Science.gov

Sample records for accommodate large volumes

  1. Pressure control to accommodate patient breathing efforts during volume ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stawitcke, F A; Ream, A K; Piziali, R L

    1987-04-01

    Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation is used to support patients whose unassisted breathing is inadequate. Mechanical ventilators deliver pressurized gas to the patient's lungs by using a pattern of volume and timing that is preset by the clinician. A weakness of existing control methods is their emphasis on maintaining adequate gas exchange while poorly accommodating the patient's efforts to reassume control of the delivery pattern. A method is proposed to control airway pressure within a breath by making it respond to measurements of volume. This method using pressure as a function of volume, or P(V) method, permits the patient to have transient control over flow rate and delivered volume. In addition, an adaptive controller is included that modifies the applied pressure during subsequent breaths; it assures an average flow rate and delivered volume at the levels prescribed by the clinician, when sustained changes occur in airway resistance, lung-thorax compliance, or breathing efforts. Analyses and computer simulations suggest that the P(V) method will be better than conventional volume ventilation in accommodating, within a breath, transient breathing efforts without long-term degradation of the prescribed delivery pattern. The P(V) method can restore the delivery pattern, using the adaptive controller, within a few breaths after changes occur in the patient's lung mechanics. We conclude that the P(V) method is feasible, that it may represent an improved method of patient ventilation, particularly during fighting or weaning from the ventilator, and that it warrants further investigation.

  2. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  3. Testing Accommodations. NetNews. Volume 7, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2006

    2006-01-01

    LDA (Learning Disabilities Association) of Minnesota receives many calls and emails regarding testing accommodations for large-scale testing programs. Callers include the test-takers themselves, parents, teachers, counselors, advocates, and an occasional attorney. The standardized tests they ask about include the GED, SAT and ACT (for college…

  4. Quantifying large-scale historical formation of accommodation in the Mississippi Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of new accommodation have formed within the Mississippi Delta plain since the mid-1950s in association with rapid conversion of coastal wetlands to open water. The three-dimensional aspects and processes responsible for accommodation formation were quantified by comparing surface elevations, water depths, and vertical displacements of stratigraphic contacts that were correlated between short sediment cores. Integration of data from remotely sensed images, sediment cores, and water-depth surveys at 10 geologically diverse areas in the delta plain provided a basis for estimating the total volume of accommodation formed by interior-wetland subsidence and subsequent erosion. Results indicate that at most of the study areas subsidence was a greater contributor than erosion to the formation of accommodation associated with wetland loss. Tens of millions of cubic meters of accommodation formed rapidly at each of the large open-water bodies that were formerly continuous interior delta-plain marsh. Together the individual study areas account for more than 440 × 106 × m3 of new accommodation that formed as holes in the Mississippi River delta-plain fabric between 1956 and 2004. This large volume provides an estimate of the new sediment that would be needed just at the study areas to restore the delta-plain wetlands to their pre-1956 areal extent and elevations.

  5. Challenges in Accommodating Volume Change of Si Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-01-01

    Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical energy density, relatively low working potential, and abundance in nature. However, Si anodes exhibit rapid capacity decay and an increase in the internal resistance, which are caused by the large volume changes upon Li insertion and extraction. This unfortunately limits their practical applications. Therefore, managing the total volume change remains a critical challenge for effectively alleviating the mechanical fractures and instability of solid-electrolyte-interphase products. In this regard, we review the recent progress in volume-change-accommodating Si electrodes and investigate their ingenious structures with significant improvements in the battery performance, including size-controlled materials, patterned thin films, porous structures, shape-preserving shell designs, and graphene composites. These representative approaches potentially overcome the large morphologic changes in the volume of Si anodes by securing the strain relaxation and structural integrity in the entire electrode. Finally, we propose perspectives and future challenges to realize the practical application of Si anodes in LIB systems. PMID:27525208

  6. Requests by Persons with Visual Impairment for Large-Print Accommodations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, John Jay

