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Sample records for accidents occur frequently

  1. Receptor Editing Occurs Frequently during Normal B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Retter, Marc W.; Nemazee, David

    1998-01-01

    Allelic exclusion is established in development through a feedback mechanism in which the assembled immunoglobulin (Ig) suppresses further V(D)J rearrangement. But Ig expression sometimes fails to prevent further rearrangement. In autoantibody transgenic mice, reactivity of immature B cells with autoantigen can induce receptor editing, in which allelic exclusion is transiently prevented or reversed through nested light chain gene rearrangement, often resulting in altered B cell receptor specificity. To determine the extent of receptor editing in a normal, non-Ig transgenic immune system, we took advantage of the fact that λ light chain genes usually rearrange after κ genes. This allowed us to analyze κ loci in IgMλ+ cells to determine how frequently in-frame κ genes fail to suppress λ gene rearrangements. To do this, we analyzed recombined VκJκ genes inactivated by subsequent recombining sequence (RS) rearrangement. RS rearrangements delete portions of the κ locus by a V(D)J recombinase-dependent mechanism, suggesting that they play a role in receptor editing. We show that RS recombination is frequently induced by, and inactivates, functionally rearranged κ loci, as nearly half (47%) of the RS-inactivated VκJκ joins were in-frame. These findings suggest that receptor editing occurs at a surprisingly high frequency in normal B cells. PMID:9763602

  2. Loss of BAP1 Expression Occurs Frequently in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andrici, Juliana; Goeppert, Benjamin; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Renner, Marcus; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Tayao, Michael; Watson, Nicole; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W; Smith, Ross C; Mittal, Anubhav; Samra, Jaswinder S; Hugh, Thomas J; Chou, Angela; Lawlor, Rita T; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Sperandio, Nicola; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Scarpa, Aldo; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Double hit BAP1 inactivation has been reported in a range of tumor types, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), sometimes in association with germline mutation.We performed immunohistochemistry for BAP1 on a well-characterized cohort of 211 ICC patients undergoing surgical resection with curative intent at 3 institutions based in 3 different countries. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range, 36.5-86) and 108 (51%) were men. Negative staining for BAP1 (defined as completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of positive internal controls in nonneoplastic cells) occurred in 55 ICCs (26%). BAP1 loss predicted a strong trend toward improved median survival of 40.80 months (95% CI, 28.14-53.46) versus 24.87 months (95% CI, 18.73-31.01), P = 0.059). In a multivariate model including age, sex, BAP1 status, tumor stage, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor size, female sex was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.85), while advanced tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.09-3.28) correlated with decreased survival. In a multivariate analysis, high grade tumors were associated with BAP1 loss (odds ratio [OR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.29-8.55), while lymphatic invasion was inversely associated with BAP1 loss (OR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.99).In conclusion, we observed a trend toward improved prognosis in ICC associated with absent expression of BAP1 and an association of BAP1 loss with higher histological grade and absent lymphatic invasion. Female sex was associated with improved survival while advanced tumor stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with decreased survival. PMID:26765459

  3. Loss of BAP1 Expression Occurs Frequently in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andrici, Juliana; Goeppert, Benjamin; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Renner, Marcus; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Tayao, Michael; Watson, Nicole; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W.; Smith, Ross C.; Mittal, Anubhav; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Hugh, Thomas J.; Chou, Angela; Lawlor, Rita T.; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Sperandio, Nicola; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Scarpa, Aldo; Gill, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Double hit BAP1 inactivation has been reported in a range of tumor types, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), sometimes in association with germline mutation. We performed immunohistochemistry for BAP1 on a well-characterized cohort of 211 ICC patients undergoing surgical resection with curative intent at 3 institutions based in 3 different countries. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range, 36.5–86) and 108 (51%) were men. Negative staining for BAP1 (defined as completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of positive internal controls in nonneoplastic cells) occurred in 55 ICCs (26%). BAP1 loss predicted a strong trend toward improved median survival of 40.80 months (95% CI, 28.14–53.46) versus 24.87 months (95% CI, 18.73–31.01), P = 0.059). In a multivariate model including age, sex, BAP1 status, tumor stage, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor size, female sex was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34–0.85), while advanced tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.09–3.28) correlated with decreased survival. In a multivariate analysis, high grade tumors were associated with BAP1 loss (odds ratio [OR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.29–8.55), while lymphatic invasion was inversely associated with BAP1 loss (OR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13–0.99). In conclusion, we observed a trend toward improved prognosis in ICC associated with absent expression of BAP1 and an association of BAP1 loss with higher histological grade and absent lymphatic invasion. Female sex was associated with improved survival while advanced tumor stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with decreased survival. PMID:26765459

  4. A survey of accidents occurring during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail.

    PubMed

    Oggero, A; Darbra, R M; Muñoz, M; Planas, E; Casal, J

    2006-05-20

    A study of 1932 accidents that occurred during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail from the beginning of the 20th century to July 2004 was carried out. The results obtained show an increase in the frequency of accidents over time. More than half of the accidents happened on roads (63%). The most frequent accidents were releases (78%), followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and gas clouds (6%). The various causes of the accidents, the type of substance involved and the consequences for the population (number of people killed, injured or evacuated) were also analysed. Among the diverse measures taken to improve this situation, the training of professional people involved in transportation seems to be of major importance. PMID:16298045

  5. Descriptions of selected accidents that have occurred at nuclear reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to provide the members of the Commission with some insight into the nature and significance of accidents that have occurred at nuclear reactor facilities in the past. Toward that end, this report presents a brief description of 44 accidents which have occurred throughout the world and which meet at least one of the severity criteria that were established.

  6. Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Melson, J; Desai, V; Greenspan, M; Yau, S; Abdalla, M; Dhanekula, R; Mobarhan, S; Shapiro, D; Losurdo, J; Jakate, S

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance endoscopy of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE) that fails to detect intestinal metaplasia (IM), or negative surveillance, is known to occur in clinical practice, although the frequency and possible outcomes in a large cohort in clinical practice is not well described. The goals of this study were to define frequency in which negative surveillance occurs and endoscopic outcomes in a screening cohort of short segment NDBE. A retrospective cohort (n = 184) of patients newly diagnosed with short segment NDBE at an outpatient academic tertiary care center between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed. Only those with one or more surveillance endoscopies were included to define a frequency of negative surveillance. Included patients were further assessed if they had two or more surveillance endoscopies and were classified into groups as sampling error or negative IM on consecutive surveillances based on the results of their surveillance endoscopies. The frequency of a negative surveillance endoscopy in all short-segment NDBE patients was 19.66% (92 endoscopic exams were negative for IM of 468 total surveillance exams). A negative surveillance endoscopy occurred in 40.76% (n = 75) patients. Sampling error occurred in 44.12% and negative IM on consecutive surveillance endoscopies in 55.88% of those with ≥ 2 surveillance endoscopies and an initially negative surveillance exam. The frequency of negative IM on consecutive surveillances was 19.00% of all patients who had two surveillance endoscopies. When the index diagnostic Barrett's esophagus segment length was < 1 cm, 32.14% (18/56) of all patients (with ≥ 2 surveillance endoscopies) had negative IM on consecutive surveillance endoscopies. Negative surveillance occurs frequently in short-segment NDBE. When an initial negative surveillance endoscopy occurs, it may be due to either a sampling error or lack of detectable IM on surveillance exam. When a <1 cm segment of NDBE is diagnosed, a significant

  7. Mortality-based Quantification of Injury Severity for Frequently Occurring Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A.; Barnard, Ryan T.; Kilgo, Patrick D.; Martin, R. Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to develop mortality-based metrics of injury severity for frequent motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries. Injury severity was quantified with mortality-based metrics for 240 injuries comprising the top 95% most frequently occurring AIS 2+ injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000–2011. Mortality risk ratios (MRRs) were computed by dividing the number of deaths by occurrences for each of the 240 injuries using National Trauma Data Bank Research Data System (NTDB-RDS) MVC cases. MRRMAIS was computed using only patients with a maximum AIS (MAIS) equal to the AIS severity of a given injury. Each injury had an associated MRR and MRRMAIS which ranged from zero (0% mortality representing low severity) to one (100% or universal mortality representing high severity). Injuries with higher MRR and MRRMAIS values are considered more severe because they resulted in a greater proportion of deaths among injured patients. The results illustrated an overall positive trend between AIS severity and the MRR and MRRMAIS values as expected, but showed large variations in MRR and MRRMAIS for some injuries of the same AIS severity. Mortality differences up to 83% (MRR) and 54% (MRRMAIS) were observed for injuries of the same AIS severity. The MRR-based measures of injury severity indicate that some lower AIS severity injuries may result in as many deaths as higher AIS severity injuries. This data-driven determination of injury severity using MRR and MRRMAIS provides a supplement or an alternative to AIS severity classification. PMID:24406961

  8. Mortality-based Quantification of Injury Severity for Frequently Occurring Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Barnard, Ryan T; Kilgo, Patrick D; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to develop mortality-based metrics of injury severity for frequent motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries. Injury severity was quantified with mortality-based metrics for 240 injuries comprising the top 95% most frequently occurring AIS 2+ injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2011. Mortality risk ratios (MRRs) were computed by dividing the number of deaths by occurrences for each of the 240 injuries using National Trauma Data Bank Research Data System (NTDB-RDS) MVC cases. MRRMAIS was computed using only patients with a maximum AIS (MAIS) equal to the AIS severity of a given injury. Each injury had an associated MRR and MRRMAIS which ranged from zero (0% mortality representing low severity) to one (100% or universal mortality representing high severity). Injuries with higher MRR and MRRMAIS values are considered more severe because they resulted in a greater proportion of deaths among injured patients. The results illustrated an overall positive trend between AIS severity and the MRR and MRRMAIS values as expected, but showed large variations in MRR and MRRMAIS for some injuries of the same AIS severity. Mortality differences up to 83% (MRR) and 54% (MRRMAIS) were observed for injuries of the same AIS severity. The MRR-based measures of injury severity indicate that some lower AIS severity injuries may result in as many deaths as higher AIS severity injuries. This data-driven determination of injury severity using MRR and MRRMAIS provides a supplement or an alternative to AIS severity classification. PMID:24406961

  9. The generation of aerosols by accidents which may occur during plant-scale production of micro-organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, J.; Pomeroy, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to simulate accidents which may occur during large-scale production of micro-organisms. Four types of accident, which were considered to be the most likely to result in the greatest hazard to health, were simulated using a bacterial model. The accidents were all concerned with faults occurring in the operation of the microbial fermenter. Gross contamination of surfaces occurred in all experiments, but only three types of accident produced a measurable aerosol. PMID:6350448

  10. Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; Armond, Jane de Eston; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Pernambuco, Henrique; Iporre, Ramiro Ortiz; Colombo-Souza, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327804

  11. 43 CFR 3276.15 - How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occurring at my utilization facility? 3276.15 Section 3276.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Reports: Utilization Operations § 3276.15 How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility? You must orally inform us of all accidents that affect operations...

  12. 43 CFR 3276.15 - How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occurring at my utilization facility? 3276.15 Section 3276.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Reports: Utilization Operations § 3276.15 How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility? You must orally inform us of all accidents that affect operations...

  13. 43 CFR 3276.15 - How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurring at my utilization facility? 3276.15 Section 3276.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Reports: Utilization Operations § 3276.15 How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility? You must orally inform us of all accidents that affect operations...

  14. 43 CFR 3276.15 - How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occurring at my utilization facility? 3276.15 Section 3276.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Reports: Utilization Operations § 3276.15 How must I notify BLM of accidents occurring at my utilization facility? You must orally inform us of all accidents that affect operations...

  15. Analysis of Two Electrocution Accidents in Greece that Occurred due to Unexpected Re-energization of Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    Baka, Aikaterini D.; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K.

    2014-01-01

    Investigation and analysis of accidents are critical elements of safety management. The over-riding purpose of an organization in carrying out an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents, as well as seek a general improvement in the management of health and safety. Hundreds of workers have suffered injuries while installing, maintaining, or servicing machinery and equipment due to sudden re-energization of power lines. This study presents and analyzes two electrical accidents (1 fatal injury and 1 serious injury) that occurred because the power supply was reconnected inadvertently or by mistake. PMID:25379331

  16. Analysis of Two Electrocution Accidents in Greece that Occurred due to Unexpected Re-energization of Power Lines.

    PubMed

    Baka, Aikaterini D; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K

    2014-09-01

    Investigation and analysis of accidents are critical elements of safety management. The over-riding purpose of an organization in carrying out an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents, as well as seek a general improvement in the management of health and safety. Hundreds of workers have suffered injuries while installing, maintaining, or servicing machinery and equipment due to sudden re-energization of power lines. This study presents and analyzes two electrical accidents (1 fatal injury and 1 serious injury) that occurred because the power supply was reconnected inadvertently or by mistake. PMID:25379331

  17. Neural repetition suppression in ventral occipito-temporal cortex occurs during conscious and unconscious processing of frequent stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan R; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Levy, Jonathan; De Palma, Luca; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Bertrand, Olivier; Lutz, Antoine; Jerbi, Karim; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-15

    Stimulus repetition can produce neural response attenuation in stimulus-category selective networks within the occipito-temporal lobe. It is hypothesized that this neural suppression reflects the functional sharpening of local neuronal assemblies which boosts information processing efficiency. This neural suppression phenomenon has been mainly reported during conditions of conscious stimulus perception. The question remains whether frequent stimuli processed in the absence of conscious perception also induce repetition suppression in those specialized networks. Using rare intracranial EEG recordings in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC) of human epileptic patients we investigated neural repetition suppression in conditions of conscious and unconscious visual processing of words. To this end, we used an orthogonal design manipulating respectively stimulus repetition (frequent vs. unique stimuli) and conscious perception (masked vs. unmasked stimuli). By measuring the temporal dynamics of high-frequency broadband gamma activity in VOTC and testing for main and interaction effects, we report that early processing of words in word-form selective networks exhibits a temporal cascade of modulations by stimulus repetition and masking: neuronal attenuation initially is observed in response to repeated words (irrespective of consciousness), that is followed by a second modulation contingent upon word reportability (irrespective of stimulus repetition). Later on (>300ms post-stimulus), a significant effect of conscious perception on the extent of repetition suppression was observed. The temporal dynamics of consciousness, the recognition memory processes and their interaction revealed in this study advance our understanding of their contributions to the neural mechanisms of word processing in VOTC. PMID:24667455

  18. Sensitization of skin mast cells with IgE antibodies to Culicoides allergens occurs frequently in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Miller, William H; Erb, Hollis N; Lunn, D Paul; Antczak, Douglas F

    2009-11-15

    in the activation of mast cells or basophils in young horses and their role in the sensitization of adult horses remains unclear. Sensitization to Culicoides allergen in the absence of clinical disease was frequently found in horses of all age groups. Because many clinically healthy horses developed skin reactions to this allergen, sensitization results are useful to diagnose Culicoides-induced allergy only in horses with allergic conditions. PMID:19836083

  19. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  20. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    PubMed Central

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  1. The simulation of a criticality accident excursion occurring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    Analysis of a criticality accident scenario occuring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method is demonstrated by examining the last Godiva-I criticality accident. The basis tools and information for creating a coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic code are presented. Simplifying assumptions and approximations for creating an idealized model for the Godiva-I system are discussed. Estimates of the total energy generation and the maximum attainable kinetic energy yield are the most important results that are obtained from the code. With modifications, the methodology presented in this paper can be extended to analyze criticality accident excursions in other kinds of nuclear systems.

  2. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN DISASTER RESTORATION WORK FOLLOWING THE NIIGATA CHUETSU EARTHQUAKE (2004) AND THE NIIGATA CHUETSU-OKI EARTHQUAKE (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuya; Noda, Masashi; Kikkawa, Naotaka; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Suemasa, Naoaki

    Labour accidents in disaster-relief and disaster restoration work following the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004) and the Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) were analysed and characterised in order to raise awareness of the risks and hazards in such work. The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake affected houses and buildings rather than roads and railways, which are generally disrupted due to landslides or slope failures caused by earthquakes. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall to lower level," which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides and slope failures were much more prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring in geotechnical works rather than in construction works. Therefore, care should be taken in preventing "fall to lower level" accidents associated with repair work on the roofs of low-rise houses, "cut or abrasion" accidents due to the demolition of damaged houses and "caught in or compressed by equipment" accidents in road works and water and sewage works.

  3. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  4. Play it again: did this melody occur more frequently or was it heard more recently? The role of stimulus familiarity in episodic recognition of music.

    PubMed

    McAuley, J Devin; Stevens, Catherine; Humphreys, Michael S

    2004-05-01

    Episodic recognition of novel and familiar melodies was examined by asking participants to make judgments about the recency and frequency of presentation of melodies over the course of two days of testing. For novel melodies, recency judgments were poor and participants often confused the number of presentations of a melody with its day of presentation; melodies heard frequently were judged as have been heard more recently than they actually were. For familiar melodies, recency judgments were much more accurate and the number of presentations of a melody helped rather than hindered performance. Frequency judgments were generally more accurate than recency judgments and did not demonstrate the same interaction with musical familiarity. Overall, these findings suggest that (1) episodic recognition of novel melodies is based more on a generalized "feeling of familiarity" than on a specific episodic memory, (2) frequency information contributes more strongly to this generalized memory than recency information, and (3) the formation of an episodic memory for a melody depends either on the overall familiarity of the stimulus or the availability of a verbal label. PMID:15111232

  5. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  6. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TDP-43 inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia M; Trojanowksi, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Bonini, Nancy M

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma, an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly-A binding protein-1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules (i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress). We report on the colocalization of PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and fused-in-sarcoma inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate polyglutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein that is important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may differ depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  7. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia, M.; Trojanowksi, John Q.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Edward B.; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly A binding protein 1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules, i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress. We report on the colocalization PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and FUS inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate poly glutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may be different depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  8. Toxic Peptides Occur Frequently in Pergid and Argid Sawfly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Rozenberg, Raoul; Shinohara, Akihiko; Schmidt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Toxic peptides containing D-amino acids are reported from the larvae of sawfly species. The compounds are suspected to constitute environmental contaminants, as they have killed livestock grazing in areas with congregations of such larvae, and related larval extracts are deleterious to ants. Previously, two octapeptides (both called lophyrotomin) and three heptapeptides (pergidin, 4-valinepergidin and dephosphorylated pergidin) were identified from three species in the family Pergidae and one in Argidae. Here, the hypothesis of widespread occurrence of these peptides among sawflies was tested by LC-MS analyses of single larvae from eight pergid and 28 argid species, plus nine outgroup species. At least two of the five peptides were detected in most sawfly species, whereas none in any outgroup taxon. Wherever peptides were detected, they were present in each examined specimen of the respective species. Some species show high peptide concentrations, reaching up to 0.6% fresh weight of 4-valinepergidin (1.75 mg/larva) in the pergid Pterygophorus nr turneri. All analyzed pergids in the subfamily Pterygophorinae contained pergidin and 4-valinepergidin, all argids in Arginae contained pergidin and one of the two lophyrotomins, whereas none of the peptides was detected in any Perginae pergid or Sterictiphorinae argid (except in Schizocerella pilicornis, which contained pergidin). Three of the four sawfly species that were previously known to contain toxins were reanalyzed here, resulting in several, often strong, quantitative and qualitative differences in the chemical profiles. The most probable ecological role of the peptides is defense against natural enemies; the poisoning of livestock is an epiphenomenon. PMID:25121515

  9. [Minor and major work accidents in a Puglia business in the food sector: a 10-year study].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Zocchetti, C; Platania, A; De Francesco, G; De Metrio, R; Pirris, A; Gigante, M R

    1998-01-01

    At present no official data are available for those occupational accidents which, according to current law, are not subject to notification to the Italian National Institute for Insurance of Occupational Accidents (INAIL) and which are conventionally called "minor" accidents. They can be divided into accidents with prognosis from 1 to 3 days (franchises) and accidents which do not cause absence from work (medications). The already mentioned lack of data, which is not confined to Italy, is reflected in the small number of articles published in Italian and international journals. Also information regarding the possible relationships between "minor" accidents and the life habits of injured workers, are rare. The aim of this study was to provide detailed data on the characteristics of the different kinds of occupational accidents occurring in a food factory in Apulia, southern Italy, from 1985 to 1994, as well as to verify whether any relationship existed between the different types of occupational accidents and the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol by injured workers. The company's accident register yielded data on injuries which caused absence from work; the nursing service register provided information about accidents which did not determine absence from work; personal health documents gave details of worker life habits; and the company pay roll showed the amount of "worked hours". "Minor" accidents represented 70% of all accidents occurring during the ten year period studied. "Blue collars" had more frequent and serious occupational injuries, in comparison with "technical employees". "Minor" accidents, and especially "medications", occurred more frequently during one-shift work than during three-shift work. As work seniority increased, the number of "major" accidents decreased and number of accidents without absence from work rose. Contusions were the most frequent lesions and were responsible for the majority of the 3 kinds of accidents. "Medications" together

  10. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  11. Pressure to produce=pressure to reduce accident reporting?

