce the adverse impacts of natural hazards. Although for legal reasons municipal emergency and crisis management plans exist in Austria, they mostly do not cover risk analyses of natural hazards - a sound, comparable assessment to identify and evaluate risks. Moreover, total losses and operational emergencies triggered by natural hazards have increased in recent decades. Given sparse public funds, objective budget decisions are needed to ensure the efficient provision of operating resources, like personnel, vehicles and equipment in the case of natural hazards. We present a case study of the municipality of Au, Austria, which was hardly affected during the 2005 floods. Our approach is primarily based on a qualitative risk analysis, combining existing hazard plans, GIS data, field mapping and data on operational efforts of the fire departments. The risk analysis includes a map of phenomena discussed in a workshop with local experts and a list of risks as well as a risk matrix prepared at that workshop. On the basis for the exact requirements for technical and non-technical mitigation measures for each natural hazard risk were analysed in close collaboration with members of the municipal operation control and members of the local emergency services (fire brigade, Red Cross). The measures includes warning, evacuation and, technical interventions with heavy equipment and personnel. These results are used, first, to improve the municipal emergency and crisis management plan by providing a risk map, and a

  10. Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

    2012-01-01

    Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

  11. Psychological Impact of Nuclear Disasters in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Latif, Finza; Yeatermeyer, Jessica; Horne, Zachary D; Beriwal, Sushil

    2015-10-01

    Although much has been written about the psychological impact of natural disasters, the impact of nuclear disasters has not been extensively studied in children. Nuclear disasters are unique because they are man-made and represent a failure of the safety systems put in place to contain dangerous radioactive materials. This article summarizes the available literature on 3 of the biggest nuclear disasters in history. There is a need for further investigation not only of the impact on children but also of whether the consequences are a direct result of the disaster, radiation exposure, or the psychosocial disruptions resulting from the disaster. PMID:26346391

  12. Considerations for emergencies & disasters in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Ronni; Pouletsos, Cheryl; Combs, Adriann

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines outside principles of emergency and disaster planning for neonatal intensive care units and includes resources available to organizations to support planning and education, and considerations for nurses developing hospital-specific neonatal intensive care unit disaster plans. Hospital disaster preparedness programs and unit-specific policies and procedures are essential in facilitating an effective response to major incidents or disasters, whether they are man-made or natural. All disasters place extraordinary stress on existing resources, systems, and personnel. If nurses in neonatal intensive care units work collaboratively to identify essential services in disasters, the result could be safer care for vulnerable patients. PMID:18664900

  13. Disaster response for people with disability.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Suzanne; Martin, Kathy; Gardner, Jevettra Devlin

    2016-04-01

    Emergency Preparedness for people with a disability has been a steadfast activity in the state of South Carolina. In October 2015, the state experienced a natural disaster termed "The 1000 Year Flood". The disability response to the disaster was swift due to the strong collaborative network. However, the disaster did present challenges that need to be further addressed. The retelling of South Carolina's response should be informative to other state programs that provide advocacy for people with disability. Agencies and organizations that respond to disasters can learn from South Carolina's experience to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are addressed rapidly and efficiently. PMID:26838471

  14. [Basic measures for prevention of the epidemiological consequences of a natural disaster in the North Caucasus in 2002].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I; Briukhanova, G D; Malashikhin, N T; Vovk, Iu I; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Koval'chuk, I V; Fedosova, G N

    2003-01-01

    The system of organizational and prophylactic measures, carried out with a view to prevent epidemiological aggravations in connection with the natural calamity in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation in 2003, is described. Proposals on the improvement of the system of preventive measures, including the monitoring of the epidemiological, sanitary and hygienic situation, personnel training, technical provision, the cooperation of different services and departments, capable of ensuring the liquidation of the consequences of emergency situations of the natural character, are made. PMID:14716967

  15. Libraries and Computers: Disaster Prevention and Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Surveys areas of vulnerability for library databases, provides guidelines to minimize the threat of disasters, and outlines recovery procedures. Topics covered include planning for natural catastrophes, designing physical and data environments, prevention of computer failure, vendor failure, and steps for developing a disaster prevention and…

  16. 77 FR 76585 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 12/11/2012. Incident: Natural Gas Explosion. Incident Period: 11/23/2012. Effective Date:...