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the experiences of 14 people with visual impairments in attempting to exercise their civil rights to equal access to print. Results found they experienced long waits for large-print accommodations, negative reactions to requests, a lack of quality in the materials, and misinformation about accommodations. (Contains 13…

  7. Determinants of cerebrovascular remodeling: Do large brain arteries accommodate stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Goldman, James; Honig, Lawrence S; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Morgello, Susan; Marshall, Randolph S

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is hypothesized that outward remodeling in systemic arteries is a compensatory mechanism for lumen area preservation in the face of increasing arterial stenosis. Large brain arteries have also been studied, but it remains unproven if all assumptions about arterial remodeling can be replicated in the cerebral circulation. Methods The sample included 196 autopsied subjects with a mean age of 55 years; 63 % were men, and 74 % non-Hispanic whites. From each of 1,396 dissected cadaveric large arteries of the circle of Willis, the areas of the lumen, intima, media, and adventitia were measured. Internal elastic lamina (IEL) area was defined as the area encircled by this layer. Stenosis was calculated by dividing the plaque area by the IEL area and multiplying by 100. Results Plotting stenosis against lumen area or stratified by arterial size showed no preservation of the lumen in the setting of growing stenosis. We could not find an association between greater IEL proportion and stenosis (B=0.44, P=0.86). Stratifying arteries by their size, we found that smaller arteries have greater lumen reduction at any degree of stenosis (B=−23.65, P=<0.0001), and although larger arteries show a positive association between IEL proportion and stenosis, this was no longer significant after adjusting for covariates (B=6.0, P=0.13). Conclusions We cannot confirm the hypothesis that large brain arteries undergo outward remodeling as an adaptive response to increasing degrees of stenosis. We found that the lumen decreases proportionally to the degree of stenosis. PMID:24929285

  8. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  9. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens

    PubMed Central

    Sheil, Conor J.; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  10. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  11. An Exploratory Study of Student-Paced versus Teacher-Paced Accommodations for Large-Scale Math Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Rozek-Tedesco, Marick A.; Tindal, Gerald; Glasgow, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether a teacher-paced video (TPV) accommodation or a student-paced computer (SPC) accommodation provided differential access for student with disabilities versus their general education peers on a large-scale math test. It found that although both pacing accommodations significantly influenced mean scores, the SPC…

  12. Feasibilty analyses of electroepitaxial research and development accomodations. Volume 1: Accommodations assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of accommodating the on-orbit R&D requirements for electroepitaxial crystal growth using the Orbiter middeck, the Materials Experiment Assembly or the Get-Away Special cans was performed. The study is based on the proposed electroepitaxial growth of single crystals of gallium arsenide (GaAs). Baseline R&D requirements, synthesizing furnace and facility conceptual design requirements, accommodation requirements, preliminary compatibility assessments are established. The systems engineering approach employed for the individual assessments is outlined.

  13. Accommodating the load: The transposable element content of very large genomes.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Cushla J; Casane, Didier

    2013-03-01

    salamanders. The lungfish and salamanders, therefore, may accommodate their large load of TEs because these TEs have accumulated gradually over a long period of time and have been subject to inactivation and decay.

  14. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  15. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  16. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume I, Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This first volume of a four-volume report on highway safety activities describes the relevant federal laws, provides descriptions, projects safety specialist manpower needs and supply through 1977, and evaluates the adequacy of training capacity. Field visits were made to each state to gather state estimates, as well as maximum and minimum…

  17. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This second volume of a four-volume report covers manpower needs in motor vehicle inspection and registration, motorcycle safety, driver education, driver licensing, traffic court, and codes and laws. Aspects of training such as staffing, student recruitment, enrollments, facilities, equipment, and curriculum are discussed. Course outlines are…