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Graso, Maja

    2013-10-01

    Each year, more than 4 million U.S. workers are injured on the job - several thousand die (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008). Despite these staggering numbers, research suggests that they are gross underestimates of the true volume of workplace related illnesses and injuries due to accident under-reporting. Although accident under-reporting has been well-documented, less is known regarding why this occurs. The current study suggests that under-reporting may in part be due to high levels of perceived production pressure. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that production pressure would be related to more experienced accidents overall and more negative attitudes toward reporting accidents. Further, we expected that production pressure would exacerbate the under-reporting of accidents. Survey data were collected from a sample of 212 copper mining workers located in the southwestern United States. The survey measured employee perceptions regarding production pressure, attitudes toward reporting accidents, perceived consequences of reporting accidents, and actual reporting behaviors (e.g., types and numbers of accidents experienced vs. reported). As predicted, the average number of experienced accidents per employee was significantly higher (M=2.84) than the number of reported accidents (M=.49). In addition, production pressure was related to more negative reporting attitudes. Individuals who had positive reporting attitudes were injured less frequently; however, when an incident occurred, they were more likely to report it. Finally, higher levels of production pressure were related to greater accident under-reporting. Additionally, employees who perceived high levels of production pressure not only experienced more accidents overall, they also reported fewer of them to the organization. Implications for occupational safety initiatives--particularly in the current economic climate--are discussed, as are methodological challenges of conducting research in

  12. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%). The majority of the injured persons were male (86%), over 40-years-old (86%) with an agricultural or forestry education (91%). The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69%) and on afternoons during the working week (79%). The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55%) and the loss of control (73%) during their operation (60%) and harvesting work (63%). The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81%) to the upper and lower extremities (66%). The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work. PMID:25780843

  13. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  14. Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

  15. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  16. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  17. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  18. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhou, Jingbo; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2010-12-15

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China. PMID:20863620

  19. Accident profile of older people in Antalya City Center, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Levent; Gokkoca, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Accidents are major health problems leading to deaths and injuries among older people. The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the accidents experienced within the last 1 year in people aged 60 years and older living in Antalya City Center. The study was planned as a cross-sectional research. A total of 840 individuals selected from the study population with cluster-sampling method were used in questionnaires. A number of 163 (19.4%) individuals had at least one accident in the last year. A total of 178 accidents were reported within the last 1-year; 124 (69.7%) falls, 22 (12.4%) traffic accidents and 12 (6.7%) dropping of objects to head. The accidents occurred mostly at home (40.4%), at avenue-street etc. (31.5%), and in garden (8.4%). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that accident frequency was positively related with female gender (odds=1.79, P<0.05), disability of lower extremities (odds=1.63, P<0.05) and hearing impairment (odds=2.01, P<0.05) whereas it was negatively related with living in detached house (odds=0.41, P<0.05). It was found that accidents caused health (82.0%) and financial (38.2%) problems in elderly and also the disabilities in daily activities (66.3%). Average numbers of days with disability in daily activities were 21.1 in 1 year per accident and 5.7 in 1 year per individual. Occurrence of health problems and disability in daily activities were more frequent among women compared to men (P<0.05). Methods like environmental measures or educational programs to prevent accidents and accident-related injuries must be focused on defined risk groups and places where the accidents occur more frequently. Future researches about the effectiveness of prevention in elderly on accident frequency, mortality and morbidity are needed to deal with this current problem. PMID:12888223

  20. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  1. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  2. Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Symptoms Following Occupational Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Ghisi, Marta; Novara, Caterina; Buodo, Giulia; Kimble, Matthew O.; Scozzari, Simona; Di Natale, Arianna; Sanavio, Ezio; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but not necessarily life-threatening, injury. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the psychological consequences of accidents occurring in several occupational settings (e.g., construction and industry). Thirty-eight victims of occupational accidents (injured workers) and 38 gender-, age-, and years of education-matched workers who never experienced a work accident (control group) were recruited. All participants underwent a semi-structured interview administered by a trained psychologist, and then were requested to fill in the questionnaires. Injured workers reported more severe anxious, post-traumatic and depressive symptoms, and poorer coping skills, as compared to controls. In the injured group low levels of resilience predicted post-traumatic symptomatology, whereas the degree of physical injury and the length of time since the accident did not play a predictive role. The results suggest that occupational accidents may result in a disabling psychopathological condition, and that a brief psychological evaluation should be included in the assessment of seriously injured workers. PMID:25379258

  3. Psychological distress and post-traumatic symptoms following occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Marta; Novara, Caterina; Buodo, Giulia; Kimble, Matthew O; Scozzari, Simona; Di Natale, Arianna; Sanavio, Ezio; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but not necessarily life-threatening, injury. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the psychological consequences of accidents occurring in several occupational settings (e.g., construction and industry). Thirty-eight victims of occupational accidents (injured workers) and 38 gender-, age-, and years of education-matched workers who never experienced a work accident (control group) were recruited. All participants underwent a semi-structured interview administered by a trained psychologist, and then were requested to fill in the questionnaires. Injured workers reported more severe anxious, post-traumatic and depressive symptoms, and poorer coping skills, as compared to controls. In the injured group low levels of resilience predicted post-traumatic symptomatology, whereas the degree of physical injury and the length of time since the accident did not play a predictive role. The results suggest that occupational accidents may result in a disabling psychopathological condition, and that a brief psychological evaluation should be included in the assessment of seriously injured workers. PMID:25379258

  4. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  5. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  6. Major chemical accidents in industrializing countries: the socio-political amplification of risk.

    PubMed

    de Souza Porto, M F; de Freitas, C M

    1996-02-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry, such as those that took place in Seveso (1976) and Bhopal (1984), may kill or injure thousands of people, cause serious health hazards and irreversible environmental damage. The aim of this paper is to examine the ever-increasing risk of similar accidents becoming a frequent ocurrence in the so-called industrializing countries. Using figures from some of the worst chemical accidents in the last decades, data on the Bhopal disaster, and Brazil's social and institutional characteristics, we put forward the hypothesis that present social, political and economic structures in industrializing countries make these countries much more vulnerable to such accidents and create the type of setting where--if and when these accidents occur--they will have even more catastrophic consequences. The authors argue that only the transformation of local structures, and stronger technical cooperation between international organizations, industrialized and industrializing countries could reduce this vulnerability. PMID:8868221

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  8. Epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents in a metropolitan area of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Jacinto, Camilla N; Lima, Caroline B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  9. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    PubMed

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places. PMID:23903263

  10. The situation of hazardous chemical accidents in China between 2000 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; Chen, Guohua; Ye, Qing; Chen, Qingguang

    2011-02-28

    From the aspects of the total quantity of accidents, regional inequality, enterprises scale and environmental pollution accidents, this study makes an analysis of hazardous chemical accidents in China for the period spanning from 2000 to 2006. The following results are obtained: firstly, there were lots of accidents and fatalities in hazardous chemical business, i.e., the number of casualty accidents fluctuated between 200 and 600/year, the number of fatality fluctuated between 220 and 1100/year. Secondly, the accident rate in developed southeast coastal areas, e.g., Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, was far higher than that in the northwest regions, e.g., Xizang, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. Thirdly, nearly 80% of dangerous chemical accidents had occurred in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, various sudden environmental pollution accidents resulted from hazardous chemicals were frequent in recent years, causing a huge damage to human and property. Then, based on the readjustment of economic structure in the last decades, the development status of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in SMEs and other factors, the paper explores the main causes, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce hazardous chemical accidents. PMID:21239108

  11. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  12. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  13. [Recreational boating accidents--Part 1: Catamnestic study].

    PubMed

    Lignitz, Eberhard; Lustig, Martina; Scheibe, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Deaths on the water are common in the autopsy material of medicolegal institutes situated on the coast or big rivers and lakes (illustrated by the example of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Greifswald University). They mostly occur during recreational boating activities. Apart from hydro-meteorological influences, human error is the main cause of accidents. Often it is not sufficiently kept in mind whether the boat crew is fit for sailing and proper seamanship is ensured. Drowning (following initial hypothermia) is the most frequent cause of death. Medicolegal aspects are not decisive for ordering a forensic autopsy. As statistics are not compiled in a uniform way, a comparison of the data of different institutions engaged in investigating deaths at sea and during water sports activities is hardly possible, neither on a national nor an international basis--and the reconstruction of aquatic accidents is generally difficult. Fatal accidents can only be prevented by completely clarifying their causes. PMID:24683870

  14. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

  15. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  16. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  17. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  18. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents. PMID:11787547

  19. [Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's. PMID:15773178

  20. Behavioral Precursors to Accidents and Resulting Physical Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea

    1995-01-01

    Determined whether there are developmental precursors to accidents and resulting physical impairment. Data collected at ages 8 and 14 (147 males and 142 females) were related to the number of types of accidents and impairment by the age of 27. Accidents and impairment were most frequent among individuals whose behavior had been characterized by…

  1. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  2. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  3. Avalanche risk in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2014-08-01

    In Switzerland, the vast majority of avalanche accidents occurs during recreational activities. Risk analysis studies mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e. how many and where people are recreating. We compared the accident data (backcountry touring) with reports from two social media mountaineering networks - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. On these websites, users reported more than 15 000 backcountry tours during the five winters 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. We noted similar patterns in avalanche accident data and user data like demographics of recreationists, distribution of the day of the week (weekday vs. weekend) or weather conditions (fine vs. poor weather). However, we also found differences such as the avalanche danger conditions on days with activities and accidents, but also the geographic distribution. While backcountry activities are concentrated in proximity to the main population centres in the West and North of the Swiss Alps, a large proportion of the severe avalanche accidents occurred in the inner-alpine, more continental regions with frequently unfavorably snowpack structure. This suggests that even greater emphasis should be put on the type of avalanche problem in avalanche education and avalanche forecasting to increase the safety of backcountry recreationists.

  4. Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology: II. Epidemiology of military air display accidents.

    PubMed

    McArthur, W J; Haakonson, N H

    1977-10-01

    The paper examines fatal Canadian military air display accidents occurring between March 1, 1956, and March 1, 1974. They are discussed in detail from a human factors point of view. It was found that single and separated pilots tended to be at high risk compared with their married counterparts and most of the fatally injured pilots had less than 2,000 h total flying time. Time on type was shown to be less important than total flight time, and age in itself was unrelated to the incidence of fatal accidents. Spontaneity and deviation from prearranged plans was featured in many of the accidents. Human failure in the cockpit appears to be less frequent in air display fatalities than in fatal accidents occurring in routine operations; however, human failure in supervision accounted for 30% of the display accident cause factors, a figure much higher than in nonaerobatic fatal accidents. Finally, evidence indicates that it is possible to select and operate an aerobatic team in which the risk of a fatality is low, provided a few simple guidelines are observed by the team selectors and the team members. PMID:921648

  5. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  6. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded by the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSR) for 1964-1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation (GA) single pilot instrument flight rule (SPIFR) environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964-1975 provided a basis for comparison. This effort was generally limited to SPIFR pilot error landing phase accidents but includes some SPIFR takeoff and enroute accident analysis as well as some dual pilot IFR accident analysis for comparison. Analysis was performed for 554 accidents of which 39% (216) occurred during the years 1976-1979.

  7. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

  8. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  10. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  11. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  12. The paradox of driving speed: two adverse effects on highway accident rate.

    PubMed

    Navon, David

    2003-05-01

    Whereas speeding is known to be a substantial risk factor in driving, there is no unequivocal evidence that accident rate on limited-access motor highways is considerably affected by average speed or by speed limits meant to regulate it. It is suggested here that the seeming puzzle actually may have a straightforward explanation: accident-prone interactions (APIs) between cars occur when they pass each other--mostly moving in the same directions or in opposite ones. Such interactions are shown here to happen more frequently, the lower average speed is. To the extent that high speed limits contribute to increase in average speed, they serve to reduce the number of such interactions, thereby to moderate at least part of the negative effect of speed on the driver's ability to avoid an impending accident. PMID:12643953

  13. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  14. Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry.

    PubMed

    Das, B C; Chaudhury, S

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465 accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153. Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million man-hours worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%. PMID:8557540

  15. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  16. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  17. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  18. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  19. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  20. THE PERIOD OF LIFE AT WHICH INFECTION FROM TUBERCULOSIS OCCURS MOST FREQUENTLY

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, S. Adolphus

    1916-01-01

    This paper not only contains Doctor Knopf's own valuable conclusions upon the subject presented, but it is also a compendium of the opinions which Doctor Knopf has secured from a number of other eminent physicians. PMID:18009535

  1. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures. PMID:18460354

  2. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  3. Co-Occurring Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care of You Top Ten Freshman Year Issues Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Depression Winter Break Survival Tips for College Students Implementing ... supporters and consumers in the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring ... In Crisis? Call ...

  4. Aviation Ground Accidents: The Requirements for Cost Impact Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frank H.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation accidents are costly, whether they occur in the air or on the ground. Precise information regarding the cost of ground accidents is important, but not easily available on an industry-wide basis. This article points up the need for information on ground accident costs. (Author)

  5. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. PMID:25066167

  6. Some insights on the recent spate of accidents in Indian Railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Banerjee, Avishek; Ganguly, Niloy

    2012-05-01

    Indian Railways (IR), the largest rail passenger carrier in the world, has experienced 11 major accidents due to derailment or collision between trains in the year 2010, leading to several human casualties and large-scale disruptions in traffic. Alarmingly, 8 of these 11 accidents have occurred within a specific geographical region known as the Indo-Gangetic plain. In order to identify the general causes of such frequent accidents, and the specific factors leading to repeated accidents in a particular region, we systematically collect and analyze data of IR traffic over the last two decades. We find that there has been an unbalanced growth in IR traffic in the Indo-Gangetic plain over the last two decades, and consequently most of the high-traffic rail-routes presently lie in this region. However, construction of new tracks and train-routes has been nominal compared to the increase in traffic, leading to frequent congestion and over-utilization of existing tracks. Modeling the traffic-flow using computer simulations, we also show that if all trains were to travel in accordance with the IR schedule, the present infrastructure would be insufficient to handle the resultant traffic-flow in some of the high-traffic routes. Hence this study reflects some of the inherent problems in the scheduling of trains and evolution of IR, and also identifies several regions where traffic is likely to exceed safe limits.

  7. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    PubMed

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions. PMID:15602899

  8. Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-11

    A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

  9. Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

  10. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial. PMID:15565421

  11. Helicopter sling load accident/incident survey: 1968 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Pardue, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    During the period considered a mean of eleven accidents per year occurred and a mean of eleven persons were killed or seriously injured per year. Forty-one percent of the accidents occurred during hover, and 63 percent of the accidents had pilot error listed as a cause/factor. Many accidents involved pilots losing control of the helicopter or allowing a collision with obstructions to occur. There was a mean of 58 incidents each year and 51 percent of these occurred during cruise.

  12. Frequent Hemodialysis Fistula Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Charmaine E.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Faratro, Rose; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined if infectious arteriovenous access complications vary with the cannulation technique and whether this is modified by dialysis frequency. We compared the infection rate between fistulas cannulated using buttonhole versus stepladder techniques for patients treated with short daily (SDH) or nocturnal hemodialysis at home (NHD). We also compared patients receiving conventional intermittent hemodialysis (CIHD) using stepladder cannulation. Methods Data were prospectively collected from 631 patients dialyzed with a fistula from 2001 to 2010 (Toronto and Ottawa, Canada). We compared the person-time incidence rate of bacteremia and local fistula infections using the exact binomial test. Results Forty-six (7.3%) patients received SDH (≥5 sessions/week, 2-4 h/session), 128 (20.3%) NHD (≥4 sessions/week, ≥5 h/session) and 457 (72%) CIHD (3 sessions/week, ≤4 h/session). Fifty percent of SDH and 72% of NHD patients used the buttonhole technique. There were 39 buttonhole-related bacteremias (rate: 0.196/1,000 fistula days) and at least 2 local buttonhole site infections. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 85% of the bacteremias. There were 5 (13%) infection-related hospitalizations and 3 (10%) serious metastatic infections, including fistula loss. In comparison, there was 1 possible fistula-related infection in CIHD during follow-up (rate: 0.002/1,000 fistula days). Conclusions The rate of buttonhole-related infections was high among patients on frequent hemodialysis and more than 50 times greater than that among patients on CIHD with the stepladder technique. Most bacteremias were due to S. aureus – with serious consequences. The risks and benefits of buttonhole cannulation require individual consideration with careful monitoring, prophylaxis and management. PMID:25473405

  13. Eyewitness testimony in occupational accident investigations: towards a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Stinson, Veronica; MacLean, Carla

    2004-02-01

    Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research on accident investigation in occupational health and safety contexts. PMID:15055344

  14. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident.

    PubMed

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke

    2009-02-01

    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis. PMID:26814537

  15. [Sleepiness and road accidents among policemen on shif-work on Italian highways: study of the national highway network in the period of 1993-1997].

    PubMed

    Garbarino, S; Nobili, L; Beelke, M; Balestra, V; Carrea, P; Ferrillo, F

    2000-01-01

    Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness are the most frequent disturbances reported by shift-workers. Sleepiness and fatigue can increase the risk of human errors and accidents especially during night work. In order to evaluate the time distribution and the possible role of sleepiness on road accidents in policemen on shift-work on highway patrols over 24 hours, we analyzed 1218 car accidents that occurred on the Italian highway network in the period 1993-1997. Accidents occurring during day shifts were significantly correlated with traffic density while accidents occurring during night shifts were not. During the 19:00-01:00 h shift the number of accidents showed a progressively increasing trend with two significant peaks around 23:00 and 01:00 h. Accidents occurring during the 01:00-07:00 h shift did not show significant trends. Information about sleep habits before starting night shifts were obtained by means of telephone interviews. While 85% of the subjects usually took a nap (30-90 min) before the 01:00-07:00 h shift only 15% took a short nap (< 30 minutes) before the 19:00-01:00 h shift. The data can be interpreted as a balance between circadian factors, homeostasis and fatigue related influences and spontaneously adopted counteracting strategies to increase the level of vigilance during night work hours. While a long nap seems to reduce the risk of accidents during the 01:00-07:00 h shift, policemen seem to underestimate the risk of sleepiness during the shift 19:00-01:00 h shift. PMID:11189786

  16. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  17. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  18. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  19. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  20. A description of the general aviation fixed wing accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The Emergency Local Transmitter (ELT) is a radio transmitter with a self-contained power source designed to provide notification of and homing to aircraft accident sites. The Crash Research Institute has monitored general aviation fixed-wing accidents in the United States and in Canada and has found that: (1) the ELT was destroyed in approximately 25% of all fatal accidents; (2) the ELT activated in about 62% of the fatal accidents, 69% of the fatal with survivors accidents, almost 80% of the serious accidents and about 57% of the minor accidents; (3) in fatal accidents the aircraft sections least likely to be destroyed are the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces; (4) antenna cable disconnection and antenna breakage caused failure to transmit usable signals; and (5) initial alerting control occurred in nearly half of the situations where the ELT aided in search.

  1. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  2. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  3. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  4. 1994 Accident sequence precursor program results

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the analyses of the precursors for 1994, is NUREG/CR-4674, Vols. 21 and 22, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1994, A Status Report, published in December 1995. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1994. 12 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. 1995 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program results

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; O`Reilly, P.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the precursors for 1995, is NUREG/CR-4674, Volume 23, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1995, A Status Report, published in April 1997. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1995.

  6. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  7. Delay in ambulance dispatch to road accidents.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, H

    1992-06-01

    When a road accident occurs, the police communications officer, or 911 operator, generally receives the first call. If the caller reports injuries, the emergency medical services dispatcher is notified immediately; but if the caller is uncertain of injuries, the operator may wait. Most often an ambulance is not needed. However, in nearly 20% of fatal road accidents in Missouri, waiting for confirmation of need resulted in a delay of 5 minutes or more in the dispatch of an ambulance. PMID:1585968

  8. Delay in ambulance dispatch to road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, H

    1992-01-01

    When a road accident occurs, the police communications officer, or 911 operator, generally receives the first call. If the caller reports injuries, the emergency medical services dispatcher is notified immediately; but if the caller is uncertain of injuries, the operator may wait. Most often an ambulance is not needed. However, in nearly 20% of fatal road accidents in Missouri, waiting for confirmation of need resulted in a delay of 5 minutes or more in the dispatch of an ambulance. PMID:1585968

  9. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

  10. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  11. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  12. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  13. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Response of Sensitive Behaviors to Frequent Measurement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of frequent survey measurement on behavior. Widespread access to the Internet has made important breakthroughs in frequent measurement possible—potentially revolutionizing social science measurement of processes that change quickly over time. One key concern about using such frequent measurement is that it may influence the behavior being studied. We investigate this possibility using both a population-based experiment with random assignment to participation in a weekly journal for twelve months (versus no journal) and a large scale population-based journal-keeping study with weekly measurement for 30 months. Results reveal few of the measured behaviors are correlated with assignment to frequent measurement. Theoretical reasoning regarding the likely behavioral response to frequent measurement correctly predicts domains most vulnerable to this possibility. Overall, however, we found little evidence of behavioral response to frequent measurement. PMID:25432599

  15. What can the drivers' own description from combined sources provide in an analysis of driver distraction and low vigilance in accident situations?

    PubMed

    Tivesten, Emma; Wiberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Accident data play an important role in vehicle safety development. Accident data sources are generally limited in terms of how much information is provided on driver states and behaviour prior to an accident. However, the precise limitations vary between databases, due to differences in analysis focus and data collection procedures between organisations. If information about a specific accident can be retrieved from more than one data source it should be possible to combine the available information sets to facilitate data from one source to compensate for limitations in the other(s). To investigate the viability of such compensation, this study identified a set of accidents recorded in two different data sources. The first data source investigated was an accident mail survey and the second data source insurance claims documents consisting predominantly of insurance claims completed by the involved road users. An analysis of survey variables was compared to a case analysis including word data derived from the same survey and filed insurance claims documents. For each accident, the added value of having access to more than one source of information was assessed. To limit the scope of this study, three particular topics were investigated: available information on low vigilance (e.g., being drowsy, ill); secondary task distraction (e.g., talking with passengers, mobile phone use); and distraction related to the driving task (e.g., looking for approaching vehicles). Results suggest that for low vigilance and secondary task distraction, a combination of the mail survey and insurance claims documents provide more reliable and detailed pre-crash information than survey variables alone. However, driving related distraction appears to be more difficult to capture. In order to gain a better understanding of the above issues and how frequently they occur in accidents, the data sources and analysis methods suggested here may be combined with other investigation methods such

  16. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B. )

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  18. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  19. Analysis of Maximum Reasonably Foreseeable Accidents for the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    S.B. Ross; R.E. Best; S.J. Maheras; T.I. McSweeney

    2001-08-17

    Accidents could occur during the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This paper describes the risks and consequences to the public from accidents that are highly unlikely but that could have severe consequences. The impact of these accidents would include those to a collective population and to hypothetical maximally exposed individuals (MEIs). This document discusses accidents with conditions that have a chance of occurring more often than 1 in 10 million times in a year, called ''maximum reasonably foreseeable accidents''. Accidents and conditions less likely than this are not considered to be reasonably foreseeable.

  20. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  1. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  2. Review of hydrogen accidents and incidents in NASA operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    A number of the accidents/incidents with hydrogen in NASA operations are reviewed. The cause factors for the mishaps are reviewed and show that although few accidents occurred, the number could have been further reduced if the established NASA rules and regulations had been followed. Requirements for effective safety codes and areas of study for hydrogen safety information are included. The report concludes with a compilation of 96 hydrogen mishaps; a description of the accidents and their causes.

  3. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  4. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  5. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  6. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  8. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  9. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  10. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  11. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... sobre las pruebas genéticas Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look ...