  17. Project Impact: Building a Disaster Resistant Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    There have been well over 200 Presidentially declared disasters in the United States in the past 5 years. No state has been spared. The costs associated with these events are staggering. Communities can take responsibility for alleviating the impact of natural disasters to ensure citizen safety, prevent damage to facilities, prevent delays of…

  18. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  19. Teaching Disaster Preparedness in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Sven; Stone, Lee D.; Casey, Melinda C.; Curtis, Mary D.; Doyle, Amber L.; Earle, Brian D.; Jones, Douglas D.; Rodriguez, Philip; Schermerhorn, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme natural and human-made disasters can affect the lives of thousands of citizens. The only way we can prepare ourselves for such situations is to learn and establish basic survival strategies within our families and communities. This article explores how K-12 teachers could help educating children about disaster preparedness by utilizing…

  20. The Effect of Cause of Death on Responses to the Bereaved: Suicide Compared to Accident and Natural Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Breon G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of cause of death on responses to bereaved individual. Sixty adults listened to audiotape of recently bereaved widow. There were three versions of tape, each identical except for stated cause of death: suicide, accident, or heart attack. Found that respondents were more anxious after interaction than before. Perceptions of person…

  1. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. Methods We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case – an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Results and conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post- earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters. PMID:26090999

  2. Overview of Best Practices in Mitigating the Impact of Natural Disasters and Extreme Weather Phenomena on European Aviation - The MOWE-IT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlhausen, Thorsten; Kreuz, Michael; Temme, Annette; Nokkala, Marko; Nurmi, Pertti; Perrels, Adriaan; Hyvarinen, Otto; Yuga, Ilkka; Pylkko, Pirkko; Kral, Stephan; Schaetter, Frank; Bartsch, Mariana; Wiens, Marcus; Michaelides, Silas; Tymvios, Filippos; Papadakis, Matheos; Athanasatos, Spyros

    2014-05-01

    The European transport system has shown various degrees of vulnerability to external shocks such as severe weather events, which have partially or, in some cases, totally shut down part of the transport system. Under climate change conditions, the identification of Best Practices within the European area and the proposal of short, medium and long term solutions in order to deal with induced disruptions are vital to upkeep the efficiency and integrity of the European transport network. The MOWE-IT (Management of weather events in the transport system) project is a continuation of the work performed in up-to-date European projects such as the EWENT, WEATHER and ECCONET projects. Its aim is to identify such existing best practices and to develop methodologies in order to assist transport operators, authorities and transport system users to mitigate the impact of natural disasters and extreme weather phenomena on transport system performance. While the MOWE-IT project covers a wide number of transportation modes such as road, rail, marine transport, aviation and inland waterways, in this current work, an overview of the project's work performed in the aviation sector in Europe is presented. The MOWE-IT project is funded by the European Union, under its 7th Framework Programme (TRANSPORT SUPPORT ACTIONS).

  3. Mitigating the health impacts of a natural disaster--the June 2007 long-weekend storm in the Hunter region of New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Cretikos, Michelle A; Merritt, Tony D; Main, Kelly; Eastwood, Keith; Winn, Linda; Moran, Lucille; Durrheim, David N

    A severe storm that began on Thursday, 7 June 2007 brought heavy rains and gale-force winds to Newcastle, Gosford, Wyong, Sydney, and the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales. The storm caused widespread flooding and damage to houses, businesses, schools and health care facilities, and damaged critical infrastructure. Ten people died as a result of the storm, and approximately 6000 residents were evacuated. A natural disaster was declared in 19 local government areas, with damage expected to reach $1.5 billion. Additional demands were made on clinical health services, and interruption of the electricity supply to over 200,000 homes and businesses, interruption of water and gas supplies, and sewerage system pump failures presented substantial public health threats. A public health emergency operations centre was established by the Hunter New England Area Health Service to coordinate surveillance activities, respond to acute public health issues and prevent disease outbreaks. Public health activities focused on providing advice, cooperating with emergency service agencies, monitoring water quality and availability, preventing illness from sewage-contaminated flood water, assessing environmental health risks, coordinating the local government public health response, and surveillance for storm-related illness and disease outbreaks, including gastroenteritis. The local ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio station played a key role in disseminating public health advice. A household survey conducted within a fortnight of the storm established that household preparedness and storm warning systems could be improved. PMID:18072915

  4. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  5. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  6. Disaster Preparedness for University/Community Transit Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Geary Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Public transportation, with its open access, creates an opportunity for masses of people to be hurt while using transit services during human-made or natural disasters. This dissertation reviews the body of academic and professional literature and recent disaster events to characterize the current state of preparedness for disasters affecting…

  7. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... months for work related to recovery from a single natural disaster (described in § 631.3(f) of this part). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance §...

