Science.gov

Sample records for acclimation project facilities

  1. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  2. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  4. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1999. This was the fourth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 453,117 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities not only slightly exceeded the 450,000 fish quota, but a second release of 76,386 yearlings (hereafter called Surplus) were acclimated at the Big Canyon facility and released about two weeks after the primary releases. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 9,941 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 9,583 from Big Canyon, 2,511 Big Canyon Surplus and 2,494 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 983 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low and did not appear to increase after transport to the acclimation facilities. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery and relatively high at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the release groups ranged from 147.4 mm (146.7-148.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 163.7 mm (163.3-164.1 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.04 at

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2002. This was the seventh year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 479,358 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities exceeded the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,545 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,482 from Big Canyon and 2,487 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium to high with 43-62% of fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 146.7 mm (146.2-147.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.8 mm (163.5-166.1 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.14 at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 88.6% (86.0-91.1%) for Pittsburg Landing to 97.0% (92.4-101.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 54.3% (50.2-58.3%) for Big Canyon to 70.5% (65.4-75.5%) for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 8.1 river kilometers per

  9. The photosynthetic acclimation response of Lolium perenne to four years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Creasey, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the photosynthetic responses of field grown Lolium perenne to ambient (354 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) C{sub a} were measured. The experiment utilized the FACE facility at Eschikon, Switzerland; here the L. Perenne swards had been grown at two nitrogen treatments, with six cuts per year, for 4 years. The study revealed a significant decrease in Rubisco activity (Vcmax) in the low nitrogen FACE plots; this is consistent with the theories of source-sink imbalance resulting in feedback inhibition and down-regulation. Such negative acclimation was not wholly supported by diurnal investigations which revealed an average stimulation of 53.38% and 52.78% in the low and high nitrogen, respectively. However, light response curves and AI investigations also suggested down-regulation, especially in the low nitrogen. SI is expected to decrease in response to elevated C{sub a}, if any change is seen. This was indeed observed in the high nitrogen plots but for the low nitrogen a significant increase was found. Conclusions drawn from this project center around the implications of negative acclimation to future crop productivity. For instance, inter-specific differences in response to elevated C{sub a} may result in ecosystem changes and new management techniques may be necessary. However, real predictions cannot be made from leaf level studies alone as these may not represent the overall changes at the whole plant level.

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2001. This was the sixth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 318,932 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,503 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,499 from Big Canyon and 2,518 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 991 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 155.4 mm (154.7-156.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 171.6 mm (170.7-172.5 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.02 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.4% (73.2-75.5%) for Big Canyon to 85.2% (83.5-87.0%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release

  14. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2000. This was the fifth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 397,339 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,477 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,421 from Big Canyon and 2,488 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 980 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 157.7 mm (157.3-158.1 mm) at Big Canyon to 172.9 mm (172.2-173.6 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.12 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.0% (84.7-89.4%) for Pittsburg Landing to 95.2% (91.5-98.9%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to

  15. Canastota Renewable Energy Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Jillian; Hunt, Allen

    2013-12-13

    The project was implemented at the Madison County Landfill located in the Town of Lincoln, Madison County, New York. Madison County has owned and operated the solid waste and recycling facilities at the Buyea Road site since 1974. At the onset of the project, the County owned and operated facilities there to include three separate landfills, a residential solid waste disposal and recycled material drop-off facility, a recycling facility and associated administrative, support and environmental control facilities. This putrescible waste undergoes anaerobic decomposition within the waste mass and generates landfill gas, which is approximately 50% methane. In order to recover this gas, the landfill was equipped with gas collection systems on both the east and west sides of Buyea Road which bring the gas to a central point for destruction. In order to derive a beneficial use from the collected landfill gases, the County decided to issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the future use of the generated gas.

  16. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  17. The National Ignition Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-06-16

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in ICF targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effect testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule and costs associated with the construction project.

  18. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  19. PROJECTIZING AN OPERATING NUCLEAR FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N

    2007-07-08

    This paper will discuss the evolution of an operations-based organization to a project-based organization to facilitate successful deactivation of a major nuclear facility. It will describe the plan used for scope definition, staff reorganization, method estimation, baseline schedule development, project management training, and results of this transformation. It is a story of leadership and teamwork, pride and success. Workers at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) F Canyon Complex (FCC) started with a challenge--take all the hazardous byproducts from nearly 50 years of operations in a major, first-of-its-kind nuclear complex and safely get rid of them, leaving the facility cold, dark, dry and ready for whatever end state is ultimately determined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). And do it in four years, with a constantly changing workforce and steadily declining funding. The goal was to reduce the overall operating staff by 93% and budget by 94%. The facilities, F Canyon and its adjoined sister, FB Line, are located at SRS, a 310-square-mile nuclear reservation near Aiken, S.C., owned by DOE and managed by Washington Group International subsidiary Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC). These facilities were supported by more than 50 surrounding buildings, whose purpose was to provide support services during operations. The radiological, chemical and industrial hazards inventory in the old buildings was significant. The historical mission at F Canyon was to extract plutonium-239 and uranium-238 from irradiated spent nuclear fuel through chemical processing. FB Line's mission included conversion of plutonium solutions into metal, characterization, stabilization and packaging, and storage of both metal and oxide forms. The plutonium metal was sent to another DOE site for use in weapons. Deactivation in F Canyon began when chemical separations activities were completed in 2002, and a cross-functional project team concept was implemented to successfully

  20. Mississippi Test Facility research projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research capabilities of Louisiana State University are reported for sustaining a program which complements the Mississippi Test Facility. Projects reported during this period are discussed and include the development of a spectral analyzer, and investigations of plant physiology. Papers published during this period are also listed.

  1. Gamma-4 electrophysical facility project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalov, N. V.; Gordeev, V. S.; Punin, V. T.; Grishin, A. V.; Nazarenko, S. T.; Pavlov, V. S.; Demanov, V. A.; Shikhanova, T. F.; Kalashnikov, D. A.; Kozachek, A. V.; Glushkov, S. L.; Strabykin, K. V.; Puchagin, S. Yu.; Mansurov, D. O.; Mironychev, B. P.; Maiorov, R. A.; Maiornikova, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the Gamma-4 four-module electrophysical facility project developed for radiation physics research. For this facility, we have developed and tested a typical module which, with a matched load, generates an electrical pulse with voltage and current amplitudes of up to 2 MV and 750 kA, respectively, and with a half-height duration of 60 ns. 700 shots were performed which conformed the operating parameters and reliability of the module. Layouts of the facility for the modes of synchronous (with accuracy of ±3 ns) operation of the modules with vacuum electron diodes and with a current summator to generate soft x-ray pulses have been developed.

  2. The National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Boyes, J.D.; Kumpan, S.A.; Sorem, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KD0), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 {mu}m) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, the authors completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program`s site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. This article presents an overview of the NIF project.

  3. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; MacDonald, R.R.; Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to present and analyze the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. During Phase 1, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the database for the project was created. During Phase 2, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the database was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed. Each assessment of cask-handling capability contains three parts: the current capability of the facility (planning base); the potential enhanced capability if revisions were made to the facility licensing and/or administrative controls; and the potential enhanced capability if limited physical modifications were made to the facility. The main conclusion derived from the planning base assessments is that the current facility capabilities will not allow handling of any of the FICA Casks at 49 of the 122 facilities evaluated. However, consideration of potential revisions and/or modifications showed that all but one of the 49 facilities could be adapted to handle at least one of the FICA Casks. For this to be possible, facility licensing, administrative controls, and/or physical aspects of the facility would need to be modified.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Facilities Revitalization Project - Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    2000-06-06

    The Facilities Revitalization Project (FRP) has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide new and/or refurbished research and support facilities for the Laboratory's science mission. The FRP vision is to provide ORNL staff with world-class facilities, consolidated at the X-10 site, with the first phase of construction to be completed within five years. The project will utilize a combination of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), State of Tennessee, and private-sector funds to accomplish the new construction, with the facilities requirements to be focused on support of the ORNL Institutional Plan. This FRP Project Management Plan has been developed to provide the framework under which the project will be conducted. It is intended that the FRP will be managed as a programmatic office, with primary resources for execution of the project to be obtained from the responsible organizations within ORNL (Engineering, Procurement, Strategic Planning, etc.). The FRP Project Management Plan includes a definition of the project scope, the organizational responsibilities, and project approach, including detailed Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), followed by more detailed discussions of each of the main WBS elements: Project Planning Basis, Facility Deactivation and Consolidation, and New Facilities Development. Finally, a general discussion of the overall project schedule and cost tracking approach is provided.

  5. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  6. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  7. The National Ignition Facility Project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-06-16

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule, and costs associated with the construction project.

  8. Fateh Field production facility reconfiguration project

    SciTech Connect

    Dorcheus, S.M.; Landis, S.R.; Robertson, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Modification of the Dubai Petroleum Co. (DPC) Fateh Field central production facility has reduced wellhead pressures about 10% field-wide, resulting in increased oil production and incremental reserve addition. The facility reconfiguration has reduced operating and maintenance problems experienced with separators and inlet piping, while improving oil recovery. A key challenge of the Reconfiguration Project was to devise a separation scheme which redistributed fluid between vessels, and an installation method which utilized existing equipment to the greatest extent possible, eliminated downtime during facility modification, and minimized investment. Several reconfiguration options were identified and evaluated. The evaluation combined computer simulation results of surface gathering and separation facilities with modeling efforts of the primary Fateh reservoirs. the preferred reconfiguration option was justified on the basis of increased oil uplift associated with the wellhead pressure reduction. The project was successfully completed in mid-January 1994. This paper describes methods used to evaluate the identified options, project planning, and project implementation. Predicted and actual results are given, and key project execution steps are described.

  9. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  10. Fast Flux Test Facility Closure Project - Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BEACH, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Closure Project, Project Management Plan, Revision 5, provides the scope, cost, and schedule to achieve the most cost effective and expeditious closure of the FFTF to an assumed final end-state with the reactor vessel and the containment building, below the 5504 grade level, being entombed in place. Closure will be completed by December 2009 at a cost of $547 million.

  11. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  12. The rare isotope accelerator (RIA) facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Leemann

    2000-08-01

    The envisioned Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility would add substantially to research opportunities for nuclear physics and astrophysics by combining increased intensities with a greatly expanded variety of high-quality rare-isotope beams. A flexible superconducting driver linac would provide 100 kW, 400 MeV/nucleon beams of any stable isotope from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets. Combinations of projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation, fission, and spallation would produce the needed broad assortment of short-lived secondary beams. This paper describes the project's background, purpose, and status, the envisioned facility, and the key subsystem, the driver linac. RIA's scientific purposes are to advance current theoretical models, reveal new manifestations of nuclear behavior, and probe the limits of nuclear existence [3]. Figures 1 and 2 show, respectively, examples of RIA research opportunities and the yields projected for pursuing them. Figure 3 outlines a conceptual approach for delivering the needed beams.

  13. National Ignition Facility Project Site Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dun, C

    2003-09-30

    This Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presents safety protocols and requirements that management and workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment during activities performed on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project Site Safety Program (NPSSP) requires that activities at the NIF Project site be performed in accordance with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual'' and the augmented set of controls and processes described in this NIF Project Site Safety Program. Specifically, this document: (1) Defines the fundamental NIF site safety philosophy. (2) Defines the areas covered by this safety program (see Appendix B). (3) Identifies management roles and responsibilities. (4) Defines core safety management processes. (5) Identifies NIF site-specific safety requirements. This NPSSP sets forth the responsibilities, requirements, rules, policies, and regulations for workers involved in work activities performed on the NIF Project site. Workers are required to implement measures to create a universal awareness that promotes safe practice at the work site and will achieve NIF management objectives in preventing accidents and illnesses. ES&H requirements are consistent with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual''. This NPSSP and implementing procedures (e.g., Management Walkabout, special work procedures, etc.,) are a comprehensive safety program that applies to NIF workers on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project site includes the B581/B681 site and support areas shown in Appendix B.

  14. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Danneels, J.; Kenagy, W.D.; Phillips, C.J.; Chesser, R.K.

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  15. National Ignition Facility Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2000-08-14

    The ''National Ignition Facility (NIF) Justification of Mission Need'', which was approved by the Secretary of Energy in January 1993, defines the mission of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program and discusses the specific mission of the NIF Project. The NIF experimental capability will allow nuclear-weapons scientists to assess stockpile problems, verify computational tools, test for nuclear-weapons effects, and increase their understanding of weapons physics. The three weapons laboratory directors and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs have reviewed the role of the NIT; in Stockpile Stewardship in a joint letter. Along with the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative numerical simulations and other aboveground experimental facilities, the NIF will provide critical data that will allow the United States to maintain its technical capabilities in nuclear weapons in the absence of underground testing. As a secondary objective, the NIF will advance our understanding of ICF and help to assess its potential as an energy source. Achieving fusion ignition in the NIF will advance both defense and energy objectives. In affirming the Project's Critical Decision 2,* ''Approval of New Start'', the Secretary of Energy verified the mission need and emphasized that the NIF has the potential to contribute significantly to the DOE missions.

  16. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project (NDs Project).

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell

    2010-06-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a number of facilities from Saddam Hussan's nuclear weapons program. Past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting have created an enormous radioactive waste problem at the Al Tuwaitha complex, which contains various, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility and the lack of a disposal facility means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS is funding the IAEA to provide technical assistance via Technical Cooperation projects. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for implementation of the NDs Program.

  17. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  18. Status of the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Boyes, J.D.; Sorem, M.S.; Soures, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    The ultimate goal of worldwide research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to develop fusion as an inexhaustible, economic, environmentally safe source of electric power. Following nearly thirty years of laboratory and underground fusion experiments, the next step toward this goal is to demonstrate ignition and propagating burn of fusion fuel in the laboratory. The National Ignition Facility(NIF) Project is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for just this purpose. NIF will use advanced Nd-glass laser technology to deliver 1.8 MJ of 0.35-um laser light in a shaped pulse, several nanoseconds in duration, achieving a peak power of 500 TW. A national community of U.S. laboratories is participating in this project, now in its final design phase. Franceand the United Kingdom are collaborating on development of required technology under bilateral agreements with the US. This paper presents thestatus of the laser design and development of its principal components and optical elements.

  19. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joplin, Jeff

    2015-03-28

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to a recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an efficient

  20. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  1. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  2. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  3. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria.

  4. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  5. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, T.; Holmes, W.; Lai, A.; Croonquist, A.; Eraker, J.; Abbott, R.; Mills, G.; Mohl, J.; Craig, J.; Balachandra, B.; Gannon, J.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and development of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility, which is intended to provide a unique environment of low temperature and microgravity for the scientists to perform breakthrough investigations on board the International Space Station.

  6. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  7. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  8. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  10. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  11. Foliar temperature acclimation reduces simulated carbon sensitivity to climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas G.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Kattge, Jens; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-04-01

    Plant photosynthesis and respiration are the largest carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, and their parameterizations represent large sources of uncertainty in projections of land carbon uptake in Earth system models (ESMs). The incorporation of temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and foliar respiration, commonly observed processes, into ESMs has been proposed as a way to reduce this uncertainty. Here we show that, across 15 flux tower sites spanning multiple biomes at various locations worldwide (10° S-67° N), acclimation parameterizations improve a model's ability to reproduce observed net ecosystem exchange of CO2. This improvement is most notable in tropical biomes, where photosynthetic acclimation increased model performance by 36%. The consequences of acclimation for simulated terrestrial carbon uptake depend on the process, region and time period evaluated. Globally, including acclimation has a net effect of increasing carbon assimilation and storage, an effect that diminishes with time, but persists well into the future. Our results suggest that land models omitting foliar temperature acclimation are likely to overestimate the temperature sensitivity of terrestrial carbon exchange, thus biasing projections of future carbon storage and estimates of policy indicators such as the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories participation in the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyes, J.; Boyer, W.; Chael, J.; Cook, D.; Cook, W.; Downey, T.; Hands, J.; Harjes, C.; Leeper, R.; McKay, P.; Micano, P.; Olson, R.; Porter, J.; Quintenz, J.; Roberts, V.; Savage, M.; Simpson, W.; Seth, A.; Smith, R.; Wavrik, M.; Wilson, M.

    1996-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility is a $1.1B DOE Defense Programs Inertial Confinement Fusion facility supporting the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The goal of the facility is to achieve fusion ignition and modest gain in the laboratory. The NIF project is responsible for the design and construction of the 192 beam, 1.8 MJ laser necessary to meet that goal. - The project is a National project with participation by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (URLLE) and numerous industrial partners. The project is centered at LLNL which has extensive expertise in large solid state lasers. The other partners in the project have negotiated their participation based on the specific expertise they can bring to the project. In some cases, this negotiation resulted in the overall responsibility for a WBS element; in other cases, the participating laboratories have placed individuals in the project in areas that need their individual expertise. The main areas of Sandia`s participation are in the management of the conventional facility design and construction, the design of the power conditioning system, the target chamber system, target diagnostic instruments, data acquisition system and several smaller efforts in the areas of system integration and engineering analysis. Sandia is also contributing to the technology development necessary to support the project by developing the power conditioning system and several target diagnostics, exploring alternate target designs, and by conducting target experiments involving the ``foot`` region of the NIF power pulse. The project has just passed the mid-point of the Title I (preliminary) design phase. This paper will summarize Sandia`s role in supporting the National Ignition Facility and discuss the areas in which Sandia is contributing. 3 figs.

  13. Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1989-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1988.

  14. Operation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1988-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1987.

  15. Congressional hearing reviews NSF major research and facilities projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    An 8 March congressional hearing about the U.S. National Science Foundation's Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (NSF MREFC) account focused on fiscal management and accountability of projects in that account and reviewed concerns raised by NSF's Office of Inspector General (OIG). NSF established the MREFC account in 1995 to better plan and manage investments in major equipment and facilities projects, which can cost from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars, and the foundation has funded 17 MREFC projects since then. The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget includes funding for four MREFC projects: Advanced Laser Gravitational-Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO), Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), National Ecological Observatory (NEON), and Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). The hearing, held by a subcommittee of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, reviewed management oversight throughout the life cycles of MREFC projects and concerns raised in recent OIG reports about the use of budget contingency funds. NSF's February 2012 manual called "Risk management guide for large facilities" states that cost contingency is "that portion of the project budget required to cover `known unknowns,'" such as planning and estimating errors and omissions, minor labor or material price fluctuations, and design developments and changes within the project scope. Committee members acknowledged measures that NSF has made to improve the MREFC oversight process, but they also urged the agency to continue to take steps to ensure better project management.

  16. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  17. Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site.

  18. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  19. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  20. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  1. Near Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    2000-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic projects at the CDIF (Component Development and Integration Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents the tasks accomplished at the Component Development and Integration Facility during the fourth quarter of FY90. Areas of technical progress this quarter included: coal system development; seed system development; test bay modification; channel power dissipation and distribution system development; oxygen system storage upgrade; iron core magnet thermal protection system oxygen checkout; TRW slag rejector/CDIF slag removal project; stack gas/environmental compliance upgrade; coal-fired combustor support; 1A channels fabrication and assembly; support of Mississippi State University diagnostic testing; test operations and results; data enhancement; data analysis and modeling; technical papers; and projected activities. 2 tabs.

  3. The Epidaurus Project: holism in Department of Defense health facilities.

    PubMed

    Foote, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The Epidaurus Project, an advanced initiative in holistic (or whole-person) medicine, has operated in the Military Health System (MHS) since 2001. Its purpose has been to engage prominent civilian authorities on evidence-based building design, family-centered approaches, interdisciplinary care integration, and wellness, to optimize outcomes in the MHS. Over the past decade, many of the Epidaurus idea sets have been incorporated into MHS facility designs and therapeutic programs. The MHS owes a debt of gratitude to the numerous civilian thought leaders who participated in this project. PMID:22338971

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  5. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  7. Status of the Leopard Laser Project in Nevada Terawatt Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiewior, Piotr P.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Aubry, G.; Batie, S.; Caron, J.; Chalyy, O.; Cowan, T.; Haefner, C.; Le Galloudec, B.; Le Galloudec, N.; Macaulay, D.; Nalajala, V.; Pettee, G.; Samek, S.; Stepanenko, Y.; Vesco, J.

    2009-06-01

    Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) currently operates a high-intensity laser system—Leopard. NTF already operates a powerful z-pinch device, called Zebra, for plasma and High Energy Density physics research. The unique research opportunities arise from the combination of NTF's terawatt Zebra z-pinch with 50-terawatt-class Leopard laser. This combination also provides opportunities to address fundamental physics of inertial fusion and high energy density physics with intense laser beam. We report on the status, design and architecture of the Leopard laser project. A first experiments carried out with Leopard will be also briefly mentioned.

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. NOMINATION FOR THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (PMI) PROJECT OF THE YEAR AWARD INTEGRATED DISPOSAL FACILITY (IDF)

    SciTech Connect

    MCLELLAN, G.W.

    2007-02-07

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is pleased to nominate the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) project for the Project Management Institute's consideration as 2007 Project of the Year, Built for the U.S, Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) at the Hanford Site, the IDF is the site's first Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant disposal facility. The IDF is important to DOE's waste management strategy for the site. Effective management of the IDF project contributed to the project's success. The project was carefully managed to meet three Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones. The completed facility fully satisfied the needs and expectations of the client, regulators and stakeholders. Ultimately, the project, initially estimated to require 48 months and $33.9 million to build, was completed four months ahead of schedule and $11.1 million under budget. DOE directed construction of the IDF to provide additional capacity for disposing of low-level radioactive and mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) solid waste. The facility needed to comply with federal and Washington State environmental laws and meet TPA milestones. The facility had to accommodate over one million cubic yards of the waste material, including immobilized low-activity waste packages from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), low-level and mixed low-level waste from WTP failed melters, and alternative immobilized low-activity waste forms, such as bulk-vitrified waste. CH2M HILL designed and constructed a disposal facility with a redundant system of containment barriers and a sophisticated leak-detection system. Built on a 168-area, the facility's construction met all regulatory requirements. The facility's containment system actually exceeds the state's environmental requirements for a hazardous waste landfill. Effective management of the IDF construction project required working through highly political and legal issues as well as challenges with

  10. Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Beller

    2007-09-01

    Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

  11. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  12. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  13. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  14. Molecular processes of transgenerational acclimation to a warming ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Heather D.; Ryu, Taewoo; Donelson, Jennifer M.; van Herwerden, Lynne; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Berumen, Michael L.; Leggat, William; Ravasi, Timothy; Munday, Philip L.

    2015-12-01

    Some animals have the remarkable capacity to acclimate across generations to projected future climate change; however, the underlying molecular processes are unknown. We sequenced and assembled de novo transcriptomes of adult tropical reef fish exposed developmentally or transgenerationally to projected future ocean temperatures and correlated the resulting expression profiles with acclimated metabolic traits from the same fish. We identified 69 contigs representing 53 key genes involved in thermal acclimation of aerobic capacity. Metabolic genes were among the most upregulated transgenerationally, suggesting shifts in energy production for maintaining performance at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, immune- and stress-responsive genes were upregulated transgenerationally, indicating a new complement of genes allowing the second generation of fish to better cope with elevated temperatures. Other differentially expressed genes were involved with tissue development and transcriptional regulation. Overall, we found a similar suite of differentially expressed genes among developmental and transgenerational treatments. Heat-shock protein genes were surprisingly unresponsive, indicating that short-term heat-stress responses may not be a good indicator of long-term acclimation capacity. Our results are the first to reveal the molecular processes that may enable marine fishes to adjust to a future warmer environment over multiple generations.

  15. The radioactive ion beams facility project for the legnaro laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecchio, Luigi B.

    1999-04-01

    In the frame work of the Italian participation to the project of a high intensity proton facility for the energy amplifier and nuclear waste transmutations, LNL is involving in the design and construction of prototypes of the injection system of the 1 GeV linac that consists of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) followed by a 100 MeV linac. This program has been already financially supported and the work is actually in progress. In this context, the LNL has been proposed a project for the construction of a second generation facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by using the ISOL method. The final goal consists in the production of neutron rich RIBs with masses ranging from 80 to 160 by using primary beams of protons, deuterons and light ions with energy of 100 MeV and 100 kW power. This project is proposed to be developed in about 10 years from now and intermediate milestones and experiments are foreseen and under consideration for the next INFN five year plan (1999-2003). In such period of time is proposed the construction of a proton/deuteron accelerator of 10 MeV energy and 10 mA current, consisting of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) and a linac (10 MeV, 10 mA), and of a neutron area dedicated to the RIBs production, to the BNCT applications and to the neutron physics. Some remarks on the production methods will be presented. The possibility of producing radioisotopes by means of the fission induced by neutrons will be investigated and the methods of production of neutrons will be discussed.

  16. Global convergence in leaf respiration from estimates of thermal acclimation across time and space.

    PubMed

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Slot, Martijn; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Kattge, Jens; Atkin, Owen K; Bloomfield, Keith J; Tjoelker, Mark G; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-09-01

    Recent compilations of experimental and observational data have documented global temperature-dependent patterns of variation in leaf dark respiration (R), but it remains unclear whether local adjustments in respiration over time (through thermal acclimation) are consistent with the patterns in R found across geographical temperature gradients. We integrated results from two global empirical syntheses into a simple temperature-dependent respiration framework to compare the measured effects of respiration acclimation-over-time and variation-across-space to one another, and to a null model in which acclimation is ignored. Using these models, we projected the influence of thermal acclimation on: seasonal variation in R; spatial variation in mean annual R across a global temperature gradient; and future increases in R under climate change. The measured strength of acclimation-over-time produces differences in annual R across spatial temperature gradients that agree well with global variation-across-space. Our models further project that acclimation effects could potentially halve increases in R (compared with the null model) as the climate warms over the 21st Century. Convergence in global temperature-dependent patterns of R indicates that physiological adjustments arising from thermal acclimation are capable of explaining observed variation in leaf respiration at ambient growth temperatures across the globe. PMID:25898850

  17. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Austad, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  18. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Austad, Stephanie Lee

    2015-09-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  19. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  20. National Ignition Facility Project Site Safety Program Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2001-09-30

    These rules apply to all National Ignition Facility (NIF) workers (workers), which include Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) employees, non-LLNL employees (including contract labor, supplemental labor, vendors, personnel matrixed/assigned from other national laboratories, participating guests, visitors and students) and contractors/subcontractors. The General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices shall be used by management to promote the prevention of incidents through indoctrination, safety and health training, and on-the-job application. As a condition for contract award, all employers shall conduct an orientation for all newly hired and rehired employees before those workers will be permitted to start work in this facility. This orientation shall include a discussion of the following information. The General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices must be posted at a conspicuous location at the job site office or be provided to each supervisory worker who shall have it readily available. Copies of the General Rules and NIF Code of Safe Practices can also be included in employee safety pamphlets. The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) rules at the NIF Project site are based upon compliance with the most stringent of Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL, Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), California (Cal)/OSHA, and federal and state environmental requirements.

  1. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  2. Thermal acclimation, growth, and burst swimming of threespine stickleback: enzymatic correlates and influence of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Leroy, P H; Gagné, A

    2001-01-01

    Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that had been reared in the laboratory under natural photoperiods were acclimated to 23 degrees and 8 degrees C in late spring under increasing day lengths and again in late fall under decreasing day lengths. The parents of these fish were from the anadromous Isle Verte population. In the spring, cold- and warm-acclimated fish grew at the same rates and attained similar condition factors (mass L(-3)), although food intake was considerably higher at 23 degrees C. As both groups had similar increases in mass and condition, the higher axial muscle activities of citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase (measured at 20 degrees C) after cold acclimation were likely a direct response to temperature. Multiple regression analysis showed that axial muscle levels of cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase were correlated with the burst swimming speeds of the spring sticklebacks, while growth rates were positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase levels in pectoral and axial muscles and creatine kinase levels in the axial muscle. In the fall, the fish in both acclimation groups grew little, although they fed at similar rates as in the spring experiment. Overall, the sticklebacks showed lower burst swimming speeds in the fall. In both spring and fall, the burst speeds of cold- and warm-acclimated sticklebacks only differed at warm temperatures. In the spring experiment, the cold-acclimated fish swam faster, whereas in the fall experiment the warm-acclimated fish swam faster despite their lower percentage of axial muscle. Swimming speeds were measured both at a fish's acclimation temperature and after 12 h at the other temperature. Cold-acclimated sticklebacks seem to have more facility in rapidly adjusting to warm temperatures when they have experienced increasing rather than decreasing day lengths, perhaps as a result of the requirements of the spring migration to the intertidal breeding grounds. PMID:11226015

  3. 75 FR 39926 - Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (DOE/EIS-0415)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...The Western Area Power Administration (Western) received a request from Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin Electric) to interconnect its proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (Project) to Western's transmission system. Basin Electric's Project includes the construction of a new 300-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired combined-cycle generation facility in Brookings County, South......

  4. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 2. Role of acclimation under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to accurately predict land-atmosphere exchange of mass, energy, and momentum over the coming century requires the consideration of plant biochemical, ecophysiological, and structural acclimation to modifications of the ambient environment. Amongst the most important environmental changes experienced by terrestrial vegetation over the last century has been the increase in ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, with a projected doubling in CO2 from preindustrial levels by the middle of this century. This change in atmospheric composition has been demonstrated to significantly alter a variety of leaf and plant properties across a range of species, with the potential to modify land-atmosphere interactions and their associated feedbacks. Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) technology has provided significant insight into the functioning of vegetation in natural conditions under elevated CO2, but remains limited in its ability to quantify the exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy at the canopy scale. This paper addresses the roles of ecophysiological, biochemical, and structural plant acclimation on canopy-scale exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy through the application of a multilayer canopy-root-soil model (MLCan) capable of resolving changes induced by elevated CO2 through the canopy and soil systems. Previous validation of MLCan flux estimates were made for soybean and maize in the companion paper using a record of six growing seasons of eddy covariance data from the Bondville Ameriflux site. Observations of leaf-level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and surface temperature collected at the SoyFACE experimental facility in central Illinois provide a basis for examining the ability of MLCan to capture vegetation responses to an enriched CO2 environment. Simulations of control (370 [ppm]) and elevated (550 [ppm]) CO2 environments allow for an examination of the vertical variation and canopy-scale responses of vegetation states and fluxes

  5. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1994-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CT'UIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. This 1993 annual report details scheduled maintenance and other projects carried out during the year.

  6. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  7. The NTF as a national facility. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    Activities which led to the definition of the National Transonic Facility and the general agreements reached regarding its use and operations are reviewed. Topics discussed include: redefinition of test requirements, development of low cost options, consideration of a single transonic facility using existing hardware if feasible, facility concept recommendations, and acquisition schedule proposals.

  8. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  9. Treatment Facility F: Accelerated Removal and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.; Buettner, M.H.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerated Removal and Validation (ARV) phase of remediation at the Treatment Facility F (TFF) site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to accelerate removal of gasoline from the site when compared to normal, single shift, pump-and-treat operations. The intent was to take advantage of the in-place infrastructure plus the increased underground temperatures resulting from the Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project (DUSDP). Operations continued 24-hours (h) per day between October 4 and December 12, 1993. Three contaminant removal rate enhancement approaches were explored during the period of continuous operation. First, we tried several configurations of the vapor pumping system to maximize the contaminant removal rate. Second, we conducted two brief trials of air injection into the lower steam zone. Results were compared with computer models, and the process was assessed for contaminant removal rate enhancement. Third, we installed equipment to provide additional electrical heating of contaminated low-permeability soil. Four new electrodes were connected into the power system. Diagnostic capabilities at the TFF site were upgraded so that we could safely monitor electrical currents, soil temperatures, and water treatment system processes while approximately 300 kW of electrical energy was being applied to the subsurface.

  10. Overview of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility aeronautical flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Several principal aerodynamics flight projects of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility are discussed. Key vehicle technology areas from a wide range of flight vehicles are highlighted. These areas include flight research data obtained for ground facility and computation correlation, applied research in areas not well suited to ground facilities (wind tunnels), and concept demonstration.