  14. Frequent patterns mining in multiple biological sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Existing algorithms for mining frequent patterns in multiple biosequences may generate multiple projected databases and short candidate patterns, which can increase computation time and memory requirement. In order to overcome such shortcomings, we propose a fast and efficient algorithm for mining frequent patterns in multiple biological sequences (MSPM). We first present the concept of a primary pattern, which can be extended to form larger patterns in the sequence. To detect frequent primary patterns, a prefix tree is constructed. Based on this prefix tree, a pattern-extending approach is also presented to mine frequent patterns without producing a large number of irrelevant candidate patterns. The experimental results show that the MSPM algorithm can achieve not only faster speed, but also higher quality results as compared with other methods. PMID:24034736

  15. Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Listen En Español Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Why are women with diabetes ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  16. Levetiracetam: Probably Associated Diurnal Frequent Urination.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Hu, Lin-Yan; Pang, Ling-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal frequent urination is a common condition in elementary school children who are especially at risk for associated somatic and behavioral problems. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that has been used in both partial and generalized seizures and less commonly adverse effects including psychiatric and behavioral problems. Diurnal frequent urination is not a well-known adverse effect of LEV. Here, we reported 2 pediatric cases with epilepsy that developed diurnal frequent urination after LEV administration. Case 1 was a 6-year-old male patient who presented urinary frequency and urgency in the daytime since the third day after LEV was given as adjunctive therapy. Symptoms increased accompanied by the raised dosage of LEV. Laboratory tests and auxiliary examinations did not found evidence of organic disease. Diurnal frequent urination due to LEV was suspected, and then the drug was discontinued. As expected, his frequency of urination returned to normal levels. Another 13-year-old female patient got similar clinical manifestations after oral LEV monotherapy and the symptoms became aggravated while in stress state. Since the most common causes of frequent micturition had been ruled out, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with LEV-associated psychogenic frequent urination. The dosage of LEV was reduced to one-third, and the frequency of urination was reduced by 60%. Both patients got the Naranjo score of 6, which indicated that LEV was a "probable" cause of diurnal frequent urination. Although a definite causal link between LEV and diurnal urinary frequency in the 2 cases remains to be established, we argue that diurnal frequent urination associated with LEV deserves clinician's attention. PMID:26938751

  17. A primer to frequent itemset mining for bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Naulaerts, Stefan; Meysman, Pieter; Bittremieux, Wout; Vu, Trung Nghia; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Goethals, Bart; Laukens, Kris

    2015-03-01

    Over the past two decades, pattern mining techniques have become an integral part of many bioinformatics solutions. Frequent itemset mining is a popular group of pattern mining techniques designed to identify elements that frequently co-occur. An archetypical example is the identification of products that often end up together in the same shopping basket in supermarket transactions. A number of algorithms have been developed to address variations of this computationally non-trivial problem. Frequent itemset mining techniques are able to efficiently capture the characteristics of (complex) data and succinctly summarize it. Owing to these and other interesting properties, these techniques have proven their value in biological data analysis. Nevertheless, information about the bioinformatics applications of these techniques remains scattered. In this primer, we introduce frequent itemset mining and their derived association rules for life scientists. We give an overview of various algorithms, and illustrate how they can be used in several real-life bioinformatics application domains. We end with a discussion of the future potential and open challenges for frequent itemset mining in the life sciences. PMID:24162173

  18. A primer to frequent itemset mining for bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Naulaerts, Stefan; Meysman, Pieter; Bittremieux, Wout; Vu, Trung Nghia; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Goethals, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, pattern mining techniques have become an integral part of many bioinformatics solutions. Frequent itemset mining is a popular group of pattern mining techniques designed to identify elements that frequently co-occur. An archetypical example is the identification of products that often end up together in the same shopping basket in supermarket transactions. A number of algorithms have been developed to address variations of this computationally non-trivial problem. Frequent itemset mining techniques are able to efficiently capture the characteristics of (complex) data and succinctly summarize it. Owing to these and other interesting properties, these techniques have proven their value in biological data analysis. Nevertheless, information about the bioinformatics applications of these techniques remains scattered. In this primer, we introduce frequent itemset mining and their derived association rules for life scientists. We give an overview of various algorithms, and illustrate how they can be used in several real-life bioinformatics application domains. We end with a discussion of the future potential and open challenges for frequent itemset mining in the life sciences. PMID:24162173

  19. Environmental aftermath of the radiation accident at Tomsk-7

    SciTech Connect

    Porfiriev, B.N. |

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident`s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed. 33 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  1. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  2. [Role of the practitioner after accidents related to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Vrousos, C; Kolodié, H; Gallin-Martel, C; Pons, H

    1995-03-15

    Accidents due to ionizing radiations can be nuclear accidents, concerning a large part of the population, or radiological accidents which may, at higher doses, irradiate a limited number of persons. In case of nuclear accident, radioactive rejections lead to an irradiation and/or a contamination, and induce the "préfet" to take public health measures. According to the dose possibly received by the population, measures can be the continuation of normal life, confinement, distribution of stable iodine, restriction of certain food consummation, evacuation being the ultimate measure. General practitioner will be an important actor in the information of the populations. When a radiological accident occurs, the management will depend on the type of accident and the dose emitted. This treatment of medico-surgical emergency is an absolute priority, if traumatic lesions are associated, on nuclear risk, especially when prognosis for life is involved. Lesions associated to radiolesions worsen the prognosis. PMID:7754325

  3. [Socioecological determinants of the risk of accidents in young pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Joly, M F; Foggin, P; Pless, I

    1991-01-01

    We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally. PMID:1754700

  4. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence. PMID:2036908

  5. French policy for managing the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Gallay, F; Godet, J L; Niel, J C

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, at the request of the French Government, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) established a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency, with the objective of establishing a policy framework. Under the supervision of ASN, this Committee, involving several tens of experts from different backgrounds (e.g. relevant ministerial offices, expert agencies, local information commissions around nuclear installations, non-governmental organisations, elected officials, licensees, and international experts), developed a number of recommendations over a 7-year period. First published in November 2012, these recommendations cover the immediate post-emergency situation, and the transition and longer-term periods of the post-accident phase in the case of medium-scale nuclear accidents causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 h) that might occur at French nuclear facilities. They also apply to actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents during the transportation of radioactive materials. These recommendations are an important first step in preparation for the management of a post-accident situation in France in the case of a nuclear accident. PMID:25915552

  6. [Study of accidents in the Koprivnica area].

    PubMed

    Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Vadla, Drazenka; Brezovec, Mladen

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present injury incidence, risky population groups, circumstances and activities before the accident and injury mechanism in Koprivnica district (715 km2, 61,052 inhabitants). Data were taken from the Register which includes all population who were injured in this area. Register was located in surgical unit, general hospital in Koprivnica. During study period Jan 1, 1998-Jun 30, 2000 there were 4833 injured persons registered. Males had significantly higher injury incidence (40.9/1000) than females (23.8/1000) (P < 0.01). The highest incidence among male population was in the age 15-24 yrs. (66.3/1000) and among females in the age 0-14 yrs. (35.6/1000). The most risky time for accidents was on Saturday (18.7%) and at 12-18 p.m. (53.2%). The highest road traffic accident mortality was in older age (65 and over) (110.3/100,000) and the highest injury incidence was in younger age (15-24 yrs.) (3200.6/100,000). Regarding other accidents, the most risky place was around the house, in garden (26.6%). The most frequent injury mechanism for both genders is slipping (16.5%); in men follow cuts (12.8%) and being hit from the moving object (12.3%) and in women follow fall on (from) stairs (12.5%) and cuts (10.7%). The most frequent activity before an accident appears is unpaid work with tools, machines and other (15.7%). More detailed investigation on the local level makes possible suggesting more efficient injury prevention programs. PMID:14692088

  7. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. PMID:24237855

  8. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  9. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  10. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  11. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  12. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  13. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research. PMID:25997167

  14. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  16. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  17. Frequent Collaborative Quiz Taking and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on the effectiveness of three assessment strategies for students' performance. The primary goal was to determine whether there are any improvements in students' conceptual learning when a frequent (weekly) quiz is used for grading purposes compared to using midterm and final examinations only. Another goal was…

  18. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  19. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A RECENT LASER ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

  20. Frequent oligonucleotides and peptides of the Haemophilus influenzae genome.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Mrázek, J; Campbell, A M

    1996-01-01

    The complete Haemophilus influenzae genome (1.83 Mb, Rd strain) provides opportunities for characterizing global genomic inhomogeneities and for detecting important sequence signals. Along these lines, new methods for identifying frequent words (oligonucleotides and/or peptides) and their distributions are applied to the H.influenzae genome with some comparisons and contrasts made with frequent words of other bacterial genomes. Three major classes of frequent oligonucleotides stand out: (i) oligos related to the familiar uptake signal sequences (USSs), AAGTGCGGT (USS+) and its inverted complement (USS-), (ii) multiple tetranucleotide iterations and (iii) intergenic dyad sequences (ISDs) found as AAGCCCACCCTAC and its dyad form. The USS+ and USS- occur in almost equal counts, are remarkably evenly spaced around the genome, and appear predominantly in the same reading frame of protein coding domains (USS+ translated to Ser-Ala-Val, USS- translated to Thr-Ala-Leu). These observations suggest that USSs contribute to global genomic functions, for example, in replication and/or repair processes, or as membrane attachment sites, or as sequences helping to pack DNA. The long tetranucleotide iterations, virtually unique to H.influenzae (i.e., unknown in other prokaryotes), through polymerase slippage during replication and/or homologous recombination may produce subpopulations expressing alternative proteins. The 13 bp frequent IDS words, invariably intergenic, occur mostly in clusters and provide potential for complex secondary structures suggesting that these sequences may be important signals for regulating the activity of their flanking genes. The frequent oligopeptides of H.influenzae are principally of two kinds--those induced by oligonucleotide frequent words (USSs, tetranucleotide iterations), and those associated with ATP or GTP binding sites that are generally composed of three motifs: the A-box which contributes to delineating the binding pocket; the B-box which

  1. Human error in hospitals and industrial accidents: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Spencer, F C

    2000-10-01

    Most data concerning errors and accidents are from industrial accidents and airline injuries. General Electric, Alcoa, and Motorola, among others, all have reported complex programs that resulted in a marked reduction in frequency of worker injuries. In the field of medicine, however, with the outstanding exception of anesthesiology, there is a paucity of information, most reports referring to the 1984 Harvard-New York State Study, more than 16 years ago. This scarcity of information indicates the complexity of the problem. It seems very unlikely that simple exhortation or additional regulations will help because the problem lies principally in the multiple human-machine interfaces that constitute modern medical care. The absence of success stories also indicates that the best methods have to be learned by experience. A liaison with industry should be helpful, although the varieties of human illness are far different from a standardized manufacturing process. Concurrent with the studies of industrial and nuclear accidents, cognitive psychologists have intensively studied how the brain stores and retrieves information. Several concepts have emerged. First, errors are not character defects to be treated by the classic approach of discipline and education, but are byproducts of normal thinking that occur frequently. Second, major accidents are rarely causedby a single error; instead, they are often a combination of chronic system errors, termed latent errors. Identifying and correcting these latent errors should be the principal focus for corrective planning rather than searching for an individual culprit. This nonpunitive concept of errors is a key basis for an effective reporting system, brilliantly demonstrated in aviation with the ASRS system developed more than 25 years ago. The ASRS currently receives more than 30,000 reports annually and is credited with the remarkable increase in safety of airplane travel. Adverse drug events constitute about 25% of hospital

  2. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  3. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-09-02

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm. PMID:25540153

  5. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, H. J.; Cant, M. A.; Hoffman, J. I.; Sanderson, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm. PMID:25540153

  6. Postdialysis Fatigue: A Frequent and Debilitating Symptom.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Tazza, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Postdialysis fatigue (PDF) is a frequent and debilitating symptom of patients on chronic hemodialysis that affects their daily living and quality of life. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this symptom and its severity. Only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions and with conflicting results. Given the major impact of PDF on the quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a larger effort is warranted to better understand, prevent, and treat PDF. PMID:26806879

  7. SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

  8. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  9. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    2001-06-01

    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident. PMID:11348795

  10. On Differentially Private Frequent Itemset Mining.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chen; Naughton, Jeffrey F; Cai, Jin-Yi

    2012-11-01

    We consider differentially private frequent itemset mining. We begin by exploring the theoretical difficulty of simultaneously providing good utility and good privacy in this task. While our analysis proves that in general this is very difficult, it leaves a glimmer of hope in that our proof of difficulty relies on the existence of long transactions (that is, transactions containing many items). Accordingly, we investigate an approach that begins by truncating long transactions, trading off errors introduced by the truncation with those introduced by the noise added to guarantee privacy. Experimental results over standard benchmark databases show that truncating is indeed effective. Our algorithm solves the "classical" frequent itemset mining problem, in which the goal is to find all itemsets whose support exceeds a threshold. Related work has proposed differentially private algorithms for the top-k itemset mining problem ("find the k most frequent itemsets".) An experimental comparison with those algorithms show that our algorithm achieves better F-score unless k is small. PMID:24039383

  11. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  12. Time-dependent accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    One problem of the current event tree methodology is that the transitions between accident sequences are not modeled. The causes of transitions are mostly due to operator actions during an accident. A model for such transitions is presented. A generalized algorithm is used for quantification. In the more realistic accident analysis, the progression of the physical processes, which determines the time available for proper operators response, is modeled. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the physical modeling is considered. As an example, the approach is applied to analyze TMI-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open pressure operated relief valve at B and W plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident. A thermal code (CUT) is developed to determine the time at which the core uncovery occurs. A response surface is used to propagate the uncertainty associated with the thermal code.

  13. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 occur frequently in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and share hypermethylation targets with glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Dong, Q; Zhang, C; Kuan, P-F; Liu, Y; Jeck, W R; Andersen, J B; Jiang, W; Savich, G L; Tan, T-X; Auman, J T; Hoskins, J M; Misher, A D; Moser, C D; Yourstone, S M; Kim, J W; Cibulskis, K; Getz, G; Hunt, H V; Thorgeirsson, S S; Roberts, L R; Ye, D; Guan, K-L; Xiong, Y; Qin, L-X; Chiang, D Y

    2013-06-20

    Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH1 and IDH2, have been reported in gliomas, myeloid leukemias, chondrosarcomas and thyroid cancer. We discovered IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 34 of 326 (10%) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Tumor with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 had lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and higher 5-methylcytosine levels, as well as increased dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79). Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were associated with longer overall survival (P=0.028) and were independently associated with a longer time to tumor recurrence after intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resection in multivariate analysis (P=0.021). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were significantly associated with increased levels of p53 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, but no mutations in the p53 gene were found, suggesting that mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 may cause a stress that leads to p53 activation. We identified 2309 genes that were significantly hypermethylated in 19 cholangiocarcinomas with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2, compared with cholangiocarcinomas without these mutations. Hypermethylated CpG sites were significantly enriched in CpG shores and upstream of transcription start sites, suggesting a global regulation of transcriptional potential. Half of the hypermethylated genes overlapped with DNA hypermethylation in IDH1-mutant gliobastomas, suggesting the existence of a common set of genes whose expression may be affected by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in different types of tumors. PMID:22824796

  14. Mutations in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 Occur Frequently in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinomas and Share Hypermethylation Targets with Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Dong, Qiongzhu; Zhang, Chong; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Liu, Yufeng; Jeck, William R.; Andersen, Jesper B.; Jiang, Wenqing; Savich, Gleb L.; Tan, Ting-Xu; Auman, J. Todd; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Misher, Anne D.; Moser, Catherine D.; Yourstone, Scott M.; Kim, Jin Woo; Cibulskis, Kristian; Getz, Gad; Hunt, Heike V.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Ye, Dan; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Chiang, Derek Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH1 and IDH2, have been reported in gliomas, myeloid leukemias, chondrosarcomas, and thyroid cancer. We discovered IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 34 of 326 (10%) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Tumor with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 had lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and higher 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels, as well as increased dimethylation of histone H3K79. Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were associated with longer overall survival (p = 0.028) and were independently associated with a longer time to tumor recurrence after intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resection in multivariate analysis (p = 0.021). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are significantly associated with increased levels of p53 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, but no mutations in the p53 gene were found, suggesting that mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 may cause a stress that leads to p53 activation. We identified 2,309 genes that were significantly hypermethylated in 19 cholangiocarcinomas with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2, compared with cholangiocarcinomas without these mutations. Hypermethylated CpG sites were significantly enriched in CpG shores and upstream of transcription start sites, suggesting a global regulation of transcriptional potential. Half of the hypermethylated genes overlapped with DNA hypermethylation in IDH1-mutant gliobastomas, suggesting the existence of a common set of genes whose expression may be affected by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in different types of tumors. PMID:22824796

  15. Forcefield_PTM: Ab Initio Charge and AMBER Forcefield Parameters for Frequently Occurring Post-Translational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, George A.; Thompson, Jeff P.; Smadbeck, James; Kieslich, Chris A.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we introduce Forcefield_PTM, a set of AMBER forcefield parameters consistent with ff03 for 32 common post-translational modifications. Partial charges were calculated through ab initio calculations and a two-stage RESP-fitting procedure in an ether-like implicit solvent environment. The charges were found to be generally consistent with others previously reported for phosphorylated amino acids, and trimethyllysine, using different parameterization methods. Pairs of modified and their corresponding unmodified structures were curated from the PDB for both single and multiple modifications. Background structural similarity was assessed in the context of secondary and tertiary structures from the global dataset. Next, the charges derived for Forcefield_PTM were tested on a macroscopic scale using unrestrained all-atom Langevin molecular dynamics simulations in AMBER for 34 (17 pairs of modified/unmodified) systems in implicit solvent. Assessment was performed in the context of secondary structure preservation, stability in energies, and correlations between the modified and unmodified structure trajectories on the aggregate. As an illustration of their utility, the parameters were used to compare the structural stability of the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of OdhI. Microscopic comparisons between quantum and AMBER single point energies along key χ torsions on several PTMs were performed and corrections to improve their agreement in terms of mean squared errors and squared correlation coefficients were parameterized. This forcefield for post-translational modifications in condensed-phase simulations can be applied to a number of biologically relevant and timely applications including protein structure prediction, protein and peptide design, docking, and to study the effect of PTMs on folding and dynamics. We make the derived parameters and an associated interactive webtool capable of performing post-translational modifications on proteins using Forcefield_PTM available at http://selene.princeton.edu/FFPTM. PMID:24489522

  16. Forcefield_PTM: Ab Initio Charge and AMBER Forcefield Parameters for Frequently Occurring Post-Translational Modifications.

    PubMed

    Khoury, George A; Thompson, Jeff P; Smadbeck, James; Kieslich, Chris A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2013-12-10

    In this work, we introduce Forcefield_PTM, a set of AMBER forcefield parameters consistent with ff03 for 32 common post-translational modifications. Partial charges were calculated through ab initio calculations and a two-stage RESP-fitting procedure in an ether-like implicit solvent environment. The charges were found to be generally consistent with others previously reported for phosphorylated amino acids, and trimethyllysine, using different parameterization methods. Pairs of modified and their corresponding unmodified structures were curated from the PDB for both single and multiple modifications. Background structural similarity was assessed in the context of secondary and tertiary structures from the global dataset. Next, the charges derived for Forcefield_PTM were tested on a macroscopic scale using unrestrained all-atom Langevin molecular dynamics simulations in AMBER for 34 (17 pairs of modified/unmodified) systems in implicit solvent. Assessment was performed in the context of secondary structure preservation, stability in energies, and correlations between the modified and unmodified structure trajectories on the aggregate. As an illustration of their utility, the parameters were used to compare the structural stability of the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of OdhI. Microscopic comparisons between quantum and AMBER single point energies along key χ torsions on several PTMs were performed and corrections to improve their agreement in terms of mean squared errors and squared correlation coefficients were parameterized. This forcefield for post-translational modifications in condensed-phase simulations can be applied to a number of biologically relevant and timely applications including protein structure prediction, protein and peptide design, docking, and to study the effect of PTMs on folding and dynamics. We make the derived parameters and an associated interactive webtool capable of performing post-translational modifications on proteins using Forcefield_PTM available at http://selene.princeton.edu/FFPTM. PMID:24489522

  17. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  18. Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, J. Arthur

    1964-01-01

    The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data. PMID:14201260

  19. School sports accidents: analysis of causes, modes, and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pape, D; Pitsch, W; Engel, C

    2001-01-01

    About 5% of all school children are seriously injured during physical education every year. Because of its influence on children's attitude toward sports and the economic aspects, an evaluation of causes and medical consequences is necessary. In this study, 213 school sports accidents were investigated. Besides diagnosis, the localization of injuries, as well as the duration of the sick leave were documented. Average age of injured students was 13 years. Most of the injured students blamed themselves for the accident. The most common injuries were sprains, contusions, and fractures. Main reasons for the accidents were faults in basic motion training. Playing soccer and basketball were the most frequent reasons for injuries. The upper extremity was more frequently involved than the lower extremity. Sports physicians and teachers should work out a program outlining the individual needs and capabilities of the injured students to reintegrate them into physical education. PMID:11242243

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Infections What is a Surgical Site Infection (SSI)? Can SSIs be treated? What are some of ... a Surgical Site Infection? A surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection that occurs after surgery in ...

  1. Van Accidents Raise Questions about Teams' Safety on the Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willdorf, Nina

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors involved in the greater numbers of traffic accidents as college sports teams travel more frequently and further to compete in intercollegiate events. Suggests that athletes in non-income-generating sports and/or in lower divisions of the National Collegiate Athletic Association are at greater risk because they are more likely to…

  2. [Road accidents morbidity and mortality in district of Vrancea].

    PubMed

    Duma, Odetta

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, road accidents represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present paper is a descriptive study of the most important factors involved in road accidents appearance from the district of Vrancea, in year 2001 and assesses the gravity of premature deaths using potential years of lost life (PYLL). In this district, the level of PYLL due to road accidents in male is significant higher in comparison with female (964 and respectively 408), these data being in concordance with PYLL of the entire country. The most frequent causes involved in road accidents are related to human factor and less to vehicle or road conditions. This category of trauma and deaths may be entirely prevented through educational, law, control or technical measures and using descriptive epidemiological data regarding road traffic. PMID:14974230

  3. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  4. Loss of pumping accident limit calculation for Savannah River Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.K.; Barbour, K.L. )

    1992-01-01

    For the Savannah River Site production reactors, the design basis accident reactor power limit ensures that if a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in a secondary cooling water pipe were to occur, the reactor will shut down safely. The primary reactor coolant is heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with secondary light water (H{sub 2}O) cooling. The accident scenario is a DEGB in one of two secondary coolant inlet header pipes with several assumed single failures. The recycled primary coolant loses its cooling, and the reactor core temperature begins to rise. Another possible accident is a DEGB in one of two heat exchanger secondary coolant effluent header pipes. The inlet header break is slightly more limiting than the effluent header break. Upon break detection, emergency shutdown begins and the emergency cooling system (ECS) activates. The accident scenario was constructed with regard to physical, mechanical, and human factors. The computer code TRAC simulates the accident.

  5. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  6. [Mortality in traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba 2011].