  8. Community Response in Disasters: An Ecological Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte; Kitagawa, Kaori; Edmonds, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Natural disasters are frequently exacerbated by anthropogenic mechanisms and have social and political consequences for communities. The role of community learning in disasters is seen to be increasingly important. However, the ways in which such learning unfolds in a disaster can differ substantially from case to case. This article uses a…

  9. Are you ready. Your guide to disaster preparedness. Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The handbook outlines basic steps to take in case of natural disasters (such as floods or tornadoes), man-made disasters (such as a nuclear power plant incident or industrial fire) and national security emergencies (such as an attack on the country). Each chapter ends with a list of publications one can get to find out more about disaster planning.

  10. Organizing Hazards, Engineering Disasters? Improving the Recognition of Political-Economic Factors in the Creation of Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; Gramling, Robert; Laska, Shirley; Erikson, Kai T.

    2008-01-01

    Disaster studies have made important progress in recognizing the unequally distributed consequences of disasters, but there has been less progress in analyzing social factors that help create "natural" disasters. Even well-known patterns of hazard-creation tend to be interpreted generically--as representing "economic development" or…

  11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  12. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  13. [Bacteriological provision of anti-epidemic measures in the zones of a natural disaster in Southern Russia in 2002].

    PubMed

    Evchenko, Iu M; Frantsuzov, V M

    2003-01-01

    The bacteriological provision of the prophylactic and anti-epidemic measures, taken under the conditions of the unstable sanitary and epidemiological situation which arose as the result of the emergency situation due to the high flood in the Southern Federal District, was carried out by the efforts and means of microbiological laboratories forming a part of the territorial system of observation and laboratory control. On the whole, more than 20,000 samples of water supplied to the population for drinking and household use, more than 10,000 samples of foodstuffs and cooking raw materials were examined in the Southern Federal District during the period of the liquidation of the medico-sanitary consequences of the emergency situation (June-August). To study the epidemic potential of the natural foci of quarantine infections and the probability of the spread of Bacillus anthracis from burial grounds for sick animals, the laboratory capacities of plague-control institutions were used. PMID:14716994

  14. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  15. Examining public trust in risk-managing organizations after a major disaster.

    PubMed

    Nakayachi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the public's trust in risk-managing organizations after suffering serious damage from a major disaster. It is natural for public trust to decrease in organizations responsible for mitigating the damage. However, what about trust in organizations that address hazards not directly related to the disaster? Based on the results of surveys conducted by a national institute, the Japanese government concluded, in a White Paper on Science and Technology, that the public's trust in scientists declined overall after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Because scientists play a key role in risk assessment and risk management in most areas, one could predict that trust in risk-managing organizations overall would decrease after a major disaster. The methodology of that survey, however, had limitations that prevented such conclusions. For this research, two surveys were conducted to measure the public's trust in risk-managing organizations regarding various hazards, before and after the Tohoku Earthquake (n = 1,192 in 2008 and n = 1,138 in 2012). The results showed that trust decreased in risk-managing organizations that deal with earthquakes and nuclear accidents, whereas trust levels related to many other hazards, especially in areas not touched by the Tohoku Earthquake, remained steady or even increased. These results reject the assertion that distrust rippled through all risk-managing organizations. The implications of this research are discussed, with the observation that this result is not necessarily gratifying for risk managers because high trust sometimes reduces public preparedness for disasters. PMID:24953080

  16. Nontherapeutic areas and their role in hospital surge capacity in facing disasters

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Mehrdad; Salehnia, Mohammad Hossein; Esmailian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unexpected events, accidents, wars, other natural, and unnatural disasters threaten human life. Hospitals especially emergency departments are the first line dealing with the disaster victims and on the other hand, are often full of patients. The purpose of this study is evaluating surge capacity of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital in facing disasters with the usage of nontherapeutic areas potential in a time of crisis. Materials and Methods: First, nontherapeutic areas having the conversional potential to be used as therapeutic areas were defined and then with applying standard formulas, and patient admission capacity was calculated. Results: After calculating, it was determined that there is a potential of hospitalization of 240 patients at the stadium next to the hospital, 100 patients in clinics, 1,000 patients in the indoor parking, and 3–4 thousand patients in the open space area. Conclusion: Hospital current capacity could be increased significantly in case of facing disasters through providing instructions, and pre-prepared plans. PMID:27169105

  17. [Effect of the 112 call system in major disasters and catastrophes].