  11. Temperature-Acclimated Brown Adipose Tissue Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul; Smith, Sheila; Linderman, Joyce; Courville, Amber B.; Brychta, Robert J.; Dieckmann, William; Werner, Charlotte D.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis (CIT; DIT). Whether BAT recruitment is reversible and how it impacts on energy metabolism have not been investigated in humans. We examined the effects of temperature acclimation on BAT, energy balance, and substrate metabolism in a prospective crossover study of 4-month duration, consisting of four consecutive blocks of 1-month overnight temperature acclimation (24°C [month 1] → 19°C [month 2] → 24°C [month 3] → 27°C [month 4]) of five healthy men in a temperature-controlled research facility. Sequential monthly acclimation modulated BAT reversibly, boosting and suppressing its abundance and activity in mild cold and warm conditions (P < 0.05), respectively, independent of seasonal fluctuations (P < 0.01). BAT acclimation did not alter CIT but was accompanied by DIT (P < 0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity enhancement (P < 0.05), evident only after cold acclimation. Circulating and adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, expression levels of leptin and adiponectin displayed reciprocal changes concordant with cold-acclimated insulin sensitization. These results suggest regulatory links between BAT thermal plasticity and glucose metabolism in humans, opening avenues to harnessing BAT for metabolic benefits. PMID:24954193

  12. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  13. Conceptual design report, Sodium Storage Facility, Fast Flux Test Facility, Project F-031

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, D.R.

    1995-02-14

    The Sodium Storage Facility Conceptual Design Report provides conceptual design for construction of a new facility for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium.

  14. The Effect of Acclimation to Sublethal Temperature on Subsequent Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Zhang, Huina

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is a popular alternative to synthetic pesticides in disinfesting food-processing facilities and empty grain storages. Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky is one of the most cosmopolitan and destructive insects found in empty grain storage facilities and processing facilities. The effect of acclimation in S. zeamais adults to sublethal high temperature on their subsequent susceptibility to high temperatures was investigated. S. zeamais adults were acclimated to 36°C for 0 (as a control), 1, 3, and 5 h, and then were exposed at 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals respectively. Acclimation to sublethal high temperature significantly reduced subsequent susceptibility of S. zeamais adults to lethal high temperatures of 43, 47, 51, and 55°C, although the mortality of S. zeamais adults significantly increased with increasing exposure time at lethal high temperatures. The mortality of S. zeamais adults with 1, 3, and 5 h of acclimation to 36°C was significantly lower than that of S. zeamais adults without acclimation when exposed to the same lethal high temperatures. The present results suggest that the whole facility should be heated to target lethal high temperature as soon as possible, avoiding decreasing the control effectiveness of heat treatment due to the acclimation in stored product insects to sublethal temperature. PMID:27462906

  15. The Effect of Acclimation to Sublethal Temperature on Subsequent Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jianhua; Zhang, Huina

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is a popular alternative to synthetic pesticides in disinfesting food-processing facilities and empty grain storages. Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky is one of the most cosmopolitan and destructive insects found in empty grain storage facilities and processing facilities. The effect of acclimation in S. zeamais adults to sublethal high temperature on their subsequent susceptibility to high temperatures was investigated. S. zeamais adults were acclimated to 36°C for 0 (as a control), 1, 3, and 5 h, and then were exposed at 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals respectively. Acclimation to sublethal high temperature significantly reduced subsequent susceptibility of S. zeamais adults to lethal high temperatures of 43, 47, 51, and 55°C, although the mortality of S. zeamais adults significantly increased with increasing exposure time at lethal high temperatures. The mortality of S. zeamais adults with 1, 3, and 5 h of acclimation to 36°C was significantly lower than that of S. zeamais adults without acclimation when exposed to the same lethal high temperatures. The present results suggest that the whole facility should be heated to target lethal high temperature as soon as possible, avoiding decreasing the control effectiveness of heat treatment due to the acclimation in stored product insects to sublethal temperature. PMID:27462906

  16. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote earth field sensing magnetometer and servo control building; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils are 42-foot in diameter and a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils accommodates spacecraft access to the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  17. Acclimation of marine phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzard, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of marine phytoplankton to acclimate to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was examined. Monocultures of a subtropical diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, were maintained under photosynthetically available radiation (PAR-only) and PAR plus UVR (PAR + UVR) for a 48 h exposure period. By 24 h, and for the remainder of the 48 h exposure period, growth rate, pigment concentrations, Rubisco activity and carbon fixation capability were not affected by PAR + UVR. After 48 h of UVR exposure turnover rates of the putative D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII) and Chlorophyll (Chl) a were higher than controls, suggesting continual damage by UVR. Maximum rate of oxygen evolution and the efficiency of PSII increased following acclimation to UVR. The maximum rate of carbon fixation was not affected on a per cell basis and decreased on a per Chl a basis following UVR acclimation. Chlorophyll a specific photosynthesis over a 5 h exposure period was equal between the two acclimation treatments (PAR-only and PAR + UV). Transfer of PAR-only acclimated cells to PAR + UVR for the same 5 h period lead to a reduction in Chl a specific photosynthesis, indicating acute inhibition of photosynthesis by UVR. Chlorophyll a specific photosynthesis of cells acclimated to PAR + UVR and transferred to PAR-only was 24% higher than cells maintained in PAR + UVR during the determination of photosynthesis, indicating enhancement of productivity following the removal of UVR. Effect of ambient subtropical UVR on natural phytoplankton populations was examined. Rates of primary production by assemblages Natural phytoplankton assemblages from Hawaii, exposed to PAR-only and PAR + UVR were equal. Assemblages acclimated to PAR + UVR and then transferred to PAR-only fixed 67% more carbon per Chl a than assemblages acclimated to PAR + UVR and maintained in PAR + UVR. Acclimation to ambient PAR + UVR resulted in a 171% increase in Chl a concentration compared to assemblages maintained under PAR-only conditions.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  19. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground-testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  20. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalosky, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  1. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  2. How to Select a Project Delivery Method for School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalina, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and explains three project delivery methods that are commonly used today in the United States. The first project delivery method mentioned is the design-bid-build, which is still the predominant method of project delivery for public works and school construction in the United States. The second is the…

  3. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in

  4. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept project; mine waste technology pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  5. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD proof-of-concept project; mine waste pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  6. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  7. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  8. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S&M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the IFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of IFDP facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 1999. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $36M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S&M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  9. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S and M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S and M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the EFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of EFDP Facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 2000. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $51M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S and M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  10. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  11. Development of Facilities Master Plan and Laboratory Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Andrea D

    2011-10-03

    Funding from this grant has allowed Morehouse School of Medicine to complete its first professionally developed, comprehensive campus master plan that is in alignment with the recently completed strategic plan. In addition to master planning activities, funds were used for programming and designing research renovations, and also to supplement other research facility upgrades by providing lighting and equipment. The activities funded by this grant will provide the catalyst for substantial improvement in the School's overall facilities for biomedical education and research, and will also provide much of the information needed to conduct a successful campaign to raise funds for proposed buildings and renovations.

  12. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-09-28

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  13. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-10-12

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  14. The Ohio School Facilities Commission. Revamping the State's School Construction Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with the Ohio School Facilities Commission's (OSFC) Executive Director who discusses the OSFC's history and its work in managing K-12 school facilities throughout the state. Topics include its efforts to help school districts get bond measures on ballets, funding projects, and its "Partnering Program" for construction…

  15. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  16. Ingham County Medical Care Facility solar energy project (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-20

    A complete set of as-built drawings for the Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility's solar water heating system is included. These drawings accompany report No. DOE/CS/32382-T1 and DOE/CS/32382-T2. (LS)

  17. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×1010 cells mL-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms. PMID:26070088

  18. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  19. Status and specifications of a Project X front-end accelerator test facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Steimel, J.; Webber, R.; Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.; Pasquinelli, R.; Evans-Peoples, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the construction and operational status of an accelerator test facility for Project X. The purpose of this facility is for Project X component development activities that benefit from beam tests and any development activities that require 325 MHz or 650 MHz RF power. It presently includes an H- beam line, a 325 MHz superconducting cavity test facility, a 325 MHz (pulsed) RF power source, and a 650 MHz (CW) RF power source. The paper also discusses some specific Project X components that will be tested in the facility. Fermilab's future involves new facilities to advance the intensity frontier. In the early 2000's, the vision was a pulsed, superconducting, 8 GeV linac capable of injecting directly into the Fermilab Main Injector. Prototyping the front-end of such a machine started in 2005 under a program named the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS). While the HINS test facility was being constructed, the concept of a new, more versatile accelerator for the intensity frontier, now called Project X, was forming. This accelerator comprises a 3 GeV CW superconducting linac with an associated experimental program, followed by a pulsed 8 GeV superconducting linac to feed the Main Injector synchrotron. The CW Project X design is now the model for Fermilab's future intensity frontier program. Although CW operation is incompatible with the original HINS front-end design, the installation remains useful for development and testing many Project X components.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 on fish behaviour undiminished by transgenerational acclimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Megan J.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Welsh, Justin Q.; McCormick, Mark I.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-12-01

    Behaviour and sensory performance of marine fishes are impaired at CO2 levels projected to occur in the ocean in the next 50-100 years, and there is limited potential for within-generation acclimation to elevated CO2 (refs , ). However, whether fish behaviour can acclimate or adapt to elevated CO2 over multiple generations remains unanswered. We tested for transgenerational acclimation of reef fish olfactory preferences and behavioural lateralization at moderate (656 μatm) and high (912 μatm) end-of-century CO2 projections. Juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, from control parents (446 μatm) exhibited an innate avoidance to chemical alarm cue (CAC) when reared in control conditions. In contrast, juveniles lost their innate avoidance of CAC and even became strongly attracted to CAC when reared at elevated CO2 levels. Juveniles from parents maintained at mid-CO2 and high-CO2 levels also lost their innate avoidance of CAC when reared in elevated CO2, demonstrating no capacity for transgenerational acclimation of olfactory responses. Behavioural lateralization was also disrupted for juveniles reared under elevated CO2, regardless of parental conditioning. Our results show minimal potential for transgenerational acclimation in this fish, suggesting that genetic adaptation will be necessary to overcome the effects of ocean acidification on behaviour.

  1. Beam dynamics simulations and measurements at the Project X Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Scarpine, V.E.; Webber, R.C.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, under study at Fermilab, is a multitask high-power superconducting RF proton beam facility, aiming to provide high intensity protons for rare processes experiments and nuclear physics at low energy, and simultaneously for the production of neutrinos, as well as muon beams in the long term. A beam test facility - former known as High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) - is under commissioning for testing critical components of the project, e.g. dynamics and diagnostics at low beam energies, broadband beam chopping, RF power generation and distribution. In this paper we describe the layout of the test facility and present beam dynamics simulations and measurements.

  2. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  3. Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.E.

    1994-03-21

    Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design.

  4. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, I.; Davidavičiene, E.; Mikaityte, J.; van der Werf, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  5. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  6. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Conceptual Design Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  7. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  8. Project Management Actions Demolition of a Research Facility Building 431

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W L

    2005-09-06

    The Demolition of B431 is required to achieve the mission of LLNL and the NNSA FIRP objectives by: (1) Supporting the NNSA Infrastructure Plan goal to ''demolish excess facilities as early as possible''; (2) Banking square footage that allows continued application of advanced science and nuclear technology to the Nation's defense; and (3) Helping maintain and enhance the safety, security, and reliability of the weapons stockpile. A significant effort has been put into the demolition concept in order to ensure that it is well thought out and represents best-value to the government for the money.

  9. FEDERAL FACILITY COMPLIANCE AGREEMENT (FFCA) STACK ISOLATION PROJECT FUNCTIONS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANBARGER, R.K.

    2003-12-16

    This document delineates the functions and requirements for the FFCA Stack Isolation Project for the 244-A, 244-BX, 244-5, and 244-TX DCRTs. The isolation of each ventilation system and stack includes the electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical isolation of the ventilation system and the installation of primary and annulus breather filters to provide passive ventilation to meet the FFCA requirements.

  10. Project Closeout Report Francium trapping facility at Triumf

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, Luis A

    2014-09-30

    This is a report of the construction of a Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) of TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, where the Francium Parity Non Conservation (FrPNC) international collaboration has its home. This facility will be used to study fundamental symmetries with high-resolution atomic spectroscopy. The primary scientific objective of the program is a measurement of the anapole moment of francium in a chain of isotopes by observing the parity violation induced by the weak interaction. The anapole moment of francium and associated signal are expected to be ten times larger than in cesium, the only element in which an anapole moment has been observed. The measurement will provide crucial information for better understanding weak hadronic interactions in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The methodology combines nuclear and particle physics techniques for the production of francium with precision measurements based on laser cooling and trapping and microwave spectroscopy. The program builds on an initial series of atomic spectroscopy measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, based on isotope shifts and hyperfine anomalies, before conducting the anapole moment measurements, these measurements performed during commissioning runs help understand the atomic and nuclear structure of Fr.

  11. National Ignition Facility Project Completion and Control System Status

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P J; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Fisher, J M; Frazier, T M; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Reed, R K

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. Completed in 2009, NIF is a stadium-sized facility containing a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW 192-beam ultraviolet laser and target chamber. A cryogenic tritium target system and suite of optical, X-ray and nuclear diagnostics will support experiments in a strategy to achieve fusion ignition starting in 2010. Automatic control of NIF is performed by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is implemented by 2 MSLOC of Java and Ada running on 1300 front-end processors and servers. The ICCS framework uses CORBA distribution for interoperation between heterogeneous languages and computers. Laser setup is guided by a physics model and shots are coordinated by data-driven distributed workflow engines. The NIF information system includes operational tools and a peta-scale repository for provisioning experimental results. This paper discusses results achieved and the effort now underway to conduct full-scale operations and prepare for ignition.

  12. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: A DOE technology demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.G.; Streit, R.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is a national demonstration test bed that will be used to evaluate, at pilot scale, emerging technologies for the effective treatment of low-level radioactive, organic mixed wastes. The treatment technologies will be selected from candidates of advanced processes that have been sufficiently demonstrated in laboratory and bench-scale tests, and most closely meet suitable criteria for demonstration. The primary and initial goal will be to demonstrate technologies that have the potential to effectively treat a selection of organic-based mixed waste streams, currently in storage within the DOE, that list incineration as the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT). In future operations, the facility may also be used to demonstrate technology that addresses a broader range of government, university, medical, and industry needs. The primary objective of the MWMF is to demonstrate integrated mixed-waste processing technologies. While primary treatment processes are an essential component of integrated treatment trains, they are only a part of a fully integrated demonstration.

  13. Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility Project-(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Hosaka, M.; Takami, K.; Morimoto, H.; Ito, T.; Sakurai, I.; Hara, H.; Okamoto, W.; Watanabe, N.; Takeda, Y.; Katoh, M.; Hori, Y.; Sasaki, S.

    2010-06-23

    A synchrotron radiation facility that is used not only for basic research, but also for engineering and industrial research and development has been proposed to be constructed in the Central area of Japan. The key equipment of this facility is a compact electron storage ring that is able to supply hard X-rays. The circumference of the storage ring is 72 m with the energy of 1.2 GeV, the beam current of 300 mA, and the natural emittance of about 53 nm-rad. The configuration of the storage ring is based on four triple bend cells, and four of the twelve bending magnets are 5 T superconducting ones. The bending angle and critical energy are 12 degree and 4.8 keV, respectively. For the top-up operation, the electron beam will be injected from a booster synchrotron with the full energy. Currently, six beamlines are planned for the first phase starting from 2012.

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  15. Optical assembly and alignment for the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, P.A.; Grasz, E.L.; Wong, H.; Schmitt, E.H.; Simmons, M.R.

    1997-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will use about 8,000 large optics to carry a high-power laser through a stadium-size building, and will do so on a very tight schedule and budget. The collocated Optics Assembly Building (OAB) will assemble and align, in a clean-room environment, the NIF`s large optics, which are the biggest optics ever assembled in such an environment. In addition, the OAB must allow for just-in-time processing and clean transfer to the areas where the optics will be used. By using a mixture of off-the-shelf and newly designed equipment and by working with industry, we have developed innovative handling systems to perform the clean assembly and precise alignment required for the full variety of optics, as well as for postassembly inspection. We have also developed a set of loading mechanisms that safely get the clean optics to their places in the main NIF building.

  16. Novel Muon Beam Facilities for Project X at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.V.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Abrams, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    Innovative muon beam concepts for intensity-frontier experiments such as muon-to-electron conversion are described. Elaborating upon a previous single-beam idea, we have developed a design concept for a system to generate four high quality, low-energy muon beams (two of each sign) from a single beam of protons. As a first step, the production of pions by 1 and 3 GeV protons from the proposed Project X linac at Fermilab is being simulated and compared with the 8-GeV results from the previous study.

  17. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-05-30

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

  18. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Heat acclimation and cross tolerance to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Lovering, Andrew T; Horowitz, Michal; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a potential for some of the physiological and cellular responses to heat acclimation to carry over to improved tolerance of the novel stresses of another environment. This cross-tolerance is evident in heat-acclimated animals that exhibit enhanced tolerance to either hypoxic or ischemic stress, and is primarily attributed to shared cellular stress response pathways. These pathways include Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP). Whether these shared cellular stress response pathways translate to systemic cross-tolerance (improved exercise tolerance, reduced risk of environment-associated illness) has not been clearly shown, particularly in humans. This review highlights the HIF-1 and HSP pathways and their relationship with systemic acclimation responses, and further examines the potential cellular and systemic adaptations that may result in cross-tolerance between hot and hypoxic environments.

  20. Manhattan Project buildings and facilities at the Hanford Site: A construction history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-09-01

    This document thoroughly examines the role that the Hanford Engineer Works played in the Manhattan project. The historical aspects of the buildings and facilities are characterized. An in depth look at the facilities, including their functions, methods of fabrication and appearance is given for the 100 AREAS, 200 AREAS, 300 AREAS, 500, 800 and 900 AREAS, 600 AREA, 700 AREA, 1100 AREA and temporary construction structures.

  1. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  2. Epigenetics and cytoprotection with heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Michal

    2016-03-15

    Studying "phenotypic plasticity" involves comparison of traits expressed in response to environmental fluctuations and aims to understand tolerance and survival in new settings. Reversible phenotypic changes that enable individuals to match their phenotype to environmental demands throughout life can be artificially induced, i.e., acclimation or occur naturally, i.e., acclimatization. The onset and achievement of acclimatory homeostasis are determined by molecular programs that induce the acclimated transcriptome. In heat acclimation, much evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are powerful players in these processes. Epigenetic mechanisms affect the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factors, thereby regulating gene expression and controlling the phenotype. The heat-acclimated phenotype confers cytoprotection against novel stressors via cross-tolerance mechanisms, by attenuation of the initial damage and/or by accelerating spontaneous recovery through the release of help signals. This indispensable acclimatory feature has a memory and can be rapidly reestablished after the loss of acclimation and the return to the physiological preacclimated phenotype. The transcriptional landscape of the deacclimated phenotype includes constitutive transcriptional activation of epigenetic bookmarks. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70/HSP90/heat shock factor 1 memory protocol demonstrated constitutive histone H4 acetylation on hsp70 and hsp90 promotors. Novel players in the heat acclimation setup are poly(ADP-ribose)ribose polymerase 1 affecting chromatin condensation, DNA linker histones from the histone H1 cluster, and transcription factors associated with the P38 pathway. We suggest that these orchestrated responses maintain euchromatin and proteostasis during deacclimation and predispose to rapid reacclimation and cytoprotection. These mechanisms represent within-life epigenetic adaptations and cytoprotective memory. PMID:26472869

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N.

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  4. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I) Design Policy. The borrower shall ensure or cause to be ensured that: (A) All project facilities...

  5. Project Hanford management contract quality assurance program implementation plan for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, E.K.

    1997-10-15

    During transition from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Management and Operations (M and O) contract to the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Management and Integration (M and I) contract, existing WHC policies, procedures, and manuals were reviewed to determine which to adopt on an interim basis. Both WHC-SP-1131,Hanford Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, and WHC-CM-4-2, Quality Assurance Manual, were adopted; however, it was recognized that revisions were required to address the functions and responsibilities of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). This Quality Assurance Program Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities (HNF-SP-1228) supersedes the implementation portion of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. The revised Quality Assurance (QA) Program is documented in the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD), HNF-MP-599. That document replaces the QA Program in WHC-SP-1131, Rev. 1. The scope of this document is limited to documenting the nuclear facilities managed by FDH and its Major Subcontractors (MSCS) and the status of the implementation of 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, at those facilities. Since the QA Program for the nuclear facilities is now documented in the QAPD, future updates of the information provided in this plan will be by letter. The layout of this plan is similar to that of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide an overview of the Project Hanford QA Program. A list of Project Hanford nuclear facilities is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides the status of facility compliance to 10 CFR 830.120. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide requested exemptions, status of open items, and references, respectively. The four appendices correspond to the four projects that comprise Project Hanford.

  6. Quality assurance project plan for the UMTRA technical assistance contractor hydrochemistry facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) hydrochemistry facility is used to perform a limited but important set of services for the UMTRA Project. Routine services include support of field-based hydrological and geochemical operations and water sampling activities. Less commonly, the hydrology and geochemistry staff undertake special studies and site characterization studies at this facility. It is also used to train hydrologists, geochemists, and groundwater sampling crews. A review of this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) shall be accomplished once each calendar year. This review will be targeted to be accomplished not sooner than 6 months and not later than 18 months after the last review.

  7. Fast Flux Test Facility transition project resource loaded schedule. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1994-10-31

    Revision 1 of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides detail to manage the major elements, project baseline and cost estimate for the FFF Transition Project within the Advanced Reactors Transition Program, comprised of Activity Data Sheets (ADS) 6640, 6641, and 6642. The scope includes all work in the Budget and Reporting categories of Program Integration (PI), Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M), and Deactivation/Compliance (D/C). The transition activities are necessary to bring the FFTF and related facilities to a safe deactivation state, while maintaining worker health and safety. The scope of ADS 6640 and 6642 is the FFTF Transition Project while the scope of ADS 6641 is the Hanford Site Nuclear Energy Legacies.

  8. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on several different projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Furnace Projects for waste destruction; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project for removal of radioactive materials; and Spray Casting Project.

  9. Effect of Heat Acclimation on Sweat Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of 10-days of exercise-heat acclimation on sweat mineral concentrations. Methods: Eight male subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.56 m/sec, 4% grade for 100 continuous minutes or until rectal temperature reached 39.5°C on 10 consecutive days in an environmenta...

  10. Thermal acclimation in a small Afrotropical Bird.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Wild-caught animals are regularly used in physiological studies, yet the length of time it takes for completion of their acclimation to laboratory conditions remains largely unknown. In particular, Afrotropical species are relatively understudied compared with temperate and Holarctic species. Thus, we measured a number of metabolic variables in a 10g Afrotropical bird, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops virens), at weekly intervals, over an 8-week period, while birds were acclimating to two different constant thermal environments; 25°C and 29°C. Body mass increased significantly in the first three weeks, remaining approximately constant thereafter, with no significant difference between birds housed at 25°C and those housed at 29°C. However, whole animal resting metabolic rates remained constant throughout the eight-week study period, with values for birds housed at 29°C lower than for birds housed at 25°C. Rather than pointing to a minimum time period necessary for thermal acclimation, these results suggest that in some instances, freshly wild-caught small passerines may not need to be acclimated to laboratory conditions or respirometry equipment, prior to measurements of their resting metabolic rate. PMID:27133922

  11. Application of scene projection technologies at the AMRDEC SSDD HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareri, Jeffrey P.; Ballard, Gary H.; Morris, Joseph W.; Bunfield, Dennis; Saylor, Danny

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) test facilities have been established and in operation at the U.S. Army's Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) in McMorrow Laboratories, on Redstone Arsenal Alabama for over 37 years. These facilities have been successfully developed and employed supporting numerous tactical and interceptor missile systems. The AMRDEC HWIL facilities are constantly in a state state of modification and revision supporting evolving test requirements related to increasingly complex sensor suites, guidance implementations, and employment strategies prevalent within both existing and emerging aviation and missile programs. . This paper surveys the role of the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) in the development and operation of HWIL test facilities and the implementation of new, innovative technologies that have been integrated within facility test assets. This technology spans both the Near IR (NIR- 1.064um) and IR (3 - 12um) and RF (2 - 95 GHz) operating ranges. The AMRDEC HWIL facilities represent the highest degree of simulation fidelity, integrating all the major parts of a HWIL simulation including tactical missile and seeker hardware, executive control software, scene generation, and NIR, IR or RF scene projection systems. Successful incorporation of scene generation and projection technologies have become a key thrust of the AMRDEC HWIL development focus, with the intention to adapt and anticipate emerging test element requirements necessitated by future system sensing technologies.

  12. Design review plan for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A)

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, G.G.

    1994-12-20

    This plan describes how the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project conducts reviews of design media; describes actions required by Project participants; and provides the methodology to ensure that the design is complete, meets the technical baseline of the Project, is operable and maintainable, and is constructable. Project W-236A is an integrated project wherein the relationship between the operating contractor and architect-engineer is somewhat different than that of a conventional project. Working together, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and ICF Karser Hanford (ICF KH) have developed a relationship whereby ICF KH performs extensive design reviews and design verification. WHC actively participates in over-the-shoulder reviews during design development, performs a final review of the completed design, and conducts a formal design review of the Safety Class I, ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code items in accordance with WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices.

  13. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  14. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  15. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  16. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  17. Information Retrieval in an Office Filing Facility and Future Work in Project Minstrel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, A. F.; van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Review of office filing facility filing and retrieval mechanisms for unstructured and mixed media information focuses on free text methods. Also discussed are the state of the art in handling voice and image data, problems with searching text surrogates to implement free text content retrieval, and work of Project Minstrel. (Author/MBR)

  18. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  19. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  20. Implications of plant acclimation for future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Lina; Kattge, Jens; Cox, Peter; Sitch, Stephen; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lloyd, Jon; Huntingford, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The response of land ecosystems to climate change and associated feedbacks are a key uncertainty in future climate prediction (Friedlingstein et al. 2006). However global models generally do not account for the acclimation of plant physiological processes to increased temperatures. Here we conduct a first global sensitivity study whereby we modify the Joint UK land Environment Simulator (JULES) to account for temperature acclimation of two main photosynthetic parameters, Vcmax and Jmax (Kattge and Knorr 2007) and plant respiration (Atkin and Tjoelker 2003). The model is then applied over the 21st Century within the IMOGEN framework (Huntingford et al. 2004). Model simulations will provide new and improved projections of biogeochemical cycling, forest resilience, and thus more accurate projections of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks and the future evolution of the Earth System. Friedlingstein P, Cox PM, Betts R et al. (2006) Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis, results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 19, 3337-3353. Kattge J and Knorr W (2007): Temperature acclimation in a biochemical model of photosynthesis: a reanalysis of data from 36 species. Plant, Cell and Environment 30, 1176-1190 Atkin O.K and Tjoelker, M. G. (2003): Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Trends in Plant Science 8 (7), 343-351 Huntingford C, et al. (2004) Using a GCM analogue model to investigate the potential for Amazonian forest dieback. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 78, 177-185.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  2. Benchmarking the Remote-Handled Waste Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    O. P. Mendiratta; D. K. Ploetz

    2000-02-29

    ABSTRACT Facility decontamination activities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a former commercial nuclear spent fuel reprocessing facility near Buffalo, New York, have resulted in the removal of radioactive waste. Due to high dose and/or high contamination levels of this waste, it needs to be handled remotely for processing and repackaging into transport/disposal-ready containers. An initial conceptual design for a Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RHWF), completed in June 1998, was estimated to cost $55 million and take 11 years to process the waste. Benchmarking the RHWF with other facilities around the world, completed in November 1998, identified unique facility design features and innovative waste pro-cessing methods. Incorporation of the benchmarking effort has led to a smaller yet fully functional, $31 million facility. To distinguish it from the June 1998 version, the revised design is called the Rescoped Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RRHWF) in this topical report. The conceptual design for the RRHWF was completed in June 1999. A design-build contract was approved by the Department of Energy in September 1999.

  3. Integrated Framework for Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency in Healthcare Facilities Retrofit Projects.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Atefeh; Anumba, Chimay J; Messner, John I

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing focus on enhancing energy efficiency in healthcare facilities, many of which are decades old. Since replacement of all aging healthcare facilities is not economically feasible, the retrofitting of these facilities is an appropriate path, which also provides an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures. In undertaking energy efficiency retrofits, it is vital that the safety of the patients in these facilities is maintained or enhanced. However, the interactions between patient safety and energy efficiency have not been adequately addressed to realize the full benefits of retrofitting healthcare facilities. To address this, an innovative integrated framework, the Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency (PATSiE) framework, was developed to simultaneously enhance patient safety and energy efficiency. The framework includes a step -: by -: step procedure for enhancing both patient safety and energy efficiency. It provides a structured overview of the different stages involved in retrofitting healthcare facilities and improves understanding of the intricacies associated with integrating patient safety improvements with energy efficiency enhancements. Evaluation of the PATSiE framework was conducted through focus groups with the key stakeholders in two case study healthcare facilities. The feedback from these stakeholders was generally positive, as they considered the framework useful and applicable to retrofit projects in the healthcare industry. PMID:27492415

  4. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T.

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  6. Effect of hypoosmotic stress by low salinity acclimation of Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis on biological parameters used for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Bojan; Jaksić, Zeljko; Pavicić-Hamer, Dijana; Perić, Lorena; Medaković, Davorin; Ivanković, Dusica; Pavicić, Jasenka; Zilberberg, Carla; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G; Smodlaka, Nenad; Batel, Renato

    2008-09-17

    In the present study, we investigated the progressive acclimation of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to different reduced seawater (SW) salinities and its effect on several biochemical markers and biotests. Mussels were purchased from a local mariculture facility during summer (SW temperature 27 degrees C, salinity 37.5 psu) and winter (13 degrees C, 37 psu) seasons, and transferred to the laboratory for acclimation to reduced SW salinities (37, 28, 18.5 and 11 psu). At the beginning and at the end of acclimation processes tests of mussel survival in air were provided. After 14 days of acclimation the DNA integrity, p38-MAPK activation, metallothionein induction, oxygen consumption rate, and condition index were measured. Survival in air (SOS test), as a physiological index of mussel's health and vitality, had significantly lower LT50 values (11 psu) in the summer than in the winter, and it seems to be negatively affected by acclimation in comparison to controls (37 psu and mariculture). Condition indexes (CIs) were not significantly different, but mussel's acclimation resulted in decline (i.e., a negative trend), especially of CI-2 and CI-3 calculated on the basis of mussel tissue weight and shell sizes. Oxygen consumption rate (VO2) of M. galloprovincialis acclimated to reduced salinities was a concentration-dependent process and increased considerably to about 51 and 65% in lower SW concentrations (28 and 18 psu) compared to control mussels (37 psu). DNA integrity, determined by Fast Micromethod, was negatively impacted by salinity acclimation and corresponding physiological stress as well. Some differences in 1D protein expression patterns between control groups and mussels acclimated to 28, 18.5 and 11 psu (SW) were established. Reduced SW salinities (18.5 and 11 psu) resulted in significantly higher p38-MAPK phosphorylation, whereas the SW salinity of 28 psu decreased p-p38 significantly compared to control (37 psu). The concentration of metallothioneins

  7. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  8. As Built Verification Plan for Cask Transportation Facility Modifications (CTFM) Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, K.I.

    2000-04-20

    This document establishes an As-built Verification Plan (AVP) for implementing requirements in PHMC Engineering Requirements HNF-PRO-1819, Rev. 4, Sections 2.8.3.d and 2.10.8 and Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Administrative Procedure EN-6-012-01. This AVP defines and implements approved processes to document the physical configuration of the project scope installed within the facility and identify discrepancies between the associated project engineering drawings and the field configuration, and the component index (CI) database as defined in AP EN 6-005-02. This AVP defines requirements for project activities verifying conformance of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to project specified requirements.

  9. Overview of progress on the improvement projects for the LANSCE accelerator and target facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.; Browne, J.; Brun, T.; Donahue, J.B.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Hoffman, E.; Pynn, R.; Schriber, S.; Weinacht, D.

    1997-06-01

    Three projects have been initiated since 1994 to improve the performance of the accelerator and target facilities for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The LANSCE Reliability Improvement Project (LRIP) was separated into two phases. Phase 1, completed in 1995, targeted near-term improvements to beam reliability and availability that could be completed in one-year`s time. Phase 2, now underway and scheduled for completion in May 1998, consists of two projects: (a) implementation of direct H-injection for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) and (b) an upgrade of the target/moderator system for the short pulse spallation neutron (SPSS) source. The latter will reduce the target change-out time from about 10 months to about three weeks. The third project, the SPSS Enhancement Project, is aimed at increasing the PSR output beam current to 200 {micro}A at 30 Hz and providing up to seven new neutron scattering instruments.