    PubMed

    Piña-Tornés, Arlines; González-Longoria, Lourdes; González-Pardo, Secundino; Acosta-González, Ariel; Vintimilla-Burgos, Patricio; Paspuel-Yar, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of describing mortality from traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba, in 2011 a review was performed of injured and deceased patients due to traffic accidents, recorded in the Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Of the 1,365 injured patients treated in the emergency room, the predominant groups were individuals aged 25 to 44 years comprising 372 patients (27.3%) and men comprising 1,071 (78.5%). 46 people died, most from the same age group and male. Multiple traumatisms (52.6%) and craniofacial trauma (34.2%) were the predominant injuries. Motor vehicle-pedestrian accidents stood out with a mortality of 26.3%. In conclusion, mortality from traffic accidents predominately occurs in young male adults, whose fatal consequences are due to multiple traumatisms from road accidents. PMID:25597725

  7. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jennifer; Grandin, Temple

    2008-01-01

    Accident reports on 415 commercial livestock truck accidents were tabulated between 1994 and June 2007 in the United States and Canada. Data was collected from Google internet searches of newspaper and television news reports, unpublished industry sources and Alberta government agencies. Fifty-nine percent of the accidents occurred during the early morning hours from midnight to 9:00 am and 80% involved a single vehicle. Driver error was blamed for 85% of the wrecks. In 83% of the accidents, the vehicle rolled over and 84% of the truckers tipped over on their right side. In North America, vehicles travel on the right-hand side of the road and if a driver falls asleep at the wheel he usually drifts off toward the right. Driver fatigue is the most likely explanation for many of these accidents. PMID:20405431

  8. An analysis of three weather-related aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Caracena, F.

    1977-01-01

    Two aircraft accidents in 1975, one at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City on 24 June and the other at Stapleton International Airport in Denver on 7 August, were examined in detail. A third accident on 23 June 1976 at Philadelphia International Airport is being investigated. Amazingly, there was a spearhead echo just to the north of each accident site. The echoes formed from 5 to 50 min in advance of the accident and moved faster than other echoes in the vicinity. These echoes were photographed by National Weather Service radars, 130-205 km away. At closer ranges, however, one or more circular echoes were depicted by airborne and ground radars. These cells were only 3-5 km in diameter, but they were accompanied by downdrafts of extreme intensity, called downbursts. All accidents occurred as aircraft, either descending or climbing, lost altitude while experiencing strong wind shear inside downburst cells.

  9. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers

    PubMed Central

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P. Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at −8 and −9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to −8/−9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined. PMID:26416425

  10. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined. PMID:26416425

  11. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  12. Can fetishism occur in transsexuals?

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; McConaghy, N

    1977-05-01

    The literature concerning the relationships between transsexualism and transvestism and their association with fetishism is reviewed. Sexual activity, including sexual arousal to women's clothes, is frequently reported in histories of transsexuals. Characteristics are reported of 12 male subjects who have shown sexual arousal to women's clothes and who have a sustained cross-gender identity combined with a desire for a change-of-sex operation. Diagnostic categories alternative to transsexualism for subjects who cross-dress are inadequate to classify at least some of the 12 subjects reported. Restricting the definition of transsexualism so as to exclude those who have shown fetishistic features is considered premature. PMID:869709

  13. Paleoindian Unifacial Stone Tool ‘Spurs’: Intended Accessories or Incidental Accidents?

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Metin I.; Jennings, Thomas A.; Smallwood, Ashley M.

    2013-01-01

    Paleoindian unifacial stone tools frequently exhibit distinct, sharp projections, known as “spurs”. During the last two decades, a theoretically and empirically informed interpretation–based on individual artifact analysis, use-wear, tool-production techniques, and studies of resharpening–suggested that spurs were sometimes created intentionally via retouch, and other times created incidentally via resharpening or knapping accidents. However, more recently Weedman strongly criticized the inference that Paleoindian spurs were ever intentionally produced or served a functional purpose, and asserted that ethnographic research “demonstrates that the presence of so called ‘graver’ spurs does not have a functional significance.” While ethnographic data cannot serve as a direct test of the archaeological record, we used Weedman’s ethnographic observations to create two quantitative predictions of the Paleoindian archaeological record in order to directly examine the hypothesis that Paleoindian spurs were predominantly accidents occurring incidentally via resharpening and reshaping. The first prediction is that the frequency of spurs should increase as tool reduction proceeds. The second prediction is that the frequency of spurs should increase as tool breakage increases. An examination of 563 unbroken tools and 629 tool fragments from the Clovis archaeological record of the North American Lower Great Lakes region showed that neither prediction was consistent with the notion that spurs were predominately accidents. Instead, our results support the prevailing viewpoint that spurs were sometimes created intentionally via retouch, and other times, created incidentally via resharpening or knapping accidents. Behaviorally, this result is consistent with the notion that unifacial stone tools were multifunctional implements that enhanced the mobile lifestyle of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. PMID:24236017

  14. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions

  15. Maxillofacial trauma due to work-related accidents.

    PubMed

    Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R

    2002-02-01

    Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma. PMID:11936407

  16. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

  17. Physics in Accident Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Mary L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)

  18. Targeting frequent users of emergency departments: Prominent risk factors and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Leporatti, Lucia; Ameri, Marta; Trinchero, Chiara; Orcamo, Patrizia; Montefiori, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of frequent users of accident and emergency departments (AEDs) and recommends alternative medical services for such patients. Prominent demographic and clinical risk factors for individuals accessing seven AEDs located in the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy are identified and analysed. A truncated count data model is implemented to establish the determinants of access, while a multinomial logistic regression is used to highlight potential differences among different user categories. According to previous studies, empirical findings suggest that despite the relevance of demographic drivers, vulnerability conditions (e.g. abuse of alcohol and drugs, chronic conditions, and psychological distress) are the main reasons behind frequent AED use; the analysis seems to confirm an association between AED frequent use and lower level of urgency. Since frequent and highly frequent users are found responsible for disproportionate resource absorption with respect to total amount of AED costs (they represent roughly 10% of the total number of patients, but contribute to more than 19% of the total annual AED cost), policies aiming to reduce frequent use of AEDs could bring significant savings in economic resources. Thus, efficient actions could be oriented toward extending primary care services outside AED and toward instituting local aid services specifically addressed to people under the influence of substances or in conditions of mental distress. PMID:27033015

  19. An analysis of pileup accidents in highway systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2016-02-01

    Pileup accident is a multi-vehicle collision occurring in the lane and producing by successive following vehicles. It is a special collision on highway. The probability of the occurrence of pileup accident is lower than that of the other accidents in highway systems. However, the pileup accident leads to injuries and damages which are often serious. In this paper, we analyze the occurrence of pileup accidents by considering the three types of dangerous collisions in highway systems. We evaluate those corresponding to rear-end collision, lane-changing collision, and double lane-changing collision. We simulate four road driving strategies to investigate the relationships between different vehicle collisions and pileup accidents. In accordance with the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the double lane-changing collisions result in an increase of the occurrence of pileup accidents. Additionally, we found that the probability of the occurrence of pileup accidents can be reduced when the speeds of vehicles are suitably constrained in highway systems.

  20. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...This rule increases the rail equipment accident/incident reporting threshold from $9,500 to $9,900 for certain railroad accidents/incidents involving property damage that occur during calendar year 2013. This action is needed to ensure that FRA's reporting requirements reflect cost increases that have occurred since the reporting threshold was last published in November of...

  1. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  2. [Equestrian accidents in children].

    PubMed

    Giebel, G; Braun, K; Mittelmeier, W

    1993-11-01

    In a retrospective study we reviewed 262 horse riding related injuries in children younger than 16 which were treated between 1975 and 1989 at the Section of Traumatology in the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Homburg/Saar. In 155 of these accidents, detailed information was gained via a questionnaire. The typical patient profile was that of young female equestrians with little experience and little weekly riding practice, without practicing falling-exercises and warming up often using different horses. At the time of the accident only 59% were wearing a head protection. Most accidents happened in the summer months in the afternoon during leisure riding on a large familiar horse in the riding hall. Apart from the typical accidents like falling of the horse (64.9%) and falling with the horse (5.7%) accidents in handling the horse were of special significance: Kick by horse's hoof (11.8%), being stepped by horse (3.8%), horsebite (7.3%) and injuries of horse's bridle had their own pattern of injuries. Injuries of the distal parts of the upper extremity are preeminent in falling of the horse, whilst in falling with the horse head injuries and shoulder injuries are preeminent. Remarkably often injuries of kick by horse's hoof were causing sometimes even dangerous head injuries (41.6%). Overall in horse riding related injuries in childhood superficial soft tissue injuries (48.6%) and fractures (30.6%) were predominant. Fractures of the clavicle which are well known as a riding injury proved to be typical for a fall with the horse, whilst a fractured vertebra was only seen once amongst the 262 children treated. The severity of the injuries was lower than expected: In 85.1% of all the injuries only one body region was injured, 90.1% could be assigned to an injury severity score (ISS) of 1-3. Ponyriders had less severe injuries than riders of large horses. One fatal accident happened in handling a horse, in these situations preventive measures are often

  3. [Recreational boating accidents--Part 2: Causes of accidents and deaths].

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Ernst; Lustig, Martina; Lignitz, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    According to Naeve, forensic medicine also deals with medical topics concerning accidents associated with watercrafts. This field is not limited to the open sea but also refers to rivers and lakes. In the presented study, fatal boating accidents were investigated over a period of four decades. The majority of the victims died from hypothermia and drowning. The article points out the difficulty to prove hypothermia in cases with a short survival time. Medical expert opinions on deaths due to boating accidents must not ignore the results of the technical and nautical investigations--the more so as the hydrometeorological situation may be crucial for the outcome. Too little attention is still paid to circulatory shock occurring in connection with the pathophysiology of hypothermia and drowning, although it may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness of rescue measures. The final assessment of fatalities in users of watercrafts should always be left to experienced specialists. PMID:24855736

  4. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  5. [Risk of accidents for a Parisian pedestrian].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P

    2001-12-01

    The risk of accident for a parisian pedestrian is of reduced frequency and of moderate severity (terrorism and natural disasters not included) according to the statistics of 1999. This is due to security measures and the excellent organisation of assistance to wounded persons. The improvement in protection of pedestrians, even the disabled and elderly persons will soon make Paris the best protected megalopolis of our continent. Pedestrians are involved in 28% of accidents on public streets with a mortality of 1.2%, with serious injuries in 12.6% of the cases. Injuries without collision occur in 57% of the cases. 18% of the wounded older than 75 years with 1.8% of deaths and 66% of severe injury. Accidents related to public transportation represent a very slight risk of 0.00044%. By modification of the concept of transportation and its materials over a five year period there is a decrease in the number of the victims (-3.75%), in spite of the increase of accidents (3.5%). For lone pedestrian being victims of aggression in public places, after a decrease of 10% in 1999, there is in 2001 an increase which raises the question of police proximity again. Over a five year period the RATP (subway authority) has noticed a 14.77% decrease of thefts and a 54.78% decrease in attacks... This makes the Parisian railnet (subway mostly) seven times less dangerous than the streets. PMID:11803819

  6. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union.

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Fishing Vessel Accidents and Their Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    Fishing vessel accidents occur because of complex interactions of human, technical, and environmental factors. Although they usually occur because of human actions, thoughts, or behavior, investigators and prevention educators are preoccupied with technical matters and equipment. Equipment, machinery, weather, and other objective facts are…

  8. Radiological accident and incident in Thailand: lesson to be learned.

    PubMed

    Ya-anant, Nanthavan; Tiyapun, Kanokrat; Saiyut, Kittiphong

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive materials in Thailand have been used in medicine, research and industry for more than 50 y. Several radiological accident and incidents happened in the past 10 y. A serious one was the radiological accident that occurred in Samut Prakan, Thailand in 2000. The serious radiological accident occurred when the (60)Co head was partially dismantled, taken from that storage to sell as scrap metal. Three victims died and 10 people received high dose from the source. The lesson learned from the radiological accident in Samut Prakan was to improve in many subjects, such as efficiency in Ministerial Regulations and Atomic Energy Act, emergency response and etc. In addition to the serious accident, there are also some small incidents that occurred, such as detection of contaminated scrap metals from the re-cycling of scrap metals from steel factories. Therefore, the radiation protection infrastructure was established after the accident. Laws and regulations of radiation safety and the relevant regulatory procedures must be revised. PMID:21561942

  9. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  10. NLM extramural program: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, S; Illes, J; Vannier, M W

    1996-01-01

    New and aspiring investigators often ask the same questions of experts as proposals are formulated, written, and submitted to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for peer review. The NLM's Division of Extramural Programs (EP) provides support to medical libraries, academic medical centers, individuals, and industry through numerous types of grants and contracts. A complex set of processes and procedures is in place and is familiar to established and funded researchers, but to few others. A collection of frequently asked questions (FAQ) and their answers on these issues has been prepared by the Biomedical Library Review Committee (BLRC), a standing advisory group to the NLM that meets three times a year to review and score proposals. The BLRC and two experts on National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and contracts compiled their advice in an electronic FAQ that has been edited and abridged as an introduction to NLM EP for investigators from medical library science, informatics, and biotechnology. The BLRC expects that if new investigators are able to avoid common mistakes and misconceptions, their proposals will improve in quality and they will be able to spend their time more effectively in proposal preparation. Images PMID:8826620

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  12. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  13. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  14. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  15. [Clinical signs in vascular accidents of the retrochiasmatic pathways].

    PubMed

    Seceleanu, Andreea

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroophthalmologic signs which accompanies ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular accidents. This study was carried out on 110 patients, for three years. Most of the neuropathalmologic signs, such as hemianopic deficits, have accompanied the ischemic vascular accidents. Hypertension was the most frequent cause of this vascular damages. The neuropathalmologic signs were predominant at male, în comparison to female, în all the years studied. As the value of the etiological factory rise, rise also the incidence of the cerebral vascular damages accompanied whit neuropathalmologic signs. PMID:14702734

  16. [Clinical signs in vascular accidents of the retrochiasmatic pathways].

    PubMed

    Seceleanu, Andreea

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroophthalmologic signs which accompanies ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular accidents. This study was carried out on 110 patients, for three years. Most of the neuroophthalmologic signs, such as hemianopic deficits, have accompanied the ischemic vascular accidents. Hypertension was the most frequent cause of this vascular damages. The neuroophthalmologic signs were predominant at male, in comparison to female, in all the years studied. As the value of the etiological factory rise, rise also the incidence of the cerebral vascular damages accompanied with neuroophthalmologic signs. PMID:12974033

  17. Motor vehicle accidents: how should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Sata, Michio

    2012-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit, which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease. Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs, the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown. Recently, Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT), and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs. Besides the ICT and lactulose, there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE. In this commentary, we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE, including neuropsychological tests. We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE, such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee, and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids, on the MVA-related societal costs. PMID:22690067

  18. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  19. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  20. Widespread and frequent horizontal transfers of transposable elements in plants.

    PubMed

    El Baidouri, Moaine; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Cooke, Richard; Gao, Dongying; Lasserre, Eric; Llauro, Christel; Mirouze, Marie; Picault, Nathalie; Jackson, Scott A; Panaud, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Vertical, transgenerational transmission of genetic material occurs through reproduction of living organisms. In addition to vertical inheritance, horizontal gene transfer between reproductively isolated species has recently been shown to be an important, if not dominant, mechanism in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. In contrast, only a few horizontal transfer (HT) events have been characterized so far in eukaryotes and mainly concern transposable elements (TEs). Whether these are frequent and have a significant impact on genome evolution remains largely unknown. We performed a computational search for highly conserved LTR retrotransposons among 40 sequenced eukaryotic genomes representing the major plant families. We found that 26 genomes (65%) harbor at least one case of horizontal TE transfer (HTT). These transfers concern species as distantly related as palm and grapevine, tomato and bean, or poplar and peach. In total, we identified 32 cases of HTTs, which could translate into more than 2 million among the 13,551 monocot and dicot genera. Moreover, we show that these TEs have remained functional after their transfer, occasionally causing a transpositional burst. This suggests that plants can frequently exchange genetic material through horizontal transfers and that this mechanism may be important in TE-driven genome evolution. PMID:24518071

  1. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended. PMID:25179119

  2. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  3. Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

    2006-03-01

    Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes. PMID:16297846

  4. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  5. The effect of frequent hemodialysis on nutrition and body composition: frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, George A; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Mehta, Ravindra L; Lindsay, Robert M; Depner, Tom A; Hall, Yoshio N; Daugirdas, John T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency of hemodialysis on nutritional status by analyzing the data in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial. We compared changes in albumin, body weight, and composition among 245 patients randomized to six or three times per week in-center hemodialysis (Daily Trial) and 87 patients randomized to six times per week nocturnal or three times per week conventional hemodialysis, performed largely at home (Nocturnal Trial). In the Daily Trial, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in serum albumin or the equilibrated protein catabolic rate by 12 months. There was a significant relative decrease in predialysis body weight of 1.5 ± 0.2 kg in the six times per week group at 1 month, but this significantly rebounded by 1.3 ± 0.5 kg over the remaining 11 months. Extracellular water (ECW) decreased in the six times per week compared with the three per week hemodialysis group. There were no significant between-group differences in phase angle, intracellular water, or body cell mass (BCM). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant between-group differences in any study parameter. Any gain in 'dry' body weight corresponded to increased adiposity rather than muscle mass but was not statistically significant. Thus, frequent in-center hemodialysis reduced ECW but did not increase serum albumin or BCM while frequent nocturnal hemodialysis yielded no net effect on parameters of nutritional status or body composition. PMID:22456602

  6. Systemic analysis of so-called 'accidents on the level' in a multi trade company.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, S; Thouy, S

    2004-10-10

    Slips, trips and falls on the level are considered commonplace and are rarely subjected to in-depth analysis. They occur in highly varied circumstances in an occupational situation. In-depth analysis of these accidents was conducted within a company with the aim of understanding them better, to be able to discuss prevention field possibilities and priorities for the company concerned. Firstly, available data on 'accidents on the level' occurring over the last 4 years were analysed and a typology for these accidents was derived, based on individual activity at the time of the accident and accident location. The three most serious accident-causing situations were analysed in-depth from interviews with injured persons, as well as from activity observation and activity-related verbal information obtained from operatives. These most serious situations involved accidents occurring when climbing down from trucks or when walking either in surroundings outside company premises or from (to) a vehicle to (from) a work location. In-depth accident analysis and characterization of accident-causing situations as a whole enhance our understanding of the accident process and allow us to envisage priorities for action in the prevention field, in operational terms. Each accident-causing situation reveals environmental factors that in fact constitute accident factors (obstacle, stone, etc.), when the individual walks or climbs down from a truck. Analysis shows that other events are necessary for accident occurrence. For example, the individual may be subjected to a time constraint or may be preoccupied. Results obtained here, in a company integrating different trades, are discussed and compared with those referred to in the literature. Generalization of some of these results is also considered. PMID:15370848

  7. The use of flight test techniques in aircraft accident investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Wingrove, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Wind shear is a serious safety hazard to commercial aviation. Low level wind shear (downburst) was the cause of the takeoff accident in New Orleans, July 9, 1982, and the landing accident in Dallas, Aug. 2, 1985. Shear layer instability is a common cause of clear air turbulence (CAT) at cruising altitudes. A number of encounters with severe CAT, in which passengers were injured, have recently occurred (Hannibal, MO, April 1981; Morton, WY, July 1982; etc.). Improved accident investigation techniques can lead to a better understanding of the nature of the wind environment associated with downbursts and CAT and to better detection and avoidance procedures. For the past several years, NASA-Ames has worked closely with the National Transportation Safety Board in the investigation of wind related accidents.

  8. Airway accidents in critical care unit: A 3-year retrospective study in a Public Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Singh, Shipti Shradha; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Bhattacharya, Dipasri; Choudhury, Sourav Das

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although tracheal tubes are essential devices to control and protect airway in a critical care unit (CCU), they are not free from complications. Aims: To document the incidence and nature of airway accidents in the CCU of a government teaching hospital in Eastern India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all airway accidents in a 5-bedded (medical and surgical) CCU. The number, types, timing, and severity of airway accidents were analyzed. Results: The total accident rate was 19 in 233 intubated and/or tracheostomized patients over 1657 tube days (TDs) during 3 years. Fourteen occurred in 232 endotracheally intubated patients over 1075 endotracheal tube (ETT) days, and five occurred in 44 tracheostomized patients over 580 tracheostomy TDs. Fifteen accidents were due to blocked tubes. Rest four were unplanned extubations (UEs), all being accidental extubations. All blockages occurred during night shifts and all UEs during day shifts. Five accidents were mild, the rest moderate. No major accident led to cardiorespiratory arrest or death. All blockages occurred after 7th day of intubation. The outcome of accidents were more favorable in tracheostomy group compared to ETT group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of airway accidents was 8.2 accidents per 100 patients. Blockages were the most common accidents followed by UEs. Ten out of the 15 blockages and all 4 UEs were in endotracheally intubated patients. Tracheostomized patients had 5 blockages and no UEs. PMID:27076709

  9. Detecting change as it occurs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radok, Uwe; Brown, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally climate changes have been detected from long series of observations and long after they have happened. Our 'inverse sequential' procedure, for detecting change as soon as it occurs, describes the existing or most recent data by their frequency distribution. Its parameter(s) are estimated both from the existing set of observations and from the same set augmented by 1,2,....j new observations. Individual-value probability products ('likelihoods') are used to form ratios which yield two probabilities for erroneously accepting the existing parameter(s) as valid for the augmented data set, and vice versa. A genuine parameter change is signaled when these probabilities (or a more stable compound probability) show a progressive decrease. New parameter values can then be estimated from the new observations alone using standard statistical techniques. The inverse sequential procedure will be illustrated for global annual mean temperatures (assumed normally distributed), and for annual numbers of North Atlantic hurricanes (assumed to represent Poisson distributions). The procedure was developed, but not yet tested, for linear or exponential trends, and for chi-squared means or degrees of freedom, a special measure of autocorrelation.

  10. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:27082283

  11. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.

    PubMed Central

    Sehmer, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

  12. [Why are AIDS patients frequently visually impaired?].