  18. Accommodations for English Language Learners Taking Large-Scale Assessments: A Meta-Analysis on Effectiveness and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Rivera, Mabel; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Including English language learners (ELLs) in large-scale assessments raises questions about the validity of inferences based on their scores. Test accommodations for ELLs are intended to reduce the impact of limited English proficiency on the assessment of the target construct, most often mathematic or science proficiency. This meta-analysis…

  19. Oxygen disorder, a way to accommodate large epitaxial strains in oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Mishra, Rohan; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-22

    Density-functional calculations (total-energy comparisons) and checks for negative-frequency phonon modes are employed as a stability indicator to show that, in rutile- and fluorite-structure oxides, e.g., zirconia strained by a strontium titanate substrate, oxygen-sublattice disorder can be the energetically preferred way to accommodate strain.

  20. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  1. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  2. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 2: Payload data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A format developed for Space Transportation System payload data collection and a process for collecting the data are described along with payload volumes and a data deck to be used as input for the Marshall Interactive Planning System. Summary matrices of the data generated are included.

  3. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    Part of a four-volume study on highway safety activities, this report describes the need for breath examiners, accident investigators, emergency medical technicians, and highway engineering personnel. Training needs are discussed, in the context of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment, enrollment, and national…

  4. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  5. Comments on large-N volume independence

    SciTech Connect

    Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-02

    We study aspects of the large-N volume independence on R{sup 3} X L{sup {Gamma}}, where L{sup {Gamma}} is a {Gamma}site lattice for Yang-Mills theory with adjoint Wilson-fermions. We find the critical number of lattice sites above which the center-symmetry analysis on L{sup {Gamma}} agrees with the one on the continuum S{sup 1}. For Wilson parameter set to one and {Gamma}{>=}2, the two analyses agree. One-loop radiative corrections to Wilson-line masses are finite, reminiscent of the UV-insensitivity of the Higgs mass in deconstruction/Little-Higgs theories. Even for theories with {Gamma}=1, volume independence in QCD(adj) may be guaranteed to work by tuning one low-energy effective field theory parameter. Within the parameter space of the theory, at most three operators of the 3d effective field theory exhibit one-loop UV-sensitivity. This opens the analytical prospect to study 4d non-perturbative physics by using lower dimensional field theories (d=3, in our example).

  6. SUSY's Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  7. Research-Based Recommendations for the Use of Accommodations in Large-Scale Assessments: 2012 Update. Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners. Book 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Rivera, Mabel; Francis, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results from a new quantitative synthesis of research on the effectiveness and validity of test accommodations for English language learners (ELLs) taking large-scale assessments. In 2006, the Center on Instruction published a review of the literature on test accommodations for ELLs titled "Practical Guidelines for the…

  8. A new large-volume multianvil system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, D. J.; Poe, B. T.; Trønnes, R. G.; Liebske, C.; Duba, A.; Rubie, D. C.

    2004-06-01

    A scaled-up version of the 6-8 Kwai-type multianvil apparatus has been developed at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut for operation over ranges of pressure and temperature attainable in conventional systems but with much larger sample volumes. This split-cylinder multianvil system is used with a hydraulic press that can generate loads of up to 5000 t (50 MN). The six tool-steel outer-anvils define a cubic cavity of 100 mm edge-length in which eight 54 mm tungsten carbide cubic inner-anvils are compressed. Experiments are performed using Cr 2O 3-doped MgO octahedra and pyrophyllite gaskets. Pressure calibrations at room temperature and high temperature have been performed with 14/8, 18/8, 18/11, 25/17 and 25/15 OEL/TEL (octahedral edge-length/anvil truncation edge-length, in millimetre) configurations. All configurations tested reach a limiting plateau where the sample-pressure no longer increases with applied load. Calibrations with different configurations show that greater sample-pressure efficiency can be achieved by increasing the OEL/TEL ratio. With the 18/8 configuration the GaP transition is reached at a load of 2500 t whereas using the 14/8 assembly this pressure cannot be reached even at substantially higher loads. With an applied load of 2000 t the 18/8 can produce MgSiO 3 perovskite at 1900 °C with a sample volume of ˜20 mm 3, compared with <3 mm 3 in conventional multianvil systems at the same conditions. The large octahedron size and use of a stepped LaCrO 3 heater also results in significantly lower thermal gradients over the sample.