  10. Highlights of the ISOLDE facility and the HIE-ISOLDE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, M. J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The ISOLDE facility is an ISOL-based radioactive beam facility at CERN. It is dedicated to the production and research of nuclei far from stability. Exotic nuclei of variety of chemical elements are available for the study of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental symmetries and atomic physics, as well as for applications in condensed-matter and life sciences. Since longer than a decade it has offered the largest variety of post-accelerated radioactive beams in the world. In order to broaden the scientific opportunities beyond the present ISOLDE facility, the on-going HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy) project will provide major improvements in energy range, beam intensity and beam quality. The first phase will boost the beam energy of the current REX LINAC to 5.5 MeV/u resulting in larger cross sections for Coulomb excitation compared to the previous maximum energy of 3 MeV/u. Higher energies will also open up many transfer reaction channels. Physics with post-accelerated beams starts in autumn 2015. The second phase of the project is already approved and is expected to be completed in 2018 allowing beam energies up to 10 MeV/u for A/q = 4.5. In this contribution the present status of the ISOLDE facility including some highlights will be discussed. The HIE-ISOLDE project will be described together with a panorama of the physics cases to be addressed.

  11. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  12. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  13. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  14. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  15. Health and safety plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This HASP describes the process for identifying the requirements, written safety documentation, and procedures for protecting personnel involved in the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. Objective of this project is to place 19 former isotope production facilities at ORNL in a safe condition in anticipation of an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance.

  16. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual Progress Report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Gorst, W.R.

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the progress during 1989 of 16 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 25 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility. Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 40 refs., 75 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Space Station Furnace Facility Preliminary Project Implementation Plan (PIP). Volume 2, Appendix 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkey, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is an advanced facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom and will consist of Core equipment and various sets of Furnace Module (FM) equipment in a three-rack configuration. This Project Implementation Plan (PIP) document was developed to satisfy the requirements of Data Requirement Number 4 for the SSFF study (Phase B). This PIP shall address the planning of the activities required to perform the detailed design and development of the SSFF for the Phase C/D portion of this contract.

  18. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  19. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  20. Portland General Electric Beaver synfuels project a coal gasification combined cycle methanol facility development program

    SciTech Connect

    Skov, E.R.; Yott, R.A.; Clancy, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Beaver coal gasification facility is currently undergoing preliminary engineering and feasibility analysis. Based on the existing 600 MW (nominal) Beaver combined cycle generating station and the adjacent plant site, which is eminently suitable for receiving and storage of subbituminous coal from either Alaska or Wyoming, a non-integrated CGCC facility combined with a methanol plant for increased utilization of the plant facilities and capital investment looks attractive for the 1987 time frame and forward. The CGCC facility would be environmentally benign since the gasification process inherently permits removal of essentially all sulfur, metals and particulate matter. The association with a methanol plant permits a high utilization factor of the overall CGCC-methanol facility. The beaver coal gasification facility will produce 60 billion Btu/day of MBG equivalent to about 300MWe, plus 1,750 Ton/D methanol, 10 million SCP/D SNG, nd 90 Ton/Day ammonia from about 11,000 Ton/Day subbituminous coal. The products are forecast to be competitively marketed in the region. The project could be implemented on a six year schedule, and a preliminary economic evaluation indicated that the products can be competitive with gas and oil for the 1988 time frame and beyond. 6 refs.

  1. Indianapolis resource recovery facility; Community efforts and technology required for a successful project

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.L. ); Henderson, J.S. ); Tulli, R. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many community needs. Refuse is an abundant byproduct of our civilization. The disposal of this byproduct has become a major problem for our cities. This paper describes on community's efforts to turn a community problem, refuse disposal, into a community asset. The paper describes the many aspects of effort and technology required to develop the Indianapolis Resource Recovery Facility. This facility required the cooperation of the public and private sectors to blend technology into a successful project. Special efforts were required to match appropriate technology to specific community needs and produce a successful and economically sound project. Five basic activities are presented. The first four activities are essential steps for any community to assure the right project fit to community needs. The areas presented are: defining community needs, technology evaluation (approaches evaluated), feasibility studies (economic studies), project implementation (bids and contracts), and a description of the Indianapolis resource recovery facility. A review of these five areas places a real world perspective on refuse as an alternative fuel and source of resource recovery.

  2. Serotonergic modulation of hippocampal pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Horwitz, B. A.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Serotonergic fibers project to the hippocampus, a brain area previously shown to have distinctive changes in electroencephalograph (EEG) activity during entrance into and arousal from hibernation. The EEG activity is generated by pyramidal cells in both hibernating and nonhibernating species. Using the brain slice preparation, we characterized serotonergic responses of these CA1 pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating Syrian hamsters. Stimulation of Shaffer-collateral/commissural fibers evoked fast synaptic excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells, a response monitored by recording population spikes (the synchronous generation of action potentials). Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) decreased population spike amplitude by 54% in cold-acclimated animals, 80% in hibernating hamsters, and 63% in euthermic animals. The depression was significantly greater in slices from hibernators than from cold-acclimated animals. In slices from euthermic animals, changes in extracellular K+ concentration between 2.5 and 5.0 mM did not significantly alter serotonergic responses. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin mimicked serotonergic inhibition in euthermic hamsters. Results show that 5-HT is a robust neuromodulator not only in euthermic animals but also in cold-acclimated and hibernating hamsters.

  3. Thermal Plasticity of Photosynthesis: the Role of Acclimation in Forest Responses to a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Carla A; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Walker, Ashley V; Edwards, Nelson T

    2010-01-01

    The increasing air temperatures central to climate change predictions have the potential to alter forest ecosystem function and structure by exceeding temperatures optimal for carbon gain. Such changes are projected to threaten survival of sensitive species, leading to local extinctions, range migrations, and altered forest composition. This study investigated photosynthetic sensitivity to temperature and the potential for acclimation in relation to the climatic provenance of five species of deciduous trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Betula alleghaniensis, and Populus grandidentata. Open-top chambers supplied three levels of warming (+0, +2, and +4 C above ambient) over 3 years, tracking natural temperature variability. Optimal temperature for CO2 assimilation was strongly correlated with daytime temperature in all treatments, but assimilation rates at those optima were comparable. Adjustment of thermal optima was confirmed in all species, whether temperatures varied with season or treatment, and regardless of climate in the species' range or provenance of the plant material. Temperature optima from 17 to 34 were observed. Across species, acclimation potentials varied from 0.55 C to 1.07 C per degree change in daytime temperature. Responses to the temperature manipulation were not different from the seasonal acclimation observed in mature indigenous trees, suggesting that photosynthetic responses should not be modeled using static temperature functions, but should incorporate an adjustment to account for acclimation. The high degree of homeostasis observed indicates that direct impacts of climatic warming on forest productivity, species survival, and range limits may be less than predicted by existing models.

  4. Influence of computational fluid dynamics on experimental aerospace facilities: A fifteen year projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An assessment was made of the impact of developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the traditional role of aerospace ground test facilities over the next fifteen years. With improvements in CFD and more powerful scientific computers projected over this period it is expected to have the capability to compute the flow over a complete aircraft at a unit cost three orders of magnitude lower than presently possible. Over the same period improvements in ground test facilities will progress by application of computational techniques including CFD to data acquisition, facility operational efficiency, and simulation of the light envelope; however, no dramatic change in unit cost is expected as greater efficiency will be countered by higher energy and labor costs.

  5. The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project: A world-class research reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.B.; Meek, W.E.

    1993-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a new research facility being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility is based on a 330 MW, heavy-water cooled and reflected reactor as the neutron source, with a thermal neutron flux of about 7.5{times}10{sup 19}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}sec{sup {minus}1}. Within the reflector region will be one hot source which will serve 2 hot neutron beam tubes, two cryogenic cold sources serving fourteen cold neutron beam tubes, two very cold beam tubes, and seven thermal neutron beam tubes. In addition there will be ten positions for materials irradiation experiments, five of them instrumented. The paper touches on the project status, safety concerns, cost estimates and scheduling, a description of the site, the reactor, and the arrangements of the facilities.

  6. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  7. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  8. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1 data management system software project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.E.

    1994-11-02

    This document provides the software development plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store, and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  9. The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

  10. 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection Project W-302 Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1995-03-01

    This functional design criteria for the upgrade to the 340 radioactive liquid waste storage facility (Project W-302) specifically addresses the secondary containment issues at the current vault facility of the 340 Complex. This vault serves as the terminus for the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS). Project W-302 is necessary in order to bring this portion of the Complex into full regulatory compliance. The project title, ``340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection``, illustrates preliminary thoughts of taking corrective action directly upon the existing vault (such as removing the tanks, lining the vault, and replacing tanks). However, based on the conclusion of the engineering study, ``Engineering Study of the 300 Area Process Wastewater Handling System``, WHC-SD-WM-ER-277 (as well as numerous follow-up meetings with cognizant staff), this FDC prescribes a complete replacement of the current tank/vault system. This offers a greater array of tanks, and provides greater operating flexibility and ease of maintenance. This approach also minimizes disruption to RLWS services during ``tie-in``, as compared to the alternative of trying to renovate the old vault. The proposed site is within the current Complex area, and maintains the receipt of RLWS solutions through gravity flow.

  11. The Lead-Based VENUS-F Facility: Status of the FREYA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkov, Anatoly; Vittiglio, Guido; Wagemans, Jan; Uyttenhove, Wim; Krása, Antonín; Hernandez, Jérémie

    2016-02-01

    The GUINEVERE project in the 6th European Framework Program (FP6) [1] aimed to check the methods for sub-criticality monitoring. To execute the project, the water-moderated thermal VENUS facility was modified into the lead fast VENUS-F facility in the period 2007-2010. To prove the reliability of the reactivity monitoring methods, first of all a critical reference configuration was assembled and characterized by measurements of criticality, power distribution, and spectral indexes. These experiments were communicated for benchmarking at ISRD-14 [2]. The Monte Carlo MCNP 5-1.60 code with the JEFF 3.1.2 data library is used to perform simulations of the VENUS-F core, in particular to obtain Calculated-to-Experimental ratios (C/E) for fission rates and spectral indices. A sensitivity study is performed focusing on the impact of global and local parameters on C/E. In most cases C/E is close to unity within the uncertainties. Only a few exceptions were found, e.g. for the F28/F25 spectral index [3]. In order to investigate the discrepancies, a new measurement campaign with the same critical configuration was included in the currently ongoing FREYA project in FP7 [4]. The facility status, experimental plans, and the sensitivity study are presented in this paper.

  12. The ISOLDE facility and the HIE-HISOLDE project: Recent highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Borge, M. J. G.

    2014-07-23

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN has as objective the production, study and research of nuclei far from stability. The facility provides low energy radioactive beams and post-accelerated beams. In the last 45 years the ISOLDE facility has gathered unique expertise in research with radioactive beams. Over 700 isotopes of more than 70 elements have been used in a wide range of research domains, including cutting edge studies in nuclear structure, atomic physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental interactions. These nuclear probes are also used to do frontier research in solid state and life sciences. There is an on-going upgrade of the facility, the HIE-ISOLDE project, which aims to improve the ISOLDE capabilities in a wide front, from an energy increase of the post-accelerated beam to improvements in beam quality and beam purity. The first phase of HIE-ISOLDE will start for physics in the autumn of 2015 with an upgrade of energy for all post-accelerated ISOLDE beams up to 5.5 MeV/u. In this contribution the most recent highlights of the facility are presented.

  13. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  14. Project W-236A multi-function waste tank facility waste feed projections

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.

    1994-12-22

    A review of Hanford Underground Waste Storage Tank Chemistry, coupled with planned remediation actions and retrieval sequences was conducted in order to predict the chemistry of the waste to be stored in the MWTF tanks. All projected waste solutions to be transferred to the MWTF tanks were found to be in compliance with current tank chemistry specifications; therefore, the waste and the tank materials of construction are expected to be compatible.

  15. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Adams, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports.

  16. Purdue University National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.

    1995-02-15

    The proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) will house a high-current accelerator dedicated to production of short-lived radionuclides for biomedical and scientific research. The NBTF will play a vital role in repairing and maintaining the United States` research infrastructure for generation of essential accelerator-based radioisotopes. If properly designed and managed, the NBTF should also achieve international recognition as a Center-of-Excellence for research on radioisotope production methods and for associated education and training. The current report documents the results of a DOE-funded NBTF Project Definition Phase study carried out to better define the technical feasibility and projected costs of establishing and operating the NBTF. This report provides an overview of recommended Facility Design and Specifications, including Accelerator Design, Building Design, and the associated Construction Cost Estimates and Schedule. It is recommended that the NBTF be established as an integrated, comprehensive facility for meeting the diverse production, research, and educational missions set forth in previous documents. Based on an analysis of the projected production demands that will be placed on the NBTF, it appears that a 70 MeV, 1 mA, negative ion cyclotron will offer a good balance between production capabilities and the costs of accelerator purchase and operation. A preliminary architectural plan is presented for a facility designed specifically to fulfill the functions of the NBTF in a cost-effective manner. This report also presents a detailed analysis of the Required Federal State, and Local Permits that may be needed to establish the NBTF, along with schedules and cost estimates for obtaining these permits. The Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive Waste will pose some significant challenges in the operation of the NBTF, but at this stage of planning the associated problems do not appear to be prohibitive.

  17. PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori; Sonnier, C.; Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W.

    1996-07-25

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

  18. Plasticity of fish muscle mitochondria with thermal acclimation

    PubMed

    Guderley; Johnston

    1996-01-01

    Short-horned sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were acclimated to 5 and 15 °C to evaluate the impact of thermal acclimation upon maximal rates of substrate oxidation by mitochondria and upon the thermal sensitivity of their ADP affinity. Cold acclimation virtually doubled maximal rates of pyruvate oxidation at all experimental temperatures (2.5, 7.5, 12.5 and 20 °C). Rates of palmitoyl carnitine oxidation were also enhanced by cold acclimation, but to a lesser degree. At their respective acclimation temperatures, the mitochondria attained similar rates of pyruvate oxidation. For warm-acclimated sculpin, the Q10 values for mitochondrial pyruvate and palmitoyl carnitine oxidation were higher between 2.5 and 7.5 °C than between 7.5 and 12.5 °C or between 12.5 and 20 °C. In contrast, for cold-acclimated fish, the Q10 values did not differ over these thermal ranges. The Arrhenius activation energy for pyruvate oxidation was reduced by cold acclimation (from 70 to 55 kJ mol-1), whereas that for palmitoyl carnitine oxidation was unchanged (approximately 75 kJ mol-1). Cold acclimation did not alter the ADP affinity of mitochondria at low temperatures but markedly increased the apparent Km for ADP (Km,app) at 12.5 and 20 °C. At the acclimation temperatures, mitochondrial ADP Km,app values did not differ. The loss of ADP affinity at higher temperatures may represent a cost of the enhanced maximal oxidative capacity achieved during cold acclimation. PMID:9319187

  19. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2007-09-16

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles in the immediate area. Identified as Corrective Action Unit 115, the TCA facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model, identified in the Data Quality Objective process. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. Key lessons learned from the project included: (1) Targeted preliminary investigation activities provided a more solid technical approach, reduced surprises and scope creep, and made the working environment safer for the D&D worker. (2) Early identification of risks and uncertainties provided opportunities for risk management and mitigation planning to address challenges and unanticipated conditions. (3) Team reviews provided an excellent mechanism to consider all aspects of the task, integrated safety into activity performance, increase team unity and ''buy-in'' and promoted innovative and time saving ideas. (4) Development of CED protocols ensured safety and control. (5) The same proven D&D strategy is now being employed on the larger ''sister'' facility, Test Cell C.

  20. Functional identification of a blueberry CBF/DREB-like element associated with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is susceptible to winter freezing injury and frost damage in the spring. As part of an ongoing project to understand the process of cold acclimation, we isolated a CBF/DREB-like (C-repeat binding factor/dehydration-responsive element binding protein) gene...

  1. Minnows can acclimate to total residual chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    Observations in a chlorine-contaminated stream in eastern Tennessee revealed several species of fish in areas where total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations were often great enough to be lethal, based on the results of other studies. The authors used in situ and laboratory experiments to test the hypothesis that minnows could acclimate to TRC. Acclimation was assessed by time-to-death for fish exposed to a single lethal regime of TRC. In in situ experiments, striped shiner and central stoneroller minnows collected from East Fork Poplar Creek at a TRC-contaminated site and a site farther downstream, where TRC was below detection, were caged at sites in the stream where TRC concentrations were either nil or great enough to be lethal. At the cage with high TRC, minnows collected from the ``TRC-free`` site survived two to four times longer (15.8 h vs. 6.1 h) than the same species from the ``TRC-free`` site. In laboratory experiments, golden shiner minnows were exposed to TRC in a stepwise increasing concentration regime (0.04 mg/L during week 1, 0.08 mg/L during week 2, and 0.12 mg/L during week 3) before being challenged-tested with a lethal concentration of TRC. Minnows that had been previously exposed to TRC survived longer than controls in each test, and the magnitude of the mean time to death increased as the TRC concentration and duration of exposure increased (1.2-, 2.5-, and 3.9-fold increases for weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Another experiment with golden shiner minnows showed that a 21-d exposure to TRC at a low concentration (0.04 mg/L) only slightly increased their tolerance to TRC. Thus, several minnow species apparently can acclimate, fairly rapidly, to TRC. This study may help explain why fish kills are less common than expected in TRC-contaminated streams.

  2. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  3. 75 FR 5626 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA INT-DES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... of Reclamation (Reclamation) published a notice in the Federal Register on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16007... Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology...

  4. Elucidating cold acclimation pathway in blueberry by transcriptome profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental goal of cold acclimation research is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the increase in freezing tolerance in response to environmental cues. Changes in gene expression underlie some of the biochemical and physiological changes that occur during cold acclimation. Detailed and...

  5. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  6. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  7. 39 CFR 778.8 - How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project actions? 778.8 Section 778.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS §...

  8. 39 CFR 778.3 - What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations? 778.3 Section 778.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS § 778.3...

  9. 39 CFR 778.8 - How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project actions? 778.8 Section 778.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS §...

  10. 39 CFR 778.8 - How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project actions? 778.8 Section 778.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS §...

  11. 39 CFR 778.8 - How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project actions? 778.8 Section 778.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS §...

  12. 39 CFR 778.3 - What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations? 778.3 Section 778.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS § 778.3...

  13. 39 CFR 778.3 - What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations? 778.3 Section 778.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS § 778.3...

  14. 39 CFR 778.3 - What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations? 778.3 Section 778.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS § 778.3...

  15. 39 CFR 778.3 - What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What categories of facility project actions of the Postal Service are subject to these regulations? 778.3 Section 778.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS § 778.3...

  16. 39 CFR 778.8 - How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does the Postal Service provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed facility project actions? 778.8 Section 778.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE SPECIAL REGULATIONS INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF POSTAL SERVICE FACILITY ACTIONS §...

  17. Highlights of the ISOLDE facility and the HIE-ISOLDE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, M. J. G.

    2016-05-01

    The ISOLDE Radioactive Beam Facility is the dedicated CERN installation for the production and acceleration of radioactive nuclei far from stability. Exotic nuclei of most chemical elements are available for the study of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental symmetries and atomic physics, as well as for applications in condensed-matter and life sciences. Since more than a decade it offers the largest variety of post-accelerated radioactive beams in the world today. In order to broaden the scientific opportunities beyond the reach of the present facility, the on-going HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy) project will provide major improvements in energy range, beam intensity and beam quality. Post-accelerated beams will be available already this year boosting the beam energy of the current REX LINAC to 4.3 MeV/u reaching 5.5 MeV/u next spring. In this new energy regime the Coulomb excitation cross sections are strongly increased with respect to the previous energy of bearly 3 MeV/u and many transfer reaction channels will open. The second stage of the energy upgrade will allow energies of the beam up to 10 MeV/u for the worst scenario of A/q = 4.5. The funds are already secured and it is expected to be completed in 2017. In this contribution the present status of the ISOLDE facility will be discussed, some highlights will be briefly described to illustrate the advances of the facility. The HIEISOLDE project will be described together with a panorama of the physics cases to be addressed in the near future with emphasis in the day-one experiment to be done this year.

  18. A new starting point-the renewal project of chinese balloon facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidong, Gu

    To meet the increasing requirements of scientific investigation by using balloons, Chinese Balloon Facility is carrying out a project to get the additional equipment with high performance, improve the existing facilities since 1995. Besides, because of the development of civil aviation in recent years, to meet the requirement of the authority of air traffic control, the Chinese balloon launch station at Xiang He must be moved to a new place. It is just an opportune moment to make a future program for Chinese scientific ballooning. The investigations and choices to a new launch site is in progress. We call these an Renewal Project of Chinese balloon Facility. It will be accomplished in 1997. The items of new manufactured and improved equipment involve: A new launch vehicle with launch capacity of 2 tons payload for dynamic launch. A new down-link data telecommunication system with bit rate of 256 Kbps. Improvements of the telemetry & tracking and telecommand facilities. To enlarge the storage of the amount of the lift gas To increase the carrying capacity of the recovery parachute. The candidates of the new launch site are located at Gu Cheng (37 deg47' N, 116 deg08' E) and Zheng Ding (38 deg30'N, 114 deg57'E), Hebei Province of China. One of them will be used for testing flights from Jun.,1997. The comprehensive conditions to air traffic control, the flight duration and recovery operations are expected to be considerably improved. The continuous efforts to improve the balloon film and to develop larger balloons were made for years. It is also described in this paper.

  19. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Sweating responses during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Van Beaumont, W.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on ten young male subjects to determine sweating onset, distribution, and patterns as well as the relationships of these responses to body temperature during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning performed in temperate (24 C) conditions. The subjects are randomly assigned to two groups of five subjects each. The experimental period consisted of eight successive days of either graded exercise to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer in heat (acclimation group) or in a temperate environment (control group). Major conclusions are that (1) acclimation and conditioning result in relatively more sweat rate on the limbs than on the torso, but that these changes are less related to body temperature than torso sweat rate; and (2) sweating sensitivity increases during acclimation and conditioning, but its contribution to heat acclimation is minor.

  1. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  2. Deconditioning-induced exercise responses as influenced by heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study to determine the effect of heat acclimation and physical training in temperate conditions on changes in exercise tolerance following water-immersion deconditioning is presented. Five young men were tested on a bicycle ergometer before and after heat acclimation and after water immersion. The subjects and the experimental procedure, heat acclimation and exercise training, water immersion, and exercise tolerance are discussed. Heat acclimation resulted in the usual decreases in exercise heart rate and rectal temperature and an increase in sweat rate. Water immersion resulted in substantial diuresis despite water consumed. The results show that heat acclimation provides an effective method of preventing the adverse effects of water-immersion deconditioning on exercise tolerance.

  3. US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 52 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Krabacher, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Building 52 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  4. Materials sciences research. [research facilities, research projects, and technical reports of materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving materials research conducted by various international test facilities are reported. Much of the materials research is classified in the following areas: (1) acousto-optic, acousto-electric, and ultrasonic research, (2) research for elucidating transport phenomena in well characterized oxides, (3) research in semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, (4) the study of interfaces and interfacial phenomena, and (5) materials research relevant to natural resources. Descriptions of the individual research programs are listed alphabetically by the name of the author and show all personnel involved, resulting publications, and associated meeting speeches.

  5. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  6. Waterlogging and submergence stress: affects and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Submergence, whether partial or complete, imparts some serious consequences on plants grown in flood prone ecosystems. Some plants can endure these conditions by embracing various survival strategies, including morphological adaptations and physiological adjustments. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding of the stress and the acclimation responses of plants under waterlogged or submerged conditions. Waterlogging and submergence are often associated with hypoxia development, which may trigger various morphological traits and cellular acclimation responses. Ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and other hormones play a crucial role in the survival process which is controlled genetically. Effects at the cellular level, including ATP management, starch metabolism, elemental toxicity, role of transporters and redox status have been explained. Transcriptional and hormonal interplay during this stress may provide some key aspects in understanding waterlogging and submergence tolerance. The level and degree of tolerance may vary depending on species or climatic variations which need to be studied for a proper understanding of waterlogging stress at the global level. The exploration of regulatory pathways and interplay in model organisms such as Arabidopsis and rice would provide valuable resources for improvement of economically and agriculturally important plants in waterlogging affected areas. PMID:26177332

  7. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  8. Portuguese waste-to energy project: Work moves ahead on `showcase` facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schroppe, J.T.

    1997-12-31

    With the disposal of growing amounts of municipal solid waste becoming an increasing concern for governmental authorities around the world the waste-to-energy project being built in Portugal, just north of Lisbon, may well serve as a showcase for one approach to the efficient disposal of MSW. The plant is being designed, engineered and built by Grupo Progresso Foster Wheeler, a joint-venture team of Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. and Foster Wheeler Conception Etudes Entretien. One of the largest such plants in the world when completed, the facility will use three waste-combustion systems (with capability for adding a fourth) to burn 2016 metric tonnes of refuse per day. In this article J. Thomas Schroppe, Executive Vice President of Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., provides an overview of the current waste-to-energy market and discusses the Portuguese project in detail.

  9. Progress with the 2Q-LEBT facility for the RIA project.

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, N.; Aseev, V. N.; Kern, M. R. L.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Scott, R.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The design goal of 400 kW uranium beam in the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Driver Linac can be achieved employing a concept of simultaneous acceleration of two charge states. It has been undertaken to build a prototype 2Q-injector of the RIA Driver Linac which includes an ECR ion source, a LEBT and one-segment of the prototype RFQ. The project called the 2Q-LEBT Facility is being developed in the Physics Division of ANL. Currently, the 2Q-LEBT Facility consists of BIE-100 ECR ion source. The reassembly and commissioning of the source has been completed. During the commissioning process we redesigned and manufactured a few components of the source to increase the beam production performance. A new diagnostic station has been designed and built for accurate measurements of the output beam emittance. The further development of the 2Q-LEBT Facility comprises installation of the source on 100 kV high-voltage platform, building an achromatic bending and transport system including the multi-harmonic buncher, and a full power 57.5 MHz RFQ segment. This report includes a detailed description of the 2Q-LEBT design and beam dynamics simulations along with emittance measurements for various beams.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction.

  11. Detailed information on the FGD retrofit project in Jaenschwalde and the FGD facility in Schwarze Pumpe

    SciTech Connect

    Friede, H.; Nass, K.H.; Breuer, H.

    1995-06-01

    VEAG, the newly founded company for supraregional power generation and distribution in eastern Germany, is retrofitting certain power plants with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. Lignite is used almost exclusively as fuel in these power plants. Following German unification, the pollution control regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany also apply to the power plants operated by VEAG. The decision was made in principle to only build FGDs which are based on the proven limestone scrubbing process and produce recyclable gypsum as the end product. Experience accumulated with FGDs in lignite-fired power plants resulted in a new concept, which elaborated in cooperation with the commissioned consultants (including Siemens/KWU). This paper will present using the example of a new power plant project with FGD - the 2 x 800-MW power plant Schwarze Pumpe - and an FGD retrofit - the 3 x 1000-MW power plant Janschwalde - the salient features of these facilities (full-metal scrubbers, slurry-carrying pipework and treated-flue-gas ducts made of FRP, flue-gas heat recovery, fine-grained solids separation to improve gypsum quality, use of FGD wastewater for ash moistening and gypsum recycling), an overview of the design as well as construction progress and scheduling. The two FGD facilities are being supplied by KRC/Noell and operate on a two-circuit principle.

  12. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 20 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 groundwater monitoring projects and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Most of the projects no longer receive dangerous waste; a few projects continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 20 RCRA projects comprise 30 waste management units. Ten of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration, distribution, and rate of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect contamination, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1992 and September 1993. Recent groundwater quality is also described for the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas and for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides.

  13. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, P; Galatà, A; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here. PMID:26932063

  14. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, P.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jardin, P.; Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Lamy, T.; Maunoury, L.; Patti, G.; Thuillier, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Vondrasek, R.; Wenander, F.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  15. Work plan for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP), commissioned by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program, is to place four primary high-risk surplus facilities with 28 associated ancillary facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition as rapidly and economically as possible. The facilities will be deactivated and left in a condition suitable for an extended period of minimized surveillance and maintenance (S and M) prior to decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D). These four facilities include two reactor facilities containing spent fuel. One of these reactor facilities also contains 55 tons of sodium with approximately 34 tons containing activated sodium-22, 2.5 tons of lithium hydride, approximately 100 tons of potentially contaminated lead, and several other hazardous materials as well as bulk quantities of contaminated scrap metals. The other two facilities to be transferred include a facility with a bank of hot cells containing high levels of transferable contamination and also a facility containing significant quantities of uranyl nitrate and quantities of transferable contamination. This work plan documents the objectives, technical requirements, and detailed work plans--including preliminary schedules, milestones, and conceptual FY 1996 cost estimates--for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan has been developed by the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO).

  16. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  17. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  18. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU. PMID:26563596

  19. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E... facilities and their relative operation and maintenance costs. (d) The project engineer or...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E... facilities and their relative operation and maintenance costs. (d) The project engineer or...

  1. Project for the development of the linac based NCT facility in University of Tsukuba.

    PubMed

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Sakurai, H; Sakae, T; Yoshioka, M; Kobayashi, H; Matsumoto, H; Kiyanagi, Y; Shibata, T; Nakashima, H

    2014-06-01

    A project team headed by University of Tsukuba launched the development of a new accelerator based BNCT facility. In the project, we have adopted Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)+Drift Tube Linac (DTL) type linac as proton accelerators. Proton energy generated from the linac was set to 8MeV and average current was 10mA. The linac tube has been constructed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co. For neutron generator device, beryllium is selected as neutron target material; high intensity neutrons are generated by the reaction with beryllium and the 80kW proton beam. Our team chose beryllium as the neutron target material. At present beryllium target system is being designed with Monte-Carlo estimations and heat analysis with ANSYS. The neutron generator consists of moderator, collimator and shielding. It is being designed together with the beryllium target system. We also acquired a building in Tokai village; the building has been renovated for use as BNCT treatment facility. It is noteworthy that the linac tube had been installed in the facility in September 2012. In BNCT procedure, several medical devices are required for BNCT treatment such as treatment planning system, patient positioning device and radiation monitors. Thus these are being developed together with the linac based neutron source. For treatment planning system, we are now developing a new multi-modal Monte-Carlo treatment planning system based on JCDS. The system allows us to perform dose estimation for BNCT as well as particle radiotherapy and X-ray therapy. And the patient positioning device can navigate a patient to irradiation position quickly and properly. Furthermore the device is able to monitor movement of the patient׳s position during irradiation. PMID:24637084

  2. The Environmental Control of Cold Acclimation in Apple 1

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gordon S.; Weiser, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    The role of photoperiod and temperature in the cold acclimation of living Haralson apple (Pyrus malus L.) bark was studied in the autumn under field conditions in Minnesota. Whole trees, or different parts of the same tree, were exposed to either natural conditions, artifically lengthened days, or artificially warmed nights, or they were subjected to manual leaf removal. The results indicate that acclimation occurs in two stages which are induced by short days and frost (or low temperature), respectively. Leaves were stimulated by short days to produce translocatable substance(s) which promoted cold acclimation of the living bark. Leaves of plants grown under long days were the source of a translocatable substance(s) which inhibited acclimation. The second stage of hardiness, induced by frost (or low temperature), did not involve translocatable factors. Inductive short days could overcome the effect of high temperatures, and low temperatures could overcome the effect of noninductive long days in promoting the first stage of acclimation to −30 C. Frost was necessary for maximum hardiness to −55 C. Plants grown in a greenhouse, in the autumn, under long days and high temperatures acclimated slightly in spite of the noninductive conditions. Short days and frost (or low temperatures) appeared to regulate different and independent endogenous acclimation processes. PMID:16657323

  3. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  4. The Role of Structural, Biochemical and Ecophysiological Plant Acclimation in the Eco-Hydrologic Response of Agro-Ecosystems to Global Change in the Central US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Sivapalan, M.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.