    PubMed

    Fabricius, E M

    1996-01-01

    Patients with HIV infection and, above all, patients with full-blown AIDS can get a variety of ocular diseases as well as some cerebral maladies which have an influence on ocular functions. First there are hematogenous opportunistic infections of the retina or the choroid. The cytomegalovirus [CMV] retinitis was found in nearly 20% of all AIDS patients. Without treatment this disease destroys the retina completely, and the involved eye becomes blind. This can be prevented by modern therapeutic strategies in most of the cases. Other infections affecting the retina are toxoplasmosis, systemic varizella zoster or herpes simplex virus infections, syphilis or, seldom, fungal or bacterial pathogens. The choroid mainly can be infested by mycobacteria, cryptococci and pneumocystis carinii. Early detection and treatment of all inflammations are necessary. The anterior eye can be affected by a sicca syndrome and various superficial infections but also noninfectious inflammation. The anterior uvea can be involved in various opportunistic infections of the posterior eye segment. An HIV-associated isolated anterior uveitis has been described in earlier stages of the HIV infection. Treatment of mycobacterial infections with rifabutin can cause an anterior uveitis as well. 1 to 2% of HIV-infected persons suffer from a zoster ophthalmicus with more severe keratitis than it occurs in immunocompetent persons. Last but not least, there are various cerebral affections which can cause visual disturbances. So the optic nerve can be involved in various forms of retinitic or meningoencephalitic processes, of ischemic mechanisms or elevated intracranial pressure. Neuroophthalmological symptoms also include homonymous hemianopsia caused by foci of cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leucencephalopathy or primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma situated in the central neuron of the afferent visual pathway. A variety of oculomotor abnormalities can be caused by a great variety of

  13. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  14. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  15. Myocardial ischaemia in patients with frequent angina pectoris.

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, A P; Fox, K; Eves, M; Oakley, D; Dargie, H; Shillingford, J

    1978-01-01

    One hundred patients with angina pectoris underwent 16-point electrocardiographic (ECG) mapping of the left hemithorax during a standardised exercise test. Forty-five patients had maximum ST-segment depression at position V5, while 35 had no ECG signs of ischaemia at this position. In 20 V5 was on the edge of the precordial area, which showed less severe ST-depression than the central positions. An Oxford ECG recorder and highspeed analyser were modified and used in 50 of the patients with daily angina for recording ST-segment changes over 24 hours. Serial 24-hour ambulatory recordings from the edge of the precordial area of ischaemia identified during exercise detected a mean of only 14 +/- SD 3% of the episodes of ST-segment changes recorded from the centre of the same area. Only 16 +/- 2% of the episodes detected by ECG were accompanied by chest pain. More episodes occurred between 4 am and 6 am than at any other time during the night. This study shows the importance of recording ECG evidence of ischaemia from the precordial position showing maximum changes during exercise. ECG evidence of ischaemia occurs more frequently than anginal pain. These objective measurements add important information to the frequency of chest pain reported by patients with ischaemic heart disease. Images FIG 3 PMID:728737

  16. Epidemiology of Occupational Accidents in Iran Based on Social Security Organization Database

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Seifmanesh, Shahdokht; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Aminian, Omid; Izadi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Background: Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. Results: The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary. PMID:24719699

  17. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures. PMID:18642168

  18. Site Specific Analyses of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2003-02-24

    The number of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments is expected to increase significantly during the time period that the United States' inventory of SNF is sent to a final disposal site. Prior work estimated that the highest accident risks of a SNF shipping campaign to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain were in the corridor states, such as Illinois. The largest potential human health impacts would be expected to occur in areas with high population densities such as urban settings. Thus, our current study examined the human health impacts from the most plausible severe SNF transportation accidents in the Chicago metropolitan area. The RISKIND 2.0 program was used to model site-specific data for an area where the largest impacts might occur. The results have shown that the radiological human health consequences of a severe SNF rail transportation accident on average might be similar to one year of exposure to natural background radiation for those persons living a nd working in the most affected areas downwind of the actual accident location. For maximally exposed individuals, an exposure similar to about two years of exposure to natural background radiation was estimated. In addition to the accident probabilities being very low (approximately 1 chance in 10,000 or less during the entire shipping campaign), the actual human health impacts are expected to be lower if any of the accidents considered did occur, because the results are dependent on the specific location and weather conditions, such as wind speed and direction, that were selected to maximize the results. Also, comparison of the results of longer duration accident scenarios against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines was made to demonstrate the usefulness of this site-specific analysis for emergency planning purposes.

  19. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  1. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  2. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  3. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  4. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  5. Severe Accident Scoping Simulations of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R.

    2015-08-01

    CrAl would tend to generate heat and hydrogen from oxidation at a slower rate compared to the zirconium-based alloys in use today. The previous study, [2], of the FeCrAl ATF concept during station blackout (SBO) severe accident scenarios in BWRs was based on simulating short term SBO (STSBO), long term SBO (LTSBO), and modified SBO scenarios occurring in a BWR-4 reactor with MARK-I containment. The analysis indicated that FeCrAl had the potential to delay the onset of fuel failure by a few hours depending on the scenario, and it could delay lower head failure by several hours. The analysis demonstrated reduced in-vessel hydrogen production. However, the work was preliminary and was based on limited knowledge of material properties for FeCrAl. Limitations of the MELCOR code were identified for direct use in modeling ATF concepts. This effort used an older version of MELCOR (1.8.5). Since these analyses, the BWR model has been updated for use in MELCOR 1.8.6 [10], and more representative material properties for FeCrAl have been modeled. Sections 2 4 present updated analyses for the FeCrAl ATF concept response during severe accidents in a BWR. The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential gains afforded by the FeCrAl ATF concept during BWR SBO scenarios.

  6. 77 FR 64562 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  7. 78 FR 52570 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  8. 78 FR 33862 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  9. Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board gathers for a second day for its third public hearing, held in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The CAIB was set up to examine STS-107 and analyze exploratory tests. Navy Admiral Harold W. 'Hal' Gehman Jr. was designated as the Chairman of the Board. From left to right in this photo sit Board Members Steven B. Wallace, Scott Hubbard, Dr. John Logsdon, Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Hal Gehman, General Duane Deal, Dr. Douglas Osheroff, and Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess. Not shown are Maj. General John Barry, Dr. James N. Hallock, Roger Tetrault, Dr. Sheila Widnall, and Dr. Sally Ride. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  10. [The radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Stögmann, W

    1988-08-26

    The reactor accident of Chernobyl in April 1986 has shown us all the dangers which are inherent ever in the peaceful use of atomic energy. The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are dependent on biological effectiveness, on dose, on duration of exposure and on the age of the exposed person (the younger the graver). Acute ionizing radiation of the whole body leads to radiation disease or radiation syndrome of different stages of severity according to dosage. If the patient survives other consequences of ionizing radiation may arise: non-stochastic effects such as cataracts, keloid formation, fibrosis of the lungs and infertility) and stochastic effects (oncogenesis and mutagenesis). The sensitivity to ionizing radiation is especially high in childhood because of the high velocity of cell metabolism and cell growth, the large body-surface area and because their repair mechanism following radiation damage is not yet. PMID:3188527

  11. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  12. Fact or Folklore? Exploring "Myths" about Outdoor Education Accidents: Some Evidence from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Grant

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides analysis on the frequency and nature of accidents and near accidents that have occurred in larger outdoor education centres in New Zealand. This is the first time that information of this type has been collected and analysed in New Zealand. All 25 of the known outdoor education organisations employing three or more full-time…

  13. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  14. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  15. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  16. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  17. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  18. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  19. [Hidden statistics of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-10-23

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region could be found again in the casualty department. In 1971, the corresponding coverage was 36%. The degree of coverage is particularly low for single bicycle accidents, other bicycle accidents, other single accidents and the hours immediately after midnight. Considerable disagreement exists concerning registration of the use of safety belts and crash helmets. In Odense, the municipal road authorities utilize the localization of the accidents reported by the casualty department. The decrease in the degree of coverage is due mainly to an increasing proportion of bicycle accidents. Where casualties require admission to hospital, the coverage is approximately 75%. This has remained unchanged throughout the years and it is therefore suggested that this proportion should be employed as indicator of the effect of the majority of prophylactic measures. In addition, proposals are made for simplification of the police registration forms. PMID:2588362

  20. The Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fatal General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, RIchard

    2005-01-01

    In-flight Spatial Disorientation (SD) in pilots is a serious threat to aviation safety. Indeed, SD may play a much larger role in aviation accidents than the approximate 6-8% reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) each year, because some accidents coded by the NTSB as aircraft control-not maintained (ACNM) may actually result from SD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SD is underestimated as a cause of fatal general aviation (GA) accidents in the NTSB database. Fatal GA airplane accidents occurring between January 1995 and December 1999 were reviewed from the NTSB aviation accident database. Cases coded as ACNM or SD as the probable cause were selected for review by a panel of aerospace medicine specialists. Using a rating scale, each rater was instructed to determine if SD was the probable cause of the accident. Agreement between the raters and agreement between the raters and the NTSB were evaluated by Kappa statistics. The raters agreed that 11 out of 20 (55%) accidents coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD (p less than 0.05). Agreement between the raters and the NTSB did not reach significance (p greater than 0.05). The 95% C.I. for the sampling population estimated that between 33-77% of cases that the NTSB identified as ACNM could be identified by aerospace medicine experts as SD. Aerospace medicine specialists agreed that some cases coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD. Consequently, a larger number of accidents may be caused by the pilot succumbing to SD than indicated in the NTSB database. This new information should encourage regulating agencies to insure that pilots receive SD recognition training, enabling them to take appropriate corrective actions during flight. This could lead to new training standards, ultimately saving lives among GA airplane pilots.

  1. Applying hierarchical loglinear models to nonfatal underground coal mine accidents for safety management.

    PubMed

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Adiguzel, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Underground mining is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries and mining remains the most hazardous occupation. Categorical analysis of accident records may present valuable information for preventing accidents. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis was applied to occupational injuries that occurred in an underground coal mine. The main factors affecting the accidents were defined as occupation, area, reason, accident time and part of body affected. By considering subfactors of the main factors, multiway contingency tables were prepared and, thus, the probabilities that might affect nonfatal injuries were investigated. At the end of the study, important accident risk factors and job groups with a high probability of being exposed to those risk factors were determined. This article presents important information on decreasing the number accidents in underground coal mines. PMID:24934420

  2. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

    2014-10-01

    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  3. A review of criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, A C

    2004-12-01

    The notion that hospitals and medical practices should learn from failures, both their own and others', has obvious appeal. Yet, healthcare organisations that systematically and effectively learn from the failures that occur in the care delivery process, especially from small mistakes and problems rather than from consequential adverse events, are rare. This article explores pervasive barriers embedded in healthcare's organisational systems that make shared or organisational learning from failure difficult and then recommends strategies for overcoming these barriers to learning from failure, emphasising the critical role of leadership. Firstly, leaders must create a compelling vision that motivates and communicates urgency for change; secondly, leaders must work to create an environment of psychological safety that fosters open reporting, active questioning, and frequent sharing of insights and concerns; and thirdly, case study research on one hospital's organisational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning throughout their organisations as a way of identifying, analysing, and removing hazards that threaten patient safety. PMID:15576689

  5. Evidence and Implications of Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Kennedy, A T; Hu, F S

    2008-03-06

    Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birchdominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleo-fires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.

  6. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  7. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  8. Overview of the radiological accidents in the world, updated December 1989.

    PubMed

    Nénot, J C

    1990-06-01

    Radiological accidents can be divided into two categories, depending on whether the accident involves large groups of the population with relatively low doses or a few individuals with high doses resulting in acute health effects. The accidents involving large groups are related to the dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment; although they may have different causes, the source is always very important. Most of the accidents which have occurred originated in civilian installations; two reactor accidents can be considered without any human consequences: the accidents in the UK (Windscale) in 1957 and in the USA (TMI) in 1979. The Chernobyl accident (USSR) in 1986 resulted in extensive contamination of the environment, with non-negligible doses to the population around the plant and large collective doses in the northern hemisphere; in addition, the Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 31 workers and firemen who intervened to bring the installation back under control. Violations of the most elementary safety rules for the operation of medical sources were at the origin of two severe environmental contaminations with human consequences: in Mexico (1983-4) and Brazil (1987), with sources of 60Co and 137Cs, respectively. The accidents concerning only a few individuals are not always known with the same documented accuracy. Between the 1940s and 1960s six critical accidents caused eight deaths; since then only one has occurred, in Argentina in 1983. The fatal radiation accidents are due to high-energy radiation sources, such as 60Co, 137Cs, and 192Ir. The total number of deaths which has been registered is 28. The accidents related to internal exposure are not exceptional, but result very rarely in health consequences. PMID:1971835

  9. National Ignition Facility: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical and radiological accident approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental assessment was conducted to estimate potential impacts or consequences associated with constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The multidisciplinary assessment covered topics ranging from radiological and chemical health and safety to socioeconomic and land-use issues. The impacts of five chemical accidents that could occur at NIF are compared, and the extent of their consequences for workers and off-site populations are discussed. Each of the five accident scenarios was modeled by a chemical release and dispersion model with a toxicological criterion for evaluating potential irreversible human health effects. Results show that most of the chemical release scenarios considered will not impair the general public in taking protective actions in the event of an accidental release. The two exceptions are the mercury release (equipment failure) scenarios for the conceptual design and the enhanced design. In general, the predicted maximum threat zones are significantly less than the distance to the point of nearest public access.

  10. Columbia Accident Probe Widens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board has identified about a dozen shuttle program safety concerns it will address in its final report, in addition to foam shedding from the Lockheed Martin external tank-believed by many board members to be the direct cause for the loss of Columbia and her crew. As new evidence narrows the location of Columbia's left-wing breach to a lower corner of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) Panel 8 and its adjoining T-seal, the board is broadening its penetration of other shuttle safety issues. As the board works in Houston, United Space Alliance technicians here at Kennedy last week sent the first six of 22 RCC panels from the orbiter Atlantis left wing to Vought Aircraft Industries Inc. in Dallas for extensive testing to assess their integrity. The move is a key step toward both returning the shuttle to flight with Atlantis and obtaining more data on RCC panels subjected to fewer flights, and less exposure to the weather, than the older panels used on Columbia.

  11. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  12. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  14. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  15. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 must, as soon...

  16. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  17. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  18. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  19. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  20. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  1. Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  3. Pain in IBD Patients: Very Frequent and Frequently Insufficiently Taken into Account

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Melike; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Scharl, Sylvie; Biedermann, Luc; Fournier, Nicolas; Frei, Pascal; Pittet, Valerie; Scharl, Michael; Fried, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain is a common symptom related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to abdominal pain, pain can also be an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Pain treatment is challenging and a substantial part of IBD patients are treated with opioids. Therefore, a better knowledge on pain symptoms is crucial for a better therapeutic approach to this clinical problem. Methods Patients of the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS) (n = 2152) received a questionnaire regarding pain intensity, pain localization and impact of pain on daily life and social activities. Furthermore, the questionnaire investigated the use of pain-specific medication. Results A vast majority of patients (71%) experienced pain during the disease course. For a substantial part of patients (49% in UC and 55% in CD) pain is a longstanding problem (>5 years). Pain in UC was of shorter duration compared to CD (p < 0.01). Abdominal pain (59.5%) and back pain (38.3%) were the main pain localizations. 67% of patients took pain medication; 24% received no pain treatment. The general quality of life was significantly lower in patients suffering of pain compared to those without pain (38 vs. 77; (-100 very bad; 100 very good) p<0.0001). Conclusions Prevalence of pain is high in patients of the SIBDCS. It is a longstanding problem for the majority of the patients affected. Pain was found to be undertreated in the SIBDCS and was significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Thus, an increased awareness is mandatory to address this frequent complication in the course of IBD. PMID:27332879

  4. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  5. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  6. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents.

    PubMed

    Collins, D L

    1992-10-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure. PMID:1454181

  7. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  8. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  9. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  10. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  11. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  12. Time-dependent accident sequences including human actions

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, G.; Chu, T.L.

    1984-02-01

    During an accident, transitions between plant states can occur due to operator intervention and the failure of systems while running. The latter cause of transition is much less likely than the first, which includes errors of commission and omission as well as recovery of lost functions. A methodology has been developed to model these transitions in the time domain. As an example, it is applied to the analysis of Three-Mile-Island-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open power-operated relief valves at Babcock and Wilcox plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident, i.e., turning off and on the high-pressure injection system and closing the block valves.

  13. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  14. Mechanisms and impact of the frequent exacerbator phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events that carry significant consequences for patients. Some patients experience frequent exacerbations, and are now recognized as a distinct clinical subgroup, the 'frequent exacerbator' phenotype. This is relatively stable over time, occurs across disease severity, and is associated with poorer health outcomes. These patients are therefore a priority for research and treatment. The pathophysiology underlying the frequent exacerbator phenotype is complex, with increased airway and systemic inflammation, dynamic lung hyperinflation, changes in lower airway bacterial colonization and a possible increased susceptibility to viral infection. Frequent exacerbators are also at increased risk from comorbid extrapulmonary diseases including cardiovascular disease, gastroesophageal reflux, depression, osteoporosis and cognitive impairment. Overall these patients have poorer health status, accelerated forced expiratory volume over 1 s (FEV1) decline, worsened quality of life, and increased hospital admissions and mortality, contributing to increased exacerbation susceptibility and perpetuation of the frequent exacerbator phenotype. This review article sets out the definition and importance of the frequent exacerbator phenotype, with a detailed examination of its pathophysiology, impact and interaction with other comorbidities. PMID:23945277

  15. Frequently Asked Questions: IDEA Early Childhood--Disclosure Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…

  16. [Congestive heart failure with frequent hospital readmissions in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L

    1993-03-01

    Ten elderly patients with heart failure and frequent hospital readmission within 12 months before the study, were submitted to clinical radiologic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation in order to find the causes of readmission. The most frequent factors were found to be non compliance with drug prescriptions and therapy inadequate for the etiology of the heart failure and the kind of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:8482059

  17. 77 FR 25504 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... asked questions (EPFAQs). These EPFAQs will be used to provide clarification of guidance documents... Frequently Asked Questions is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML12108A151, and it...

  18. Frequent underwater volcanism in the central Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebscher, C.; Ruhnau, M.; Dehghani, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The extinction of the Minoan culture in the mid second millennium BCE is a well known consequence of the Plinian eruption of Thera volcano (Santorini Island). Santorini is a member of the South Aegean arc forming a chain from the Gulf of Saronikos (Susaki, Egina, Poros, Methana) at West, to an area close to the Anatolian coast at East (Kos, Nisyros and minor islands), through the central part (Milos and Santorini island groups). Underwater volcanic activity was manifested historically only once. During 1649-1650 CE the Kolumbo underwater volcano evolved about 8 km northeast of Santorini. As a consequence of this eruption volcanic ash covered the entire Aegean area and a hazardous tsunami was triggered. Here we show by means of reflection seismic and magnetic data that underwater volcanism occurred more frequently in the central Aegean Sea than previously assumed. Seismic data show that Kolumbo constitutes of five vertically stacked cones of pyroclastic sediment plus at least four smaller cones on the flank of the volcano. The formation of Kolumbo started synchronous with Santorini Island. The entire volume of the Kolumbo pyroclastic cones is estimated to more than 15 cubic-kilometers. Several small-scale cones have been detected in the Anyhdros Basin some km north-east of Kolumbo, being previously interpreted as mud volcanoes by other authors. However, the similarity of seismic and magnetic signatures of these cones and Kolumbo strongly suggest that these cones were also created by underwater volcanism. Volcanic cones, Kolumbo and Santorini are situated along a NE-SW striking graben system that evolved during five extensional tectonic pulses in the Pliocene.

  19. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  20. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  1. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. PMID:25043313

  2. Summary of the SRS Severe Accident Analysis Program, 1987--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Hyder, M.L.; Britt, T.E.; Allison, D.K.; Chow, S.; Graves, R.D.; DeWald, A.B. Jr.; Monson, P.R. Jr.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) is a program of experimental and analytical studies aimed at characterizing severe accidents that might occur in the Savannah River Site Production Reactors. The goals of the Severe Accident Analysis Program are: To develop an understanding of severe accidents in SRS reactors that is adequate to support safety documentation for these reactors, including the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and other studies evaluating the safety of reactor operation; To provide tools and bases for the evaluation of existing or proposed safety related equipment in the SRS reactors; To provide bases for the development of accident management procedures for the SRS reactors; To develop and maintain on the site a sufficient body of knowledge, including documents, computer codes, and cognizant engineers and scientists, that can be used to authoritatively resolve questions or issues related to reactor accidents. The Severe Accident Analysis Program was instituted in 1987 and has already produced a substantial amount of information, and specialized calculational tools. Products of the Severe Accident Analysis Program (listed in Section 9 of this report) have been used in the development of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and in the development of technical specifications for the SRS reactors. A staff of about seven people is currently involved directly in the program and in providing input on severe accidents to other SRS activities.

  3. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  4. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

  5. Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

  6. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  7. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  8. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity. PMID:12131638

  9. Accident involvement and injury rates for small cars in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, F T

    1985-10-01

    A comparison of recent U.S. and Japanese small car accident and injury statistics indicates that the two countries have had dramatically differing experience with such cars. In Japan, for the years 1980, 1981, and 1982, while such cars are involved in more accidents per vehicle or per vehicle kilometer traveled than larger cars, there is a lower likelihood of a fatality if an accident occurs. The lower fatality conditional likelihood more than offsets the higher chance of an accident in 1981 and 1982, resulting in small cars having lower fatality rates per unit of exposure than larger vehicles in those years. The difference is tentatively attributed to the direct and indirect impact of the lower speed limits (80 vs 100 kmh) for such cars in Japan, as well as the greater caution drivers of such vehicles exhibit, as evidenced by the fact that small car drivers cause a significantly lower percent of the accidents they are involved in than larger cars. PMID:4096800

  10. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID:26815039

  11. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  12. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, an severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1997-02-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation was confirmed by further tests at high temperatures, as well as by finite-element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation was confirmed by finite-element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate-sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests under various temperature and pressure loadings that can occur during postulated severe accidents.

  13. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  14. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  16. Accident Prevention in the Cowshed*

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, W.