  9. Performance testing of a large volume calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Calorimetry is used as a nondestructive assay technique for determining the power output of heat-producing nuclear materials. Calorimetric assay of plutonium-bearing and tritium items routinely obtains the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques, and the power calibration can be traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology through certified electrical standards. Because the heat-measurement result is completely independent of material and matrix type, it can be reliably used on any material form or item matrix. The calorimetry measurement is combined with isotopic composition information to determine the correct plutonium content of an item. When an item is unsuitable for neutron or gamma-ray NDA, calorimetric assay is used. Currently, the largest calorimeter capable of measuring plutonium-bearing or tritium items is 36 cm in diameter and 61 cm long. Fabrication of a high-sensitivity large volume calorimeter (LVC) capable of measuring tritium and plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 (55-gal) shipping or storage containers has provided a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult to measure forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. This large calo rimeter can also be used to make secondary working standards from process material for the calibration of faster NDA assay techniques. The footprint of the calorimeter is 104 cm wide by 157 cm deep and 196 cm high in the closed position. The space for a standard electronics rack is also necessary for the operation of the calo rimeter. The maximum item size that can be measured in the LVC is 62 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The extensive use of heat-flow calorimeters for safeguards-related measurements at DOE facilities makes it important to extend the capability of calorimetric assay of plutonium and tritium items to larger container sizes. Measurement times, precision, measurement threshold, and position sensitivity of the instrument will be discussed.

  10. Phase Equilibria Impetus For Large-Volume Explosive Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, S. J.; Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    explosive eruption. Cast in terms of the variation of melt fraction (fm) and volume fraction bubbles (θ) versus the nondimensional (liquidus to solidus) enthalpy (H) change, the conditions dfm/dH >2 and dθ/dH <-3 appear to be required in order to generate large-volume explosive eruption. The isobaric condition implies that country rock surrounding the evolving and expanding magma body is weak and able to accommodate the increase in system volume that occurs at Tinv. We have also explored isochoric (constant volume) fractional crystallization, noting a dramatic pressure increase at Tinv due to copious exsolution of H2O and crystallization of phases of lower density than melt. In the case of the 1875 0.8 km3 oceanic rhyolitic eruption of Askja, Iceland, MELTS results show that whereas closed-system fractionation carried out either isobarically or isochorically does not generate explosive eruption, addition of water via assimilation yields values of dfm/dH and dθ/dH consistent with explosive eruption despite initially rather dry parental MORB (~<1 wt. % H2O). In general, pseudoinvariant behavior is suppressed at higher pressure (e.g., P >0.3 GPa), thus suggesting that low pressure is essential to this mechanism. Recently, we have found that the 4 km3 79 AD Pompei eruption also satisfies the thermodynamic criteria developed in this study.

  11. Gain scheduling adaptive control strategies for HVDC systems to accommodate large disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.; Sultan, M. )

    1994-02-01

    Techniques have been developed to permit the response of the controls for dc transmission systems to adapt to large system changes. A gain scheduling approach tunes the control as an on-line function of the effective short-circuit ratio and contingency indicators. The method has been tested by digital simulation, based on EMTP, of a back-to-back dc system. It has been found to be robust and control performance has been enhanced.

  12. An airfoil flutter model suspension system to accommodate large static transonic airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1985-01-01

    A pitch/plunge flutter model suspension system and associated two-dimensional MBB-A3 airfoil models is described. The system is designed for installation in the Langley 6-by-19-inch and 6-by-18-inch transonic blowdown wind tunnels to enable systematic study of the transonic flutter characteristics and static pressure distributions of supercritical airfoils at transonic Mach numbers. A compound spring suspension concept is introduced which simultaneously meets requirements for low plunge-mode stiffness, lightweight suspended model, and large steady lift due to angle of attack without the need for excessive static deflections of the plunge spring. The system features variable pitch and plunge frequencies, changeable airfoil rotation axes, and a self aligning control system to maintain a constant mean position of the model with changing airload.