    2009-12-01

    The acclimation of terrestrial vegetation to changes in ambient growth environment has significant implications for land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy, as well as critical ecosystem services such as food production. Recent field campaigns at the SoyFACE Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) facility in central Illinois have provided clear evidence of the modification of structural, biochemical and ecophysiological properties of key agricultural species at CO2 concentrations projected for the middle of this century. While these acclamatory responses have been linked to changes in leaf-level gas exchange and leaf states (ie. leaf temperature and stomatal conductance), determining the implications for these changes at the canopy-scale has remained a challenge. Here we present a simulation analysis that examines the role of observed plant acclimation in two key mid-west agricultural species, soy (C3 photosynthetic pathway) and corn (C4 photosynthetic pathway), in modifying future carbon uptake and surface energy partitioning, crop water use and resilience to water stress. The model canopies are divided into multiple layers, allowing for resolution of the shortwave and longwave radiation regimes that drive photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance in each layer, along with the canopy microclimate. The canopy component of the model is coupled to a multi-layer soil-root model that computes soil moisture and root water uptake at each time period, accounting for the effects of moisture stress on canopy functioning. Model skill in capturing the sub-diurnal variability in canopy-atmosphere fluxes is demonstrated using multi-year records of eddy covariance CO2, water vapor and heat fluxes collected at the Bondville (Illinois) AmeriFlux site. An evaluation of the ability of the model to simulate observed changes in energy balance components, leaf-level photosynthetic assimilation, leaf temperature and stomatal conductance under elevated

  5. Umatilla Basin Fish Facilities Operation & Maintenance : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Mike

    2008-12-30

    Westland Irrigation District, as contractor to Bonneville Power Administration, and West Extension Irrigation District, as subcontractor to Westland, provide labor, equipment, and material necessary for the operation, care, and maintenance of fish facilities on the Umatilla River. Westland Irrigation District is the contractor of record. Job sites that are covered: Three Mile Right, Three Mile Left, Three Mile Adult Spawning, WEID Sampling Facility, Maxwell Screen Site, Westland Screen Site/Ladder/Juvenile Sampling Facility, Feed Canal Ladder/Screen Site, Stanfield Ladder/Screen Site, Minthorn Holding Facility, Thornhollow Acclimation Site, Imeques Acclimation Site, Pendleton Acclimation Site, and South Fork Walla Walla Spawning Facility. O & M personnel coordinate with the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel in performing tasks under this contract including scheduling of trap and haul, sampling, acclimation site maintenance, and other related activities as needed. The input from ODFW biologists Bill Duke and Ken Loffink, and CTUIR biologist Preston Bronson is indispensable to the success of the project, and is gratefully acknowledged. All tasks associated with the project were successfully completed during the fiscal year 2008 work period of October, 2007 through September, 2008. The project provides operations and maintenance throughout the year on five fish screen sites with a total of thirty-four rotating drum-screens, and four fish ladders in the Umatilla River Basin; additionally, periodic operations and maintenance is performed at holding, acclimation, and spawning sites in the Basin. Three people are employed full-time to perform these tasks. The FY08 budget for this project was $492,405 and actual expenditures were $490,267.01. Selected work activities and concerns: (1) Feed Dam Passage Improvement Project - A project to improve fish passage over the short term at the

  6. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  7. Lifecycle baseline summary for ADS 6504IS isotopes facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this Activity Data Sheet (ADS) is to provide a detailed plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This project places the former isotopes production facilities in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S&M) until the facilities are included in the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program. The facilities included within this deactivation project are Buildings 3026-C, 3026-D, 3028, 3029, 3038-AHF, 3038-E, 3038-M, 3047, 3517, 7025, and the Center Circle Facilities (Buildings 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033-A, 3034, and 3118). The scope of deactivation identified in this Baseline Report include surveillance and maintenance activities for each facility, engineering, contamination control and structural stabilization of each facility, radioluminescent (RL) light removal in Building 3026, re-roofing Buildings 3030, 3118, and 3031, Hot Cells Cleanup in Buildings 3047 and 3517, Yttrium (Y) Cell and Barricades Cleanup in Building 3038, Glove Boxes & Hoods Removal in Buildings 3038 and 3047, and Inventory Transfer in Building 3517. For a detailed description of activities within this Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) element, see the Level 6 and Level 7 Element Definitions in Section 3.2 of this report.

  8. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  9. Can leaf net carbon gain acclimate to keep up with global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Way, Danielle; Hurry, Vaughan

    2016-04-01

    Plants are able to adjust their physiological activity to fluctuations and long-term changes in their growing environment. Nevertheless, projected increases in temperature will occur with unprecedented speed. Will global warming exceed the thermal acclimation capacity of leaves, thus reducing net CO2 assimilation? Such a reduction in net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) in response to warming may deplete ecosystems' net primary productivity, with global impacts on the carbon cycling. Here we combine data on net photosynthetic thermal acclimation to changes in temperature with a probabilistic description of leaf temperature variability. We analytically obtain the probability distribution of the net CO2 assimilation rate as a function of species-specific leaf traits and growing conditions. Using this approach, we study the effects of mean leaf temperature and its variability on average Anet and the frequency of occurrence of sub-optimal thermal conditions. To maximize the net CO2 assimilation in warmer conditions, the thermal optimum for Anet (Topt) must track the growing temperature. Observations suggest that plants' thermal acclimation capacity is limited, so that growing temperatures cannot be tracked by the Topt. It is thus likely that net CO2 assimilation rates will decline in the future. Furthermore, for set leaf traits, large fluctuations in leaf temperature reduce average Anet and increase the frequency of occurrence of sub-optimal conditions for net CO2 assimilation.

  10. Complementary and Integrative Healthcare in a Long-term Care Facility: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Westrom, Kristine; Baldwin, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The world's population is aging quickly, leading to increased challenges of how to care for individuals who can no longer independently care for themselves. With global social and economic pressures leading to declines in family support, increased reliance is being placed on community- and government-based facilities to provide long-term care (LTC) for many of society's older citizens. Complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) is commonly used by older adults and may offer an opportunity to enhance LTC residents' wellbeing. Little work has been done, however, rigorously examining the safety and effectiveness of CIH for LTC residents. Objective: The goal of this work is to describe a pilot project to develop and evaluate one model of CIH in an LTC facility in the Midwestern United States. Methods: A prospective, mixed-methods pilot project was conducted in two main phases: (1) preparation and (2) implementation and evaluation. The preparation phase entailed assessment, CIH model design and development, and training. A CIH model including acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy, guided by principles of collaborative integration, evidence informed practice, and sustainability, was applied in the implementation and evaluation phase. CIH services were provided for 16 months in the LTC facility. Quantitative data collection included pain, quality of life, and adverse events. Qualitative interviews of LTC residents, their family members, and LTC staff members queried perceptions of CIH services. Results: A total of 46 LTC residents received CIH care, most commonly for musculoskeletal pain (61%). Participants were predominantly female (85%) and over the age of 80 years (67%). The median number of CIH treatments was 13, with a range of 1 to 92. Residents who were able to provide self-report data demonstrated, on average, a 15% decline in pain and a 4% improvement in quality of life. No serious adverse events related to treatment were documented

  11. Hot Corrosion Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The Hot Corrosion Test Facility (HCTF) at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory (SPL) is a high-velocity, pressurized burner rig currently used to evaluate the environmental durability of advanced ceramic materials such as SiC and Si3N4. The HCTF uses laboratory service air which is preheated, mixed with jet fuel, and ignited to simulate the conditions of a gas turbine engine. Air, fuel, and water systems are computer-controlled to maintain test conditions which include maximum air flows of 250 kg/hr (550 lbm/hr), pressures of 100-600 kPa (1-6 atm), and gas temperatures exceeding 1500 C (2732 F). The HCTF provides a relatively inexpensive, yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials, and the injection of a salt solution provides the added capability of conducting hot corrosion studies.

  12. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  14. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.; Rowan, Gerald D.

    1990-03-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance was completed in 1989. Equipment and pumps received maintenance and repair. An automatic dialing system was incorporated into the alarm system at the Minthorn facility. A security company has replaced the function of the Umatilla Tribal Police which was to contact fisheries personnel in case of an alarm. The configuration of the alarm system was upgraded to activate the alarm faster and provide better access to project personnel with a pager system. A survey was completed in 1988 by Thomas Bumstead of Albrook Hydraulics Lab in Pullman, WA. to determine potential measures to address the change in course of the Umatilla River around Minthorn as a result of the flood of 1986. Options and recommendations were submitted in a report in 1989. Fish Management Consultants Inc. submitted the final reports of evaluations for both the Bonifer and Minthorn facilities. A total of 150 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from December through March and held at Minthorn. Forty-two pairs were spawned (37 pairs from Minthorn and 5 pairs collected and immediately spawned at Threemile Dam). The 241,682 eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and later moved to Oak Springs Hatchery for rearing. An estimated 368 adult hatchery steelhead returned to the Umatilla River in 1988-89 (based on Threemile Dam trap counts and harvest below Threemile Dam) these, and 349 were released upriver. Of seven returned to the Bonifer trap where the smolts were initially released. Acclimation of 79,984 spring chinook salmon and 22

  15. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors' designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550[degree]F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100[degree]F lower.

  16. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants. PMID:25551682

  17. Anaerobic biodegradation of chlorophenols in fresh and acclimated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S.A.; Shelton, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    An investigation was made of the anaerobic biodegradation of mono- and dichlorophenol isomers by fresh (unacclimated) sludge and by sludge acclimated to either 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or 4-chlorophenol. Biodegradation was evaluated by monitoring substrate disappearance and, in selected cases, production of /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ from labeled substrates. In unacclimated sludge, each of the monochlorophenol isomers was degraded. The relative rates of disappearance were in this order: ortho > meta > para. For the dichlorophenols in unacclimated sludge, reductive dechlorination of the Cl group ortho to phenolic OH was observed, and the monochlorophenol compounds released were subsequently degraded. 3,4-Dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol were persistent. Sludge acclimated to 2-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but did not utilize 3-chlorophenol. This sludge also degraded 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sludge acclimated to 3-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but not to 2-chlorophenol. This sludge degraded 3,4- and 3,5-dichlorophenol but not 2,3- or 2,5-dichlorophenol. The specific cross-acclimation patterns observed for monochlorophenol degradation demonstrated the existence of two unique microbial activities that were in turn different from fresh sludge. The sludge acclimated to 4-chlorophenol could degrade all three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4- and 3,4-dichlorophenol. The active microbial population in this sludge appeared to be a mixture of populations present in the 2-chlorophenol- and 3-chlorophenol-acclimated sludges, both of which could utilize 4-chlorophenol. Experiments with /sup 14/C-radiolabeled p-chlorophenol, o-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol demonstrated that these compounds were converted to /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. 10 references.

  18. Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  20. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  1. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David; Case, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary

  2. Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Different Growth Irradiances*

    PubMed Central

    Bonente, Giulia; Pippa, Sara; Castellano, Stefania; Bassi, Roberto; Ballottari, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We report on the changes the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii undergoes upon acclimation to different light intensity. When grown in high light, cells had a faster growth rate and higher biomass production compared with low and control light conditions. However, cells acclimated to low light intensity are indeed able to produce more biomass per photon available as compared with high light-acclimated cells, which dissipate as heat a large part of light absorbed, thus reducing their photosynthetic efficiency. This dissipative state is strictly dependent on the accumulation of LhcSR3, a protein related to light-harvesting complexes, responsible for nonphotochemical quenching in microalgae. Other changes induced in the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus upon high light acclimation consist of an increase of carotenoid content on a chlorophyll basis, particularly zeaxanthin, and a major down-regulation of light absorption capacity by decreasing the chlorophyll content per cell. Surprisingly, the antenna size of both photosystem I and II is not modulated by acclimation; rather, the regulation affects the PSI/PSII ratio. Major effects of the acclimation to low light consist of increased activity of state 1 and 2 transitions and increased contributions of cyclic electron flow. PMID:22205699

  3. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

  4. Report of the ANS Project Feasibility Workshop for a High Flux Isotope Reactor-Center for Neutron Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Booth, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and its subsequent updates provided definitive design, cost, and schedule estimates for the entire ANS Project. A recent update to this estimate of the total project cost for this facility was $2.9 billion, as specified in the FY 1996 Congressional data sheet, reflecting a line-item start in FY 1995. In December 1994, ANS management decided to prepare a significantly lower-cost option for a research facility based on ANS which could be considered during FY 1997 budget deliberations if DOE or Congressional planners wished. A cost reduction for ANS of about $1 billion was desired for this new option. It was decided that such a cost reduction could be achieved only by a significant reduction in the ANS research scope and by maximum, cost-effective use of existing High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and ORNL facilities to minimize the need for new buildings. However, two central missions of the ANS -- neutron scattering research and isotope production-were to be retained. The title selected for this new option was High Flux Isotope Reactor-Center for Neutron Research (HFIR-CNR) because of the project`s maximum use of existing HFIR facilities and retention of selected, central ANS missions. Assuming this shared-facility requirement would necessitate construction work near HFIR, it was specified that HFIR-CNR construction should not disrupt normal operation of HFIR. Additional objectives of the study were that it be highly credible and that any material that might be needed for US Department of Energy (DOE) and Congressional deliberations be produced quickly using minimum project resources. This requirement made it necessary to rely heavily on the ANS design, cost, and schedule baselines. A workshop methodology was selected because assessment of each cost and/or scope-reduction idea required nearly continuous communication among project personnel to ensure that all ramifications of propsed changes.

  5. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  6. A student-led demonstration project on fall prevention in a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Alice; MacCulloch, Patricia; Gardner, Terri; Chase, Chantel W

    2007-01-01

    .1%; 30-day posttraining fall rate was 12.3%, and 60-day postintervention fall rate was 9%. Based on the program results, the model was expanded from long-term care to the university hospital system and outpatient clinics in the same community. The collaboration between a school of nursing and 1 long-term care facility led to the adoption of a significant quality improvement program that was subsequently extended to a local hospital and clinic system. Student-led projects designed to teach community service learning can be meaningful and can lead to changes in patient safety and quality of care. PMID:17923288

  7. 77 FR 32621 - Developing Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects at Federal Facilities Using Private Capital Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Developing Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects at Federal Facilities Using Private Capital Draft AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... draft guidebook entitled Federal Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Large-Scale Renewable...

  8. Life cycle baseline summary for ADS 6504IS Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facility Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and as quickly and economically as possible. This baseline plan establishes the official target schedule for completing the deactivation work and the associated budget required for deactivation and the necessary S&M. Deactivation of the facilities 3026C, 3026D, 3028, 3029, 3038E, 3038M, and 3038AHF, the Center Circle buildings 3047, 3517, and 7025 will continue though Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The focus of the project in the early years will be on the smaller buildings that require less deactivation and can bring an early return in reducing S&M costs. This baseline plan covers the period from FY1995 throughout FY2000. Deactivation will continue in various facilities through FY1999. A final year of S&M will conclude the project in FY2000. The estimated total cost of the project during this period is $51M.

  9. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE...

  10. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    This sampling and analysis plan will support the preoperational environmental monitoring for construction, development, and operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities, which have been designed for the conditioning and storage of spent nuclear fuels; particularly the fuel elements associated with the operation of N-Reactor. The SNF consists principally of irradiated metallic uranium, and therefore includes plutonium and mixed fission products. The primary effort will consist of removing the SNF from the storage basins in K East and K West Areas, placing in multicanister overpacks, vacuum drying, conditioning, and subsequent dry vault storage in the 200 East Area. The primary purpose and need for this action is to reduce the risks to public health and safety and to the environment. Specifically these include prevention of the release of radioactive materials into the air or to the soil surrounding the K Basins, prevention of the potential migration of radionuclides through the soil column to the nearby Columbia River, reduction of occupational radiation exposure, and elimination of the risks to the public and to workers from the deterioration of SNF in the K Basins.

  13. Fort Irwin integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Sitewide Energy Project identification for buildings and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Irwin facility located near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 16 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present valve (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  14. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  15. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  16. Paradoxical acclimation responses in the thermal performance of insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura V; Heinrichs, David E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-05-01

    Winter is accompanied by multiple stressors, and the interactions between cold and pathogen stress potentially determine the overwintering success of insects. Thus, it is necessary to explore the thermal performance of the insect immune system. We cold-acclimated spring field crickets, Gryllus veletis, to 6 °C for 7 days and measured the thermal performance of potential (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity) and realised (bacterial clearance and melanisation) immune responses. Cold acclimation decreased the critical thermal minimum from -0.5 ± 0.25 to -2.1 ± 0.18 °C, and chill coma recovery time after 72 h at -2 °C from 16.8 ± 4.9 to 5.2 ± 2.0 min. Measures of both potential and realised immunity followed a typical thermal performance curve, decreasing with decreasing temperature. However, cold acclimation further decreased realised immunity at low, but not high, temperatures; effectively, immune activity became paradoxically specialised to higher temperatures. Thus, cold acclimation induced mismatched thermal responses between locomotor and immune systems, as well as within the immune system itself. We conclude that cold acclimation in insects appears to preferentially improve cold tolerance over whole-animal immune performance at low temperatures, and that the differential thermal performance of physiological responses to multiple pressures must be considered when predicting ectotherms' response to climate change. PMID:26846428

  17. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    PubMed

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors. PMID:25697678

  18. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. PMID:27372277

  19. Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Lans, Anouk A.J.J.; Hoeks, Joris; Brans, Boudewijn; Vijgen, Guy H.E.J.; Visser, Mariëlle G.W.; Vosselman, Maarten J.; Hansen, Jan; Jörgensen, Johanna A.; Wu, Jun; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show “browning” of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects judged the environment warmer, felt more comfortable in the cold, and reported less shivering. The combined results suggest that a variable indoor environment with frequent cold exposures might be an acceptable and economic manner to increase energy expenditure and may contribute to counteracting the current obesity epidemic. PMID:23867626

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  1. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts. The model will be used to assess the present-day composite distribution for seismic sources along with their characterization in the CEUS and uncertainty. In addition, this model is in a form suitable for use in PSHA evaluations for regulatory activities, such as Early Site Permit (ESPs) and Combined Operating License Applications (COLAs). Applications, Values, and Use Development of a regional CEUS seismic source model will provide value to those who (1) have submitted an ESP or COLA for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review before 2011; (2) will submit an ESP or COLA for NRC review after 2011; (3) must respond to safety issues resulting from NRC Generic Issue 199 (GI-199) for existing plants and (4) will prepare PSHAs to meet design and periodic review requirements for current and future nuclear facilities. This work replaces a previous study performed approximately 25 years ago. Since that study was completed, substantial work has been done to improve the understanding of seismic sources and their characterization in the CEUS. Thus, a new regional SSC model provides a consistent, stable basis for computing PSHA for a future time span. Use of a new SSC model reduces the risk of delays in new plant licensing due to more conservative interpretations in the existing and future literature. Perspective The purpose of this study, jointly sponsored by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the NRC was to develop a new CEUS SSC model. The team assembled to accomplish this purpose was composed of distinguished subject matter experts from industry, government, and academia. The resulting model is unique, and because this project has solicited input from the present-day larger technical community, it is not likely that there will be a need for significant revision for a number of years. See also Sponsors Perspective for more details. The goal of this project was to implement the CEUS SSC work plan

  2. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  3. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  4. Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site.

  5. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  6. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Dubois, Marine; Crocco, Carlos D; Yin, Ruohe; Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Ulm, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  7. Daily photosynthetic and C-export patterns in winter wheat leaves during cold stress and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Leonardos, Evangelos D.; Savitch, Leonid V.; Huner, Norman P. A.; Oquist, Gunnar; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Diurnal patterns of whole-plant and leaf gas exchange and 14C-export of winter wheat acclimated at 20 and 5 degrees C were determined. The 5 degrees C-acclimated plants had lower relative growth rates, smaller biomass and leaf area, but larger specific leaf weight than 20 degrees C plants. Photosynthetic rates in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves were similar; however, daytime export from 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves was 45% lower. Photosynthesis and export remained steady in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime. By comparison, photosynthesis in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves (20 degrees C-acclimated plants exposed to 5 degrees C 12 h before and during measurements) declined from 70 to 50% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime, while export remained constant at 35% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated and 60% of the 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves. At high light and CO2, photosynthesis and export increased in both 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves, but rates in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves remained unchanged. At all conditions daytime export was greater than nighttime export. Taken together, during cold acclimation photosynthesis was upregulated, whereas export was only partially increased. We suggest that this reflects a requirement of cold-acclimated plants to both sustain an increased leaf metabolic demand while concomitantly supporting translocation of photoassimilates to overwintering sinks. PMID:12675742

  8. Facility stabilization project, fiscal year 1998 -- Multi-year workplan (MYWP) for WBS 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Floberg, W.C.

    1997-09-30

    The primary Facility Stabilization mission is to provide minimum safe surveillance and maintenance of facilities and deactivate facilities on the Hanford Site, to reduce risks to workers, the public and environment, transition the facilities to a low cost, long term surveillance and maintenance state, and to provide safe and secure storage of special nuclear materials, nuclear materials, and nuclear fuel. Facility Stabilization will protect the health and safety of the public and workers, protect the environment and provide beneficial use of the facilities and other resources. Work will be in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), local, national, international and other agreements, and in compliance with all applicable Federal, state, and local laws. The stakeholders will be active participants in the decision processes including establishing priorities, and in developing a consistent set of rules, regulations, and laws. The work will be leveraged with a view of providing positive, lasting economic impact in the region. Effectiveness, efficiency, and discipline in all mission activities will enable Hanford Site to achieve its mission in a continuous and substantive manner. As the mission for Facility Stabilization has shifted from production to support of environmental restoration, each facility is making a transition to support the Site mission. The mission goals include the following: (1) Achieve deactivation of facilities for transfer to EM-40, using Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant deactivation as a model for future facility deactivation; (2) Manage nuclear materials in a safe and secure condition and where appropriate, in accordance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards rules; (3) Treat nuclear materials as necessary, and store onsite in long-term interim safe storage awaiting a final disposition decision by US Department of Energy; (4) Implement nuclear materials

  9. Design criteria document, Maintenance Shop/Support Facility, K-Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, M.W.B.

    1994-12-14

    During the next 10 years a substantial amount of work is scheduled in the K-Basin Area related to the storage and eventual removal of irradiated N-Reactor fuel. Currently, maintenance support activities are housed in existing structures that were constructed in the early 1950`s. These forty-year-old facilities and their supporting services are substandard, leading to inefficiencies. Because of numerous identified deficiencies and the planned increase in the numbers of K-Basin maintenance personnel, adequate maintenance support facilities that allow efficient operations are needed. The objective of this sub-project of Project W-405 is to provide a maintenance and storage facility which meets the K-Basin Maintenance Organization requirements as defined in Attachment 1. In Reference A, existing guidelines and requirements were used to allocate space for the maintenance activities and to provide a layout concept (See Attachment 2). The design solution includes modifying the existing 190 K-E building to provide space for shops, storage, and administration support functions. The primary reason for the modification is to simplify siting/permitting and make use of existing infrastructure. In addition, benefits relative to design loads will be realized by having the structure inside 190K-E. The new facility will meet the Maintenance Organization approved requirements in Attachment 1 relating to maintenance activities, storage areas, and personnel support services. This sub-project will also resolve outstanding findings and/or deficiencies relating to building fire protection, HVAC requirements, lighting replacement/upgrades, and personnel facilities. Compliance with building codes, local labor agreements and safety standards will result.

  10. Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: on the importance of adjusting our definitions and accounting for thermal acclimation of respiration.

    PubMed

    Way, Danielle A; Yamori, Wataru

    2014-02-01

    While interest in photosynthetic thermal acclimation has been stimulated by climate warming, comparing results across studies requires consistent terminology. We identify five types of photosynthetic adjustments in warming experiments: photosynthesis as measured at the high growth temperature, the growth temperature, and the thermal optimum; the photosynthetic thermal optimum; and leaf-level photosynthetic capacity. Adjustments of any one of these variables need not mean a concurrent adjustment in others, which may resolve apparently contradictory results in papers using different indicators of photosynthetic acclimation. We argue that photosynthetic thermal acclimation (i.e., that benefits a plant in its new growth environment) should include adjustments of both the photosynthetic thermal optimum (T opt) and photosynthetic rates at the growth temperature (A growth), a combination termed constructive adjustment. However, many species show reduced photosynthesis when grown at elevated temperatures, despite adjustment of some photosynthetic variables, a phenomenon we term detractive adjustment. An analysis of 70 studies on 103 species shows that adjustment of T opt and A growth are more common than adjustment of other photosynthetic variables, but only half of the data demonstrate constructive adjustment. No systematic differences in these patterns were found between different plant functional groups. We also discuss the importance of thermal acclimation of respiration for net photosynthesis measurements, as respiratory temperature acclimation can generate apparent acclimation of photosynthetic processes, even if photosynthesis is unaltered. We show that while dark respiration is often used to estimate light respiration, the ratio of light to dark respiration shifts in a non-predictable manner with a change in leaf temperature. PMID:23812760

  11. CASE STUDY PROJECT: THE USE OF LOW-VOC/HAP COATINGS AT WOOD FURNITURE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a study of pollution prevention and the use of low-VOC/HAP (volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant) coatings at wood furniture manufacturing facilities. The study is to identify wood furniture and cabinet manufacturing facilities that have converted...

  12. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-12-21

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

  13. Design and construction of the defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R G

    1986-01-01

    The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes by immobilizing the waste in Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactives wastes by immobilizing the waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. The canisters will be sealed, decontaminated and stored, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. At the present time, engineering and design is 90% complete, construction is 25% complete, and radioactive processing in the $870 million facility is expected to begin by late 1989. This paper describes the SRP waste characteristics, the DWPF processing, building and equipment features, and construction progress of the facility.

  14. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 34 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, was also the remedial action contractor. Building 34 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1996. The soil area within the footprint of the building was analyzed and found to be not contaminated. The area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual closeout report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  15. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Appendix A, Environmental and regulatory planning and documentation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental & Regulatory Planning & Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL`s waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  16. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  17. Optimising the acquisition and retention of heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M; Jonkman, A G; Layden, J D; Linnane, D M; Weller, A S

    2011-11-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) often starts in a moderately hot environment to prevent thermal overload and stops immediately prior to athletic activities. The aims of this study were (1) to establish whether acclimation to a moderately hot climate is sufficient to provide full acclimation for extreme heat and (2) to investigate the physiological responses to heat stress during the HA decay period. 15 male subjects exercised for 9 consecutive days at 26° C Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and 3 days at 32° C WBGT on a cycle ergometer for up to 2 h per day and repeated the exercise 3, 7 and 18 days later in 26° C WBGT. Rectal temperature (T (re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured during 60 min of steady state exercise (∼45% of maximum oxygen uptake). During days 1-9, end-exercise T (re) was reduced from 38.7±0.1 to a plateau of 38.2±0.1° C (p<0.05), HR was reduced from 156±10 to 131±11 bpm (p<0.05). No changes in HR and T (re) occurred during the 3 days in the very hot environment. However, T (re) during rest and exercise were significantly lower by 0.4-0.5° C after HA compared with day 9, suggesting that heat acclimation did not decay but resulted in further favourable adaptations. PMID:22052034

  18. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  19. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  20. Evidence for developmental thermal acclimation in the damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenchik, M. K.; Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.

    2013-03-01

    Tropical species are predicted to have limited capacity for acclimation to global warming. This study investigated the potential for developmental thermal acclimation by the tropical damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to ocean temperatures predicted to occur over the next 50-100 years. Newly settled juveniles were reared for 4 months in four temperature treatments, consisting of the current-day summer average (28.5 °C) and up to 3 °C above the average (29.5, 30.5 and 31.5 °C). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of fish reared at 29.5 and 31.5 °C was significantly higher than the control group reared at 28.5 °C. In contrast, RMR of fish reared at 30.5 °C was not significantly different from the control group, indicating these fish had acclimated to their rearing temperature. Furthermore, fish that developed in 30.5 and 31.5 °C exhibited an enhanced ability to deal with acute temperature increases. These findings illustrate that developmental acclimation may help coral reef fish cope with warming ocean temperatures.

  1. Identification of genes associated with cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitivity to cold temperatures restricts the cultivation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in some temperate areas. Understanding cold-acclimation mechanisms is important for plant cultivation and breeding for cold tolerance. Our objective was to profile the transcriptome in perennial ry...

  2. Heat stress in grapevine: the pros and cons of acclimation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luísa C; Coito, João L; Colaço, Silvana; Sangiogo, Maurício; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Heat stress is a major limiting factor of grapevine production and quality. Acclimation and recovery are essential to ensure plant survival, and the recovery mechanisms can be independent of the heat response mechanisms. An experimental set up with and without acclimation to heat followed by recovery [stepwise acclimation and recovery (SAR) and stepwise recovery (SR), respectively] was applied to two grapevine varieties, Touriga Nacional (TN), and Trincadeira (TR), with different tolerance to abiotic stress. Major differences were found between leaves of SAR and SR, especially after recovery; in SAR, almost all parameters returned to basal levels while in SR they remained altered. Acclimation led to a swifter and short-term antioxidative response, affecting the plant to a lesser extent than SR. Significant differences were found among varieties: upon stress, TN significantly increased ascorbate and glutathione reduction levels, boosting the cell's redox-buffering capacity, while TR needed to synthesize both metabolites, its response being insufficient to keep the redox state at working levels. TR was affected by stress for a longer period and the up-regulation pattern of antioxidative stress genes was more obvious. In TN, heat shock proteins were significantly induced, but the canonical heat-stress gene signature was not evident probably because no shutdown of the housekeeping metabolism was needed. PMID:25211707

  3. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility supporting data and calculation database

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-26

    This document provides a database of supporting calculations for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The database was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, ''Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility'', Phase 2, ''Supporting Installation of Processing Systems'' (Garvin 1998). The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements'', Rev. 2, and the CVDF Summary Design Report. The database contains calculation report entries for all process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This database has been developed for the SNFP CVDF Engineering Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  5. Diatom Proteomics Reveals Unique Acclimation Strategies to Mitigate Fe Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Brook L.; Faux, Jessica F.; Hippmann, Anna A.; Maldonado, Maria T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Goodlett, David R.; Boyd, Philip W.; Strzepek, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth rates are limited by the supply of iron (Fe) in approximately one third of the open ocean, with major implications for carbon dioxide sequestration and carbon (C) biogeochemistry. To date, understanding how alteration of Fe supply changes phytoplankton physiology has focused on traditional metrics such as growth rate, elemental composition, and biophysical measurements such as photosynthetic competence (Fv/Fm). Researchers have subsequently employed transcriptomics to probe relationships between changes in Fe supply and phytoplankton physiology. Recently, studies have investigated longer-term (i.e. following acclimation) responses of phytoplankton to various Fe conditions. In the present study, the coastal diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, was acclimated (10 generations) to either low or high Fe conditions, i.e. Fe-limiting and Fe-replete. Quantitative proteomics and a newly developed proteomic profiling technique that identifies low abundance proteins were employed to examine the full complement of expressed proteins and consequently the metabolic pathways utilized by the diatom under the two Fe conditions. A total of 1850 proteins were confidently identified, nearly tripling previous identifications made from differential expression in diatoms. Given sufficient time to acclimate to Fe limitation, T. pseudonana up-regulates proteins involved in pathways associated with intracellular protein recycling, thereby decreasing dependence on extracellular nitrogen (N), C and Fe. The relative increase in the abundance of photorespiration and pentose phosphate pathway proteins reveal novel metabolic shifts, which create substrates that could support other well-established physiological responses, such as heavily silicified frustules observed for Fe-limited diatoms. Here, we discovered that proteins and hence pathways observed to be down-regulated in short-term Fe starvation studies are constitutively expressed when T. pseudonana is acclimated (i

  6. Alcohol and heat tolerance in warm-acclimated rats.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, P

    1992-01-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol intake and warm acclimation on the heat tolerance of rats under the influence of alcohol was studied. The animals were divided into two groups: Group 1 received water as their fluid intake and, group 2 received a 10% ethanol solution, and both groups were exposed to a temperature of 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Excretion of urinary catecholamines was measured prior to warm exposure at 22 degrees C and once a week during warm exposure at 30 degrees C. After warm acclimation a dose of alcohol 2 g/kg was injected in the rats intraperitoneally (i.p.), and then they were exposed to a heat stress of 40 degrees C for 45 min. During warm acclimation, the controls consumed more fluid and they excreted more norepinephrine into the urine than the alcohol-fed animals during the first week. After the period of acclimation there were no significant differences in urinary excretion of catecholamines between the groups. Colonic temperature of the controls was 0.7 degrees C higher than in the alcohol-fed animals. Acute alcohol administration (2 g/kg) increased the colonic temperature of the alcohol-fed animals during a heat stress of 40 degrees C more than in the controls. After heat stress, the concentration of catecholamines in the blood was significantly higher in the controls. The results show that the hyperthermic effect of ethanol was more considerable in the rats whose drinking water during warm acclimation was an ethanol solution. PMID:1599624

  7. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

  8. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This project focuses on lesions in the plasma membrane of protoplasts that occur during freezing to temperatures below {minus}5{degrees} which result in changes in the semipermeablity of the plasma membrane. This injury, referred to as loss of osmotic responsiveness, is associated with the formation of large, aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellar. The goals of this project are to provide a mechanistic understanding of the mechanism by which freeze-induced dehydration effects the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions and to determine the mechanisms by which cold acclimation and cryoprotectants preclude or diminish these ultrastructural changes. Our working hypothesis is the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagon{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellae are manifestations of hydration-dependent bilayer-bilayer interactions.