    1966-01-01

    Work accidents were studied at two agricultural settlements in the Haifa area. Most of the accidents were caused by farm animals, particularly by cattle, a fact which is in agreement with a general statistical survey conducted by the Department for Occupational Health of the General Federation of Labour in Israel. However, in the present investigation it was found that the accident rate in cowsheds was more than 10 times higher among the members of a co-operative smallholders' village (Moshav Ovdim) than it was at a collective settlement (Moshav Shetufi) of the same numerical size. Searching for the basic factors involved, it was discovered that the main reason for this striking difference in accident frequency was the faulty design of the small cowshed at the individual farms of the co-operative settlement, which, lacking adequate protective measures, exposes the farmer to close contact with the animals throughout almost all stages of dealing with them. It is concluded that accidents from handling cattle can be prevented by adhering strictly to the principle of eliminating direct contact between man and animals in the construction of the cowshed and its annexes. Images PMID:5948271

  17. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  18. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire & smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Frequent In-Center Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Levin, Nathan W; Beck, Gerald J; Daugirdas, John T; Eggers, Paul W; Kliger, Alan S; Larive, Brett; Rocco, Michael V; Greene, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive six (frequent) or three (conventional) in-center hemodialysis sessions per week for 12 months. As reported previously, frequent in-center hemodialysis yielded favorable effects on the coprimary composite outcomes of death or change in left ventricular mass and death or change in self-reported physical health. Here, we determined the long-term effects of the 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention. We determined the vital status of patients over a median of 3.6 years (10%-90% range, 1.5-5.3 years) after randomization. Using an intention to treat analysis, we compared the mortality hazard in randomized groups. In a subset of patients from both groups, we reassessed left ventricular mass and self-reported physical health a year or more after completion of the intervention; 20 of 125 patients (16%) randomized to frequent hemodialysis died during the combined trial and post-trial observation periods in contrast to 34 of 120 patients (28%) randomized to conventional hemodialysis. The relative mortality hazard for frequent versus conventional hemodialysis was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.93); with censoring of time after kidney transplantation, the relative hazard was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.99). Bayesian analysis suggested a relatively high probability of clinically significant benefit and a very low probability of harm with frequent hemodialysis. In conclusion, a 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention significantly reduced long-term mortality, suggesting that frequent hemodialysis may benefit selected patients with ESRD. PMID:26467779

  20. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    SciTech Connect

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T.; Cliff Po, L.C.

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  1. The Bhopal accident and methyl isocyanate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Varma, D R; Guest, I

    1993-12-01

    The Bhopal accident, the world's worst industrial disaster, in which nearly 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was released from the Union Carbide pesticide plant, occurred nearly 10 yr ago during the night of December 2 and 3, 1984. Over 3000 people residing in areas adjacent to the plant died of pulmonary edema within 3 d of the accident. Follow-up studies revealed pulmonary, ophthalmic, reproductive, immunologic, neurological, and hematologic toxicity among the survivors. Despite high reactivity, MIC can traverse cell membranes and reach distant organs, perhaps as a reversible conjugate with glutathione, which may explain some of the systemic effects of MIC. MIC can be degraded as a result of pyrolysis and interaction with water, but none of the breakdown products can duplicate the toxicity observed in Bhopal and in animal models. MIC may be the most toxic of all isocyanates because of its very high vapor pressure relative to other isocyanates and because of its ability to exert toxic effects on numerous organ systems. PMID:8277516

  2. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  3. Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

    2010-06-01

    We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. PMID:20472221

  4. 223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS WITH INDEPENDENT ALIGNMENTS FROM KEY BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1953. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  5. Vytra Healthcare forms a frequent user plan focusing on wellness.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Vytra Healthcare's "Constellation Club" marks the first time the concept of wellness has been applied to health plans. The Constellation Club is comparable to a frequent flier club in the airline industry. PMID:10186393

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Radiation in Everyday Objects Air Travel Airport Security Screening Building Materials Cigarette Smoking and Radiation Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health Ultraviolet Radiation Wearable Computers and Wearable Technology Radiation in Nature Radon in ...

  7. Unsupervised mining of frequent tags for clinical eligibility text indexing.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-12-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  8. Unsupervised Mining of Frequent Tags for Clinical Eligibility Text Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  9. 78 FR 72122 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Question (EPFAQ) No... Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To begin the search, select ``ADAMS Public...

  10. Correction: Frequently-Used Words in TV Captions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl; Rovins, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The 250 most frequently used words in television captions are listed in order of frequency. This table is a correction to the table printed in the article "Instant Reading Incentives: TV Captions," in the September 1997 issue. (DB)

  11. 3W approach to the investigation, analysis, and prevention of human-error aircraft accidents.

    PubMed

    Ricketson, D S; Brown, W R; Graham, K N

    1980-09-01

    Human error is the largest cause of U.S. Army aircraft accidents. An approach to this problem is presented which is based on a model of the human-error accident. This 3W approach identifies what task error (TE) caused or contributed to the accident, what inadequacy (I) in the aviation system caused or allowed the TE to occur, and what remedial measure (R) is required to correct the I. There were 82 human-error accidents analyzed to identify TEIR information. Statistically important is were identified which could be remedied based on accident costs. Then, potentially cost-effective remedial actions were ranked on a cost-benefit totem pole. The totem pole was given to the aviation system manager as a management tool to assist in determining priorities for corrective actions. PMID:7417175

  12. Con: Frequent haemodialysis for all chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Labriola, Laura; Morelle, Johann; Jadoul, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Frequent haemodialysis (HD) regimens have been proposed with the aim to improve survival and other important patient outcomes. They indeed avoid the long interdialytic interval and have been associated with some proven benefits, i.e. an improvement in blood pressure and phosphataemia control, a reduction in left ventricular mass and lower ultrafiltration rates. However, the actual impact of frequent HD regimens on survival is, at best, inconclusive and, at worse, harmful, and remains uncertain regarding nutritional status and anaemia control. Moreover, the higher rates of vascular access complications and more rapid development of anuria with frequent HD regimens are worrying. Frequent HD also considerably increases the burden for patients and their caregivers, logistics and costs, especially with in-centre frequent schedules. In our opinion, before increasing HD frequency, a number of underused strategies summarized in our review and able to improve patient tolerance and/or HD dose should be tested first, taking into account patient's characteristics and life expectancy. Frequent HD schedules should be reserved for selected cases, only after all other available options have failed. PMID:25538159

  13. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  14. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  15. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-11-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist.

  16. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  18. Necropsy study of mountaineering accidents in Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, W A; Doyle, D; Richmond, H G; Galbraith, S L

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and twenty one people died in mountaineering accidents in Scotland between July 1978 and December 1983. Necropsies were carried out on 42, which form the basis of this report. In 21 cases head injury was major fatality factor, but in 11 of these there were also serious chest injuries. Focal brain damage (haematomas, contusions, or lacerations) was more common (n = 21) than diffuse brain damage (n = 18). Over half of the victims with severe head injury had few other injuries and would probably have survived had the head injury been prevented. Spinal injuries usually occurred with other major injuries. Chest injuries were common, being serious in 18 cases, but abdominal injuries were uncommon. Four climbers with only minor injuries died of hypothermia. PMID:3793938

  19. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk studies. Objectives: Here we propose a comprehensive systematic approach to estimating radiation doses for the evaluation of health risks resulting from a nuclear power plant accident, reflected in a set of seven guidelines. Discussion: Four major nuclear reactor accidents have occurred during the history of nuclear power production. The circumstances leading to these accidents were varied, as were the magnitude of the releases of radioactive materials, the pathways by which persons were exposed, the data collected afterward, and the lifestyle factors and dietary consumption that played an important role in the associated radiation exposure of the affected populations. Accidents involving nuclear reactors may occur in the future under a variety of conditions. The guidelines we recommend here are intended to facilitate obtaining reliable dose estimations for a range of different exposure conditions. We recognize that full implementation of the proposed approach may not always be feasible because of other priorities during the nuclear accident emergency and because of limited resources in manpower and equipment. Conclusions: The proposed approach can serve as a basis to optimize the value of radiation dose reconstruction following a nuclear reactor accident. Citation: Bouville A, Linet MS, Hatch M, Mabuchi K, Simon SL. 2014. Guidelines for exposure assessment in health risk studies following a nuclear reactor accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:1–5; http://dx.doi.org/10

  20. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases. PMID:23622478

  1. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... machinery by engineers. 167.65-70 Section 167.65-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a... shall be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or machinery in their...

  2. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  3. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  4. Updating outdated predictive accident models.

    PubMed

    Wood, A G; Mountain, L J; Connors, R D; Maher, M J; Ropkins, K

    2013-06-01

    Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as safety performance functions (SPFs)) are essential to design and maintain safe road networks however, ongoing changes in road and vehicle design coupled with road safety initiatives, mean that these models can quickly become dated. Unfortunately, because the fitting of sophisticated PAMs including a wide range of explanatory variables is not a trivial task, available models tend to be based on data collected many years ago and seem unlikely to give reliable estimates of current accidents. Large, expensive studies to produce new models are likely to be, at best, only a temporary solution. This paper thus seeks to develop a practical and efficient methodology to allow currently available PAMs to be updated to give unbiased estimates of accident frequencies at any point in time. Two principal issues are examined: the extent to which the temporal transferability of predictive accident models varies with model complexity; and the practicality and efficiency of two alternative updating strategies. The models used to illustrate these issues are the suites of models developed for rural dual and single carriageway roads in the UK. These are widely used in several software packages in spite of being based on data collected during the 1980s and early 1990s. It was found that increased model complexity by no means ensures better temporal transferability and that calibration of the models using a scale factor can be a practical alternative to fitting new models. PMID:23510788

  5. Time Slows Down during Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Arstila, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

  6. Time Slows Down during Accidents.

    PubMed

    Arstila, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

  7. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  8. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  9. [Accidents in a population of 350 adolescents and young adults: circumstances, risk factors and prediction of recurrence].

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniel; Ingrand, Pierre; Delamour, Magali; Ingrand, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Accidents among adolescents and young adults are a public health issue, and present two main characteristics: a strong association with sporting activities, and frequent recurrence. Sports accidents are generally relatively benign, but they show a marked tendency to recur Young people engaging in sporting activities do not generally exhibit psychological traits different from the general population. In contrast, the other types of accident, and particularly domestic and traffic accidents, appear to have specific features: they are often more serious, but above all they are associated with psychopathologic features, including depression, anxiety, disorders due to life events, and thrill-seeking These psychopathological features are strongly associated with recurrence. The authors describe a simple self-administered questionnaire (ECARR) designed to assess the risk of accident recurrence in this population. PMID:21513131

  10. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  11. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  12. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An...

  13. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  14. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... accident to the Foreign Service post, to the nearest Civil Aeronautics Administration office, and to...

  17. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... accident to the Foreign Service post, to the nearest Civil Aeronautics Administration office, and to...

  18. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... and the supervisory Foreign Service office whenever considered appropriate. A final report, after...

  19. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  20. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  1. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  2. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An...

  3. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  4. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  5. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  6. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  7. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998. PMID:9670490

  8. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. PMID:24338955

  9. [Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].

    PubMed

    Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

    2012-02-01

    This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

  10. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes for the purpose of dose reconstruction: a review of three recent radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, A; Gregoire, E; Hayata, I; Roy, L; Sommer, S; Stephan, G; Voisin, P

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood of radiation accident victims is an established method of biological dosimetry. The dose estimate on the basis of an in vitro calibration curve is straightforward when the radiation exposure is homogeneous and the analysis not delayed. In recent years three radiation accidents occurred, where the irradiation or sampling conditions precluded a simple estimation of the dose. During the Georgian accident soldiers carried in their pockets small sources of 137Cs leading to partial and protracted body exposures. During the Tokai-mura accident, three employees involved in the process of 235U enrichment were exposed to very high doses of gamma rays and neutrons. During the Bialystok accident, five patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were exposed to a single dose of electrons which reached about 100 Gy. In the present paper the approaches chosen to estimate, by cytogenetic methods, the doses absorbed by the people involved in the accidents are described. PMID:15162038

  11. A computerized prospective audit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Wardrope, J; Crosby, A C; Ferguson, D G; Edbrooke, D L

    1986-01-01

    A prospective survey of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is in progress in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital. During the 12 months from January 1985 to January 1986, 123 cardiac arrests were treated in the accident department. Ninety of these arrests occurred outside the hospital; nine of these patients survived to leave hospital. Of the 33 people arresting in the department, 10 survived to leave hospital. The causes of death are presented. PMID:3768122

  12. [Anorexia nervosa is frequently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Anna; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2015-09-21

    Recent literature is explored focusing on the relationship between symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) and other psychiatric disorders and lines of treatment. In AN, restrictive subtype, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders are the most frequent co-morbidities. In AN, bulimic subtype, depression, emotional instability/borderline and dependency disorders are most frequent. Psychopharmacological treatment could be tried in cases with AN and co-morbid depression, but otherwise the evidence base is lacking and pharmacological treatment relies on case stories and experience. PMID:26418641

  13. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:27609293

  14. The Chornobyl Accident: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Poyarkov, Victor A.; Vargo, George J.; George J. Vargo

    2000-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive of the April 1986 Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its short and long-term effects in the fourteen years since the accident. Chapters include: cause and description of the accident; the Shelter constructed to contain the remains the destroyed reactor, radioactive wastes arising from the accident, environmental contamination, individual and collective radiation doses, societal aspects, economic impact and conclusions. Appendices on radiological units, the medical consequences of the accident, and a list of acronym and abbreviations are included.

  15. Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuchen; Pawlik, Timothy M; Anders, Robert A; Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

    2013-12-01

    Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:24185509

  16. Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:24185509

  17. WHERE DOES WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS OCCUR, AND WHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 60 outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis occurred in the United States between 1965 and 1982, mainly in the Northeast, the Rocky Mountain states, and the Pacific states. Outbreaks most often occurred as a result of inadequate or interrupted treatment. Disinfection problems and ...

  18. Violence in the Accident and Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Cembrowicz, S P; Shepherd, J P

    1992-04-01

    Crimes of violence are recorded increasingly frequently, including those involving health professionals. We reviewed records of violent incidents kept for a major Accident and Emergency Department over a ten-year period. Details were recorded in a Violent Incident Book by all grades of A/E staff, and separate records were kept by hospital security officers. A total of 407 incidents were recorded. Numbers, rank and sex of staff assaulted, types of assault, injuries received, weapons used and characteristics and disposal of perpetrators were recorded. Many were young males who had been drinking: others were regular attenders, of whom three subsequently died and one convicted of murder. Nurses and male doctors appeared to be at the greatest risk of assault and receptionists at the least risk. Recording of violent incidents and subsequent prosecution seemed inconsistent, and may have reflected the lack of a code of practice in this area. Suggestions are made about preventing, predicting and dealing with violence, and its aftermath, in the A and E department, including the use of security officers and closed circuit television, waiting room design, the recognition of body language and signs of alcohol or substance intoxication. The importance of staff support after an assault is emphasized, including immediate and long-term counselling, provision of legal advice, criminal or civil court action, victim support schemes and the workings of the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board. Free legal advice for staff assaulted at work should be included in the terms of service of NHS staff. PMID:1614297

  19. Major Extremity Injuries Associated with Farmyard Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Copuroglu, Cem; Heybeli, Nurettin; Ozcan, Mert; Yilmaz, Baris; Ciftdemir, Mert; Copuroglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study is to analyze the major agricultural injuries related to the extremities. Patients. We evaluated a 3-year period including 41 patients. Data on age, sex, injury patterns, anatomical localizations, injury season, length of stay in the hospital, and infections were evaluated, and the patients were examined with SF-36 in the follow-up period. Results. Hand was the most commonly injured part (n: 9) followed by the distal part of the lower limb (cruris) (n: 7) and foot (n: 7). Mean time between trauma and emergency-department arrival was 115 minutes (60–360). Mean length of stay was 24 days (4–150), and mean number of operations during hospitalization was 2.4 (1–30). Deep wound infection was seen in 8 patients. Seasonal distribution for accidents was even for spring and fall (27% each), high for summer (36%), and less for winter (10%). Conclusions. Distal parts of the elbow and knee were affected more frequently. Due to the high microbiological load and high incidence of crush-type injuries, repetitive debridements and long duration of hospital stay were needed. Attention should be paid in the harvesting times to the farmyard injuries. Due to the seasonal variation, more resources should be allocated to treat the increasing incidence of injury over the period from spring to fall. PMID:23002385

  20. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed. PMID:22981212

  1. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  2. Methodology for fitting and updating predictive accident models with trend.

    PubMed

    Connors, Richard D; Maher, Mike; Wood, Alan; Mountain, Linda; Ropkins, Karl

    2013-07-01

    Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as Safety Performance Functions (SPFs)) have a variety of important uses in traffic safety research and practice. They are used to help identify sites in need of remedial treatment, in the design of transport schemes to assess safety implications, and to estimate the effectiveness of remedial treatments. The PAMs currently in use in the UK are now quite old; the data used in their development was gathered up to 30 years ago. Many changes have occurred over that period in road and vehicle design, in road safety campaigns and legislation, and the national accident rate has fallen substantially. It seems unlikely that these ageing models can be relied upon to provide accurate and reliable predictions of accident frequencies on the roads today. This paper addresses a number of methodological issues that arise in seeking practical and efficient ways to update PAMs, whether by re-calibration or by re-fitting. Models for accidents on rural single carriageway roads have been chosen to illustrate these issues, including the choice of distributional assumption for overdispersion, the choice of goodness of fit measures, questions of independence between observations in different years, and between links on the same scheme, the estimation of trends in the models, the uncertainty of predictions, as well as considerations about the most efficient and convenient ways to fit the required models. PMID:23612560

  3. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

  4. U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents, 1963 Through 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.; Kasper, Eugene F.; Iseler, Laura E.

    2000-01-01

    Narrative summary data produced by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has been obtained and analyzed for all 8,436 U.S. civil registered rotorcraft accidents which occurred from mid-1963 through 1997. This analysis was based on the NTSB's assignment of each mishap into one of 21 "first event" categories. The number of U.S. civil registered rotorcraft as recorded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the same period has also been obtained. Taken together, these data indicate the civil rotorcraft accident rate (on a per 1,000 registered rotorcraft basis) has decreased by almost a factor of 10 (i.e., from 130 accidents per 1,000 rotorcraft in 1964 to 13.4 per 1,000 in 1997). Analysis of the mishap data indicates over 70% of the rotorcraft accidents were associated with one of the following four NTSB "first event" categories: 2408 Loss of engine power (28.5%); 1,322 In-flight collisions with objects (15.7%); 1,114 Loss of control (13.2%); 1,083 Airframe/component/system failure or malfunction (12.8%).

  5. Characterization of plutonium particles originating from the BOMARC accident - 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostic, Richard Charles

    Within the U.S. arsenal, 32 accidents with nuclear weapons were reported between 1950 and 1980. One of these accidents occurred at McGuire AFB in 1960. A BOMARC missile armed with a nuclear warhead caught on fire and as a result the warhead was destroyed. Sub-millimeter particles consisting of weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) produced by this accident were distributed around the site and remained in the environment for 47 years. Soil cores known to contain WGPu particles produced by this accident were obtained. The particles were localized and removed from the soil with the aid of high resolution computed tomography. The isotopic composition of the particles and the date of manufacture of the Pu were estimated using a combination of alpha and gamma spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the particles; energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence were used to determine the composition and elemental distributions of the particles. The results of these experiments and their application to the field of nuclear forensic analysis are discussed in this thesis.

  6. Severe accident natural circulation studies at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, P.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Jones, K.R.; O`Brien, J.E.; Pafford, D.J.; Schlenker, L.D.; Tung, V.X.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accident natural circulation flows have been investigated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to better understand these flows and their potential impacts on the progression of a pressurized water reactor severe accident. Parameters affecting natural circulation in the reactor vessel and hot legs were identified and ranked based on their perceived importance. Reviews of the scaling of the 1/7-scale experiments performed by Westinghouse were undertaken. RELAP5/MOD3 calculations of two of the experiments showed generally good agreement between the calculated and observed behavior. Analyses of hydrogen behavior in the reactor vessel showed that hydrogen stratification is not likely to occur, and that an initially stratified layer of hydrogen would quickly mix with a recirculating steam flow. An analysis of the upper plenum behavior in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor concluded that vapor temperatures could have been significantly higher than the temperatures seen by the control rod drive lead screws, supporting the premise that a strong natural circulation flow was likely present during the accident. SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations of a commercial pressurized water reactor severe accident without operator actions showed that the natural circulation flows enhance the likelihood of ex-vessel piping failures long before failure of the reactor vessel lower head.

  7. Estimated consequences from severe spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Arnish, J.J.; Monette, F.; LePoire, D.; Biwer, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    The RISKIND software package is used to estimate radiological consequences of severe accident scenarios involving the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological risks are estimated for both a collective population and a maximally exposed individual based on representative truck and rail cask designs described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) modal study. The estimate of collective population risk considers all possible environmental pathways, including acute and long-term exposures, and is presented in terms of the 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Radiological risks to a maximally exposed individual from acute exposure are estimated and presented in terms of the first year and 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Consequences are estimated for accidents occurring in rural and urban population areas. The modeled pathways include inhalation during initial passing of the radioactive cloud, external exposure from a reduction of the cask shielding, long-term external exposure. from ground deposition, and ingestion from contaminated food (rural only). The major pathways and contributing radionuclides are identified, and the effects of possible mitigative actions are discussed. The cask accident responses and the radionuclide release fractions are modeled as described in the NRC modal study. Estimates of severe accident probabilities are presented for both truck and rail modes of transport. The assumptions made in this study tend to be conservative; however, a set of multiplicative factors are identified that can be applied to estimate more realistic conditions.

  8. The Concept of Accident Proneness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Froggatt, Peter; Smiley, James A.

    1964-01-01

    The term accident proneness was coined by psychological research workers in 1926. Since then its concept—that certain individuals are always more likely than others to sustain accidents, even though exposed to equal risk—has been questioned but seldom seriously challenged. This article describes much of the work and theory on which this concept is based, details the difficulties encountered in obtaining valid information and the interpretative errors that can arise from the examination of imperfect data, and explains why accident proneness became so readily accepted as an explanation of the facts. A recent hypothesis of accident causation, namely that a person's accident liability may vary from time to time, is outlined, and the respective abilities of this and of accident proneness to accord with data from the more reliable literature are examined. The authors conclude that the hypothesis of individual variation in liability is more realistic and in better agreement with the data than is accident proneness. PMID:14106130

  9. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... either during a railroad accident or other event occurring in the right-of-way. Further, the advisory... to identify and notify underground utilities that an incident has occurred in the vicinity of their... emergency communication procedures. At the site of the derailment was a 12-inch diameter underground...