  13. Large space systems technology, 1980, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopriver, F., III (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    The technological and developmental efforts in support of the large space systems technology are described. Three major areas of interests are emphasized: (1) technology pertient to large antenna systems; (2) technology related to large space systems; and (3) activities that support both antenna and platform systems.

  14. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  15. The persistence of the large volumes in black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-08-01

    Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.

  16. A Study of Accommodations Provided to Handicapped Employees by Federal Contractors. Final Report. Volume II: Ten Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley Planning Associates, CA.

    A series of 10 case studies was conducted as part of a 20-month nationwide study of the accommodations provided to handicapped employees by federal contractors. During the course of the project, case study visits were made to the following firms: the Dow Chemical Company; E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company; Hewlett-Packard; IBM Corporation;…

  17. A multi-resolution strategy for a multi-objective deformable image registration framework that accommodates large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bel, Arjan

    2014-03-01

    Currently, two major challenges dominate the field of deformable image registration. The first challenge is related to the tuning of the developed methods to specific problems (i.e. how to best combine different objectives such as similarity measure and transformation effort). This is one of the reasons why, despite significant progress, clinical implementation of such techniques has proven to be difficult. The second challenge is to account for large anatomical differences (e.g. large deformations, (dis)appearing structures) that occurred between image acquisitions. In this paper, we study a framework based on multi-objective optimization to improve registration robustness and to simplify tuning for specific applications. Within this framework we specifically consider the use of an advanced model-based evolutionary algorithm for optimization and a dual-dynamic transformation model (i.e. two "non-fixed" grids: one for the source- and one for the target image) to accommodate for large anatomical differences. The framework computes and presents multiple outcomes that represent efficient trade-offs between the different objectives (a so-called Pareto front). In image processing it is common practice, for reasons of robustness and accuracy, to use a multi-resolution strategy. This is, however, only well-established for single-objective registration methods. Here we describe how such a strategy can be realized for our multi-objective approach and compare its results with a single-resolution strategy. For this study we selected the case of prone-supine breast MRI registration. Results show that the well-known advantages of a multi-resolution strategy are successfully transferred to our multi-objective approach, resulting in superior (i.e. Pareto-dominating) outcomes.

  18. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  19. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 4, Appendix A: Space station accommodations. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Roger M.

    1987-01-01

    Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing at the space station is divided into two major categories: OTV processing and assembly operations, and support operations. These categories are further subdivided into major functional areas to allow development of detailed OTV processing procedures and timelines. These procedures and timelines are used to derive the specific space station accommodations necessary to support OTV activities. The overall objective is to limit impact on OTV processing requirements on space station operations, involvement of crew, and associated crew training and skill requirements. The operational concept maximizes use of automated and robotic systems to perform all required OTV servicing and maintenance tasks. Only potentially critical activities would require direct crew involvement or supervision. EVA operations are considered to be strictly contingency back-up to failure of the automated and robotic systems, with the exception of the initial assembly of Space-Based OTV accommodations at the space station, which will require manned involvement.

  20. The 25 W power module evolution study. Part 3: Conceptual designs for power module evolution. Volume 5: Mission accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The capability of the 25 kW power module to conduct representative missions which include Earth, solar, and stellar observation as well as zero-gravity experiments was assessed. Mission accommodations and related technical characteristics of the various operating modes are summarized. The minimum power module provides a substantial mission support on sortie flights. The addition of an attitude sensor is required for free-flying pointing missions.