  9. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 18 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 18 was found to be radiologically contaminated; the building was not contaminated. The soil was remediated in accordance with identified standards. Building 18 and the underlying soil can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  10. Creation of a neonatology facility in a developing country: experience from a 5-year project in China.

    PubMed

    Peabody, J W; Hesketh, T; Kattwinkel, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1983, Project HOPE was invited by Zhejiang Medical University to collaborate in developing a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Children's Hospital in Hangzhou, China. The initial approach involved renovating facilities, purchasing equipment and supplies, placing short-term consultants in the unit as teachers, and bringing selected leaders to the United States for brief fellowships. An evaluation at 18 months disclosed poor organization and leadership, inconsistent clinical care, and unsatisfactory utilization and maintenance of facilities and equipment. Therefore the strategy was revised to include long-term physician and nursing consultants, establishment of ties with HOPE Biomedical Engineering projects, and development of formal education programs. The unit was transferred to the Chinese after 4 years and an evaluation 1 year after transfer revealed an actively functioning independent NICU with evolving effective leadership, established purchasing and preventive maintenance programs, and continuing formal education activities. Unsatisfactory progress was found with the development of a transport system, some laboratory capabilities, adherence to admission and discharge policies, and various other administrative issues. Although the goal of establishing an independent NICU was realized, perhaps the most lasting accomplishment was the establishment of a facility and a format for development of a transportable education program aimed at improving neonatal care practices throughout a larger region of China. PMID:1418144

  11. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  16. Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

    2001-03-30

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

  17. Los Alamos plutonium facility applied systems integration project status report for period ending August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, D.G.; Bearse, R.C.; Marshall, R.S.; Baker, A.L.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The conceptual design of an on-line, near-real-time nondestructive assay instrumentation network for the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is complete. Analysis of instrument history data indicates that the instrument certification procedures need improvement. Analysis of exhaust filter data has led to the derivation of a buildup prediction equation that is a function of throughput. This suggests that development of a generalized model is possible. A number of routine reports are now available from the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System including inventories and active reports.

  18. Technical documentation in support of the project-specific analysis for construction and operation of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Vinikour, W.; Allison, T.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides information that supports or supplements the data and impact analyses presented in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project-Specific Analysis (PSA). The purposes of NIF are to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology and to conduct high- energy-density experiments ins support of national security and civilian application. NIF is an important element in the DOE`s science-based SSM Program, a key mission of which is to ensure the reliability of the nation`s enduring stockpile of nuclear weapons. NIF would also advance the knowledge of basic and applied high-energy- density science and bring the nation a large step closer to developing fusion energy for civilian use. The NIF PSA includes evaluations of the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the facility at one of five candidate site and for two design options.

  19. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  20. A Microsoft Project-Based Planning, Tracking, and Management Tool for the National Transonic Facility's Model Changeover Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vairo, Daniel M.

    1998-01-01

    The removal and installation of sting-mounted wind tunnel models in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is a multi-task process having a large impact on the annual throughput of the facility. Approximately ten model removal and installation cycles occur annually at the NTF with each cycle requiring slightly over five days to complete. The various tasks of the model changeover process were modeled in Microsoft Project as a template to provide a planning, tracking, and management tool. The template can also be used as a tool to evaluate improvements to this process. This document describes the development of the template and provides step-by-step instructions on its use and as a planning and tracking tool. A secondary role of this document is to provide an overview of the model changeover process and briefly describe the tasks associated with it.

  1. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Recent developments in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility Waste Tracking System-automated data collection pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Montoya, A.; Klein, W.

    1999-02-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a pilot project for demonstrating the feasibility and utility of automated data collection as a solution for tracking waste containers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. This project, the Los Alamos Waste Tracking System (LAWTS), tracks waste containers during their lifecycle at the facility. LAWTS is a two-tiered system consisting of a server/workstation database and reporting engine and a hand-held data terminal-based client program for collecting data directly from tracked containers. New containers may be added to the system from either the client unit or from the server database. Once containers are in the system, they can be tracked through one of three primary transactions: Move, Inventory, and Shipment. Because LAWTS is a pilot project, it also serves as a learning experience for all parties involved. This paper will discuss many of the lessons learned in implementing a data collection system in the restricted environment. Specifically, the authors will discuss issues related to working with the PPT 4640 terminal system as the data collection unit. They will discuss problems with form factor (size, usability, etc.) as well as technical problems with wireless radio frequency functions. They will also discuss complications that arose from outdoor use of the terminal (barcode scanning failures, screen readability problems). The paper will conclude with a series of recommendations for proceeding with LAWTS based on experience to date.

  3. A comparison of the effects of two methods of acclimation of aerobic biodegradability

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, H.M. . Environmental Sciences Section)

    1993-11-01

    The acclimation or adaptation of microorganisms to organic chemicals is an important factor influencing both the rate and the extent of biodegradation. In this study two acclimation procedures were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation, their relative ease of use in the laboratory, and the implications for biodegradability testing. In the single-flask procedure, microorganisms were acclimated for 2 to 7 d in a single acclimation flask at constant or increasing concentrations of the test chemical without transfer of microorganisms. In the second procedure, the enrichment procedure, microorganisms were acclimated in a series of flasks over a 21-d period by making adaptive transfers to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. Acclimated microorganisms from each procedure were used as the source of inoculum for subsequent biodegradation tests in which carbon dioxide evolution was measured. Six chemicals were tested: quinoline, p-nitrophenol, N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, acrylonitrile, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate. Microorganisms acclimated in the single-flask procedure were much more effective than those acclimated in the enrichment procedure in degrading the test chemicals. The single-flask procedure is more convenient to use, and it permits monitoring of the time needed for acclimation. The results from these studies have implications for the methodology used in biodegradation test systems and suggest caution before adopting a multiple-flask, enrichment acclimation procedure before the performance of standardized tests for aerobic biodegradability.

  4. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energy’s support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombia’s national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy

  5. Rapid Acclimation Ability Mediated by Transcriptome Changes in Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Rachael A.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Population response to environmental variation involves adaptation, acclimation, or both. For long-lived organisms, acclimation likely generates a faster response but is only effective if the rates and limits of acclimation match the dynamics of local environmental variation. In coral reef habitats, heat stress from extreme ocean warming can occur over several weeks, resulting in symbiont expulsion and widespread coral death. However, transcriptome regulation during short-term acclimation is not well understood. We examined acclimation during a 11-day experiment in the coral Acropora nana. We acclimated colonies to three regimes: ambient temperature (29 °C), increased stable temperature (31 °C), and variable temperature (29–33 °C), mimicking local heat stress conditions. Within 7–11 days, individuals acclimated to increased temperatures had higher tolerance to acute heat stress. Despite physiological changes, no gene expression changes occurred during acclimation before acute heat stress. However, we found strikingly different transcriptional responses to heat stress between acclimation treatments across 893 contigs. Across these contigs, corals acclimated to higher temperatures (31 °C or 29–33 °C) exhibited a muted stress response—the magnitude of expression change before and after heat stress was less than in 29 °C acclimated corals. Our results show that corals have a rapid phase of acclimation that substantially increases their heat resilience within 7 days and that alters their transcriptional response to heat stress. This is in addition to a previously observed longer term response, distinguishable by its shift in baseline expression, under nonstressful conditions. Such rapid acclimation may provide some protection for this species of coral against slow onset of warming ocean temperatures. PMID:25979751

  6. Rapid Acclimation Ability Mediated by Transcriptome Changes in Reef-Building Corals.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2015-06-01

    Population response to environmental variation involves adaptation, acclimation, or both. For long-lived organisms, acclimation likely generates a faster response but is only effective if the rates and limits of acclimation match the dynamics of local environmental variation. In coral reef habitats, heat stress from extreme ocean warming can occur over several weeks, resulting in symbiont expulsion and widespread coral death. However, transcriptome regulation during short-term acclimation is not well understood. We examined acclimation during a 11-day experiment in the coral Acropora nana. We acclimated colonies to three regimes: ambient temperature (29 °C), increased stable temperature (31 °C), and variable temperature (29-33 °C), mimicking local heat stress conditions. Within 7-11 days, individuals acclimated to increased temperatures had higher tolerance to acute heat stress. Despite physiological changes, no gene expression changes occurred during acclimation before acute heat stress. However, we found strikingly different transcriptional responses to heat stress between acclimation treatments across 893 contigs. Across these contigs, corals acclimated to higher temperatures (31 °C or 29-33 °C) exhibited a muted stress response--the magnitude of expression change before and after heat stress was less than in 29 °C acclimated corals. Our results show that corals have a rapid phase of acclimation that substantially increases their heat resilience within 7 days and that alters their transcriptional response to heat stress. This is in addition to a previously observed longer term response, distinguishable by its shift in baseline expression, under nonstressful conditions. Such rapid acclimation may provide some protection for this species of coral against slow onset of warming ocean temperatures. PMID:25979751

  7. Short-Term Effects of State Deregulation on the Adequacy and Equity of School Facility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Decman, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Indiana Legislature deregulated state controls over public-school construction projects by reducing the status of required specifications to guidelines. Also, local taxpayers were given greater authority to prevent proposed projects. This study examines the short-term effects of this policy shift. (Contains 5 tables and 16…

  8. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee's awareness and understanding of the project developer's operating environment and the private sector's awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. The main purpose of this guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project.

  9. Communications on School Facility Projects--A Promise to the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joyce A.; DeJong, William S.; McComb, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Beaufort County School District's (South Carolina) "Facilities 2000" plan to simultaneously build and renovate multiple schools within one district and an oversight committee's communication efforts with the surrounding community. The committee's approach in providing accountability, monitoring progress, and reporting to the public are…

  10. Odor and chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 1 - project overview and collection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have received numerous criticisms due to their emissions of odorous air and chemicals. Hence, there is a significant need for odor emission factors and identification of principle odorous chemicals. Odor emission factors are used as inputs to odor setback models, while chemica...

  11. Designs for Success: Massive Building Project Makes LACCD a Leader in Green Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVista, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    After a 35-year building hiatus, the nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) needed a major facelift. Facilities on LACCD campuses were antiquated and had fallen into disrepair. For years, students voiced dismay, saying their campuses resembled high schools rather than colleges. Inadequate infrastructure drove many…

  12. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  13. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  14. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, R. H.; Delgado, A.; Malone, E L.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure

  15. Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks sluicing project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), plans to begin a sluicing (flushing) and pumping project to remove the contents from five inactive, underground storage tanks at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tank contents will be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, which are part of the active waste treatment system at ORNL. The purpose of the project is to minimize the risk of leaking the highly radioactive material to the environment. The five OHF tanks each contain a layer of sludge and a layer of supernatant. Based on a sampling project undertaken in 1995, the sludge in the tanks has been characterized as transuranic and mixed waste and the supernatants have been characterized as mixed waste. The combined radioactivity of the contents of the five tanks is approximately 29,500 Ci. This contingency plan is based on the preliminary design for the project and describes a series of potential accident/release scenarios for the project. It outlines Energy Systems` preliminary plans for prevention, detection, and mitigation. Prevention/detection methods range from using doubly contained pipelines to alarmed sensors and automatic pump cutoff systems. Plans for mitigation range from pumping leaked fluids from the built-in tank drainage systems and cleaning up spilled liquids to personnel evacuation.

  16. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  17. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  18. Heat Acclimation and Water-Immersion Deconditioning: Responses to Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Simulated subgravity conditions, such as bed rest and water immersion, cause a decrease in a acceleration tolerance (3, 4), tilt tolerance (3, 9, 10), work capacity (5, 7), and plasma volume (1, 8-10). Moderate exercise training performed during bed rest (4) and prior to water immersion (5) provides some protection against the adverse effects of deconditioning, but the relationship between exercise and changes due to deconditioning remains unclear. Heat acclimation increases plasma and interstitial volumes, total body water, stroke volume (11), and tilt tolerance (6) and may, therefore, be a more efficient method of ameliorating deconditioning than physical training alone. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of heat acclimation and moderate physical training, performed in cool conditions, on water-immersion deconditioning.

  19. Degradation of mono-fluorophenols by an acclimated activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chaojie, Zhang; Qi, Zhou; Ling, Chen; Yuan, Yuan; Hui, Yu

    2007-02-01

    Acclimated activated sludge was examined for its ability to degrade mono-fluorophenols as the sole carbon source in aerobic batch cultures. The acclimated activated sludge degraded fluorophenol efficiently. It degraded 100 mg/l 3-fluoropheno and 4-fluorophenol in 16 h with, respectively, 99.85% and 99.91% fluoride anion release and it degraded 50 mg/l 2-fluorophenol in 15 h with 99.26% fluoride anion release. The aerobic biodegradability of the mono-fluorophenols decreased in the order: 4-fluorophenol > 3-fluorophenol > 2-fluorophenol, resulting mainly from a different octanol/water partition coefficient and different steric parameter of the fluorophenols. The mechanism study revealed that the initial step in the aerobic biodegradation of mono-fluorophenols by the activated sludge was their transformation to fluorocatechol. Following transformation of the fluorophenol to fluorocatechol, ring cleavage by catechol 1, 2-dioxygenases proceeded via an ortho-cleavage pathway, then defluorination occurred. PMID:16819592

  20. Metabolic acclimation to low temperature anoxia in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, C.J.; Hope, H.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Cold hardened seedlings of winter wheat, but not winter barley show an anaerobic acclimation response in which low temperature flooding increases the survival of plants in subsequent ice encasement at {minus}1{degrees}C. Previous flooding increases the level of total adenylates by about 40%, but the level declines throughout the ice exposure whether the plants are flooded or not. Barley shows a faster decline particularly in those plants previously flooded. ATP:ADP ratios increase, or are maintained in wheat plants briefly ice encased after flooding, but not in barley plants so treated. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase is higher in plants briefly ice encased after flooding indicating an increase in glycolytic rate. Winter wheat administered {sup 35}S methionine shows a change in radioactive proteins synthesized in 4 days of low temperature flooding, supporting the physiological evidence of acclimation.

  1. Acclimation strategy to increase phenol tolerance of an anaerobic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Madigou, Céline; Poirier, Simon; Bureau, Chrystelle; Chapleur, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    A wide variety of inhibitory substances can induce anaerobic digester upset or failure. In this work the possibility to improve the resistance of an anaerobic microbiota to a common pollutant, the phenol, was evaluated in a lab-scale semi-continuous bioreactor. An acclimation strategy, consisting in a regular step-wise adaptation of the microbiota to stressful condition was employed. Degradation performances were monitored and molecular tools (16S sequencing and ARISA fingerprinting technique) were used to track changes in the microbial community. The acclimation strategy progressively minimized the effect of phenol on degradation performances. After 3 successive disturbance episodes, microbiota resistance was considerably developed and total inhibition threshold increased from 895 to 1942mg/L of phenol. Microbiota adaptation was characterized by the selection of the most resistant Archaea OTU from Methanobacterium genus and an important elasticity of Bacteria, especially within Clostridiales and Bacteroidales orders, that probably enabled the adaptation to more and more stressful conditions. PMID:27233100

  2. Extensive Acclimation in Ectotherms Conceals Interspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance Limits.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Anna F V; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    Species' tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances of

  3. Extensive Acclimation in Ectotherms Conceals Interspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance Limits

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, Anna F. V.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Species’ tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances

  4. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Master Equipment List

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-09-21

    This document provides the master equipment list (MEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The MEL was prepared to comply with DOE Standard 3024-98, Content of System Design Descriptions. The MEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems and the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDD). The MEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. The MEL also includes operating parameters, manufacturer information, and references the procurement specifications for the SSCs. This MEL shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR, the SDD's, and CVDF operations.

  6. The CELSS Test Facility Project - An example of a CELSS flight experiment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Straight, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the facility is described in terms of its use as an investigation tool for evaluating crop growth in space with reference to required emerging technologies. NASA's CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is designed to permit the measurement of crop-plant productivity under microgravity conditions including biomass production, food production, water transpiration, and O2/CO2 exchanges. Crucial hardware tests and qualifications are identified to assure the operation of CTF technologies in space including the nutrient-delivery, water-condensation, and gas-liquid-mixing subsystems. The design concept and related scientific requirements are described and shown to provide microgravity crop research. The CTF is expected to provide data for plant research and for concepts for bioregenerative life-support systems for applications to Martian, lunar, and space-station missions.

  7. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas; Hurry, Vaughan; Clarke, Adrian K.; Gustafsson, Petter; Öquist, Gunnar

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically important photosynthetic prokaryotes that also serve as popular model organisms for studies of photosynthesis and gene regulation. Both molecular and ecological studies of cyanobacteria benefit from real-time information on photosynthesis and acclimation. Monitoring in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence can provide noninvasive measures of photosynthetic physiology in a wide range of cyanobacteria and cyanolichens and requires only small samples. Cyanobacterial fluorescence patterns are distinct from those of plants, because of key structural and functional properties of cyanobacteria. These include significant fluorescence emission from the light-harvesting phycobiliproteins; large and rapid changes in fluorescence yield (state transitions) which depend on metabolic and environmental conditions; and flexible, overlapping respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains. The fluorescence parameters FV/FM, FV′/FM′,qp,qN, NPQ, and φPS II were originally developed to extract information from the fluorescence signals of higher plants. In this review, we consider how the special properties of cyanobacteria can be accommodated and used to extract biologically useful information from cyanobacterial in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence signals. We describe how the pattern of fluorescence yield versus light intensity can be used to predict the acclimated light level for a cyanobacterial population, giving information valuable for both laboratory and field studies of acclimation processes. The size of the change in fluorescence yield during dark-to-light transitions can provide information on respiration and the iron status of the cyanobacteria. Finally, fluorescence parameters can be used to estimate the electron transport rate at the acclimated growth light intensity. PMID:9729605

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  9. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-11

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements.

  10. C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases.

  11. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  12. Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Knee, Jose M; Dennis, Alice B; Udaka, Hiroko; Marshall, Katie E; Merritt, Thomas J S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Cold tolerance is a key determinant of insect distribution and abundance, and thermal acclimation can strongly influence organismal stress tolerance phenotypes, particularly in small ectotherms like Drosophila. However, there is limited understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer such impressive plasticity. Here, we use high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to compare the transcriptomes and metabolomes of D. melanogaster acclimated as adults to warm (rearing) (21.5 °C) or cold conditions (6 °C). Cold acclimation improved cold tolerance and led to extensive biological reorganization: almost one third of the transcriptome and nearly half of the metabolome were differentially regulated. There was overlap in the metabolic pathways identified via transcriptomics and metabolomics, with proline and glutathione metabolism being the most strongly-supported metabolic pathways associated with increased cold tolerance. We discuss several new targets in the study of insect cold tolerance (e.g. dopamine signaling and Na(+)-driven transport), but many previously identified candidate genes and pathways (e.g. heat shock proteins, Ca(2+) signaling, and ROS detoxification) were also identified in the present study, and our results are thus consistent with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms of insect chilling tolerance. PMID:27357258

  13. In-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion: acclimated microbial kinetics.

    PubMed

    King, Susan; Courvoisier, Pierre; Guiot, Serge; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    In-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion develops by microbial acclimation in covered swine-manure storage tanks, producing CH4 and stabilizing organic matter. To optimize the system's performance, the process kinetics must be understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate kinetic parameters describing the major stages in the digestion process, and to investigate the effect of temperature acclimation on these parameters. Specific activity tests were performed using manure inocula and five substrates at three incubation temperatures. Extant substrate activities were determined analytically for each case, and intrinsic kinetic parameters for glucose uptake were estimated by grid search fitting to the Monod model. The results demonstrate that this acclimated microbial community exhibits different kinetic parameters to those of the mesophilic communities currently modelled in the literature, with increased activity at low temperatures, varying with substrate and temperature. For glucose, the higher uptake is accompanied by lower microbial yield and half-saturation constant. Decomposing these values suggests that active psychrophilic and mesophilic microbial populations co-exist within the community. This work also confirms that a new method of assessing microbial substrate kinetics must be developed for manure microbial communities, separating microbial mass from other suspended organics. PMID:22988638

  14. Acclimation of photosynthesis to low leaf water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.A.; Boyer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photosynthesis is reduced at low leaf water potentials (PSI/sub l/) but repeated water deficits can decrease this reduction, resulting in photosynthetic acclimation. The contribution of the stomata and the chloroplasts to this acclimation is unknown. The authors evaluated stomatal and chloroplast contributions when soil-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to water deficit pretreatments for 2 weeks. The relationship between photosynthesis and PSI/sub l/, determined from gas-exchange and isopiestic thermocouple psychometry, was shifted 3 to 4 bars towards lower PSI/sub l/ in pretreated plants. Leaf diffusive resistance was similarly affected. Chloroplast activity, demonstrated in situ with measurements of quantum yield and the capacity to fix CO/sub 2/ at all partial pressures of CO/sub 2/, and in vitro by photosystem II activity of isolated organelles, was inhibited at low PSI/sub l/ but less in pretreated plants than in control plants. The magnitude of this inhibition indicated that decreases in chloroplast activity contributed more than closure of stomata both to losses in photosynthesis and to the acclimation of photosynthesis to low PSI/sub l/. 32 references, 8 figures.

  15. Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Périard, Julien D; Travers, Gavin J S; Racinais, Sébastien; Sawka, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the cardiovascular adaptations along with total body water and plasma volume adjustments that occur in parallel with improved heat loss responses during exercise-heat acclimation. The cardiovascular system is well recognized as an important contributor to exercise-heat acclimation that acts to minimize physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness and better sustain exercise capacity. The upright posture adopted by humans during most physical activities and the large skin surface area contribute to the circulatory and blood pressure regulation challenge of simultaneously supporting skeletal muscle blood flow and dissipating heat via increased skin blood flow and sweat secretion during exercise-heat stress. Although it was traditionally held that cardiac output increased during exercise-heat stress to primarily support elevated skin blood flow requirements, recent evidence suggests that temperature-sensitive mechanisms may also mediate an elevation in skeletal muscle blood flow. The cardiovascular adaptations supporting this challenge include an increase in total body water, plasma volume expansion, better sustainment and/or elevation of stroke volume, reduction in heart rate, improvement in ventricular filling and myocardial efficiency, and enhanced skin blood flow and sweating responses. The magnitude of these adaptations is variable and dependent on several factors such as exercise intensity, duration of exposure, frequency and total number of exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e. dry or humid heat) in which acclimation occurs. PMID:26905458

  16. Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Knee, Jose M.; Dennis, Alice B.; Udaka, Hiroko; Marshall, Katie E.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold tolerance is a key determinant of insect distribution and abundance, and thermal acclimation can strongly influence organismal stress tolerance phenotypes, particularly in small ectotherms like Drosophila. However, there is limited understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer such impressive plasticity. Here, we use high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to compare the transcriptomes and metabolomes of D. melanogaster acclimated as adults to warm (rearing) (21.5 °C) or cold conditions (6 °C). Cold acclimation improved cold tolerance and led to extensive biological reorganization: almost one third of the transcriptome and nearly half of the metabolome were differentially regulated. There was overlap in the metabolic pathways identified via transcriptomics and metabolomics, with proline and glutathione metabolism being the most strongly-supported metabolic pathways associated with increased cold tolerance. We discuss several new targets in the study of insect cold tolerance (e.g. dopamine signaling and Na+-driven transport), but many previously identified candidate genes and pathways (e.g. heat shock proteins, Ca2+ signaling, and ROS detoxification) were also identified in the present study, and our results are thus consistent with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms of insect chilling tolerance. PMID:27357258

  17. The new Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico: Current Status and Future Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    The idea of establishing the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in the island of Culebra is a solution to mitigate the ever cumulative quantity of cloud, fog, and rain that has distressed observations at the Arecibo Observatory (AO) during major optical campaigns and observations. Given Culebra Island's favorable geographical and climatological characteristics as its low elevation and geographic location, it appears to have more steady weather conditions than Arecibo, so therefore it provides more availability for optical observations. Placed on Culebra, optical instruments can observe the same thermospheric volume over AO sampled by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). This capability will become especially important during the High Frequency (HF) facility is on operation. Small and large scale irregularities created by that HF can be readily observed and tracked from the Culebra site, and simultaneous observations from AO of the same atmospheric volume will permit direct vector measurements of dynamical evolution of the irregularities. This work presents a discussion of the current status of AO-ROF facility, as well the future projects.

  18. A Client-Centered Community Engagement Project: Improving the Health and Wellness of Older Adults in an Assisted Living Facility.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne-Rice, Madeleine; Chopp, Kayla; Evans, Lisa; Ho, Vanessa; Hsiung, Wan Ping; Simon, Marian Alexandra; Wu, Kaiyu; Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2016-08-01

    Central to nursing practice is the promotion of health and wellness practices. Drawing on the Community as Partner Model, nursing process, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Logic Model, second-year nursing students collaborated with staff and residents of an assisted living facility to promote health and wellness in the older adult population. Windshield surveys, resident surveys, key informant interviews, and focus group interviews were conducted to gain insight into the perceptions and experiences of staff and residents. The majority of residents indicated they were satisfied with life at the facility and their needs have been adequately met. Strengths and areas for improvement were identified in several aspects, including the facility atmosphere and location, quality of staff and health care services, recreational and dietary services, and social support networks. By partnering with community key stakeholders, valuing all different perspectives, and connecting theory to practice, a successful client-centered community clinical project was demonstrated. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(8), 44-51.]. PMID:27263539

  19. Cost Estimating for Decommissioning of a Plutonium Facility--Lessons Learned From The Rocky Flats Building 771 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J. L.; Titus, R.; Sanford, P. C.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site is implementing an aggressive approach in an attempt to complete Site closure by 2006. The replanning effort to meet this goal required that the life-cycle decommissioning effort for the Site and for the major individual facilities be reexamined in detail. As part of the overall effort, the cost estimate for the Building 771 decommissioning project was revised to incorporate both actual cost data from a recently-completed similar project and detailed planning for all activities. This paper provides a brief overview of the replanning process and the original estimate, and then discusses the modifications to that estimate to reflect new data, methods, and planning rigor. It provides the new work breakdown structure and discusses the reasons for the final arrangement chosen. It follows with the process used to assign scope, cost, and schedule elements within the new structure, and development of the new code of accounts. Finally, it describes the project control methodology used to track the project, and provides lessons learned on cost tracking in the decommissioning environment.

  20. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-12-31

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  1. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and sweat sodium excretion after chronic exercise and heat acclimation was investigated, using subjects exercised, at 40 C and 45 percent humidity, for 2 h/day on ten consecutive days at 45 percent of their maximal oxygen uptake. The data indicate that, following heat acclimation, plasma aldosterone concentrations decrease, and that the eccrine gland responsiveness to aldosterone, as represented by sweat sodium reabsorption, may be augmented through exercise and heat acclimation.

  2. M.U.S.T. 2007 Summer Research Project at NASA's KSC MILA Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2007-01-01

    The summer research activity at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to introduce the student to the basic principles in their field of study. While at KSC, a specific research project awaits the student to complete. As an Aeronautical Engineering student, my assigned project is to assist the cognizant engineer, Mr. Troy Hamilton, in the six engineering phases for replacing the Ponce De Leon (PDL)4.3M Antenna Control Unit (ACU). Although the project mainly requires the attention of two engineers and two students, it also involves the participation of many colleagues at various points during the course of the engineering change (EC). Since the PDL 4.3M ACU engineering change makes both hardware and software changes, it calls upon the expertise of a Hardware Engineer as well as a Software Engineer. As students, Mr. Jeremy Bresette and I have worked side by side with the engineers, gaining invaluable experience. We work in two teams, the hardware team and the software team, On certain tasks, we assist the engineers, while on others we assume their roles. By diligently working in this fashion, we are learning how to communicate effectively as professionals, despite the fact that we are studying different engineering fields. This project has been a great fit for my field of study, as it has highly improved my awareness of the many critical tasks involved in carrying out an engineering project.

  3. Site Studies for the SuperB Collider and Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassini, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; Sanelli, C.; Bolzon, B.; Deleglise, G.; Jeremie, A.; Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    The SuperB complex project aims at the construction of a very high luminosity (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}) asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B-factory and a few X-ray synchrotron beam lines (SR). The project has been recently approved by the Italian Government as part of the National Research Plan. The Tor Vergata University location has been chosen and a Consortium among INFN, University of Rome II Tor Vergata and the Research Ministry is being signed, allowing for the constitution of the 'Cabibbo Laboratory', where the SuperB project will be hosted. This paper presents and describes the status of the preliminary design of the site layout, related issues for the chosen site and the preliminary ground motion (GM) measurement results.

  4. Determination of the Microbial Diversity of Spacecraft Assembly Facilities: First Results of the Project MiDiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Fritze, D.; Stackebrandt, E.; Kminek, G.

    The first step in the implementation of planetary protection guidelines encompasses a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the bioburden of spacecraft assembly facilities. In such an artificial environment mainly microorganisms are to be expected that are brought in by the humans themselves and that are able to withstand the controlled air circulation, the low relative humidity, the moderately high temperature and the low-nutrient conditions in the clean rooms of the assembly facilities. With informations about the composition of these microbial communities the development and/or optimization of adequate cleaning and sterilization procedures for spacecraft preparation before launch will be possible. The bioburden assessment in spacecraft assembly facilities requires a standardized procedure for sampling the air and surfaces in the facilities as well as of the spacecraft, a transfer of the biological samples under controlled conditions to the analyzing laboratory and a scientifically approved set of methods for analysis. In the ESA project MiDiv we started to investigate the bioburden of spacecrafts using the satellites SMART-1 and ROSETTA as test objects. The analysis of the samples included so far cultivation on different media at different pH and temperatures with and without oxygen with and without pasteurization, establishment of a culture collection of bacteria and partial 16S rRNA gene analysis. The results of these preliminary measurements, the total number of microorganisms, the numbers of colony forming units, differentiated according to the subgroups of aerobes, facultative anaerobes and anaerobes, and the phylogenetic classification, will be assessed with respect to the physiological potential of the identified microorganisms to withstand the different cleaning and sterilizing procedures used up to now for planetary protection measures. In the next step the ability of selected microorganisms to survive has to tested under environmental conditions as

  5. Drought Stress Acclimation Imparts Tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Kaundal, Amita; Udayakumar, Makarla; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Acclimation of plants with an abiotic stress can impart tolerance to some biotic stresses. Such a priming response has not been widely studied. In particular, little is known about enhanced defense capacity of drought stress acclimated plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here we show that prior drought acclimation in Nicotiana benthamiana plants imparts tolerance to necrotrophic fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and also to hemi-biotrophic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. S. sclerotiorum inoculation on N. benthamiana plants acclimated with drought stress lead to less disease-induced cell death compared to non-acclimated plants. Furthermore, inoculation of P. syringae pv. tabaci on N. benthamiana plants acclimated to moderate drought stress showed reduced disease symptoms. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in drought acclimated plants were highly correlated with disease resistance. Further, in planta growth of GFPuv expressing P. syringae pv. tabaci on plants pre-treated with methyl viologen showed complete inhibition of bacterial growth. Taken together, these experimental results suggested a role for ROS generated during drought acclimation in imparting tolerance against S. sclerotiorum and P. syringae pv. tabaci. We speculate that the generation of ROS during drought acclimation primed a defense response in plants that subsequently caused the tolerance against the pathogens tested. PMID:23644883

  6. Qualitative modification of muscle metabolic organization with thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Gawlicka, A

    1992-08-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to 4 and 18°C and fed at rations levels which led to an equal change in mass at these temperatures during the six week acclimation. Thermal acclimation markedly modified the metabolic organization of red and white muscle. Cold-acclimated fish had activities of β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase in both red and white muscle that were twice those of warm-acclimated fish. By contrast, the activities of cytochrome oxidase were unchanged by thermal acclimation. Thus, the capacity for β-oxidation of lipids is specifically enhanced in the muscle of cold-acclimated trout. In white muscle, citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase activities were also enhanced by cold acclimation (increases of 125% and 35% respectively), while cytochrome oxidase levels were unchanged. The non-parallel changes in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes strongly suggest that trout muscle mitochondria undergo qualitative reorganization during cold acclimation. The relative activities of mitochondrial enzymes suggest that mitochondria from red muscle have a threefold greater capacity to oxidize lipids than those from white muscle. PMID:24214209

  7. LLNL heart valve condition classification project anechoic testing results at the TRANSDEC evaluation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    1999-10-31

    This report first briefly outlines the procedures and support/activation fixture developed at LLNL to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic-like tank at the US Navy Transducer Evaluation Facility (TransDec) located in San Diego, CA. Next they discuss the basic experiments performed and the corresponding experimental plan employed to gather meaningful data systematically. The signal processing required to extract the desired information is briefly developed along with some of the data. Finally, they show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features and summaries.