  10. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Ferreira, Juliana Montez; da Silva, Paula Marques C.; Constancio, Dilene Francisco

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision). CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision. COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up. PMID:25119763

  11. Frequent Absences? Help Students Keep up, Not Drop out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Absenteeism, which is increasing at an alarming rate, is becoming the gateway to dropping out of school altogether. One way to combat this trend is for educators to implement strategies and interventions for students returning from frequent absences in an effort to keep their make-up workload feasible and to help them maintain their grades.…

  12. Frequent Subgraph Discovery in Large Attributed Streaming Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Abhik; Holder, Larry; Choudhury, Sutanay

    2014-08-13

    The problem of finding frequent subgraphs in large dynamic graphs has so far only consid- ered a dynamic graph as being represented by a series of static snapshots taken at various points in time. This representation of a dynamic graph does not lend itself well to real time processing of real world graphs like social networks or internet traffic which consist of a stream of nodes and edges. In this paper we propose an algorithm that discovers the frequent subgraphs present in a graph represented by a stream of labeled nodes and edges. Our algorithm is efficient and consists of tunable parameters that can be tuned by the user to get interesting patterns from various kinds of graph data. In our model updates to the graph arrive in the form of batches which contain new nodes and edges. Our algorithm con- tinuously reports the frequent subgraphs that are estimated to be found in the entire graph as each batch arrives. We evaluate our system using 5 large dynamic graph datasets: the Hetrec 2011 challenge data, Twitter, DBLP and two synthetic. We evaluate our approach against two popular large graph miners, i.e., SUBDUE and GERM. Our experimental re- sults show that we can find the same frequent subgraphs as a non-incremental approach applied to snapshot graphs, and in less time.

  13. Demystifying the Electoral College: 12 Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    As the presidential election of 2012 draws closer, Americans will witness a resurgence of references to the Electoral College in news reports. Here, "Looking at the Law" hopes to demystify the Electoral College, and refresh many social studies memories--just in time for the next election--with some frequently asked questions about electing the…

  14. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC): Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-01

    An ESPC is a working relationship between a Federal agency and an energy service company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the Federal facility and identifies improvements to save energy. The following sections present a number of frequently asked questions from ESPC end-users and stakeholders.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions: Common Core State Standards Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The document provides answers to some of the frequently asked questions about the Common Core State Standards, from how they were developed to what they mean for states and local communities. The questions are organized into the following categories: (1) Overview; (2) Process; (3) Implementation and Future Work; and (4) Content and Quality of the…

  16. Frequent Errors in Chinese EFL Learners' Topic-Based Writings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated a large number of errors found in the topic-based writings of Chinese EFL learners, especially provided an analysis on frequent errors, to find useful pedagogical implications for English grammar teaching and writing instruction in Chinese EFL setting. Students' topic-based writings were examined by the author. The findings…

  17. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  18. The Most Frequently Listed Courses in the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; McCann, Lee I.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the most frequently listed undergraduate psychology courses for four institutional types by analyzing 400 college catalogs. Reports that some segmentation continues in the research methodology and developmental areas, the balance of natural and social science courses appear stable, and there are no signs of a change toward vocationalism.…

  19. Vaginal Microbiota of Women with Frequent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W.; Forney, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from the numerically dominant microbial populations. The data showed that there were no significant differences between the vaginal microbial communities of women in the two groups (likelihood score, 5.948; bootstrap P value, 0.26). Moreover, no novel bacteria were found in the communities of women with frequent VVC. The vaginal communities of most women in both groups (38/42; 90%) were dominated by species of Lactobacillus. The results of this study failed to provide evidence for the existence of altered or unusual vaginal bacterial communities in women who have frequent VVC compared to women who do not have frequent VVC. The findings suggest that commensal vaginal bacterial species may not be able to prevent VVC. PMID:19528218

  20. Ten Frequent Assumptions of Cultural Bias in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Identifies 10 of the most frequently encountered examples of cultural bias that consistently emerge in the literature about multicultural counseling and development. Assumptions are described in the areas of normal behavior, individualism, limits of academic disciplines, dependence on abstract words, independence, client support systems, linear…

  1. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

  2. Fraternity Membership & Frequent Drinking. NBER Working Paper No. 16291

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcing earlier findings from other data, college senior fraternity/sorority members are more likely to consume alcohol frequently. Large reductions in estimates upon controlling for time spent partying, and to a lesser extent cigarette use and intramural sports involvement, suggest considerable unobserved heterogeneity in the relationship.…

  3. Can Frequent Moves in Childhood Spell Trouble Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... England. "Although frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial psychosocial difficulties, the elevated risks were observed across the socioeconomic spectrum, and mobility may be intrinsically harmful," Webb added. The study included all 1.4 million Danes born between ...

  4. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  5. Frequent Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations Among Homeless People With Medicaid: Implications for Medicaid Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bharel, Monica; Zhang, Jianying; O’Connell, Elizabeth; Clark, Robin E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined factors associated with frequent hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits among Medicaid members who were homeless. Methods. We included 6494 Massachusetts Medicaid members who received services from a health care for the homeless program in 2010. We used negative binomial regression to examine variables associated with frequent utilization. Results. Approximately one third of the study population had at least 1 hospitalization and two thirds had 1 or more ED visits. More than 70% of hospitalizations and ED visits were incurred by only 12% and 21% of these members, respectively. Homeless individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were at greatest risk for frequent hospitalizations and ED visits (e.g., incidence rate ratios [IRRs] = 2.9–13.8 for hospitalizations). Individuals living on the streets also had significantly higher utilization (IRR = 1.5). Conclusions. Despite having insurance coverage, homeless Medicaid members experienced frequent hospitalizations and ED visits. States could consider provisions under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (e.g., Medicaid expansion and Health Homes) jointly with housing programs to meet the needs of homeless individuals, which may improve the quality and cost effectiveness of care. PMID:26447915

  6. Nonurgent commercial air travel after nonhemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Barros, Andrew; Duchateau, François-Xavier; Huff, J Stephen; Verner, Laurent; O'Connor, Robert E; Brady, William J

    2014-01-01

    Nonurgent commercial air travel in patients who have experienced a nonhemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) may occur, particularly in the elderly traveling population. A recent CVA, particularly occurring during a person's travel, presents a significant challenge to the patient, companions, family, and health care team. Specific medical recommendation, based on accumulated scientific data and interpreted by medical experts, is needed so that travel health care professionals can appropriately guide the patient. Unfortunately, such recommendations are almost entirely lacking despite the relative frequency of CVA and air travel. This article reviews the existing recommendations with conclusions based on both these limited data and rationale conjecture. PMID:24787513

  7. Ambulance and aeromedical accident rates during emergency retrieval in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lutman, D; Montgomery, M; Ramnarayan, P; Petros, A

    2008-05-01

    The retrieval of critically ill patients is frequently done in difficult circumstances and often under considerable time pressures. These adverse conditions have a finite risk of serious injury or death. The level of risk is poorly described in the literature and reliable data on accident rates are hard to find. Most of the information comes from North America. There are no clear published statistics for the UK. We report for the first time data on accidents and casualties involving vehicles classified as having an ambulance body type and air ambulances within Great Britain between 1999 and 2004. PMID:18434473

  8. [Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents. PMID:23903036

  9. ST elevation occurring during stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Diana; Mugmon, Marc

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented of significant reversible ST elevation occurring during treadmill testing, and the coronary anatomy and subsequent course are described, indicating that ischemia is a potential cause of this electrocardiographic finding. PMID:27124164

  10. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure.

  11. Human external ophthalmomyiasis occurring in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Levett, P N; Brooker, L; Reifer, C; Prussia, P R; Eberhard, M L

    2004-06-01

    Human infection with the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis occurs sporadically. In most cases, there is a history of a strike in the eye by the adult fly. Human O. ovis has been reported rarely from the Americas. We report the first case of O. ovis infection in the Caribbean region, which occurred in an urban area of Barbados. The patient responded to removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva and symptomatic treatment. PMID:15352754

  12. Comorbidity as a contributor to frequent severe acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Lee, Hyun; Carriere, KC; Shin, Sun Hye; Moon, Seong Mi; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Comorbidities have a serious impact on the frequent severe acute exacerbations (AEs) in patients with COPD. Previous studies have used the Charlson comorbidity index to represent a conglomerate of comorbidities; however, the respective contribution of each coexisting disease to the frequent severe AEs remains unclear. Methods A retrospective, observational study was performed in 77 COPD patients who experienced severe AE between January 2012 and December 2014 and had at least 1-year follow-up period from the date of admission for severe AE. We explored the incidence of frequent severe AEs (≥2 severe AEs during 1-year period) in these patients and investigated COPD-related factors and comorbidities as potential risk factors of these exacerbations. Results Out of 77 patients, 61 patients (79.2%) had at least one comorbidity. During a 1-year follow-up period, 29 patients (37.7%) experienced frequent severe AEs, approximately two-thirds (n=19) of which occurred within the first 90 days after admission. Compared with patients not experiencing frequent severe AEs, these patients were more likely to have poor lung function and receive home oxygen therapy and long-term oral steroids. In multiple logistic regression analysis, coexisting asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =4.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30–12.46, P=0.016), home oxygen therapy (adjusted OR =9.39, 95% CI =1.60–55.30, P=0.013), and C-reactive protein (adjusted OR =1.09, 95% CI =1.01–1.19, P=0.036) were associated with frequent severe AEs. In addition, poor lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (adjusted OR =0.16, 95% CI =0.04–0.70, P=0.015), was inversely associated with early (ie, within 90 days of admission) frequent severe AEs. Conclusion Based on our study, among COPD-related comorbidities, coexisting asthma has a significant impact on the frequent severe AEs in COPD patients. PMID:27536097

  13. Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Conche, Florence; Tight, Miles

    2006-11-01

    This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of similar events may be prevented in the future. CCTV records of accidents could provide an independent perspective on an accident and have the potential to increase both the quality and quantity of information available to the safety researcher. This study focuses on an area of central Leeds in the UK and shows that an existing CCTV camera system used for urban traffic management reasons has the potential to record around a quarter of the accidents which occur in the area, based on patterns of past occurrence. Most city centres in the UK will have similar camera systems set-up. By the introduction of additional strategically placed cameras and replacement of existing cameras with ones dedicated to accident recording, this figure could be increased substantially. The paper also considers how effective cameras and video records will be as a means of identifying contributory factor information once an accident is recorded. The contributory factor classification used by a recently introduced system in Britain is assessed in terms of how visible each of the factors is likely to be on video and their relative frequency of occurrence. It is concluded that CCTV has a high potential to provide corroborative evidence about many of the most commonly occurring factors, and to throw further light on accident causation. PMID:16824454

  14. Protective clothing for accident and emergency personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Steedman, D J

    1994-01-01

    There is a significant risk of clothing soilure and skin contamination from patients' blood or other body fluids whilst working in an accident and emergency (A&E) department. It is therefore unhygienic to wear personal clothing and traditional uniforms do not provide adequate protection. Contamination occurs despite operating 'universal precautions' and emergency presentations often preclude adopting such precautions despite the anticipation of possible contact with blood or other body fluids. The protection afforded to medical staff working in an A&E department by a suit made from a liquid repellent polyester fabric was assessed during the period 2 November 1992-1 January 1993. Ninety-one splash incidents were recorded. A total of 85.7% of splashes (78) were with patients' blood, 13.1% with vomitus (12) and 1.1% with pus (1). There were no instances of splashes to the suit that resulted in strike through to the inner surface or visible contamination of underlying skin. However, some 15.4% of splashes (14) resulted in contamination of exposed skin and 78.6% of these (11) occurred between glove and sleeve. Clothing of appropriated design and fabric can afford skin protection from blood and body fluid contamination. Such clothing alone does not provide overall protection and other precautions currently recommended should be taken. PMID:7921544

  15. In the United States, negligible rates of zoonotic sarcocystosis occur in feral swine that, by contrast, frequently harbor infections with Sarcocystis meischeriana, a related parasite contracted from dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocysti...

  16. In the United States, negligible rates of zoonotic sarcocystosis occur in feral swine that, by contrast, frequently harbour infections with Sarcocystis miescheriana, a related parasite contracted from canids.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Yang, Y; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P

    2015-04-01

    Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays an important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocystis infection, the myocardium of 1006 feral pigs (Sus scrofa) trapped or hunted in 29 states during the Comprehensive Feral Swine Disease Surveillance Program of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services unit during 2012-2014. Sarcocysts were detected in histological sections of 25% (251/1006) of myocardium with an average parasitic load/intensity of infection of 3.03 sarcocysts/section (1.5×0.7 cm), and higher prevalence of myocarditis in severe infections. Microscopic examination of pepsin digests of 147 hearts revealed a higher prevalence of Sarcocystis bradyzoites (49%, 72/147) than when diagnosed by histology. A fragment of Sarcocystis 18S rRNA was amplified and digested with a restriction endonuclease, revealing a pattern consistent with Sarcocystis miescheriana in all 44 selected samples. Sequencing 31 of these 44 isolates confirmed their correspondence to S. miescheriana. Thus, S. miescheriana infection, but not the zoonotic parasite Sarcocystis suihominis, appears to be prevalent and widespread in feral pigs in the USA. PMID:25363485

  17. IDH1 mutations at residue p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) occur frequently in high-grade gliomas but not in other solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, Fonnet E; Lamba, Simona; Leenstra, Sieger; Troost, Dirk; Hulsebos, Theo; Vandertop, W Peter; Frattini, Milo; Molinari, Francesca; Knowles, Margaret; Cerrato, Aniello; Rodolfo, Monica; Scarpa, Aldo; Felicioni, Lara; Buttitta, Fiamma; Malatesta, Sara; Marchetti, Antonio; Bardelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Systematic sequence profiling of the Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) genome has recently led to the identification of somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. Interestingly, only the evolutionarily conserved residue R132 located in the substrate binding site of IDH1 was found mutated in GBM. At present, the occurrence and the relevance of p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) variants in tumors other than GBMs is largely unknown. We searched for mutations at position R132 of the IDH1 gene in a panel of 672 tumor samples. These included high-grade glioma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), melanoma, bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, and thyroid carcinoma specimens. In addition, we assessed a panel of 84 cell lines from different tumor lineages. Somatic mutations affecting the IDH1(R132) residue were detected in 20% (23 of 113) high-grade glioma samples. In addition to the previously reported p.R132H and p.R132S alleles, we identified three novel somatic mutations (p.R132C, p.R132G, and p.R132L) affecting residue IDH1(R132) in GBM. Strikingly, no IDH1 mutations were detected in the other tumor types. These data indicate that cancer mutations affecting IDH1(R132) are tissue-specific, and suggest that it plays a unique role in the development of high-grade gliomas. PMID:19117336

  18. A novel SINE family occurs frequently in both genomic DNA and transcribed sequences in ixodid ticks of the arthropod sub-phylum Chelicerata.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reassociation kinetics indicates that ixodid tick genomes are large, relative to most arthropods, containing =(greater than or equal to) 10^9 base pairs, although the molecular basis for this is currently unknown. We have identified a novel small interspersed element with features of a tRNA-derived...

  19. Source terms released into the environment for a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This study calculates source terms released into the environment at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station after containment failure during a postulated low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Source terms were calculated for three different containment failure modes. The largest environmental releases occur for early containment failure at the drywell liner in contact with the cavity by liner melt-through. This containment failure mode is very likely to occur when the cavity is dry during this postulated severe accident sequence.

  20. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  1. Waste Evaporator Accident Simulation Using RELAP5 Computer Code

    SciTech Connect

    POLIZZI, L.M.

    2004-04-28

    An evaporator is used on liquid waste from processing facilities to reduce the volume of the waste through heating the waste and allowing some of the water to be separated from the waste through boiling. This separation process allows for more efficient processing and storage of liquid waste. Commonly, the liquid waste consists of an aqueous solution of chemicals that over time could induce corrosion, and in turn weaken the tubes in the steam tube bundle of the waste evaporator that are used to heat the waste. This chemically induced corrosion could escalate into a possible tube leakage and/or the severance of a tube(s) in the tube bundle. In this paper, analyses of a waste evaporator system for the processing of liquid waste containing corrosive chemicals are presented to assess the system response to this accident scenario. This accident scenario is evaluated since its consequences can propagate to a release of hazardous material to the outside environment. It is therefore important to ensure that the evaporator system component structural integrity is not compromised, i.e. the design pressure and temperature of the system is not exceeded during the accident transient. The computer code used for the accident simulation is RELAP5-MOD31. The accident scenario analyzed includes a double-ended guillotine break of a tube in the tube bundle of the evaporator. A mitigated scenario is presented to evaluate the excursion of the peak pressure and temperature in the various components of the evaporator system to assess whether the protective actions and controls available are adequate to ensure that the structural integrity of the evaporator system is maintained and that no atmospheric release occurs.

  2. Factors associated with frequent and infrequent HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, B S; O'Grady, K E; Farrell, E V; Flechner, I S; Nurco, D N

    2001-10-01

    Drug user treatment clients with 5 or more HIV tests (frequent testees N=43) and 0-2 HIV tests (infrequent testees-N = 56) were compared on demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, perceived risk of HIV infection to self, involvement with family members, and psychological functioning. Extreme groups of HIV testees did not differ on any variables other than an index of perceived vulnerability to HIV infection (e.g., " You think that you really could get AIDS"). That measure of felt vulnerability was not correlated significantly with needle or sexual risk behaviors, family involvement, psychological functioning or other measures of perceived risk. It was reasoned that, in a community in which both dangers and protective behaviors are widely understood, frequent testees experience a generalized and heightened concern unrelated to specific behaviors or characteristics. PMID:11758815

  3. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  4. Frequent dieting among adolescents: psychosocial and health behavior correlates.

    PubMed Central

    French, S A; Story, M; Downes, B; Resnick, M D; Blum, R W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study examined correlates of frequent dieting in 33,393 adolescents. It was hypothesized that frequent dieting would be correlated with negative psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. METHODS. A comprehensive, school-based health behavior survey was administered in 1987 to public school students in grades 7 through 12 in Minnesota. Students self-reported dieting behavior; substance use; suicidal, sexual, and delinquent behavior; family and peer concerns; sick days; and abuse history. Differences on psychosocial and health behavior risk factors by dieting frequency and by purging status were assessed with multivariate logistic regression, with body mass index and demographic variables controlled. RESULTS. Dieting frequency was associated with history of binge eating (females: odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, males: OR = 1.53); poor body image (females: OR = 0.56, males: OR = 0.63); lower connectedness to others (females: OR = 0.79); greater alcohol use (females: OR = 1.17); and greater tobacco use (females: OR = 1.08). Purging status was independently associated with negative risk factors in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that frequent dieting efforts in adolescents should not be viewed in isolation, but rather in the broader context of health and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:7733431

  5. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  6. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities. PMID:23423737

  7. Organisational accidents investigation methodology and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dien, Yves; Llory, Michel; Montmayeul, René

    2004-07-26

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on accident analysis methods. As the understanding of industrial accidents and incidents has evolved, they are no longer considered as the sole product of human and/or technical failures but also as originating in an unfavourable organisational context. After presenting some theoretical developments which are responsible for this evolution, we will propose two examples of organisational accidents and incidents. We will then present some properties of organisational accidents, and we will focus on some "accident-generating" organisational factors. The definition of these factors comes from an empirical approach to event analysis. Finally, we will briefly present their implications for accident and incident analysis. PMID:15231360

  8. Prediction of Risk Factors of Frequent Relapse Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jahan, I; Hanif, M; Ali, M A; Hoque, M M

    2015-10-01

    This case control study was aimed to identify the predictive risk factors for frequent relapse idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and conducted in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka and at Renal and Dialysis Unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital and Bangladesh Institute of Child Health (BICH), Dhaka, from January 2006 to December 2006. We examined retrospectively the clinical course of fifty cases of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) as cases and fifty cases of infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (IRNS) as control who met the predefined enrollment criteria, followed for at least one year after initial onset of disease. After enrollment following parameters were studied as predictors of frequent relapse: i) Socio-demographic variables: age, sex, socio-economic condition, number of living room ii) Disease related variables i.e. age of onset, duration of illness, frequency of relapse within the 1st year, regimen of initial steroid therapy, total cumulative dose of steroid for remission, day of remission after starting steroid, association with atopy and infection, concomitant upper respiratory illness iii) Biochemical and pathological variables (at the time of initial attack) i.e. Serum albumin, serum cholesterol, blood urea, 24 hours urinary protein, serum creatinine, complete blood count, urine RBC, urine pus cell, urine culture. The test statistics used to analyses the data were descriptive statistics, Chi-square probability test, Student's t-test and Binary logistic regression analysis for Odds ratio. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of onset (P<0.001, OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.85-0.95), poor socioeconomic status (P<0.034, OR=0.5.8, 95% CI=1.14-29.5) and low serum albumin level at the time of initial presentation (P<0.022, OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.65-0.97) were independent predictors of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome. In conclusion, we demonstrated that age at onset, poor socioeconomic condition and low

  9. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986. PMID:1576019

  10. Traffic accidents and drivers suspected for drug influence.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L Q; Nielsen, L M; Nielsen, S L

    1990-04-01

    All records from the Danish Medicolegal Council concerning drivers suspected for drug influences were examined for the 5 year period 1981-1985. 461 records were included, 62 women and 399 men. In 250 cases drugs from more than one of ten groups had been taken thus making 786 combinations of drug/driving. The major drug group was benzodiazepines, accounting for 65% of all drug intake. Opioids also contributed substantially, found in 38% of the cases. A traffic accident had occurred in 180 (39%) of the records. Drivers who had been taking antidepressives were involved in an accident in 67%, significantly above the mean. For benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentage was 43%, while for opioids it was only 23%, significantly below the mean. This striking difference has been demonstrated in most of the studies concerning drugs in traffic. It may support the hypothesis that opioids do not necessarily make driving dangerous, as do antidepressives, barbiturates and especially benzodiazepines. PMID:2361649

  11. A regulatory assessment of test data for reactivity accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.O.; Scott, H.H.; Chung, Hee M.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment is made of recent test data from France, Japan, and Russia, and of earlier test data from the U.S., in relation to the safety analysis performed for power reactors in the U.S. Considerations include mode of cladding failure, oxidation, hydriding, and pulse-width effects. From the data trend and from these considerations, it is concluded that the cladding failure threshold for fuel rods with moderate-to-high burnup is roughly 100 cal/g for BWRs and PWRs. Realistic plant calculations suggest that cladding failure would not occur for rod-ejection or rod-drop accidents and, therefore, that pellet fragmentation and enhanced fission product release from fuel pellets should not have to be considered in the safety analysis for these accidents. However, the data base is sparse and contains a lot of uncertainty.