  1. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  2. Technologies for imaging neural activity in large volumes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Na; Freeman, Jeremy; Smith, Spencer L

    2016-08-26

    Neural circuitry has evolved to form distributed networks that act dynamically across large volumes. Conventional microscopy collects data from individual planes and cannot sample circuitry across large volumes at the temporal resolution relevant to neural circuit function and behaviors. Here we review emerging technologies for rapid volume imaging of neural circuitry. We focus on two critical challenges: the inertia of optical systems, which limits image speed, and aberrations, which restrict the image volume. Optical sampling time must be long enough to ensure high-fidelity measurements, but optimized sampling strategies and point-spread function engineering can facilitate rapid volume imaging of neural activity within this constraint. We also discuss new computational strategies for processing and analyzing volume imaging data of increasing size and complexity. Together, optical and computational advances are providing a broader view of neural circuit dynamics and helping elucidate how brain regions work in concert to support behavior. PMID:27571194

  3. Large volume continuous counterflow dialyzer has high efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeles, S.; Woods, E. C.

    1967-01-01

    Dialyzer separates macromolecules from small molecules in large volumes of solution. It takes advantage of the high area/volume ratio in commercially available 1/4-inch dialysis tubing and maintains a high concentration gradient at the dialyzing surface by counterflow.

  4. Large-Volume Gravid Traps Enhance Collection of Culex Vectors.

    PubMed

    Popko, David A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    Gravid mosquito collections were compared among several large-volume (infusion volume ≥35 liters) gravid trap designs and the small-volume (infusion volume  =  6 liters) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gravid trap used routinely by vector control districts for vector and pathogen surveillance. The numbers of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Cx. stigmatosoma collected by large gravid traps were greater than by the CDC gravid trap during nearly all overnight trials. Large-volume gravid traps collected on average 6.6-fold more adult female Culex mosquitoes compared to small-volume CDC gravid traps across 3 seasons during the 3 years of the studies. The differences in gravid mosquito collections between large-versus small-volume gravid traps were greatest during spring, when 8- to 56-fold more Culex individuals were collected using large-volume gravid traps. The proportion of gravid females in collections did not differ appreciably among the more effective trap designs tested. Important determinants of gravid trap performance were infusion container size and type as well as infusion volume, which determined the distance between the suction trap and the infusion surface. Of lesser importance for gravid trap performance were the number of suction traps, method of suction trap mounting, and infusion concentration. Fermentation of infusions between 1 and 4 wk weakly affected total mosquito collections, with Cx. stigmatosoma collections moderately enhanced by comparatively young and organically enriched infusions. A suction trap mounted above 100 liters of organic infusion housed in a 121-liter black plastic container collected the most gravid mosquitoes over the greatest range of experimental conditions, and a 35-liter infusion with side-mounted suction traps was a promising lesser-volume alternative design. PMID:27280347

  5. Very Large Area/Volume Microwave ECR Plasma and Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor); Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing very large area and large volume plasmas. The invention utilizes electron cyclotron resonances in conjunction with permanent magnets to produce dense, uniform plasmas for long life ion thruster applications or for plasma processing applications such as etching, deposition, ion milling and ion implantation. The large area source is at least five times larger than the 12-inch wafers being processed to date. Its rectangular shape makes it easier to accommodate to materials processing than sources that are circular in shape. The source itself represents the largest ECR ion source built to date. It is electrodeless and does not utilize electromagnets to generate the ECR magnetic circuit, nor does it make use of windows.

  6. Large-Volume High-Pressure Mineral Physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert C.; Prewitt, Charles T.; Weidner, Donald J.

    American high-pressure research with large sample volumes developed rapidly in the 1950s during the race to produce synthetic diamonds. At that time the piston cylinder, girdle (or belt), and tetrahedral anvil devices were invented. However, this development essentially stopped in the late 1950s, and while the diamond anvil cell has been used extensively in the United States with spectacular success for high-pressure experiments in small sample volumes, most of the significant technological advances in large-volume devices have taken place in Japan. Over the past 25 years, these technical advances have enabled a fourfold increase in pressure, with many important investigations of the chemical and physical properties of materials synthesized at high temperatures and pressures that cannot be duplicated with any apparatus currently available in the United States.