  8. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  9. A student design project to improve power quality for a commercial facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, R.C.; Mercede, F.J.; Mercede, J.N. Jr.

    1995-02-01

    A recent paper reported on the success of industry-sponsored student projects to promote power quality education. One such project, sponsored by BCM Engineers in Plymouth Meeting, PA, was entitled Power Quality Survey of a Commercial System. The results of the survey confirmed the suspicion that power line disturbances (i.e., normal-mode and common-mode impulses and noise) were responsible for the outages, premature failures and data communication errors of critical microprocessor-based equipment (e.g., terminals, workstations, network file servers, teleconferencing video equipment, etc.). As a follow-up to this project, this paper reports on the results of a student design project to develop a cost-effective implementation plan to mitigate the causes of the BCM power quality problems (i.e., grounding, wiring methods, load configurations, surge protection, and employee practices). Since BCM only leases several floors of the commercial building, it was important that the design be cost-effective and unobtrusive to the other tenants in the building. The design presented is simple and effective, and it conforms to the NEC{reg_sign} and accepted industry practice.

  10. 75 FR 877 - Cancellation of the South Valley Facilities Expansion Project-Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... (SVFE) Project, published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2008 (73 FR 21155). FOR FURTHER... Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region, P.O. Box 61470, Boulder City, NV 89006-1470. SUPPLEMENTARY..., 2009. Lorri Gray-Lee, Regional Director, Lower Colorado Region. BILLING CODE 4310-MN-P...

  11. School Construction and Normalization. RAS Project: Research in Educational Facilities. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Gerard-A.

    This document reports the development of a system of mass-produced standardized components for school construction. The project was originated and implemented to solve a problem connected with the heavy demand for schools that confronted the Montreal Catholic School Board. The report outlines the problem -- a need for schools -- and gives details…

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-24

    This document provides the safety equipment list (SEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The SEL was prepared in accordance with the procedure for safety structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in HNF-PRO-516, ''Safety Structures, Systems, and Components,'' Revision 0 and HNF-PRO-097, Engineering Design and Evaluation, Revision 0. The SEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SO-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998). The SEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design basis accidents for which they are required to perform, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. This SEL has been developed for the CVDF Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR until the CVDF final SAR is approved.

  13. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 104 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  14. Predicting ecosystem carbon balance in a warming Arctic: the importance of long-term thermal acclimation potential and inhibitory effects of light on respiration.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Blair C; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Rastetter, Edward B; Griffin, Kevin L

    2014-06-01

    The carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems is particularly sensitive to global environmental change. Leaf respiration (R), a temperature-dependent key process in determining the carbon balance, is not well-understood in Arctic plants. The potential for plants to acclimate to warmer conditions could strongly impact future global carbon balance. Two key unanswered questions are (1) whether short-term temperature responses can predict long-term respiratory responses to growth in elevated temperatures and (2) to what extent the constant daylight conditions of the Arctic growing season inhibit leaf respiration. In two dominant Arctic species Eriophorum vaginatum (tussock grass) and Betula nana (woody shrub), we assessed the extent of respiratory inhibition in the light (RL/RD), respiratory response to short-term temperature change, and respiratory acclimation to long-term warming treatments. We found that R of both species is strongly inhibited by light (averaging 35% across all measurement temperatures). In E. vaginatum both RL and RD acclimated to the long-term warming treatment, reducing the magnitude of respiratory response relative to the short-term response to temperature increase. In B. nana, both RL and RD responded to short-term temperature increase but showed no acclimation to the long-term warming. The ability to predict plant respiratory response to global warming with short-term temperature responses will depend on species-specific acclimation potential and the differential response of RL and RD to temperature. With projected woody shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra and continued warming, changing species dominance between these two functional groups, may impact ecosystem respiratory response and carbon balance. PMID:24677488

  15. Recent performance results of the National Ignition Facility Beamlet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Wegner, P.J.; Lawson, J.K.; Auerbach, J.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Barker, C.E.; Thompson, C.E.; Widmayer, C.C.; Caird, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    The laser driver for the National Ignition Facility will be a departure from previous inertial confinement fusion laser architecture of a master oscillator single pass power amplifier (MOPA) design. The laser will use multi-segment Nd:Glass amplifiers in a multipass cavity arrangement, which can be assembled into compact and cost effective arrays to deliver the required multi- megajoule energy to target. A single beam physics prototype, the Beamlet, has been in operation for over two years and has demonstrated the feasibility of this architecture. We present a short review of Beamlet`s performance and limitations based on beam quality both at its fundamental and frequency converted wavelengths of 1.053 and 0.351 {mu}m.

  16. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  17. The CELSS Test Facility project: an example of a CELSS flight experiment system.

    PubMed

    MacElroy, R D; Straight, C L

    1992-01-01

    The CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is a device for measuring crop plant productivity in the micro-gravity environment of Space Station Freedom. It will allow us to address questions of crop productivity in space, versus that on the ground. The crop productivity factors that will be measured are rates of: 1) biomass production, 2) food production, 3) O2 and CO2 exchange, and 4) water transpiration. In addition, other productivity factors of specific crops will be determined, such as : 1) the ratio of edible to inedible biomass (harvest index), 2) leaf area exposed to and collecting light (leaf area index), 3) ratio of root mass to total biomass, and 4) photosynthetic efficiency (ratio of moles of CO2 fixed (or O2 produced), per mole of photons of specific energies used). Plant and crop morphology, at several levels, ranging from the community to the sub-cellular, will also be evaluated. PMID:11537082

  18. Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  19. RH-LLW Disposal Facility Project CD-2/3 to Design/Build Proposal Reconciliation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    A reconciliation plan was developed and implemented to address potential gaps and responses to gaps between the design/build vendor proposals and the Critical Decision-2/3 approval request package for the Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Project. The plan and results of the plan implementation included development of a reconciliation team comprised of subject matter experts from Battelle Energy Alliance and the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, identification of reconciliation questions, reconciliation by the team, identification of unresolved/remaining issues, and identification of follow-up actions and subsequent approvals of responses. The plan addressed the potential for gaps to exist in the following areas: • Department of Energy Order 435.1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” requirements, including the performance assessment, composite analysis, monitoring plan, performance assessment/composite analysis maintenance plan, and closure plan • Environmental assessment supporting the National Environmental Policy Act • Nuclear safety • Safeguards and security • Emplacement operations • Requirements for commissioning • General project implementation. The reconciliation plan and results of the plan implementation are provided in a business-sensitive project file. This report provides the reconciliation plan and non-business sensitive summary responses to identified gaps.

  20. Cross Acclimation between Heat and Hypoxia: Heat Acclimation Improves Cellular Tolerance and Exercise Performance in Acute Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Miller, Amanda; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological, and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method: Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07 m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9 kg; V˙O2 peak 51 ± 7 mL.kg−1.min−1) completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST) and self-paced 16.1 km time trial (TT) before (HST1, TT1), and after (HST2, TT2) a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V˙O2 peak) in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35% RH), hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.14, 18°C, 35% RH), or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH) conditions. Results: TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (−3:16 ± 3:10 min:s; p = 0.0006) and HOT (−2:02 ± 1:02 min:s; p = 0.005), but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 min:s). Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72) increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46%) and HYP (58 ± 52%), but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%), leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01). Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI) was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007) as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min−1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min−1 p = 0.0006) and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018) during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63). Conclusion: Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude

  1. [Educational Facilities for Pregnant School-Age Girls in Districts 3, 4, 12, 13, and 18. Project No. 1369. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.

    This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…

  2. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  3. Acclimation to ultraviolet irradiation affects UV-B sensitivity of Daphnia magna to several environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkon; Lee, Minjung; Oh, Sorin; Ku, Ja-Lok; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-12-01

    Phototoxicity of several environmental contaminants by UV light has been reported in many studies. Nevertheless, field observations suggest the presence of certain defense mechanisms that would protect aquatic organisms against phototoxic damages. The current study was conducted to understand the responses of aquatic receptors to phototoxic chemicals in a natural environment where low dose UV light is present and long-term acclimation to UV might have been taken place. For this purpose, the water flea Daphnia magna was acclimated to a non-lethal, environmentally relevant level of UV-B light for >20 successive generations. The differences in toxicity response were evaluated between the UV-B acclimated and the non-acclimated daphnids when they were exposed to phototoxic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene and pyrene), a pharmaceutical (sulfathiazole), or metals (Cd and Cu) under UV-B light. Following the UV-B acclimation, toxicity of metals under UV-B light significantly decreased (P<0.1) suggesting the defense/repair system which might be developed through acclimation. For PAHs and sulfathiazole, however the acclimation rendered organisms more susceptible (P<0.05). The metabolic cost incurred during the acclimation to UV-B stress may in part explain the organisms' reduced capacity to deal with other stressors. Addition of vitamin C significantly increased the resistance of UV-B acclimated individuals against Cu, while no change was observed for the other chemicals, suggesting that the mode of Cu phototoxicity is different from those of the other phototoxicants under UV-B light. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses showed that long-term acclimation to UV-B lead to notable changes in protein expression, which may be further evaluated to explain varying susceptibilities of the acclimated daphnids to different phototoxicants. PMID:19836821

  4. Host and parasite thermal acclimation responses depend on the stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Altman, Karie A; Paull, Sara H; Johnson, Pieter T J; Golembieski, Michelle N; Stephens, Jeffrey P; LaFonte, Bryan E; Raffel, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter patterns of temperature variability, which could influence species interactions including parasitism. Species interactions can be difficult to predict in variable-temperature environments because of thermal acclimation responses, i.e. physiological changes that allow organisms to adjust to a new temperature following a temperature shift. The goal of this study was to determine how thermal acclimation influences host resistance to infection and to test for parasite acclimation responses, which might differ from host responses in important ways. We tested predictions of three, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses regarding thermal acclimation effects on infection of green frog tadpoles (Lithobates clamitans) by the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae with fully replicated controlled-temperature experiments. Trematodes or tadpoles were independently acclimated to a range of 'acclimation temperatures' prior to shifting them to new 'performance temperatures' for experimental infections. Trematodes that were acclimated to intermediate temperatures (19-22 °C) had greater encystment success across temperatures than either cold- or warm-acclimated trematodes. However, host acclimation responses varied depending on the stage of infection (encystment vs. clearance): warm- (22-28 °C) and cold-acclimated (13-19 °C) tadpoles had fewer parasites encyst at warm and cold performance temperatures, respectively, whereas intermediate-acclimated tadpoles (19-25 °C) cleared the greatest proportion of parasites in the week following exposure. These results suggest that tadpoles use different immune mechanisms to resist different stages of trematode infection, and that each set of mechanisms has unique responses to temperature variability. Our results highlight the importance of considering thermal responses of both parasites and hosts when predicting disease patterns in variable-temperature environments. PMID:27040618

  5. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement: Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-06

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the third quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined above normal Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits, and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that above normal data occur.

  6. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  7. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

  8. Characterisation of mixed neutron photon workplace fields at nuclear facilities by spectrometry (energy and direction) within the EVIDOS project.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Bartlett, D; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Lacoste, V; Lindborg, L; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2007-01-01

    Within the EC project EVIDOS, 17 different mixed neutron-photon workplace fields at nuclear facilities (boiling water reactor, pressurised water reactor, research reactor, fuel processing, storage of spent fuel) were characterised using conventional Bonner sphere spectrometry and newly developed direction spectrometers. The results of the analysis, using Bayesian parameter estimation methods and different unfolding codes, some of them especially adapted to simultaneously unfold energy and direction distributions of the neutron fluence, showed that neutron spectra differed strongly at the different places, both in energy and direction distribution. The implication of the results for the determination of reference values for radiation protection quantities (ambient dose equivalent, personal dose equivalent and effective dose) and the related uncertainties are discussed. PMID:17890781

  9. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  10. Differentially expressed genes and proteins upon drought acclimation in tolerant and sensitive genotypes of Coffea canephora

    PubMed Central

    Marraccini, Pierre; Vinecky, Felipe; Alves, Gabriel S.C.; Ramos, Humberto J.O.; Elbelt, Sonia; Vieira, Natalia G.; Carneiro, Fernanda A.; Sujii, Patricia S.; Alekcevetch, Jean C.; Silva, Vânia A.; DaMatta, Fábio M.; Ferrão, Maria A.G.; Leroy, Thierry; Pot, David; Vieira, Luiz G.E.; da Silva, Felipe R.; Andrade, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying drought acclimation in coffee plants by the identification of candidate genes (CGs) using different approaches. The first approach used the data generated during the Brazilian Coffee expressed sequence tag (EST) project to select 13 CGs by an in silico analysis (electronic northern). The second approach was based on screening macroarrays spotted with plasmid DNA (coffee ESTs) with separate hybridizations using leaf cDNA probes from drought-tolerant and susceptible clones of Coffea canephora var. Conilon, grown under different water regimes. This allowed the isolation of seven additional CGs. The third approach used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify proteins displaying differential accumulation in leaves of drought-tolerant and susceptible clones of C. canephora. Six of them were characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry) and the corresponding proteins were identified. Finally, additional CGs were selected from the literature, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to analyse the expression of all identified CGs. Altogether, >40 genes presenting differential gene expression during drought acclimation were identified, some of them showing different expression profiles between drought-tolerant and susceptible clones. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that factors involved a complex network of responses probably involving the abscisic signalling pathway and nitric oxide are major molecular determinants that might explain the better efficiency in controlling stomata closure and transpiration displayed by drought-tolerant clones of C. canephora. PMID:22511801

  11. Microtopographic hydrologic variability change resulting from vegetation acclimation response to elevated atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The elevated concentration of atmospheric CO2 increases the ratio of carbon fixation to water loss from plants or water use efficiency, which reduces transpiration. However, the magnitude of the effects of this vegetation acclimation on hydrologic dynamics, such as soil moisture content and surface runoff controlled by microtopographic variability on the land surface, remains unclear. Here we integrate a multi-layer canopy-root-soil model (MLCan) with a coupled surface-subsurface flow model (GCSFlow) to capture the acclimation responses of vegetation to climate change and predict how these changes affect hydrologic dynamics on landscapes at fine scales. The model is implemented on a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing environment to overcome challenges associated with the high density of computational grid and nonlinear solvers. The model is capable of simulating large-scale heterogeneities due to both microtopography and soils and lateral water fluxes at emerging lidar-scale resolutions (~1m). We demonstrate that hybrid computing is feasible for detailed, large-scale ecohydrologic modeling, which has been previously assumed to be an intractable computational problem. Simulations are performed for corn crop in the Goose Creek watershed in central Illinois, USA at present and projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2, 400 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively. The results show a net decrease of 11% for the average annual evapotranspiration of corn, which increases water content in the soil and at the land surface. These results highlight the critical role of a warming climate on atmospheric-soil-vegetation interactions and the need to understand other dynamics near the soil surface associated with water and vegetation.

  12. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  14. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

  15. Preclosure radiological safety evaluation: Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schelling, F.J.; Smith, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    A radiological safety evaluation is performed to determine the impacts of Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) design changes on the preclosure public radiological safety for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Although the ESF design has undergone significant modification, incorporation of the modified design requires only modest changes to the conceptual repository configuration. To the extent feasible, the results of earlier safety evaluations presented in SAND84-2641, SAND88-7061, and SAND89-7024, which were based on the original ESF configuration, are compared with the results for the modified configuration. This comparison provides an estimate of the range of analysis uncertainty. This preliminary analysis indicates that there are no Q-scenarios, which are defined as those scenarios with a net occurrence probability of greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/yr and produce a radiological dose at the 5-km controlled area boundary of greater than 0.5 rem. The analysis yielded estimates for an underground accident of a probability of 3.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}/yr and a dose of 1.5 rem. For a surface-initiated accident, a probability of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}12}/yr and a dose of 0.6 rem was estimated.

  16. Resting Energy Expenditure of Rats Acclimated to Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro; Schwenke, David; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To determine the influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EE) following acclimation to hyper-gravity, oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured to calculate resting energy expenditure (EE), in male rats, ages 40 to 400 days, acclimated to 1.23 or 4.1 G for a minimum of two weeks. Animals were maintained on a centrifuge to produce the hyper-gravity environment. Measurements were made over three hours in hyper-gravity during the period when the lights were on, the inactive period of rats. In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g) hyper-gravity increased VO2 by 18% and VCO2 by 27% compared to controls, resulting in an increase in RER, 0.80 to 0.87. There were increases in resting EE with an increase in gravity. This increase was greater when the mass of the rat was larger. Rating EE for 400g animals were increased from 47 +/- 1 kcal/kg/day at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 5.8 +/- 2.2 kcal/kg/day at 2,3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference between the two hyper-gravity environments. When differences in age of the animals were accounted for, the increase in resting EE adjusted for body mass was increased by over 36% in older animals due to exposure to hyper-gravity. Acclimation to hyper-gravity increases the resting EE of rats, dependent upon body mass and age, and appears to alter substrate metabolism. Increasing the level of hyper-gravity, from 2.3 to 4.1 G, produced no further changes raising questions as to a dose effect of gravity level on resting metabolism.

  17. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  18. Genes critical for the induction of cold acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic studies have shown that cold acclimation in wheat and its relatives start at different temperatures. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that regulate the induction of cold-acclimation process in cereals we compared the expression of genes in winter-habit (winter Norstar and w...

  19. Supramaximal heat production induced by aminophylline in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1985-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that aminophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (thereby increasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentration) elicits supramaximal heat production and improves cold tolerance in rats acclimated to 22°C. To test whether aminophylline-stimulated supramaximal thermogenesis is independent of both the thermogenic capacity (i.e. aerobic fitness) and the mode of thermogenesis (shivering vs. non-shivering), rats (adult male Sprague-Dawley, approximately 400 g) of two different ages (4 11 month and 9 17 month, n=12 for each) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 25°C in succession and their thermogenic responses to aminophylline subsequently assessed. Aminophylline elicited supramaximal thermogenesis and improved cold tolerance regardless of age or acclimating temperatures. Further, the absolute net increase in heat production stimulated by aminophylline was also similar for all acclimating temperatures. After acclimating to 15°C, a single injection of aminophylline in the older rats elicited thermogenesis greater than that of the controls acclimated to 5°C; in the younger rats, aminophylline duplicated 46% of the increase in thermogenesis observed after acclimating to 5°C. These results indicated that the aminophylline-stimulated extra heat production is independent of both the thermogenic capacity and the mode of thermogenesis. It is possible that an enhanced substrate mobilization consequent to increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration by aminophylline underlies the common mechanism via which supramaximal thermogenesis is elicited in temperature-acclimated rats.

  20. Cold resistance depends on acclimation and behavioral caste in a temperate ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne; Scharf, Inon

    2012-10-01

    Adjusting to low temperatures is important for animals living in cold environments. We studied the chill-coma recovery time in temperate ant workers ( Temnothorax nylanderi) from colonies collected in autumn and spring in Germany. We experimentally acclimated these ant colonies to cold temperatures followed by warm temperatures. As expected, cold-acclimated workers recovered faster from freezing temperatures, but subsequent heat acclimation did not change the short recovery times observed after cold acclimation. Hence, either heat acclimation improves cold tolerance, possibly as a general response to stress, or at least it does not negate enhanced cold tolerance following cold acclimation. Colonies collected in spring showed similar cold tolerance levels to cold-acclimated colonies in the laboratory. Next, we compared the chill-coma recovery time of different worker castes and found that exterior workers recovered faster than interior workers. This difference may be related to their more frequent exposure to cold, higher activity level, or distinct physiology. Interior workers were also heavier and showed a higher gaster-to-head ratio and thorax ratio compared to exterior workers. An obvious difference between exterior and interior workers is activity level, but we found no link between activity and cold tolerance. This suggests that physiology rather than behavioral differences could cause the increased cold tolerance of exterior workers. Our study reveals the importance of acclimation for cold tolerance under natural and standardized conditions and demonstrates differences in cold tolerance and body dimensions in monomorphic behavioral castes of an ant.

  1. Cold-hardiness, acclimation, and deacclimation among diverse blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, only limited evaluations have been done on the acclimation and deacclimation process in blueberry, even though it is an integral part of flower bud survival and, thus, reproductive success. In this study we have measured the timing and rate of acclimation and deacclimation in seven b...

  2. Temperature acclimation in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): biochemical and organ weight changes.

    PubMed

    Steffen, J M; Roberts, J C

    1977-01-01

    1. Adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated to 5 +/- 1, 24 +/- 1 and 34 +/- 1 degrees C for 6-8 weeks. 2. Body weights of temperature acclimated gerbils did not differ significantly from controls. Organ wt/body wt ratios of liver, kidney and heart increased in cold-acclimated and decreased in heat-acclimated gerbils. Adrenal wt/body wt ratio increased in the cold and was unchanged in the heat. Relative weights of brain, spleen, lungs, brown fat and ovaries + uterus did not change with temperature acclimation. 3. Cold acclimation produced significant increases in specific and total activity of brown fat alpha GPO and liver SO and AAO and in total activity of kidney SO; a significant decrease in liver mitochondrial ADP/O ratio with succinate as substrate; and no change in brown fat SO or liver alpha KGO. 4. Heat acclimation produced significant decreases in specific and total activity of liver and kidney SO, and in total activity of brown fat SO and alpha GPO, and liver AAO and alpha KGO. 5. The combined biochemical and organ wt changes seen in temperature-acclimated gerbils suggest that this species is capable of altering its metabolic thermogenic potential in response to a wide range of ambient temperatures. PMID:318267

  3. Can targeting glutamate receptors with long-term heat acclimation improve outcomes following hypoxic injury?

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Long-term heat acclimation appears to improve tolerance to hypoxic insults in various tissues, including brain, providing a promising avenue to improve functional outcomes following cerebrovascular events. Glutamate discharge is implicated in dysfunction following hypoxic stress and thus, targeting glutamate receptors with heat acclimation could improve cognitive outcomes following hypoxic injury. PMID:27227003

  4. Mitochondrial physiology and reactive oxygen species production are altered by hypoxia acclimation in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Du, Sherry N N; Mahalingam, Sajeni; Borowiec, Brittney G; Scott, Graham R

    2016-04-15

    Many fish encounter hypoxia in their native environment, but the role of mitochondrial physiology in hypoxia acclimation and hypoxia tolerance is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of hypoxia acclimation on mitochondrial respiration, O2kinetics, emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant capacity in the estuarine killifish ( ITALIC! Fundulus heteroclitus). Killifish were acclimated to normoxia, constant hypoxia (5 kPa O2) or intermittent diel cycles of nocturnal hypoxia (12 h:12 h normoxia:hypoxia) for 28-33 days and mitochondria were isolated from liver. Neither pattern of hypoxia acclimation affected the respiratory capacities for oxidative phosphorylation or electron transport, leak respiration, coupling control or phosphorylation efficiency. Hypoxia acclimation also had no effect on mitochondrial O2kinetics, but ITALIC! P50(the O2tension at which hypoxia inhibits respiration by 50%) was lower in the leak state than during maximal respiration, and killifish mitochondria endured anoxia-reoxygenation without any impact on mitochondrial respiration. However, both patterns of hypoxia acclimation reduced the rate of ROS emission from mitochondria when compared at a common O2tension. Hypoxia acclimation also increased the levels of protein carbonyls and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver tissue (the latter only occurred in constant hypoxia). Our results suggest that hypoxia acclimation is associated with changes in mitochondrial physiology that decrease ROS production and may help improve hypoxia tolerance. PMID:26896545

  5. Post-acclimation transcriptome adjustment is a major factor in freezing tolerance of winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of cold-acclimated wheat plants to survive freezing to several degrees below 0C varies among wheat genotypes. While the transcriptional regulation of the cold acclimation process above 0C has been studied extensively, very little is known of the changes in gene expression that may occur ...

  6. The Yin-Yang of Cytokinin Homeostasis and Drought Acclimation/Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant drought acclimation/adaptation through a multistep phosphorelay pathway. Recent progress has allowed us to suggest a yin-and-yang-type relationship between CK homeostasis and acclimation/adaptation responses that modulates plant fitness and yields stability under drought through a complex network involving crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA). PMID:27270336

  7. Acclimation to temperature and irradiance modulates PSII charge recombination.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Sane, P V; Krol, M; Gray, G R; Balseris, A; Savitch, L V; Oquist, G; Hüner, N P A

    2006-05-15

    Acclimation of wild type and the chlorina F2 mutant of barley to either high light or low temperature results in a 2- to 3-fold increase in non-photochemical quenching which occurred independently of either energy-dependent quenching (qE), xanthophyll cycle-mediated antenna quenching or state transitions. Results of in vivo thermoluminescence measurements used to address this conundrum indicated that excitation pressure regulates the temperature gap for S(2)Q(B)(-) and S(2)Q(A)(-) charge recombinations within photosystem II reaction centers. This is discussed in terms of photoprotection through non-radiative charge recombination. PMID:16674953

  8. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  9. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  11. Thermal acclimation, mitochondrial capacities and organ metabolic profiles in a reptile (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Seebacher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles thermoregulate behaviourally, but change their preferred temperature and the optimal temperature for performance seasonally. We evaluated whether the digestive and locomotor systems of the alligator show parallel metabolic adjustments during thermal acclimation. To this end, we allowed juvenile alligators to grow under thermal conditions typical of winter and summer, providing them with seasonally appropriate basking opportunities. Although mean body temperatures of alligators in these groups differed by approximately 10°C, their growth and final anatomic status was equivalent. While hepatic mitochondria isolated from cold-acclimated alligators had higher oxidative capacities at 30°C than those from warm-acclimated alligators, the capacities did not differ at 20°C. Cold acclimation decreased maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. For mitochondria from both organs and acclimation groups, palmitate increased oligomycin-inhibited respiration. GDP addition reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates more in liver mitochondria from warm- than cold-acclimated alligators. In muscle mitochondria, carboxyatractyloside significantly reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates. This effect was not changed by thermal acclimation. The aerobic capacity of liver, skeletal muscle and duodenum, as estimated by activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), increased with cold acclimation. At acclimation temperatures, the activities of COX and citrate synthase (CS) in these organs were equivalent. By measuring COX and CS in isolated mitochondria and tissue extracts, we estimated that cold acclimation did not change the mitochondrial content in liver, but increased that of muscle. The thermal compensation of growth rates and of the aerobic capacity of the locomotor and digestive systems suggests that alligators optimised metabolic processes for the seasonally altered, preferred body temperature. The precision of this compensatory response exceeds that typically shown by aquatic

  12. Thermal acclimation effects differ between voluntary, maximum, and critical swimming velocities in two cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Bennett, Albert F

    2003-01-01

    Temperature acclimation may be a critical component of the locomotor physiology and ecology of ectothermic animals, particularly those living in eurythermal environments. Several studies of fish report striking acclimation of biochemical and kinetic properties in isolated muscle. However, the relatively few studies of whole-animal performance report variable acclimation responses. We test the hypothesis that different types of whole-animal locomotion will respond differently to temperature acclimation, probably due to divergent physiological bases of locomotion. We studied two cyprinid fishes, tinfoil barbs (Puntius schwanenfeldii) and river barbels (Barbus barbus). Study fish were acclimated to either cold or warm temperatures for at least 6 wk and then assayed at four test temperatures for three types of swimming performance. We measured voluntary swimming velocity to estimate routine locomotor behavior, maximum fast start velocity to estimate anaerobic capacity, and critical swimming velocity to estimate primarily aerobic capacity. All three performance measures showed some acute thermal dependence, generally a positive correlation between swimming speed and test temperature. However, each performance measure responded quite differently to acclimation. Critical speeds acclimated strongly, maximum speeds not at all, and voluntary speeds uniquely in each species. Thus we conclude that long-term temperature exposure can have very different consequences for different types of locomotion, consistent with our hypothesis. The data also address previous hypotheses that predict that polyploid and eurythermal fish will have greater acclimation abilities than other fish, due to increased genetic flexibility and ecological selection, respectively. Our results conflict with these predictions. River barbels are eurythermal polyploids and tinfoil barbs stenothermal diploids, yet voluntary swimming acclimated strongly in tinfoil barbs and minimally in river barbels, and

  13. The impact of CFD on development test facilities - A National Research Council projection. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkegi, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a National Research Council study on the effect that advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will have on conventional aeronautical ground testing are reported. Current CFD capabilities include the depiction of linearized inviscid flows and a boundary layer, initial use of Euler coordinates using supercomputers to automatically generate a grid, research and development on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, and preliminary research on solutions to the full N-S equations. Improvements in the range of CFD usage is dependent on the development of more powerful supercomputers, exceeding even the projected abilities of the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator (1 BFLOP/sec). Full representation of the Re-averaged N-S equations will require over one million grid points, a computing level predicted to be available in 15 yr. Present capabilities allow identification of data anomalies, confirmation of data accuracy, and adequateness of model design in wind tunnel trials. Account can be taken of the wall effects and the Re in any flight regime during simulation. CFD can actually be more accurate than instrumented tests, since all points in a flow can be modeled with CFD, while they cannot all be monitored with instrumentation in a wind tunnel.

  14. (Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts): Progress report, May 16, 1987-January 4, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The goals of this project are to provide a mechanistic understanding of freezedehydration-induced mesonmorphic phase transitions in the plasma membrane of winter cereals that are manifested as alterations in the ultrastructure (lateral phase separations, aparticulate lamellae and hexagonal/sub II/ configurations) and which result in the loss of osmotic responsiveness of protoplasts isolated from non-acclimated rye leaves and to determine the cellular and molecular mechanims by which cold acclimation and cryoprotectants preclude or diminish these alternations in the plasma membrane. This past year, our efforts have focused on dehydration-induced lamellar-to-hexagonal/sub II/ phase transitions in the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts and liposomes of plasma membrane lipids, characterization of the phase behavior plasma membrane lipids, development of a theory for membrane destabilization at low water contents and effects of freezingosmotic dehydration on ATPase activity and protein composition of the plasma membrane.