    PubMed

    Britvić, Pavao; Cemerin, Damir; Trut, Damir

    2007-01-01

    The ever growing threat from different types of accidents, natural disasters and risks to the eco-system as well as potential dangers from terrorist attacks all bearing very serious consequences have incited countries in Europe and around the world to more intensely invest into systems and technologies that will lead to an increase in the efficiency of the emergency response and the reduction of the consequences of accidents and disasters. The system of the unique emergency response number is the entry point for seeking help thus enabling everyone in need of assistance regardless of the type of accident to request this assistance quickly not having to think about whom to call and who are all the responders he might need. Today the 112 system receives several thousand calls a day and they all initiate activities of emergency response elements within an optimal timeframe. We have to bear in mind that the complex protection and rescue system operates in accordance with strict procedures that need to ensure transparency, a systematic approach and adherence to the chain of command. The 112 system needs to be used rationally so as not to deprive the ones most in need and the efficiency of this is already confirmed through the data on the lives rescued through operations of the emergency medical flights, search and rescue activities, medical assistance on highways, etc. PMID:18283875

  18. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  19. Sources of Free and Open Source Spatial Data for Natural Disasters and Principles for Use in Developing Country Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Millington, James D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Access to reliable spatial and quantitative datasets (e.g., infrastructure maps, historical observations, environmental variables) at regional and site specific scales can be a limiting factor for understanding hazards and risks in developing country settings. Here we present a 'living database' of >75 freely available data sources relevant to hazard and risk in Africa (and more globally). Data sources include national scientific foundations, non-governmental bodies, crowd-sourced efforts, academic projects, special interest groups and others. The database is available at http://tinyurl.com/africa-datasets and is continually being updated, particularly in the context of broader natural hazards research we are doing in the context of Malawi and Kenya. For each data source, we review the spatiotemporal resolution and extent and make our own assessments of reliability and usability of datasets. Although such freely available datasets are sometimes presented as a panacea to improving our understanding of hazards and risk in developing countries, there are both pitfalls and opportunities unique to using this type of freely available data. These include factors such as resolution, homogeneity, uncertainty, access to metadata and training for usage. Based on our experience, use in the field and grey/peer-review literature, we present a suggested set of guidelines for using these free and open source data in developing country contexts.

  20. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  1. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  2. Learning from and Teaching about Disaster: The Case of the April 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Beverly; Hocutt, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how secondary teachers teach about disaster using the media during periods of declared natural disaster and post-disaster in their local communities. Issues of preparedness, pre and post disaster, were examined as well. Secondary teachers were queried in one public school system in the Southeastern…

  3. 25 CFR 170.206 - How is an emergency/disaster defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... natural disasters are: floods, droughts, earthquakes, tornadoes, landslides, avalanches, and severe storms... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is an emergency/disaster defined? 170.206 Section 170... is an emergency/disaster defined? (a) An emergency/disaster is damage to an IRR...

  4. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  5. Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Claudia; Jacob, Nadja; Schauer, Elisabeth; Kohila, Mahendran; Neuner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background The consequences of war violence and natural disasters on the mental health of children as well as on family dynamics remain poorly understood. Aim of the present investigation was to establish the prevalence and predictors of traumatic stress related to war, family violence and the recent Tsunami experience in children living in a region affected by a long-lasting violent conflict. In addition, the study looked at whether higher levels of war violence would be related to higher levels of violence within the family and whether this would result in higher rates of psychological problems in the affected children. Methods 296 Tamil school children in Sri Lanka's North-Eastern provinces were randomly selected for the survey. Diagnostic interviews were carried out by extensively trained local Master level counselors. PTSD symptoms were established by means of a validated Tamil version of the UCLA PTSD Index. Additionally, participants completed a detailed checklist of event types related to organized and family violence. Results 82.4% of the children had experienced at least one war-related event. 95.6% reported at least one aversive experience out of the family violence spectrum. The consequences are reflected in a 30.4% PTSD and a 19.6% Major Depression prevalence. Linear regression analyses showed that fathers' alcohol intake and previous exposure to war were significantly linked to the amount of maltreatment reported by the child. A clear dose-effect relationship between exposure to various stressful experiences and PTSD was found in the examined children. Conclusion Data argue for a relationship between war violence and violent behavior inflicted on children in their families. Both of these factors, together with the experience of the recent Tsunami, resulted as significant predictors of PTSD in children, thus highlighting the detrimental effect that the experience of cumulative stress can have on children's mental health. PMID:18454851