  12. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  13. A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and quantity of the radioactive materials involved, and assess the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The report consists of five major sections. The first section describes the circumstances and conditions of the accident and the finding of facts. The second describes the containers, the unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, and the tie down arrangement used for the trailer. The third describes the damage sustained during the accident to the tractor, trailer, containers, and unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The fourth evaluates the accident environment and its effects on the containers and their contents. The final section gives conclusions derived from the analysis and fact finding investigation. During this severe accident, only minor injuries occurred, and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  14. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic accidents are usually preceded by precursory events that, although observable, are not recognized as harbingers of a tragedy until after the fact. In the nuclear industry, the Three Mile Island accident was preceded by at least two events portending the potential for severe consequences from an underappreciated causal mechanism. Anomalies whose failure mechanisms were integral to the losses of Space Transportation Systems (STS) Challenger and Columbia had been occurring within the STS fleet prior to those accidents. Both the Rogers Commission Report and the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report found that processes in place at the time did not respond to the prior anomalies in a way that shed light on their true risk implications. This includes the concern that, in the words of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), "no process addresses the need to update a hazard analysis when anomalies occur" At a broader level, the ASAP noted in 2007 that NASA "could better gauge the likelihood of losses by developing leading indicators, rather than continue to depend on lagging indicators". These observations suggest a need to revalidate prior assumptions and conclusions of existing safety (and reliability) analyses, as well as to consider the potential for previously unrecognized accident scenarios, when unexpected or otherwise undesired behaviors of the system are observed. This need is also discussed in NASA's system safety handbook, which advocates a view of safety assurance as driving a program to take steps that are necessary to establish and maintain a valid and credible argument for the safety of its missions. It is the premise of this handbook that making cases for safety more experience-based allows NASA to be better informed about the safety performance of its systems, and will ultimately help it to manage safety in a more effective manner. The APA process described in this handbook provides a systematic means of analyzing candidate

  15. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  16. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  17. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  18. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  19. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  20. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  1. Young Children's Reports of when Learning Occurred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about…

  2. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  3. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  4. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  5. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  6. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  7. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  8. Accidents at work in the health care - legal aspects in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szereda, Kamil; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    An accident at work is a sudden event caused by external circumstances that occurred in relation to work. Referring to the current legislation, the Supreme Court judgments and the opinions contained in publications, the authors discuss the legal aspects of selected accidents: needle stick injuries, cuts with other sharp tools, heart attacks and strokes among health professionals and social workers in Poland. It has been stressed that defining rigid criteria that allow for stating unequivocal work - accidents relationships would be difficult or even impossible. Especially in the case of medical personnel the long-term and negative impact of stress on health is significant, and thus the occurrence of work accidents - heart attack or stroke. PMID:26891442

  9. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations of TEPCO--outline & lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others. PMID:23138450

  10. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  11. The Implications of Handling Qualities in Civil Helicopter Accidents Involving Hover and Low Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.; Delamer, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of increasing accident rates in Army helicopters in hover and low speed flight, a study was made in 1999 of accidents which could be attributed to inadequate stability augmentation. A study of civil helicopter accidents from 1993-2004 was then undertaken to pursue the issue of poor handling qualities in helicopters which, in almost all cases, had no stability augmentation. The vast majority of the mishaps studied occurred during daylight in visual meteorological condition, reducing the impact of degraded visual environments (DVE) on the results. Based on the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale, the handling qualities of many of the helicopters studied could be described as having from "very objectionable" to "major" deficiencies. These costly deficiencies have resulted in unnecessary loss of life, injury, and high dollar damage. Low cost and lightweight augmentation systems for helicopters have been developed in the past and are still being investigated. They offer the potential for significant reductions in the accident rate.

  12. Orbiter Payload Bay Bucket Hoist Mishap...An Accident We Should Never Forget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the accident that occurred in 1985 when a bay bucket hoist fell from its stowed position. This accident damaged the orbiter, injured a technician, and delayed the launch. The accident was investigated, and the cause of the accident was determined to be the practice of two-blocking. Two-blocking is the result of hoisting beyond the intended safe upper limit of hook travel to the point of solid contact between the load block and the upper block or hoist/trolley structure. The usual result is immediate failure of the wire rope, due to the ropes being cut by the grooves of the drum or sheaves. The design of the hoist, the inspection, and the operator training were all in part responsible for this failure.

  13. Comparing the Identification of Recommendations by Different Accident Investigators Using a Common Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Oltedal, H. A.; Holloway, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accident reports play a key role in the safety of complex systems. These reports present the recommendations that are intended to help avoid any recurrence of past failures. However, the value of these findings depends upon the causal analysis that helps to identify the reasons why an accident occurred. Various techniques have been developed to help investigators distinguish root causes from contributory factors and contextual information. This paper presents the results from a study into the individual differences that can arise when a group of investigators independently apply the same technique to identify the causes of an accident. This work is important if we are to increase the consistency and coherence of investigations following major accidents.

  14. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  15. Slipping accidents causing low-back pain in a gearbox factory.

    PubMed

    Manning, D P; Shannon, H S

    1981-01-01

    An accident model was used to analyze data in terms of the first event in all reported accidents occurring in a gearbox factory during 1974. The data were used to study the causes of lumbosacral injuries. A labor force of 2000 men sustained 99 lumbosacral injuries, 54 of which led to absence of one or more days. Twenty of the 54 were initiated by slipping, and 17 presented as a sudden onset of low-back pain without any preceding accidental event. A review of all patients who were absent following a slipping accident disclosed that the lumbosacral region was by far the commonest part of the body injured. Tripping was an infrequent cause of these injuries. Slipping rarely features in the literature as a cause of low-back pain. It is suggested that this is due to confusion between various contributory factors and events forming an accident. PMID:6451939

  16. Contribution of alcohol to deaths in road traffic accidents in Tayside 1982-6

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Graham R; Dunbar, James A; Whittet, David; Fernando, Gyan C A

    1988-01-01

    In Britain the precise number and relative proportions of deaths among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in road traffic accidents related to alcohol are not known. These data were obtained in Tayside by cross matching police accident records with blood alcohol concentrations at necropsy. Of 71 alcohol-related deaths 30 were the drivers (or motorcyclists) themselves, nine were their passengers, 23 were pedestrians with raised blood alcohol concentrations, and nine were innocent victims. The high blood alcohol concentrations of the intoxicated drivers, passengers, and pedestrians, which may point to alcoholism, suggest that publicity campaigns will be of little value in reducing the number of deaths in road traffic accidents related to alcohol. The time at which these accidents occurred was related to licensing hours, and this should be taken into account when considering changes in licensing laws. PMID:3132276

  17. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    PubMed Central

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  20. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  1. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. PMID:25474170

  2. Accident Conditions versus Regulatory Test for NRC-Approved UF6 Packages

    SciTech Connect

    MILLS, G. SCOTT; AMMERMAN, DOUGLAS J.; LOPEZ, CARLOS

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves new package designs for shipping fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}. Currently there are three packages approved by the NRC for domestic shipments of fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}: NCI-21PF-1; UX-30; and ESP30X. For approval by the NRC, packages must be subjected to a sequence of physical tests to simulate transportation accident conditions as described in 10 CFR Part 71. The primary objective of this project was to relate the conditions experienced by these packages in the tests described in 10 CFR Part 71 to conditions potentially encountered in actual accidents and to estimate the probabilities of such accidents. Comparison of the effects of actual accident conditions to 10 CFR Part 71 tests was achieved by means of computer modeling of structural effects on the packages due to impacts with actual surfaces, and thermal effects resulting from test and other fire scenarios. In addition, the likelihood of encountering bodies of water or sufficient rainfall to cause complete or partial immersion during transport over representative truck routes was assessed. Modeled effects, and their associated probabilities, were combined with existing event-tree data, plus accident rates and other characteristics gathered from representative routes, to derive generalized probabilities of encountering accident conditions comparable to the 10 CFR Part 71 conditions. This analysis suggests that the regulatory conditions are unlikely to be exceeded in real accidents, i.e. the likelihood of UF{sub 6} being dispersed as a result of accident impact or fire is small. Moreover, given that an accident has occurred, exposure to water by fire-fighting, heavy rain or submersion in a body of water is even less probable by factors ranging from 0.5 to 8E-6.

  3. Spatial disorientation-implicated accidents in Canadian forces, 1982-92.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Money, K; Wright, H; Bateman, W

    1995-06-01

    In a recent survey of CF18 aircrew human factors, 44% of pilots reported experience with spatial disorientation (SD), of whom 10% had experienced more than 3 episodes. In order to investigate further, we have completed a retrospective study of SD-implicated category A accidents (where an aircraft is destroyed, declared missing, or damaged beyond economic repair) in the Canadian Forces (CF) during 1982-92. An overview of all SD occurrences (including accidents and incidents) across aircraft types is also presented. Information was gathered concerning the genesis and severity of disorientation so that research effort and pilot training could be appropriately implemented. Mishap investigation summaries involving category A accidents where SD was implicated were obtained from the CF Directorate of Flight Safety and reviewed. We also examined in detail the Board of Inquiry Reports of these accidents. The role of disorientation in these accidents was assessed. There were 62 category A accidents between 1982-92 and, in 14, SD had been assigned as a possible cause factor in the accident records. When divided into the categories of Recognized SD (RSD), Unrecognized SD (USD), and Incapacitating SD (ISD), all but two fell into the category of USD (the pilots were unaware of the disorientation). Of the SD accidents, 11 involved a total loss of 24 lives. The majority of the accidents happened during the day, and pilots' cumulative flying experience did not appear to be a significant factor. According to our assessment, there were two episodes of vestibular origin, involving the somatogravic illusion. Three episodes of disorientation occurred over frozen lakes, one over glassy water, and one over ocean.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7646410

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Compulsions to Urinate Frequently.

    PubMed

    Jiwanmall, Stephen Amarjeet; Kattula, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy. PMID:27570353

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Compulsions to Urinate Frequently

    PubMed Central

    Jiwanmall, Stephen Amarjeet; Kattula, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy. PMID:27570353

  6. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  7. Do short, frequent DNA sequence motifs mould the epigenome?

    PubMed

    Quante, Timo; Bird, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    'Epigenome' refers to the panoply of chemical modifications borne by DNA and its associated proteins that locally affect genome function. Epigenomic patterns are thought to be determined by external constraints resulting from development, disease and the environment, but DNA sequence is also a potential influence. We propose that domains of relatively uniform DNA base composition may modulate the epigenome through cell type-specific proteins that recognize short, frequent sequence motifs. Differential recruitment of epigenomic modifiers may adjust gene expression in multigene blocks as an alternative to tuning the activity of each gene separately, thus simplifying gene expression programming. PMID:26837845

  8. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  9. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  10. Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. Results 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. Conclusions The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks. PMID:25177363

  11. Young children's reports of when learning occurred.

    PubMed

    Tang, Connie M; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about when the different learning events occurred. Responses of children who responded correctly to control questions about time supported the hypothesis that temporal distance questions would elicit more correct responses than would temporal location questions. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that behavior learning would generate more correct reports than would fact learning. Implications for characterizations of children's developing understanding of knowledge and for applications of those characterizations in education and eyewitness testimony are discussed. PMID:17346740

  12. Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Calguneri, M; Bird, H A; Wright, V

    1982-01-01

    We have studied changes in peripheral joint laxity occurring during pregnancy in 68 females using both the finger hyperextensometer to quantify laxity at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger and Beighton et al.'s modification of the Carter and Wilkinson scoring system. Although the latter system recorded no change, the more sensitive hyperextensometer demonstrated a significant increase in joint laxity during the last trimester of pregnancy (0.02 greater than p greater than 0.01) over the readings from the same individuals after parturition. When primigravidae and multigravidae were compared, a highly significant increase in laxity was found in women having their second baby over those having their first (0.01 greater than p greater than 0.001), though no further increase in laxity occurred in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:7073339

  13. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  14. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  15. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 1; 44 Case Study Synoptic Observational Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allan J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A 44 case study analysis of the large-scale atmospheric structure associated with development of accident-producing aircraft turbulence is described. Categorization is a function of the accident location, altitude, time of year, time of day, and the turbulence category, which classifies disturbances. National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalyses data sets and satellite imagery are employed to diagnose synoptic scale predictor fields associated with the large-scale environment preceding severe turbulence. These analyses indicate a predominance of severe accident-producing turbulence within the entrance region of a jet stream at the synoptic scale. Typically, a flow curvature region is just upstream within the jet entrance region, convection is within 100 km of the accident, vertical motion is upward, absolute vorticity is low, vertical wind shear is increasing, and horizontal cold advection is substantial. The most consistent predictor is upstream flow curvature and nearby convection is the second most frequent predictor.

  16. Getting into hot water: sick guppies frequent warmer thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ryan S; Reynolds, Michael; James, Joanna; Williams, Chris; Mohammed, Azad; Ramsubhag, Adesh; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Ectotherms depend on the environmental temperature for thermoregulation and exploit thermal regimes that optimise physiological functioning. They may also frequent warmer conditions to up-regulate their immune response against parasite infection and/or impede parasite development. This adaptive response, known as 'behavioural fever', has been documented in various taxa including insects, reptiles and fish, but only in response to endoparasite infections. Here, a choice chamber experiment was used to investigate the thermal preferences of a tropical freshwater fish, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), when infected with a common helminth ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli, in female-only and mixed-sex shoals. The temperature tolerance of G. turnbulli was also investigated by monitoring parasite population trajectories on guppies maintained at a continuous 18, 24 or 32 °C. Regardless of shoal composition, infected fish frequented the 32 °C choice chamber more often than when uninfected, significantly increasing their mean temperature preference. Parasites maintained continuously at 32 °C decreased to extinction within 3 days, whereas mean parasite abundance increased on hosts incubated at 18 and 24 °C. We show for the first time that gyrodactylid-infected fish have a preference for warmer waters and speculate that sick fish exploit the upper thermal tolerances of their parasites to self medicate. PMID:26965895

  17. Analyzing the Number of Varieties in Frequently Found Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shomura, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    Abnormal traffic that causes various problems on the Internet, such as P2P flows, DDoS attacks, and Internet worms, is increasing; therefore, the importance of methods that identify and control abnormal traffic is also increasing. Though the application of frequent-itemset-mining techniques is a promising way to analyze Internet traffic, the huge amount of data on the Internet prevents such techniques from being effective. To overcome this problem, we have developed a simple frequent-itemset-mining method that uses only a small amount of memory but is effective even with the large volumes of data associated with broadband Internet traffic. Using our method also involves analyzing the number of distinct elements in the itemsets found, which helps identify abnormal traffic. We used a cache-based implementation of our method to analyze actual data on the Internet and demonstrated that such an implementation can be used to provide on-line analysis of data while using only a small amount of memory.

  18. Parapharyngeal abscess is frequently associated with concomitant peritonsillar abscess.

    PubMed

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Fischer, Anne Sophie Lind; Antonsen, Christine; Rusan, Maria; Eskildsen, Helle; Ovesen, Therese

    2014-06-01

    To characterize patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to a Danish tertiary care centre and evaluate our management. This is a retrospective chart review. All records of patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat Department at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from January 2001 through December 2011 were reviewed. In total, 63 patients (41 males), aged 4-89 years (median, 45 years) were included in the study. The mean annual incidence of parapharyngeal abscess was 0.9 cases/100,000 population. Thirty-three (52%) patients had concomitant peritonsillar abscess. In two patients the parapharyngeal abscess was accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis. The most frequent surgical approach used was intrapharyngeal incision in combination with tonsillectomy. The most commonly used antibiotic regimen was benzylpenicillin plus metronidazole. Seven (13%) patients returned to the operating theatre due to post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage or insufficient abscess drainage. Tonsillectomy and internal incision of the abscess in combination with a narrow-spectrum intravenous penicillin and metronidazole is a safe and efficient approach for managing parapharyngeal abscesses. This approach, however, carries a relatively high complication rate, requiring close surveillance in the early post-operative period. This is especially true for parapharyngeal abscess patients without peritonsillar abscess. In our series, these patients were more ill, more likely to experience complications, require intensive care, intubation, and tracheotomy, than parapharyngeal abscess patients with concurrent peritonsillar abscess. The frequent co-existence of parapharyngeal abscess and peritonsillar abscess favours careful consideration of addition of tonsillectomy to intrapharyngeal incision. PMID:23982668

  19. Substance use treatment barriers for patients with frequent hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Raven, Maria C; Carrier, Emily R; Lee, Joshua; Billings, John C; Marr, Mollie; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2010-01-01

    Substance use (SU) disorders adversely impact health status and contribute to inappropriate health services use. This qualitative study sought to determine SU-related factors contributing to repeated hospitalizations and to identify opportunities for preventive interventions. Fifty Medicaid-insured inpatients identified by a validated statistical algorithm as being at high-risk for frequent hospitalizations were interviewed at an urban public hospital. Patient drug/alcohol history, experiences with medical, psychiatric and addiction treatment, and social factors contributing to readmission were evaluated. Three themes related to SU and frequent hospitalizations emerged: (a) barriers during hospitalization to planning long-term treatment and follow-up, (b) use of the hospital as a temporary solution to housing/family problems, and (c) unsuccessful SU aftercare following discharge. These data indicate that homelessness, brief lengths of stay complicating discharge planning, patient ambivalence regarding long-term treatment, and inadequate detox-to-rehab transfer resources compromise substance-using patients' likelihood of avoiding repeat hospitalization. Intervention targets included supportive housing, detox-to-rehab transportation, and postdischarge patient support. PMID:19540700

  20. Common Pharmacophore Identification Using Frequent Clique Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the dataset, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to datasets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target. PMID:19072298

  1. Stormwater harvesting and WSUD frequent flow management: a compatibility analysis.

    PubMed

    Brodie, I

    2012-01-01

    Harvesting stormwater from urban catchments provides a supplementary water resource and, due to the physical abstraction of polluted water, also leads to environmental benefits. These benefits include the reduction of frequent ecosystem disturbance during small storms and less waterway erosion; hydrological impacts which are currently addressed by Water Sensitive Urban Design guidelines for stormwater frequent flow management (FFM). Although FFM and stormwater harvesting share the same store-release behaviour, they have a very different underlying basis to their design and operation. This paper explores the level of compatibility between these two systems and hence the potential for their integration. It was found by water balance analysis that the harvesting storage required to maximise most yields is similar to the recommended storage volume for FFM. This analysis was performed for a temperate-climate location in South East Queensland under historically low rainfalls. Environmental benefits associated with runoff quantity and pollutant load reductions are highest when the capture storage is rapidly emptied after storms. PMID:22744693

  2. Infant and perinatal pulmonary hypoplasia frequently associated with brainstem hypodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Mingrone, Rosaria; Lavezzi, Anna M; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    Recent anatomo-pathological studies have revealed a frequent associated hypoplasia of both arcuate nucleus and lungs in stillbirths. The purpose of this study is to analyze the lung and brainstem development in sudden unexplained perinatal death and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A total of 51 cases were investigated. A complete autopsy was performed in each case. Anatomo-pathologic examination of the central autonomic nervous system included an in-depth study on histological serial sections of the brains where the main structures participating in control of the vital functions are located. The stage of lung development was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic criteria. In 52.9% of cases, a pulmonary hypoplasia was detected. The pulmonary hypoplasia was significantly more frequent in the SIDS group compared to the sudden perinatal unexplained death groups (p < 0.05). In 72.5% of cases, histological examination of the brainstem on serial sections showed hypodevelopment of the brainstem nuclei, particularly hypoplasia, of the arcuate nucleus (60.8%). In 47.1% of cases, pulmonary hypoplasia was associated with brainstem hypodevelopment. PMID:19288128

  3. Promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles (PrATs): a frequent hitting scaffold.

    PubMed

    Devine, Shane M; Mulcair, Mark D; Debono, Cael O; Leung, Eleanor W W; Nissink, J Willem M; Lim, San Sui; Chandrashekaran, Indu R; Vazirani, Mansha; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Simpson, Jamie S; Baell, Jonathan B; Scammells, Peter J; Norton, Raymond S; Scanlon, Martin J

    2015-02-12

    We have identified a class of molecules, known as 2-aminothiazoles (2-ATs), as frequent-hitting fragments in biophysical binding assays. This was exemplified by 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine being identified as a hit in 14/14 screens against a diverse range of protein targets, suggesting that this scaffold is a poor starting point for fragment-based drug discovery. This prompted us to analyze this scaffold in the context of an academic fragment library used for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) and two larger compound libraries used for high-throughput screening (HTS). This analysis revealed that such "promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles" (PrATs) behaved as frequent hitters under both FBDD and HTS settings, although the problem was more pronounced in the fragment-based studies. As 2-ATs are present in known drugs, they cannot necessarily be deemed undesirable, but the combination of their promiscuity and difficulties associated with optimizing them into a lead compound makes them, in our opinion, poor scaffolds for fragment libraries. PMID:25559643

  4. The Human Factors of an Early Space Accident: Flight 3-65 of the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    The X-15 was a critical research vehicle in the early days of space flight. On November 15, 1967, the X-15-3 suffered an in-flight breakup. This 191st flight of the X-15 and the 65th flight of this third configuration was the only fatal accident of the X-15 program. This paper presents an analysis, from a human factors perspective, of the events that led up to the accident. The analysis is based on the information contained in the report of the Air Force-NASA Accident Investigation Board (AIB) dated January, 1968. The AIBs analysis addressed, primarily, the events that occurred subsequent to the pilots taking direct control of the reaction control system. The analysis described here suggests that all of the events that caused the accident occurred well before the moment when the pilot switched to direct control. Consequently, the analyses and conclusions regarding the causal factors of, and the contributing factors to, the loss of Flight 3-65 presented here differ from those of the AIB based on the same evidence. Although the accident occurred in 1967, the results of the presented analysis are still relevant today. We present our analysis and discuss its implications for the safety of space operations.

  5. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    PubMed

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  6. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications. PMID:25970937

  7. Protein-energy malnutrition is frequent and precocious in children with cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Violaine; de Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is poorly reported in cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) (OMIM #123450), a genetic disease that causes developmental delay and global growth retardation. The objective was to determine the nutritional status at different ages in children with CDCS and factors associated with PEM. A questionnaire focused on growth and nutritional care was sent to 190 families. Among 36 analyzable questionnaires, growth and nutritional indices compatible with PEM occurred in 47% of patients: 19% before 6 months of age, 24% between 6-12 months and 34% after 12 months. Eight patients received enteral feeding. Speech therapy for swallowing education was performed more often in malnourished children (63% vs. 22%, P < 0.02). PEM is frequent and occurs early in this disease, requiring closed nutritional monitoring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26872355

  8. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done. PMID:24406954

  9. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done. PMID:24406954

  10. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  11. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

  12. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  13. Traffic accidents, facial injuries, and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berger, J C

    1975-01-01

    The extent to which emotional factors play a direct or indirect role in the causation of traffic accidents has been presented along with the early and late emotional response of individuals to facial injuries as a result of traffic accidents. Illustrated case histories are presented. PMID:1116323

  14. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  15. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...The Coast Guard has received recommendations from the National Boating Safety Advisory Council (NBSAC) regarding potential ways to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the Coast Guard: (1) Use a two-tiered reporting system for boating accidents; and (2) take steps to clarify what, how, and when information is reported. This notice solicits public......

  16. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  17. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  18. Code System for Toxic Gas Accident Analysis.

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate aremore » supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses.« less

  19. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  20. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704