  15. Community assembly of a euryhaline fish microbiome during salinity acclimation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Smith, Katherine F; Melvin, Donald W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Microbiomes play a critical role in promoting a range of host functions. Microbiome function, in turn, is dependent on its community composition. Yet, how microbiome taxa are assembled from their regional species pool remains unclear. Many possible drivers have been hypothesized, including deterministic processes of competition, stochastic processes of colonization and migration, and physiological 'host-effect' habitat filters. The contribution of each to assembly in nascent or perturbed microbiomes is important for understanding host-microbe interactions and host health. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in a euryhaline fish and the surrounding tank water during salinity acclimation. To assess the relative influence of stochastic versus deterministic processes in fish microbiome assembly, we manipulated the bacterial species pool around each fish by changing the salinity of aquarium water. Our results show a complete and repeatable turnover of dominant bacterial taxa in the microbiomes from individuals of the same species after acclimation to the same salinity. We show that changes in fish microbiomes are not correlated with corresponding changes to abundant taxa in tank water communities and that the dominant taxa in fish microbiomes are rare in the aquatic surroundings, and vice versa. Our results suggest that bacterial taxa best able to compete within the unique host environment at a given salinity appropriate the most niche space, independent of their relative abundance in tank water communities. In this experiment, deterministic processes appear to drive fish microbiome assembly, with little evidence for stochastic colonization. PMID:25819646

  16. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. PMID:23346954

  17. Integration of polyamines in the cold acclimation response.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Cuevas, Juan C; Planas, Joan; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Carrasco, Pedro; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the geographical distribution of plants and accounts for significant reductions in the yield of agriculturally important crops. Low temperature damages many plant species, especially those adapted to tropical climates. In contrast, some species from temperate regions are able to develop freezing tolerance in response to low-non-freezing temperature, an adaptive process named cold acclimation. Numerous molecular, biochemical and physiological changes occur during cold acclimation, most of them being associated with significant changes in gene expression and metabolite profiles. During recent years, transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches have allowed the identification of cold-responsive genes and main metabolites which accumulate in plants exposed to cold. The obtained data support the previously held idea that polyamines (PAs) are involved in plant responses to cold, although their specific role is still not well understood. In this review, we synthesize published data regarding PA-responses to cold stress and integrate them with global transcriptional and metabolic changes. The potential of PA genetic engineering for the development of plants resistant to cold and freezing temperatures, and their plausible mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:21421344

  18. Photosynthetic acclimation to temperature in the endemic Petrophytum cinerascens

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.J.; Nowak, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    Past research has shown that only some plants have the ability to acclimate to increased temperatures. Petrophytum cinerascens is a highly restricted endemic found on steep rocky outcrops and sandy soils. Our goal was to examine the plant`s ability to acclimate to increased temperature. Plants collected from the field were subjected to three sets of day/night temperatures and to two different watering regimes. Data were analyzed using a 3x2 split plot treatment with temperature as the main effect and watering treatment as a split plot factor. Leaf gas exchange was measured at step-intervals of leaf temperature. Data were fit to individual temperature response curves, and optimum assimilation rate (A{sub opt}), optimum temperature for assimilation (T{sub opt}) and high temperature intercept (T{sub high}) were calculated from the regressions. A{sub opt} for clones grown at 30/16 and 34/20 C was significantly greater than that for clones grown at 38/24 C, but the main effects of temperature on T{sub opt} and T{sub high} were not significant. The only significant effect of watering treatment was a significant temperature x water treatment interaction. The lack of change in T{sub opt} and T{sub high} suggests that p. cinerascens is not able to tolerate increased global temperature and therefore may serve as a sensitive indicator of climate change.

  19. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  20. Adaptation and acclimation of photosynthetic microorganisms to permanently cold environments.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Priscu, John C; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-03-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  1. Adaptation and Acclimation of Photosynthetic Microorganisms to Permanently Cold Environments

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Priscu, John C.; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  2. Geology of the ECRB Cross Drift-Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain Project, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE,

    1999-01-01

    The Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift (Cross Drift) excavated at Yucca Mountain is being studied to determine its suitability as a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository. This report presents a summary of data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) personnel on behalf of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Department of Energy in the Cross Drift from Sta. 00+00 to 26+64. This report includes descriptions of lithostratigraphic units, an analysis of data from full-periphery geologic maps (FPGM) and detailed line survey (DLS) data, a detailed description of the Solitario Canyon Fault zone (SCFZ), and an analysis of geotechnical and engineering characteristics. The Cross Drift is excavated entirely within the Topopah Spring Tuff formation of the Paintbrush Group. Units exposed in the crystal-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, include the Topopah Spring crystal-poor upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul) (Sta. 0+00 to 10+15), the Topopah Spring crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn) (Sta. 10+15 to 14+44), the Topopah Spring crystal-poor lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll) (Sta. 14+44 to 23+26), and the Topopah Spring crystal-poor lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln) (Sta. 23+26 to 25+85). The lower portion of the Topopah Spring crystal-rich lithophysal transition subzone (Tptrl1) is exposed on the west side of the Solitario Canyon fault from Sta. 26+57.5 to 26+64. Lithologically, the units exposed in the Cross Drift are similar in comparable stratigraphic intervals of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), particularly in terms of welding, secondary crystallization, fracturing, and type, size, color, and abundance of pumice and lithic clasts. The most notable difference is the lack of the intensely fractured zone (IFZ) in the Cross Drift. The as-built cross section and the pre-construction cross section compare favorably. Lithostratigraphic contacts and structures on the pre-construction cross section were

  3. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  4. The Limits of Acclimation of land plants in a Terrestrial Ecosystems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothavala, Zavareh

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we examine the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle and the ability of different plant types to acclimate to a changing climate at the centennial scale using a global ecosystems model with updated biogeochemical processes related to moisture, carbon, and nitrogen. Elevated level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increases CO2 fertilization, resulting in more CO2 uptake by vegetation, whereas the concomitant warming increases autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere. Additionally, warming will enhance photosynthesis if current temperatures are below the optimal temperature for plant growth, while it will reduce photosynthesis if current temperatures are above the optimal temperature for plant growth. We present a series of ensemble simulations to evaluate the ability of plants to acclimate to changing conditions over the last century and how this affects the terrestrial carbon sink. A set of experiments related to (a) the varying relationship between CO2 fertilization and the half saturation constant, (b) the factors related to gross primary productivity and maintenance respiration, and (c) the variables related to heterotrophic respiration, were conducted with thirteen plant functional types. The experiments were performed using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) with a present-day vegetation distribution without the effects of natural or human disturbance, and a closed Nitrogen cycle, at a half-degree resolution over the globe. The experiment design consisted of eight scenarios that are consistent with past and future ecosystem conditions, presented in other scientific studies. The significance of model trends related to runoff, soil moisture, soil carbon, Net Primary Productivity (NPP), crop yield, and Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) for different seasons, as well as surface temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and photosynthetically active radiation are analyzed for various ecosystems at the global

  5. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  7. Heat production in cold and long scotophase acclimated and winter acclimatized rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, A.; Fourie, F. Le R.

    1980-09-01

    Heat production by means of oxygen consumptionVo2 (at Ta = 6° C, 25° C, 30° C, and 32° C) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) were studied in individuals of a diurnal rodent ( Rhabdomys pumilio) and a nocturnal rodent ( Praomys natalensis). The studied mice were acclimated to cold at Ta=8°C with a photoperiod of LD 12:12. On the otherhand specimens of these two species were acclimated at Ta=25°C with a long scotophase LD8:16. The results were compared with a control group (Ta=25° C, LD 12:12) and winter acclimatized individuals of both species.Vo2 in cold acclimated mice of both species was significantly increased when compared to the control group and was even higher than the winter acclimatized group when measured below the lower critical temperature. Long scotophase acclimated mice of both species also increased their oxygen consumption significantly when compared to the control group. NST was significantly increased in long scotophase acclimated mice from both species when compared to the control group. The results of this study indicate that the effects of acclimation to long scotophase are similar to those of cold acclimation. As changes in photoperiod are regular, it may be assumed that heat production mechanisms in acclimatization to winter will respond to changes in photoperiodicity.

  8. The low temperature response pathways for cold acclimation and vernalization are independent.

    PubMed

    Bond, Donna M; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Finnegan, E Jean

    2011-10-01

    Vernalization is the promotion of flowering in response to the prolonged cold of winter. To survive sub-zero winter temperatures, plants must first acclimate to low, non-freezing temperatures (cold acclimation). Induction of VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3), the first gene in the vernalization pathway, is initiated within the same time frame as the induction of genes in the cold acclimation pathway raising the question of whether there are common elements in the signal transduction pathways that activate these two responses to cold. We show that none of the signalling components required for cold acclimation, including the 'master regulator'INDUCTION OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) or HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1), which has been described as a link between cold acclimation and vernalization, play a role in VIN3 induction. We also show that the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) does not modulate VIN3 induction, consistent with earlier reports that ABA signalling plays no role in the vernalization response. The cold acclimation pathway is activated at 12 °C, at which temperature there is no induction of VIN3 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the responses to low temperatures leading to cold acclimation and vernalization are controlled by distinct signalling pathways. PMID:21631537

  9. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P. R.; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25–35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390–800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10–20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  10. Effect of cold acclimation on the photosynthetic performance of two ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    PubMed

    Bravo, León A; Saavedra-Mella, Felipe A; Vera, Felipe; Guerra, Alexi; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A; Corcuera, Luis J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cold acclimation of two ecotypes (Antarctic and Andes) of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. Caryophyllaceae on their photosynthetic characteristics and performance under high light (HL) were compared. Non-acclimated plants of the Antarctic ecotype exhibited a higher (34%) maximal rate of photosynthesis than the Andes ecotype. In cold-acclimated plants the light compensation point was increased. Dark respiration was significantly increased during the exposure to 4 degrees C in both ecotypes. Cold-acclimated Antarctic plants showed higher Phi(PSII) and qP compared with the Andes ecotype. In addition, the Antarctic ecotype exhibited higher heat dissipation (NPQ), especially in the cold-acclimated state, which was mainly associated with the fast relaxing component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ(F)). By contrast, the Andes ecotype exhibited a lower NPQ(F) and a significant increase in the slowly relaxing component (NPQ(s)) at low temperature and HL, indicating higher sensitivity to low temperature-induced photoinhibition. Although the xanthophyll cycle was fully operational in both ecotypes, cold-acclimated Antarctic plants exposed to HL exhibited higher epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments (EPS) compared with the cold-acclimated Andes ecotype. Thus, the photosynthetic apparatus of the Antarctic ecotype operates more efficiently than that of the Andes one, under a combination of low temperature and HL. The ecotype differences are discussed in relation to the different climatic conditions of the two Colobanthus. PMID:18057038

  11. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and - the notoriously unknown - physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25-35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390-800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10-20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  12. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.; Mendicino, R.; Benkechkache, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 104 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC.

  13. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  14. Family origin and the response of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, to thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Leroy, P H

    2001-03-01

    To establish whether family origin affects the response of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to thermal acclimation, we examined the rates of feeding, growth, and food conversion, relative tissue and organ masses and activities of a mitochondrial and a glycolytic enzyme in pectoral and axial muscle of individually housed fish from six families during acclimation to 8 degrees C and 23 degrees C. Feeding rates differed among families but were consistently higher in warm-acclimated than cold-acclimated fish. Growth rates differed among families. In four families growth was greater at 8 degrees C; these families generally had higher conversion efficiencies at 8 degrees C than 23 degrees C. For two families, growth was greater at 23 degrees C than 8 degrees C and conversion efficiencies did not differ between 8 degrees C and 23 degrees C. Relative tissue and organ masses (percent axial muscle, hepatosomatic, gut and kidney indices) differed with gender and among families (hepatosomatic, gut and kidney indices) but little with acclimation status. In all families and in both muscles, activities of the mitochondrial enzyme, citrate synthase (CS), were increased by cold acclimation. Axial muscle levels of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were not affected by thermal acclimation or family origin, but were strongly correlated with the hepatosomatic index and axial muscle protein content. Pectoral muscle levels of LDH were affected by family origin which also influenced the response to thermal acclimation. Similar patterns were observed for specific activities and total muscle contents of these enzymes. Stickleback family origin influenced rates of feeding and growth and the thermal sensitivity of growth rates but not the compensatory increase in muscle CS levels with cold acclimation. The differing thermal sensitivities of growth could reflect distinct strategies for the timing of juvenile growth. PMID:11302536

  15. The User Community and a Multi-Mission Data Project: Services, Experiences and Directions of the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, John; Fung, Shing; Harris, B.; Johnson R.; King, J.; Kovalick, T.; Leckner, H.; Papitashvili, N.; Roberts, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    From a user's perspective, the multi-mission data and orbit services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project offer a unique range of important data and services highly complementary to other services presently available or now evolving in the international heliophysics data environment. The VSP (Virtual Space Physics Observatory) service is an active portal to a wide range of distributed data sources. CDAWeb (Coordinate Data Analysis Web) enables plots, listings and file downloads for current data cross the boundaries of missions and instrument types (and now including data from THEMIS and STEREO). SSCWeb, Helioweb and our 3D Animated Orbit Viewer (TIPSOD) provide position data and query logic for most missions currently important to heliophysics science. OMNIWeb with its new extension to 1- and 5-minute resolution provides interplanetary parameters at the Earth's bow shock as a unique value-added data product. SPDF also maintains NASA's CDF (common Data Format) standard and a range of associated tools including translation services. These capabilities are all now available through webservices-based APIs as well as through our direct user interfaces. In this paper, we will demonstrate the latest data and capabilities now supported in these multi-mission services, review the lessons we continue to learn in what science users need and value in this class of services, and discuss out current thinking to the future role and appropriate focus of the SPDF effort in the evolving and increasingly distributed heliophysics data environment.

  16. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  17. Future high intensity ISOL facilities: Selected current R&D topics and possible synergies with other projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2003-05-01

    The long-term future of ISOL facilities will be governed by the quest for ever increasing secondary beam intensities. One important aspect concerns a new generation of high-power driver accelerators which aim at multi-megawatt beam powers, used in a two-step production scheme for fission products. Within the EURISOL study, e.g. a 1 GeV, 5 mA proton has been investigated in some detail. It would be upgradeable in energy and also have, up to a certain extend, the capability for heavy-ion acceleration. The required R&D programme was assessed, and found to be in the mainstream of today's accelerator development which addresses also other projects like accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste, neutrino beams, …. The concomitant development of high-power spallation targets and the secondary uranium targets is the second issue where a lot of R&D effort is done by several communities. Linked to this are also the studies in which photo-fission is used as a "low-cost" option for a dedicated region of the nuclear chart. The present paper will introduce in this general context, and discuss (selected) relevant new experimental results which are obtained in linac in particular.

  18. The effects of cold acclimation on electrocardiogram parameters in five species of turtles.

    PubMed

    Risher, J F; Claussen, D L

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thermal acclimation at 25 or 5 degrees C on electrical activity in the heart were investigated in Pseudemys scripta, Terrapene carolina, Chrysemys picta marginata, Chrysemys picta dorsalis, Chelydra serpentina, and Sternotherus odoratus. The durations of the QRS complex and P-R, R-T and R-R intervals were found to increase with decreasing body temperature in all animals tested. The amplitudes of the P and T waves and QRS complex were dependent upon both acclimation temperature and test temperature. Differences between acclimation groups in the change in QRS amplitudes between 20 and 0 degrees C were statistically significant for all species. PMID:2886260

  19. Acclimation dynamics and sub-optimality in carbon allocation for C3 and C4 plants subject to growth under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.

    2012-12-01

    Soybean-Maize agro ecosystem covers about 9% of the mainland US and its acclimation response due to climate change has the potential to significantly impact local and regional ecohydrology and climate. C3 and C4 species exhibit different acclimation strategies to elevated CO2 in terms of their carbon assimilation. While C3 species have a direct enhancement in carbon assimilation, C4 species have a mild indirect carbon assimilation enhancement effect due to decreased water stress. However, the fate of the assimilated carbon in terms of its allocation to different plant parts remains unknown to a large extent. This has the potential to alter above and below ground respiration water uptake patterns and crop productivity. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of carbon allocation, translocation and partitioning in C3 and C4 plants under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions using a multi-layer land surface model MLCan (Drewry et al. 2010) and flux and biomass data from Ameriflux and SoyFACE research facilities (Morgan et al. 2004). Furthermore, we compare the observed carbon allocation patterns with an optimal carbon allocation model that maximizes end of season seed yield. Our results show that, only C3 species exhibits acclimation response in carbon allocation under elevated CO2. While the structural, bio-chemical and eco-physiological acclimation effect of elevated CO2 in C3 plants have been documented in earlier studies (Drewry et al. 2010), our study provides a direct evidence of carbon allocation acclimation in C3 plants. Under acclimation C3 plants allocate more carbon to vegetative parts (leaf, stem and root) compared to reproductive part (seed) thus changing their allometric relationships. This explains the apparent lower than expected yields in C3 plants observed in FACE experiments (Morgan et al 2004). Comparison of our results with an optimal carbon allocation model reveals that under ambient CO2 concentrations, C3 and C4 plants allocate sub

  20. Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Boris F; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Demone, Jordan; Bertrand, Annick; Charron, Jean-Benoit

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation (CA) capacity of nine C. sativa varieties and the underlying genetic and epigenetic responses. The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole-plant freeze tests. In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment. In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated (COR) genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine (MeC) during CA. Furthermore, these hardy C. sativa varieties displayed significant increases in MeC levels at COR gene loci when deacclimated, suggesting a role for locus-specific DNA methylation in deacclimation. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C. sativa and reveals higher levels of complexity regarding how genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors intertwine. PMID:25534661

  1. Acclimation of metabolism to light in A rabidopsis thaliana: the glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator GPT2 directs metabolic acclimation

    PubMed Central

    DYSON, BETH C.; ALLWOOD, J. WILLIAM; FEIL, REGINA; XU, YUN; MILLER, MATTHEW; BOWSHER, CAROLINE G.; GOODACRE, ROYSTON; LUNN, JOHN E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mature leaves of plants transferred from low to high light typically increase their photosynthetic capacity. In A rabidopsis thaliana, this dynamic acclimation requires expression of GPT2, a glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator. Here, we examine the impact of GPT2 on leaf metabolism and photosynthesis. Plants of wild type and of a GPT2 knockout (gpt2.2) grown under low light achieved the same photosynthetic rate despite having different metabolic and transcriptomic strategies. Immediately upon transfer to high light, gpt2.2 plants showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than wild‐type plants (35%); however, over subsequent days, wild‐type plants acclimated photosynthetic capacity, increasing the photosynthesis rate by 100% after 7 d. Wild‐type plants accumulated more starch than gpt2.2 plants throughout acclimation. We suggest that GPT2 activity results in the net import of glucose 6‐phosphate from cytosol to chloroplast, increasing starch synthesis. There was clear acclimation of metabolism, with short‐term changes typically being reversed as plants acclimated. Distinct responses to light were observed in wild‐type and gpt2.2 leaves. Significantly higher levels of sugar phosphates were observed in gpt2.2. We suggest that GPT2 alters the distribution of metabolites between compartments and that this plays an essential role in allowing the cell to interpret environmental signals. PMID:25474495

  2. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  3. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  4. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  5. Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22-, and 34 C-acclimated hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. B.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of norepinephrine (NE) concentration and endogenous turnover rates in both myocardial and spleen tissues in the golden hamster is examined as a function of chronic exposure to either high or low ambient temperatures. Changes in myocardial and spleen NE turnover values are discussed in terms of functional alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the importance of such changes in temperature acclimation. It is found that acclimation of hamsters to 7 C for 7-10 weeks results in decreased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent increase in myocardial NE turnover. In contrast, exposure to 34 C for 6-8 weeks results in increased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent decrease in NE turnover in both myocardial and spleen tissues. The implication of altered NE synthesis is that sympathetic nerve activity is reduced with heat acclimation and is enhanced with cold acclimation.

  6. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Smith, Nicholas G.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Fisher, Rosie A.

    2015-10-01

    Earth System Models typically use static responses to temperature to calculate photosynthesis and respiration, but experimental evidence suggests that many plants acclimate to prevailing temperatures. We incorporated representations of photosynthetic and leaf respiratory temperature acclimation into the Community Land Model, the terrestrial component of the Community Earth System Model. These processes increased terrestrial carbon pools by 20 Pg C (22%) at the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) climate scenario. Including the less certain estimates of stem and root respiration acclimation increased terrestrial carbon pools by an additional 17 Pg C (~40% overall increase). High latitudes gained the most carbon with acclimation, and tropical carbon pools increased least. However, results from both of these regions remain uncertain; few relevant data exist for tropical and boreal plants or for extreme temperatures. Constraining these uncertainties will produce more realistic estimates of land carbon feedbacks throughout the 21st century.

  7. Acclimation of nitrifying biomass and its effect on 2-chlorophenol removal.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alfaro, J E; González-Blanco, G; Sierra-Palacios, E; Marcial-Quino, J; Beristain-Cardoso, R

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic and kinetic behavior of a nitrifying sludge exposed to 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was evaluated in batch cultures. Two kinds of nitrifying culture were used; one acclimated to 4-methylphenol (4-mp), and the other unacclimated to 4-mp. The unacclimated culture was affected adversely by the 2-CP's presence, since neither nitrification nor 2-CP oxidation was observed. Nonetheless, the acclimated culture showed metabolic capacity to nitrify and mineralize 2-CP. Ammonium removal was 100%, with a nitrifying yield of 0.92 ± 0.04 mg NO(3)(-)-N/mg NH(4)(+)-N consumed. The consumption efficiency for 2-CP was 100% and the halogenated compound was mineralized to CO2. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns showed the shift in microbial community structure, indicating that microbial diversity was due to the acclimation process. This is the first evidence where nitrifying culture acclimated to 4-mp completely removed ammonium and 2-CP. PMID:25633952

  8. Impacts of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis on future land carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, L. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Huntingford, C.; Sitch, S.; Zelazowsk, P.; Cox, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants have the ability to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics in order to improve their performance at the prevailing thermal regimes, this is termed thermal acclimation of photosynthesis. The impacts of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis on future land sink and climate is unknown. In this study we estimate the impact of accounting for thermal acclimation of photosynthetic traits on future land carbon sink using 22 climate models and a global land surface model. We find an enhancement of land carbon storage of up to 70 % and 13 % in tropical and temperate regions in 2100 when accounting for thermal plasticity of photosynthetic capacity. The outcome of this study highlights the urgent need for more studies on thermal acclimation of photosynthesis, specifically in the tropical regions where there is a lack of data and ecosystem scale warming and elevated CO2 experiments.

  9. Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer).

    PubMed

    Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

    2013-04-01

    A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. PMID:23348601

  10. No effects of acclimation to heat on immune and hormonal responses to passive heating in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Heat acclimation results in whole body-adaptations that increase heat tolerance, and might also result in changed immune responses. We hypothesized that, after heat acclimation, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and the lymphocyte count would be altered. Heat acclimation was induced in 6 healthy men by 100 min of heat exposure for 9 days. Heat exposure consisted of (1) 10 min of immersion up to chest-level in water at 42°C and (2) 90 min of passive heating by a warm blanket to maintain tympanic temperature at 37.5°C. The climatic chamber was maintained at 40°C and a relative humidity of 50%. Blood samples were analyzed before and after heat acclimation for natural killer (NK) cell activity, counts of lymphocytes B and T, before and after heat acclimation for peripheral blood morphology, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cortisol. A Japanese version of the profile of mood states questionnaire was also administered before and after acclimation. The concentrations of white blood cells, lymphocytes B and T, cortisol, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and NK cell activity showed no significant differences between pre- and post-acclimation, but there was a significantly lower platelet count after acclimation and, with the profile of mood states questionnaire, there was a significant rise in anger after acclimation. It is concluded that heat acclimation by passive heating does not induce alterations in immune or endocrine responses.

  11. Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Patrice; Guderley, Helga

    2003-10-01

    The time course of changes in the properties of mitochondria from oxidative muscle of rainbow trout was examined during warm (15 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) acclimation. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities showed a biphasic response during thermal acclimation: at a given assay temperature, capacities first increased and then decreased during warm acclimation and showed the inverse pattern during cold acclimation. This was most apparent for maximal rates of state 3 oxygen consumption expressed per mg mitochondrial protein. Rates expressed per nmol ADP-ATP translocase (ANT) showed this pattern during cold acclimation. A biphasic pattern was also apparent for state 4 and oligomycin-inhibited (state 4(ol)) rates of oxygen uptake expressed per mg protein. Changes in states 4 and 4(ol) were smaller during cold than warm acclimation. Warm acclimation reduced the proportion of cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase needed during mitochondrial substrate oxidation. Phospholipid concentrations per mg mitochondrial protein changed little with thermal acclimation. Mitochondrial properties changed more quickly during warm than cold acclimation. While the biochemical modifications during thermal acclimation may eventually compensate for the thermal change, compensation did not occur at its onset. Rather, the initial changes of mitochondrial oxidative capacity in response to temperature change accentuated the functional impact of the thermal change, and prolonged exposure to the new temperature was required to attain a degree of thermal compensation. PMID:12939376

  12. Risk-based Prioritization of Facility Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration Projects in the National Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program at the Chalk River Laboratory - 13564

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jerel G.; Kruzic, Michael; Castillo, Carlos; Pavey, Todd; Alexan, Tamer; Bainbridge, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Chalk River Laboratory (CRL), located in Ontario Canada, has a large number of remediation projects currently in the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), including hundreds of facility decommissioning projects and over one hundred environmental remediation projects, all to be executed over the next 70 years. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) utilized WorleyParsons to prioritize the NLLP projects at the CRL through a risk-based prioritization and ranking process, using the WorleyParsons Sequencing Unit Prioritization and Estimating Risk Model (SUPERmodel). The prioritization project made use of the SUPERmodel which has been previously used for other large-scale site prioritization and sequencing of facilities at nuclear laboratories in the United States. The process included development and vetting of risk parameter matrices as well as confirmation/validation of project risks. Detailed sensitivity studies were also conducted to understand the impacts that risk parameter weighting and scoring had on prioritization. The repeatable prioritization process yielded an objective, risk-based and technically defendable process for prioritization that gained concurrence from all stakeholders, including Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) who is responsible for the oversight of the NLLP. (authors)

  13. Constraints, independence, and evolution of thermal plasticity: Probing genetic architecture of long- and short-term thermal acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Gerken, Alison R.; Eller, Olivia C.; Hahn, Daniel A.; Morgan, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal and daily thermal variation can limit species distributions because of physiological tolerances. Low temperatures are particularly challenging for ectotherms, which use both basal thermotolerance and acclimation, an adaptive plastic response, to mitigate thermal stress. Both basal thermotolerance and acclimation are thought to be important for local adaptation and persistence in the face of climate change. However, the evolutionary independence of basal and plastic tolerances remains unclear. Acclimation can occur over longer (seasonal) or shorter (hours to days) time scales, and the degree of mechanistic overlap is unresolved. Using a midlatitude population of Drosophila melanogaster, we show substantial heritable variation in both short- and long-term acclimation. Rapid cold hardening (short-term plasticity) and developmental acclimation (long-term plasticity) are positively correlated, suggesting shared mechanisms. However, there are independent components of these traits, because developmentally acclimated flies respond positively to short-term acclimation. A strong negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and developmental acclimation suggests that basal cold tolerance may constrain developmental acclimation, whereas a weaker negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and short-term acclimation suggests less constraint. Using genome-wide association mapping, we show the genetic architecture of rapid cold hardening and developmental acclimation responses are nonoverlapping at the SNP and corresponding gene level. However, genes associated with each trait share functional similarities, including genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy, cytoskeletal and membrane structural components, and ion binding and transport. These results indicate substantial opportunity for short-term and long-term acclimation responses to evolve separately from each other and for short-term acclimation to evolve separately from basal thermotolerance. PMID

  14. Constraints, independence, and evolution of thermal plasticity: probing genetic architecture of long- and short-term thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Alison R; Eller, Olivia C; Hahn, Daniel A; Morgan, Theodore J

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal and daily thermal variation can limit species distributions because of physiological tolerances. Low temperatures are particularly challenging for ectotherms, which use both basal thermotolerance and acclimation, an adaptive plastic response, to mitigate thermal stress. Both basal thermotolerance and acclimation are thought to be important for local adaptation and persistence in the face of climate change. However, the evolutionary independence of basal and plastic tolerances remains unclear. Acclimation can occur over longer (seasonal) or shorter (hours to days) time scales, and the degree of mechanistic overlap is unresolved. Using a midlatitude population of Drosophila melanogaster, we show substantial heritable variation in both short- and long-term acclimation. Rapid cold hardening (short-term plasticity) and developmental acclimation (long-term plasticity) are positively correlated, suggesting shared mechanisms. However, there are independent components of these traits, because developmentally acclimated flies respond positively to short-term acclimation. A strong negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and developmental acclimation suggests that basal cold tolerance may constrain developmental acclimation, whereas a weaker negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and short-term acclimation suggests less constraint. Using genome-wide association mapping, we show the genetic architecture of rapid cold hardening and developmental acclimation responses are nonoverlapping at the SNP and corresponding gene level. However, genes associated with each trait share functional similarities, including genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy, cytoskeletal and membrane structural components, and ion binding and transport. These results indicate substantial opportunity for short-term and long-term acclimation responses to evolve separately from each other and for short-term acclimation to evolve separately from basal thermotolerance. PMID

  15. Boreal and temperate trees show strong acclimation of respiration to warming.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Sendall, Kerrie M; Stefanski, Artur; Wei, Xiaorong; Rich, Roy L; Montgomery, Rebecca A

    2016-03-31

    Plant respiration results in an annual flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that is six times as large as that due to the emissions from fossil fuel burning, so changes in either will impact future climate. As plant respiration responds positively to temperature, a warming world may result in additional respiratory CO2 release, and hence further atmospheric warming. Plant respiration can acclimate to altered temperatures, however, weakening the positive feedback of plant respiration to rising global air temperature, but a lack of evidence on long-term (weeks to years) acclimation to climate warming in field settings currently hinders realistic predictions of respiratory release of CO2 under future climatic conditions. Here we demonstrate strong acclimation of leaf respiration to both experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation for juveniles of ten North American tree species growing for several years in forest conditions. Plants grown and measured at 3.4 °C above ambient temperature increased leaf respiration by an average of 5% compared to plants grown and measured at ambient temperature; without acclimation, these increases would have been 23%. Thus, acclimation eliminated 80% of the expected increase in leaf respiration of non-acclimated plants. Acclimation of leaf respiration per degree temperature change was similar for experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation. Moreover, the observed increase in leaf respiration per degree increase in temperature was less than half as large as the average reported for previous studies, which were conducted largely over shorter time scales in laboratory settings. If such dampening effects of leaf thermal acclimation occur generally, the increase in respiration rates of terrestrial plants in response to climate warming may be less than predicted, and thus may not raise atmospheric CO2 concentrations as much as anticipated. PMID:26982730

  16. Effect of Cold Acclimation on Intracellular Ice Formation in Isolated Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Dowgert, Michael F.; Steponkus, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    When cooled at rapid rates to temperatures between −10 and −30°C, the incidence of intracellular ice formation was less in protoplasts enzymically isolated from cold acclimated leaves of rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) than that observed in protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated leaves. The extent of supercooling of the intracellular solution at any given temperature increased in both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts as the rate of cooling increased. There was no unique relationship between the extent of supercooling and the incidence of intracellular ice formation in either nonacclimated or acclimated protoplasts. In both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts, the extent of intracellular supercooling was similar under conditions that resulted in the greatest difference in the incidence of intracellular ice formation—cooling to −15 or −20°C at rates of 10 or 16°C/minute. Further, the hydraulic conductivity determined during freeze-induced dehydration at −5°C was similar for both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts. A major distinction between nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts was the temperature at which nucleation occurred. In nonacclimated protoplasts, nucleation occurred over a relatively narrow temperature range with a median nucleation temperature of −15°C, whereas in acclimated protoplasts, nucleation occurred over a broader temperature range with a median nucleation temperature of −42°C. We conclude that the decreased incidence of intracellular ice formation in acclimated protoplasts is attributable to an increase in the stability of the plasma membrane which precludes nucleation of the supercooled intracellular solution and is not attributable to an increase in hydraulic conductivity of the plasma membrane which purportedly precludes supercooling of the intracellular solution. PMID:16663149

  17. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  18. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  19. Identification of Mutants of Arabidopsis Defective in Acclimation of Photosynthesis to the Light Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robin G.; Shephard, Freya; Rogers, Jennifer J.M.; Rolfe, Stephen A.; Horton, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In common with many other higher plant species, Arabidopsis undergoes photosynthetic acclimation, altering the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to fluctuations in its growth environment. The changes in photosynthetic function that result from acclimation can be detected in a noninvasive manner by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence. This technique has been used to develop a screen that enables the rapid identification of plants defective at ACCLIMATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO THE ENVIRONMENT (APE) loci. The application of this screen to a population of T-DNA-transformed Arabidopsis has successfully led to the identification of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis and pigment composition in leaves from three such mutants showed that they had altered acclimation responses to the growth light environment, each having a distinct acclimation-defective phenotype, demonstrating that screening for mutants using Chl fluorescence is a viable strategy for the investigation of acclimation. Sequencing of the genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA elements showed that in the ape1 mutant, a gene was disrupted that encodes a protein of unknown function but that appears to be specific to photosynthetic organisms, whereas the ape2 mutant carries an insertion in the region of the TPT gene encoding the chloroplast inner envelope triose phosphate/phosphate translocator. PMID:12586872

  20. Short-term Cold Acclimation Recruits Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese Humans.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Mark J W; van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Brans, Boudewijn; Hoeks, Joris; Jardon, Kelly M C; Schaart, Gert; Mottaghy, Felix M; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential tool to combat obesity and associated metabolic complications. Short-term cold acclimation has been shown not only to enhance the presence and activity of BAT in lean humans but also to improve the metabolic profile of skeletal muscle to benefit glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we examined whether short-term cold acclimation also induced such adaptations in 10 metabolically healthy obese male subjects. A 10-day cold acclimation period resulted in increased cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT, as assessed by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. BAT activity was negatively related to age, with a similar trend for body fat percentage. In addition, cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT was positively related to glucose uptake in visceral white adipose tissue, although glucose uptake in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots was unchanged upon cold acclimation. Cold-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake tended to increase upon cold acclimation, which was paralleled by increased basal GLUT4 localization in the sarcolemma, as assessed through muscle biopsies. Proximal skin temperature was increased and subjective responses to cold were slightly improved at the end of the acclimation period. These metabolic adaptations to prolonged exposure to mild cold may lead to improved glucose metabolism or prevent the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. PMID:26718499

  1. Exploiting heterogeneous environments: does photosynthetic acclimation optimize carbon gain in fluctuating light?

    PubMed Central

    Retkute, Renata; Smith-Unna, Stephanie E.; Smith, Robert W.; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Johnson, Giles N.; Preston, Simon P.; Murchie, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to balance the efficient use of absorbed light energy in photosynthesis with the capacity to use that energy in assimilation, so avoiding potential damage from excess light. This is particularly important under natural light, which can vary according to weather, solar movement and canopy movement. Photosynthetic acclimation is the means by which plants alter their leaf composition and structure over time to enhance photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. However there is no empirical or theoretical basis for understanding how leaves track historic light levels to determine acclimation status, or whether they do this accurately. We hypothesized that in fluctuating light (varying in both intensity and frequency), the light-response characteristics of a leaf should adjust (dynamically acclimate) to maximize daily carbon gain. Using a framework of mathematical modelling based on light-response curves, we have analysed carbon-gain dynamics under various light patterns. The objective was to develop new tools to quantify the precision with which photosynthesis acclimates according to the environment in which plants exist and to test this tool on existing data. We found an inverse relationship between the optimal maximum photosynthetic capacity and the frequency of low to high light transitions. Using experimental data from the literature we were able to show that the observed patterns for acclimation were consistent with a strategy towards maximizing daily carbon gain. Refinement of the model will further determine the precision of acclimation. PMID:25788730

  2. Effects of fasting on maximum thermogenesis in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1981-09-01

    To further investigate the limiting effect of substrates on maximum thermogenesis in acute cold exposure, the present study examined the prevalence of this effect at different thermogenic capabilities consequent to cold- or warm-acclimation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were acclimated to 6, 16 and 26‡C, in succession, their thermogenic capabilities after each acclimation temperature were measured under helium-oxygen (21% oxygen, balance helium) at -10‡C after overnight fasting or feeding. Regardless of feeding conditions, both maximum and total heat production were significantly greater in 6>16>26‡C-acclimated conditions. In the fed state, the total heat production was significantly greater than that in the fasted state at all acclimating temperatures but the maximum thermogenesis was significant greater only in the 6 and 16‡C-acclimated states. The results indicate that the limiting effect of substrates on maximum and total thermogenesis is independent of the magnitude of thermogenic capability, suggesting a substrate-dependent component in restricting the effective expression of existing aerobic metabolic capability even under severe stress.