  6. The possible correlation between dental enamel hypoplasia and a historic natural disaster in the Roman population of Herculaneum (79 AD - central Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Anastasio, R; Cesana, D T; Viciano, J; Sciubba, M; Nibaruta, P; Capasso, L

    2013-01-01

    Dental enamel hypoplasia is usually read as a sign of a systematic growth disturbance during childhood. Following the analysis of human teeth from Herculaneum (79 AD, Central Italy), the authors focused on linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) manifestations in order to delineate a possible correlation between their frequency and distribution and the earthquake that occurred in 62 AD, which is well documented in historical literature. The human remains from Herculaneum were buried at the same time as the Vesuvius eruption and represent an exceptional snapshot of life in the Roman Imperial Age. The Goodman and Rose method (1990) was used for attributing an "age at the moment of stress" for every skeleton in order to delineate the epidemiology of the enamel hypoplasia. When LEH frequency was analysed by age, two different age groups showed relevant patterns of hypoplasia: the first peak was evident in individuals between 14 and 20 years who were younger than 6 years at the time of the 62 AD earthquake, and a second peak was noted in adults of 30 +/- 5 years old, which suggests the presence of another stressful event that occurred 10 years before the earthquake, around 53 AD. The bimodal distribution of enamel hypoplasia could be the consequence of two different historical periods characterized by instability in the food supply, unhygienic conditions, and epidemic episodes; our data suggest that the first peak could be related to a decline in health status as an effect of the 62 AD earthquake. The relationship between recent natural disasters and variations in health status in modern populations is well documented in scientific literature. Our research represents the first attempt to correlate the status of health to an earthquake of known date in an archaeological population. PMID:24620565

  7. Onboard Radar Processor Development for Disaster Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Clark, Duane; Hensley, Scott; Jones, Cathleen; Marks, Phillip; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards often result in significant loss of human lives, economic assets and productivity as well as significant damage to the ecosystem. Scientists have reported more frequent and intense natural disasters in recent years, which may well be attributed to climate change. Many of the disaster response efforts were hampered by lack of up-to-date knowledge of the state of the affected areas because damaged infrastructure rendered the areas inaccessible. Radar remote sensing is playing an increasingly critical role in providing timely information to disaster response agencies due to the increasing fidelity and availability of geospatial information products.

  8. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  9. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters. PMID:26169115

  10. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  11. The Fukushima nuclear disaster is ongoing.

    PubMed

    Marks, Andrew R

    2016-07-01

    The 5th anniversary of the Fukushima disaster and the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, the two most catastrophic nuclear accidents in history, both occurred recently. Images of Chernobyl are replete with the international sign of radioactive contamination (a circle with three broad spokes radiating outward in a yellow sign). In contrast, ongoing decontamination efforts at Fukushima lack international warnings about radioactivity. Decontamination workers at Fukushima appear to be poorly protected against radiation. It is almost as if the effort is to make the Fukushima problem disappear. A more useful response would be to openly acknowledge the monumental problems inherent in managing a nuclear plant disaster. Lessons from Chernobyl are the best predictors of what the Fukushima region of Japan is coping with in terms of health and environmental problems following a nuclear catastrophe. PMID:27214552

  12. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  13. Disaster waste management: A review article

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-15

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  14. Recommended satellite imagery capabilities for disaster management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. B.; Robinove, C. J.; Wiesnet, D. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores the role that satellite imaging systems might play in obtaining information needed in the management of natural and manmade disasters. Information requirements which might conceivably be met by satellite were identified for over twenty disasters. These requirements covered pre-disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, disaster response activities, and post-disaster recovery activities. The essential imaging satellite characteristics needed to meet most of the information requirements are 30 meter (or finer) spatial resolution, frequency of observations of one week or less, data delivery times of one day or less, and stereo, synoptic all-weather coverage of large areas in the visible, near infrared, thermal infrared and microwave bands. Of the current and planned satellite systems investigated for possible application to disaster management, Landsat-D and SPOT appear to have the greatest potential during disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, but all satellites studied have serious deficiencies during response and recovery activities. Several strawman concepts are presented for a satellite system optimized to support all disaster management activities.