  3. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  4. Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy C; Turko, Andy J; Klaiman, Jordan M; Johnston, Elizabeth F; Gillis, Todd E

    2014-06-01

    Thermal acclimation can alter cardiac function and morphology in a number of fish species, but little is known about the regulation of these changes. The purpose of the present study was to determine how cold acclimation affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac morphology, collagen composition and connective tissue regulation. Heart volume, the thickness of the compact myocardium, collagen content and collagen fiber composition were compared between control (27°C) and cold-acclimated (20°C) zebrafish using serially sectioned hearts stained with Picrosirius Red. Collagen content and fiber composition of the pericardial membrane were also examined. Cold acclimation did not affect the volume of the contracted heart; however, there was a significant decrease in the thickness of the compact myocardium. There was also a decrease in the collagen content of the compact myocardium and in the amount of thick collagen fibers throughout the heart. Cold-acclimated zebrafish also increased expression of the gene transcript for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and collagen Type I α1. We propose that the reduction in the thickness of the compact myocardium as well as the change in collagen content may help to maintain the compliance of the ventricle as temperatures decrease. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that the zebrafish heart undergoes significant remodeling in response to cold acclimation. PMID:24577447

  5. Benefit of heat acclimation is limited by the evaporative potential when wearing chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K; Gonzalez, R R

    1999-08-01

    Heat acclimation-induced sweating responses have the potential of reducing heat strain for chemical protective garment wearers. However, this potential benefit is strongly affected by the properties of the garment. If the clothing ensemble permits sufficient evaporative heat dissipation, then heat acclimation becomes helpful in reducing heat strain. On the other hand, if the garment creates an impenetrable barrier to moisture, no benefit can be gained from heat acclimation as the additional sweating cannot be evaporated. Ten subjects were studied exercising on a treadmill while wearing two different chemical protective ensembles. Skin heat flux, skin temperature, core temperature, metabolic heat production and heart rate were measured. It was found that the benefit of heat acclimation is strongly dependent on the ability of the body to dissipate an adequate amount of heat evaporatively. The evaporative potential (EP), a measure of thermal insulation modified by moisture permeability, of the clothing ensemble offers a quantitative index useful to determine, a priori, whether heat acclimation would be helpful when wearing protective clothing system. The data show that when EP is < 15%, heat acclimation affords no benefit. An evaporative potential graph is created to aid in this determination. PMID:10504888

  6. Cold acclimation is accompanied by complex responses of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis. We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics identified a number of GPI-APs (163 proteins). Among them, some GPI-APs such as fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and glycerophosphoryldiester phosphodiesterase-like proteins predominantly increased in PM- and GPI-AP-enriched fractions while the changes of GPI-APs in the DRM and apoplast fractions during cold acclimation were considerably different from those of other fractions. These proteins are thought to be associated with cell wall structure and properties. Therefore, this study demonstrated that each GPI-AP responded to cold acclimation in a different manner, suggesting that these changes during cold acclimation are involved in rearrangement of the extracellular matrix including the cell wall towards acquisition of freezing tolerance. PMID:27471282

  7. Cold acclimation is accompanied by complex responses of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics identified a number of GPI-APs (163 proteins). Among them, some GPI-APs such as fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and glycerophosphoryldiester phosphodiesterase-like proteins predominantly increased in PM- and GPI-AP-enriched fractions while the changes of GPI-APs in the DRM and apoplast fractions during cold acclimation were considerably different from those of other fractions. These proteins are thought to be associated with cell wall structure and properties. Therefore, this study demonstrated that each GPI-AP responded to cold acclimation in a different manner, suggesting that these changes during cold acclimation are involved in rearrangement of the extracellular matrix including the cell wall towards acquisition of freezing tolerance. PMID:27471282

  8. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats at rather a depressed level, explaining a corresponding decrease in cold tolerance. On the other hand, the expression of insulin receptor mRNA was attenuated in BAT of rats from all the insulin-treated groups, possibly due to the down-regulation of insulin. Thus, there appeared to be some linkage among BAT, heat acclimation, and insulin.

  9. Effect of precooling and acclimation on repeat-sprint performance in heat.

    PubMed

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether precooling would have an additive effect on repeat-sprint cycling performance in heat following partial acclimation. Ten males completed three trials; Pre Acclimation (Pre Acc) and two Post Acclimation trials, one with precooling (ice jacket and slushy; Post Acc +PC) and another without (Post Acc). Trials consisted of a 30-min baseline period followed by a 70-min repeat-sprint protocol in ∼35°C and 60% relative humidity. Separating pre and post trials were five heat acclimation sessions. Although no significant differences were found for performance variables, inferential statistical analysis resulted in moderate effect sizes, which suggested more work (J · kg(-1)) was performed in Post Acc compared with Pre Acc. Further, 'possible' and 'very likely' benefits were found for every performance variable for Post Acc compared with Pre Acc, while 'possible' benefits were found for Post Acc, compared with Post Acc +PC, for peak power output (W and W · kg(-1)). Moderate to strong effect sizes suggested lower core temperatures in both post acclimation trials compared with Pre Acc. Sweat loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05; 23.1%) in Post Acc +PC compared to other trials. In conclusion, no additional performance enhancement was seen when partially acclimated individuals precooled prior to repeat-sprint performance in heat. PMID:23215944

  10. The Commuting Student; A Study of Facilities at Wayne State University. The Final Report of the Commuter Centers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Richard F.; Kurz, Theodore E.

    The urban university campus is studied through a comprehensive view of student patterns. Following an analysis of the life patterns of the commuting student with regard to schedule, environment, and adequacy of educational facilities, recommendations are presented for a number of campus facilities to house activities considered beneficial to the…

  11. Systems Check: Community Colleges Turn to Facilities Assessments to Plan Capital Projects and Avoid Expensive Emergency Repairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joch, Alan

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on planning and cutting costs to make better use of resources, facilities managers at community colleges across the nation have undertaken facilities audits usually with the help of outside engineers. Such assessments analyze the history and structural integrity of buildings and core components on campus, including heating…

  12. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    On January 1, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) concerning the Oak Ridge Reservation. The FFA requires that inactive liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) be remediated in accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This revision is to update the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. The scope of this project is to transfer inventory from the five inactive LLLW tanks at the OHF into the active LLLW system.

  13. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  15. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Michal; Umschweif, Gali; Yacobi, Assaf; Shohami, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA) develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance Heat Acclimation-Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance (HANCT). The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced “on-demand” protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed. PMID:26283898

  16. Facilities for US Radioastronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaddeus, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Discusses major developments in radioastronomy since 1945. Topics include proposed facilities, very-long-baseline interferometric array, millimeter-wave telescope, submillimeter-wave telescope, and funding for radioastronomy facilities and projects. (JN)

  17. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Cold acclimation of NaCl secretion in a eurythermic teleost: mitochondrial function and gill remodeling.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Katelyn R; Cozzi, Regina R F; Robertson, George; Marshall, William S

    2014-02-01

    Active chloride secretion, measured as short-circuit current (Isc) in ionocytes of opercular epithelia (OE) in the eurythermic, euryoxic, and euryhaline killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was studied in cold (5°C) and warm (20°C) acclimated fish to determine if homeoviscous adaptation aided chloride secretion in the cold. Isolated opercular epithelia were cooled from 30°C to 0.2°C for warm and cold acclimated fish; from 30 to 8°C, Isc decreased with Q10=1.68 for warm and Q10=1.56 for cold acclimated tissues. By Arrhenius plots, there is a critical temperature, 8°C, below which aerobic Isc decreased sharply (Q10=6.90 for warm and 4.23 for cold acclimated tissues), suggesting a shift in mitochondrial efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. In anaerobic conditions (0.5mM NaCN; N2 saturation), chloride transport continued at a lower rate, and Isc decrease with cooling below 8°C was less pronounced (Q10=2.95 for warm and 3.08 for cold), suggesting a shift in transporter function in plasma membrane. Under anaerobic conditions, NaCl secretion at 20°C was reversibly inhibited by hypotonic shock, indicating normal regulation of transport. Chloride secretion in warm-acclimated fish was supported mostly (75% at 20°C) by aerobic metabolism, whereas that for cold-acclimated fish was lower (55% at 20°C), suggesting a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism in the cold. Once acclimated to cold, ionocytes may be temporarily incapable of increasing their aerobic ATP supply, even when warmed to 30°C. In cold acclimated fish there was increased polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of gill epithelium (consistent with homeoviscous adaptation) and gill remodeling, wherein epithelial cells filled the interlamellar space (interlamellar cell mass, ILCM) by as much as 70%, thus increasing diffusion distance against passive ion gain. Most ionocytes in these thickened epithelial masses became taller, still connecting basal lamina with the environment, consistent

  19. Project People 2: An extended interview study of behavior response patterns in health care facility fire incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, J. L.

    The data collected in a taped interview study involving a population of 150 facility staff personnel, 53 fire department personnel and 9 patients are presented and discussed. A physical examination and analysis of the fire incident area of the facility was conducted by experienced fire protection engineers to determine the physical area of fire origin with the flame and smoke propagation patterns. Fire department personnel were interviewed to obtain observations of flame and smoke propagation. Facility personnel and patients were interviewed to determine the human behavior responses of the participants during the fire incident and to determine their perception of the fire incident threat.

  20. THE PROJECT-X INJECTOR EXPERIMENT: A NOVEL HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT-END FOR A FUTURE HIGH POWER PROTON FACILITY AT FERMILAB

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; et al,

    2013-09-25

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are carrying out a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of Project X. This program, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. PXIE is currently under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-17. PXIE will include an H* ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

  1. Gene regulation during cold stress acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2010-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development and thus limits crop productivity. Diverse plant species tolerate cold stress to a varying degree, which depends on reprogramming gene expression to modify their physiology, metabolism, and growth. Cold signal in plants is transmitted to activate CBF-dependent (C-repeat/drought-responsive element binding factor-dependent) and CBF-independent transcriptional pathway, of which CBF-dependent pathway activates CBF regulon. CBF transcription factor genes are induced by the constitutively expressed ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) by binding to the CBF promoter. ICE1-CBF cold response pathway is conserved in diverse plant species. Transgenic analysis in different plant species revealed that cold tolerance can be significantly enhanced by genetic engineering CBF pathway. Posttranscriptional regulation at pre-mRNA processing and export from nucleus plays a role in cold acclimation. Small noncoding RNAs, namely micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are emerging as key players of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Cold stress-regulated miRNAs have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. In this chapter, recent advances on cold stress signaling and tolerance are highlighted. PMID:20387039

  2. Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by a pentachlorophenol- acclimated methanogenic consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, D K; Woods, S L; Istok, J D; Peek, D C

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic digester sludge fed 5,300 mg of acetate per liter, 3.4 microM pentachlorophenol, and nutrients for 10 days biotransformed pentachlorophenol by sequential ortho dechlorinations to produce 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and 3,4,5-trichlorophenol. Upon acclimation to 3.4 microM pentachlorophenol for 6 months, the methanogenic consortium removed chlorines from the ortho, meta, and para positions of pentachlorophenol and its reductive dechlorination products. Pentachlorophenol was degraded to produce 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol. Dechlorination of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol produced 3,4,5-trichlorophenol, which was subsequently degraded to produce 3,4-dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol was dechlorinated at the ortho and meta positions to produce 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol yielded 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, followed by production of 3,5-dichlorophenol. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol was degraded to form 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was dechlorinated at two positions to form 2,4-dichlorophenol and 3,4-dichlorophenol. Of the three dichlorophenols produced (2,4-dichlorophenol, 3,4-dichlorophenol, and 3,5-dichlorophenol), only 2,4-dichlorophenol was degraded significantly within 3 weeks, to produce 4-chlorophenol. PMID:1637165

  3. Chlamydomonas Flavodiiron Proteins Facilitate Acclimation to Anoxia During Sulfur Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jokel, Martina; Kosourov, Sergey; Battchikova, Natalia; Tsygankov, Anatoly A.; Aro, Eva Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut

    2015-01-01

    The flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are involved in the detoxification of oxidative compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO) or O2 in Archaea and Bacteria. In cyanobacteria, the FDPs Flv1 and Flv3 are essential in the light-dependent reduction of O2 downstream of PSI. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two genes (flvA and flvB) in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show high homology to flv1 and flv3 genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The physiological role of these FDPs in eukaryotic green algae is not known, but it is of a special interest since these phototrophic organisms perform oxygenic photosynthesis similar to higher plants, which do not possess FDP homologs. We have analyzed the levels of flvA and flvB transcripts in C. reinhardtii cells under various environmental conditions and showed that these genes are highly expressed under ambient CO2 levels and during the early phase of acclimation to sulfur deprivation, just before the onset of anaerobiosis and the induction of efficient H2 photoproduction. Importantly, the increase in transcript levels of the flvA and flvB genes was also corroborated by protein levels. These results strongly suggest the involvement of FLVA and FLVB proteins in alternative electron transport. PMID:26063391

  4. Chlamydomonas Flavodiiron Proteins Facilitate Acclimation to Anoxia During Sulfur Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jokel, Martina; Kosourov, Sergey; Battchikova, Natalia; Tsygankov, Anatoly A; Aro, Eva Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut

    2015-08-01

    The flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are involved in the detoxification of oxidative compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO) or O(2) in Archaea and Bacteria. In cyanobacteria, the FDPs Flv1 and Flv3 are essential in the light-dependent reduction of O(2) downstream of PSI. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two genes (flvA and flvB) in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show high homology to flv1 and flv3 genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The physiological role of these FDPs in eukaryotic green algae is not known, but it is of a special interest since these phototrophic organisms perform oxygenic photosynthesis similar to higher plants, which do not possess FDP homologs. We have analyzed the levels of flvA and flvB transcripts in C. reinhardtii cells under various environmental conditions and showed that these genes are highly expressed under ambient CO(2) levels and during the early phase of acclimation to sulfur deprivation, just before the onset of anaerobiosis and the induction of efficient H(2) photoproduction. Importantly, the increase in transcript levels of the flvA and flvB genes was also corroborated by protein levels. These results strongly suggest the involvement of FLVA and FLVB proteins in alternative electron transport. PMID:26063391

  5. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  6. Photosynthetic acclimation in the context of structural constraints to carbon export from leaves.

    PubMed

    Adams, William W; Watson, Amy M; Mueh, Kristine E; Amiard, Véronique; Turgeon, Robert; Ebbert, Volker; Logan, Barry A; Combs, Andrew F; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The potential role of foliar carbon export features in the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to differences and changes in light environment was evaluated. These features included apoplastic vs. symplastic phloem loading, density of loading veins, plasmodesmatal frequency in intermediary cells, and the ratio of loading cells to sieve elements. In initial studies, three apoplastic loaders (spinach, pea, Arabidopsis thaliana) exhibited a completely flexible photosynthetic response to changing light conditions, while two symplastic loaders (pumpkin, Verbascum phoeniceum), although able to adjust to different long-term growth conditions, were more limited in their response when transferred from low (LL) to high (HL) light. This suggested that constraints imposed by the completely physical pathway of sugar export might act as a bottleneck in the export of carbon from LL-acclimated leaves of symplastic loaders. While both symplastic loaders exhibited variable loading vein densities (low in LL and high in HL), none of the three apoplastic loaders initially characterized exhibited such differences. However, an additional apoplastic species (tomato) exhibited similar differences in vein density during continuous growth in different light environments. Furthermore, in contrast to the other apoplastic loaders, photosynthetic acclimation in tomato was not complete following a transfer from LL to HL. This suggests that loading vein density and loading cells per sieve element, and thus apparent loading surface capacity, play a major role in the potential for photosynthetic acclimation to changes in light environment. Photosynthetic acclimation and vein density acclimation were also characterized in the slow-growing, sclerophytic evergreen Monstera deliciosa. This evergreen possessed a lower vein density during growth in LL compared to HL and exhibited a more severely limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to increases in light environment than the rapidly

  7. Mutational Evidence for the Critical Role of CBF Transcription Factors in Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhao; Zhang, Zhengjing; Xie, Shaojun; Si, Tong; Li, Yuanya; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-08-01

    The three tandemly arranged CBF genes, CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3, are involved in cold acclimation. Due to the lack of stable loss-of-function Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants deficient in all three CBF genes, it is still unclear whether the CBF genes are essential for freezing tolerance and whether they may have other functions besides cold acclimation. In this study, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate cbf single, double, and triple mutants. Compared to the wild type, the cbf triple mutants are extremely sensitive to freezing after cold acclimation, demonstrating that the three CBF genes are essential for cold acclimation. Our results show that the three CBF genes also contribute to basal freezing tolerance. Unexpectedly, we found that the cbf triple mutants are defective in seedling development and salt stress tolerance. Transcript profiling revealed that the CBF genes regulate 414 cold-responsive (COR) genes, of which 346 are CBF-activated genes and 68 are CBF-repressed genes. The analysis suggested that CBF proteins are extensively involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall modification, and gene transcription. Interestingly, like the triple mutants, cbf2 cbf3 double mutants are more sensitive to freezing after cold acclimation compared to the wild type, but cbf1 cbf3 double mutants are more resistant, suggesting that CBF2 is more important than CBF1 and CBF3 in cold acclimation-dependent freezing tolerance. Our results not only demonstrate that the three CBF genes together are required for cold acclimation and freezing tolerance, but also reveal that they are important for salt tolerance and seedling development. PMID:27252305

  8. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  9. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients. PMID:26315386

  10. Progressive acclimation alters interaction between salinity and temperature in experimental Daphnia populations.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Cuco, Ana P; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Joana I; Pedrosa, M Arminda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Castro, Bruno B

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stressors rarely act in isolation, giving rise to interacting environmental change scenarios. However, the impacts of such interactions on natural populations must consider the ability of organisms to adapt to environmental changes. The phenotypic adaptability of a Daphnia galeata clone to temperature rise and salinisation was investigated in this study, by evaluating its halotolerance at two different temperatures, along a short multigenerational acclimation scenario. Daphniids were acclimated to different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and salinities (0gL(-1) and 1gL(-1), using NaCl as a proxy) in a fully crossed design. The objective was to understand whether acclimation to environmental stress (combinations of temperature and salinity) influenced the response to the latter exposure to these stressors. We hypothesize that acclimation to different temperature×salinity regimes should elicit an acclimation response of daphniids to saline stress or its interaction with temperature. Acute (survival time) and chronic (juvenile growth) halotolerance measures were obtained at discrete timings along the acclimation period (generations F1, F3 and F9). Overall, exposure temperature was the main determinant of the acute and chronic toxicity of NaCl: daphniid sensitivity (measured as the decrease of survival time or juvenile growth) was consistently higher at the highest temperature, irrespective of background conditions. However, this temperature-dependent effect was nullified after nine generations, but only when animals had been acclimated to both stressors (high salinity and high temperature). Such complex interaction scenarios should be taken in consideration in risk assessment practices. PMID:26079923

  11. Thyroid hormone regulates cardiac performance during cold acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Limitations to oxygen transport reduce aerobic scope and thereby activity at thermal extremes. Oxygen transport in fish is facilitated to a large extent by cardiac function so that climate variability may reduce fitness by constraining the performance of the heart. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), thyroid hormone (TH) regulates skeletal muscle function and metabolism in response to thermal acclimation. Here, we aimed to determine whether TH also regulates cardiac function during acclimation. We used propylthiouracil and iopanoic acid to induce hypothyroidism in zebrafish over a 3 week acclimation period to either 18 or 28°C. We found that cold-acclimated fish had higher maximum heart rates and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity than warm-acclimated fish. Hypothyroid treatment significantly decreased these responses in the cold-acclimated fish, but it did not affect the warm-acclimated fish. TH did not influence SERCA gene transcription, nor did it increase metabolic rate, of isolated whole hearts. To verify that physiological changes following hypothyroid treatment were in fact due to the action of TH, we supplemented hypothyroid fish with 3,5-diiodothryronine (T2) or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Supplementation of hypothyroid fish with T2 or T3 restored heart rate and SERCA activity to control levels. We also show that, in zebrafish, changes in cardiac output in response to warming are primarily mediated by heart rate, rather than by stroke volume. Thus, changes in heart rate are important for the overall aerobic capacity of the fish. In addition to its local effects on heart phenotype, we show that TH increases sympathetic tone on the heart at rest and during maximum exercise. Our findings reveal a new pathway through which fish can mitigate the limiting effects of temperature variability on oxygen transport to maintain aerobic scope and promote thermal tolerance. PMID:24265422

  12. Spatio-Temporal Canopy Complexity and Leaf Acclimation to Variable Canopy Microhabitats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotis, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The theory that forests become carbon (C) neutral with maturity has recently been challenged. While a growing body of evidence shows that net C accumulation continues in forests that are centuries old, the reasons remain poorly known. Increasing canopy structural complexity, quantified by high variability in leaf distribution, has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained rates of C assimilation in mature forests. The goal of our research was to expand on these findings and explore a new idea of spatio-temporal canopy structural complexity as a mechanism linking canopy structure to function (C assimilation).Our work takes place at the UMBS AmeriFlux core facility (US-UMB) in northern Michigan, USA. Canopy structure was quantified over 6 seasons with portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and canopy spatial microhabitat variability was studied using hemispherical photographs from different heights within the canopy. We found a more even distribution of irradiance in more structurally complex canopies within a single year, and furthermore, that between-year variability of spatial leaf arrangement decreased with increasing canopy complexity. We suggest that in complex canopies less redistribution of leaf material over time may lead to more similar light microhabitats within and among years. Conversely, in less complex canopies this relationship can lead to a year-to-year time lag in morphological leaf acclimation since the effects of the previous-year's light environment are reflected in the morphological characteristics of current-year leaves.Our study harnesses unique spatio-temporal resolution measurements of canopy structure and microhabitat that can inform better management strategies seeking to maximize forest C uptake. Future research quantifying the relationship between canopy structure and light distribution will improve performance of ecosystem models that currently lack spatially explicit canopy structure information.

  13. Effects of endurance training and heat acclimation on psychological strain in exercising men wearing protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments examined the influences of endurance training and heat acclimation on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal discomfort (RTD) during exercise in the heat while wearing two types of clothing. In experiment 1, young men underwent 8 weeks of physical training [60-80% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) for 30-45 min day-1, 3-4 days week-1 at 20-22 degrees C dry bulb (db) temperature] followed by 6 days of heat acclimation [45-55% VO2max for 60 min day-1 at 40 degrees C db, 30% relative humidity (rh)] (n = 7) or corresponding periods of control observation followed by heat acclimation (n = 9). In experiment 2, young men were heat-acclimated for 6 or 12 days (n = 8 each). Before and after each treatment, subjects completed bouts of treadmill exercise (1.34 m s-1, 2% grade in experiment 1 and 0% grade in experiment 2) in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C db, 30% rh), wearing in turn normal light clothing (continuous exercise at 37-45% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 116-120 min in experiment 1 and at 31-34% VO2max for 146-150 min in experiment 2) or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents (continuous exercise at 42-51% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 47-52 min in experiment 1 and intermittent exercise at 23% VO2max for 97-120 min in experiment 2). In experiment 1, when wearing normal clothing, endurance training and/or heat acclimation significantly decreased RPE and/or RTD at a fixed power output. There were concomitant reductions in relative work intensity (% VO2max) [an unchanged oxygen consumption (VO2) but an increased VO2max, or a reduced VO2 with no change of VO2max], rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), and/or heart rate (HR). When wearing protective clothing, in contrast, there were no significant changes in RPE or RTD. Although training and/or acclimation reduced %VO2max or Tre, any added sweat that was secreted did not evaporate through the protective clothing, thus increasing

  14. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  15. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  16. Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by acclimated and unacclimated activated sludge-Evaluation of biokinetic coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Dilek, Filiz B. . E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2005-10-01

    Unacclimated and acclimated activated sludges were examined for their ability to degrade 4-CP (4-chlorophenol) in the presence and absence of a readily growing substrate using aerobic batch reactors. The effects of 4-CP on the {mu} (specific growth rate), COD removal efficiency, Y (yield coefficient), and q (specific substrate utilization rate) were investigated. It was observed that the toxicity of 4-CP on the culture decreased remarkably after acclimation. For example, the IC{sub 50} value on the basis of {mu} was found to increase from 130 to 218mg/L with the acclimation of the culture. Although an increase in 4-CP concentration up to 300mg/L has no adverse effect on the COD removal efficiency of the acclimated culture, a considerable decrease was observed in the case of an unacclimated culture. Although 4-CP removal was not observed with an unacclimated culture, almost complete removal was achieved with the acclimated culture, up to 300mg/L. The Haldane kinetic model adequately predicted the biodegradation of 4-CP and the kinetic constants obtained were q{sub m}=41.17mg/(gMLVSSh), K{sub s}=1.104mg/L, and K{sub i}=194.4mg/L. The degradation of 4-CP led to formation of 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was further metabolized, indicating complete degradation of 4-CP via a meta-cleavage pathway.

  17. Impacts of hypersaline acclimation on the acute toxicity of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos to salmonids.

    PubMed

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Acclimation to hypersaline conditions enhances the acute toxicity of certain thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in some species of euryhaline fish. As the organophosphate chlorpyrifos is commonly detected in salmonid waterways, the impacts of hypersaline conditions on its toxicity were examined. In contrast to other previously examined pesticides, time to death by chlorpyrifos was more rapid in freshwater than in hypersaline water (16ppth). The median lethal time (LT50) after 100μg/L chlorpyrifos exposure was 49h (95% CI: 31-78) and 120h (95% CI: 89-162) for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in freshwater and those acclimated to hypersaline conditions, respectively. Previous studies with hypersaline acclimated fish indicated induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that may detoxify chlorpyrifos. In the current study, chlorpyrifos metabolism was unaltered in liver and gill microsomes of freshwater and hypersaline acclimated fish. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in brain and bioavailability of chlorpyrifos from the aqueous exposure media were also unchanged. In contrast, mRNA expression of neurological targets: calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, chloride intracellular channel 4, and G protein alpha i1 were upregulated in saltwater acclimated fish, consistent with diminished neuronal signaling which may protect animals from cholinergic overload associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These results indicate targets other than acetylcholinesterase may contribute to the altered toxicity of chlorpyrifos in salmonids under hypersaline conditions. PMID:24799192

  18. Effect of salinity on methanogenic propionate degradation by acclimated marine sediment-derived culture.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of propionate under high salinity is needed for biomethane production from salt-containing feedstocks. In this study, marine sediment-derived culture was evaluated to determine the effect of salinity on methanogenic propionate degradation. Microbes in marine sediments were subjected to fed-batch cultivation on propionate for developing acclimatized cultures. The rate of propionate degradation increased eightfold during 10 rounds of cultivation. Microbial community composition was determined through pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons after 10 rounds of cultivation. Taxa analysis was conducted for the reads obtained by pyrosequencing. Known propionate degraders were undetectable in the acclimated culture. Comparison of bacterial taxa in the original sediment with those in the acclimated culture revealed that the populations of four bacterial taxa were significantly increased during acclimation. Methanolobus was the predominant archaea genus in the acclimated culture. The propionate degradation rate of the acclimated culture was not affected by salinity of up to equivalent of 1.9 % NaCl. The rate decreased at higher salinity levels and was more than 50 % of the maximum rate even at equivalent of 4.3 % NaCl. PMID:26364311

  19. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  20. Growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to elevated temperatures in tropical tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Predictions of how tropical forests will respond to future climate change are constrained by the paucity of data on the performance of tropical species under elevated growth temperatures. In particular, little is known about the potential of tropical species to acclimate physiologically to future increases in temperature. Seedlings of 10 neo-tropical tree species from different functional groups were cultivated in controlled-environment chambers under four day/night temperature regimes between 30/22 °C and 39/31 °C. Under well-watered conditions, all species showed optimal growth at temperatures above those currently found in their native range. While non-pioneer species experienced catastrophic failure or a substantially reduced growth rate under the highest temperature regime employed (i.e. daily average of 35 °C), growth in three lowland pioneers showed only a marginal reduction. In a subsequent experiment, three species (Ficus insipida, Ormosia macrocalyx, and Ochroma pyramidale) were cultivated at two temperatures determined as sub- and superoptimal for growth, but which resulted in similar biomass accumulation despite a 6°C difference in growth temperature. Through reciprocal transfer and temperature adjustment, the role of thermal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration was investigated. Acclimation potential varied among species, with two distinct patterns of respiration acclimation identified. The study highlights the role of both inherent temperature tolerance and thermal acclimation in determining the ability of tropical tree species to cope with enhanced temperatures. PMID:23873999