  15. Disaster nephrology: crush injury and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gibney, R T Noel; Sever, Mehmet S; Vanholder, Raymond C

    2014-05-01

    Disasters result in a substantial number of renal challenges, either by the creation of crush injury in victims trapped in collapsed buildings or by the destruction of existing dialysis facilities, leaving chronic dialysis patients without access to their dialysis units, medications, or medical care. Over the past two decades, lessons have been learned from the response to a number of major natural disasters that have impacted significantly on crush-related acute kidney injury and chronic dialysis patients. In this paper we review the pathophysiology and treatment of the crush syndrome, as summarized in recent clinical recommendations for the management of crush syndrome. The importance of early fluid resuscitation in preventing acute kidney injury is stressed, logistic difficulties in disaster conditions are described, and the need for an implementation of a renal disaster relief preparedness program is underlined. The role of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force in providing emergency disaster relief and the logistical support required is outlined. In addition, the importance of detailed education of chronic dialysis patients and renal unit staff in the advance planning for such disasters and the impact of displacement by disasters of chronic dialysis patients are discussed. PMID:24107850

  16. DEPLOYABLE HOMES FOLLOWING NATURAL DISASTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duke University is partnering with Habitat for Humanity and the Planning and Housing Departments of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana to assist residents of the gulf coast area by attempting to identify relevant technologies that show promise for improving ...

  17. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response.

    PubMed

    Levitin, H W; Siegelson, H J

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous materials offer a variety of unique challenges to emergency personnel. These agents have immense economic impact, but when mishandled, they become notorious for turning contained accidents into disasters involving the entire community. During a hazmat accident, the victims often ignore the rules of the disaster plan by seeking out the nearest hospital for medical care, regardless of that institution's capabilities. Health care workers rushing to the aid of contaminated individuals, without taking appropriate precautions (i.e., donning PPE), potentially make themselves victims. Disaster preparedness requires planning, policy, and procedure development, hazard analysis, training, and the availability of personal protective equipment for all responding personnel. Presently, the level of hazmat preparedness varies greatly among different hospitals, EMS and fire services, and disaster response teams. These differences in hazmat preparedness can be linked to a variety of factors (lack of awareness, funding, and support) and controversies (types of PPE and level of training required) which have prevented the establishment of a national hazmat policy for most of these organizations. Despite these difficulties, emergency departments continue to be the primary provider of care to contaminated individuals. As a result, emergency physicians must work with their hospital to implement a hazmat decontamination program in order to appropriately care for these individuals. The appendix to this article presents a list of recommendations for hospital hazmat preparedness. It is modeled after existing CDC and OSHA guidelines. PMID:8635411

  18. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  19. Turning Bad News into a Teaching Moment: Using the Exploring Humanitarian Law Curriculum to Teach about the Impact of War and Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mat

    2010-01-01

    After a disaster, or in the midst of a conflict, the news that finds its way into people's homes has a uniquely powerful effect on their psyche. Vulnerable people are caught in destructive forces beyond their control. The scenes people see are post-apocalyptic. The stories are gripping, spanning themes of luck, loss, hope, love, and wild fear,…

  20. APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC STOCHASTIC MACROECONOMIC MODEL FOR LONG-TERM DISASTER PREVENTION PLANNING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segi, Shunsuke; Ishikura, Tomoki; Yokomatsu, Muneta

    This paper builds a dynamic stochastic macroeconomic model which deals with investment to disaster prevention infrastructure stock. The nature of disaster such as uncertainty, magnitude of damage and long run effects of damage are explicitly modeled. The model can derive optimal policy with regard to investment to productive capital stock and disaster prevention infrastructure stock. Furthermore, the numerical simulations give some interesting implications about the relationship between optimal investment policy, magnitude of disaster, level of economic development and disaster prevention technology.