  7. Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

  8. Spatial considerations during cryopreservation of a large volume sample.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Lamb, Stephen; Milne, Stuart; Gibbons, Stephanie; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Selden, Clare; Fuller, Barry; Morris, John

    2016-08-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the implications of the physical conditions experienced by cells during large volume (litres) cryopreservation - most studies have focused on the problem of cryopreservation of smaller volumes, typically up to 2 ml. This study explores the effects of ice growth by progressive solidification, generally seen during larger scale cryopreservation, on encapsulated liver hepatocyte spheroids, and it develops a method to reliably sample different regions across the frozen cores of samples experiencing progressive solidification. These issues are examined in the context of a Bioartificial Liver Device which requires cryopreservation of a 2 L volume in a strict cylindrical geometry for optimal clinical delivery. Progressive solidification cannot be avoided in this arrangement. In such a system optimal cryoprotectant concentrations and cooling rates are known. However, applying these parameters to a large volume is challenging due to the thermal mass and subsequent thermal lag. The specific impact of this to the cryopreservation outcome is required. Under conditions of progressive solidification, the spatial location of Encapsulated Liver Spheroids had a strong impact on post-thaw recovery. Cells in areas first and last to solidify demonstrated significantly impaired post-thaw function, whereas areas solidifying through the majority of the process exhibited higher post-thaw outcome. It was also found that samples where the ice thawed more rapidly had greater post-thaw viability 24 h post-thaw (75.7 ± 3.9% and 62.0 ± 7.2% respectively). These findings have implications for the cryopreservation of large volumes with a rigid shape and for the cryopreservation of a Bioartificial Liver Device. PMID:27256662

  9. Large volume multiple-path nuclear pumped laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, F.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    Large volumes of gas are excited by using internal high reflectance mirrors that are arranged so that the optical path crosses back and forth through the excited gaseous medium. By adjusting the external dielectric mirrors of the laser, the number of paths through the laser cavity can be varied. Output powers were obtained that are substantially higher than the output powers of previous nuclear laser systems. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  10. AdS/CFT and Large-N Volume Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We study the Eguchi-Kawai reduction in the strong-coupling domain of gauge theories via the gravity dual of N=4 super-Yang-Mills on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1}. We show that D-branes geometrize volume independence in the center-symmetric vacuum and give supergravity predictions for the range of validity of reduced large-N models at strong coupling.

  11. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  12. Concentration of coliphages from large volumes of water and wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Zerda, K S; Gerba, C P

    1980-01-01

    Membrane filter adsorption-elution technology has been extensively used for the concentration and detection of animal viruses from large volumes of water. This study describes the development of positively charged microporous filters (Zeta Plus) for the concentration of coliphages from large volumes of water and wastewater. Four different coliphages were studied: MS-2, phi X174, T2, and T4. Positively charged microporous filters were found to efficiently adsorb these coliphages from tap water, sewage, and lake water at neutral pH. Adsorbed viruses were eluted with a 1:1 mixture of 8% beef extract and 1 M sodium chloride at pH 9. Using this method, coliphages could be concentrated from 17-liter volumes of tap water with recoveries ranging from 34 to 100%. Coliphages occurring naturally in raw and secondarily treated sewage were recovered with average efficiencies of 56.5 and 55.0%, respectively. This method should be useful in isolation of rare phages, the ecology of phages in natural waters, and the evaluation of water quality. PMID:7356323

  13. Large-Volume Microfluidic Cell Sorting for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Wu, Lidan; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic cell-separation technologies have been studied for almost two decades, but the limited throughput has restricted their impact and range of application. Recent advances in microfluidics enable high-throughput cell sorting and separation, and this has led to various novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications that previously had been impossible to implement using microfluidics technologies. In this review, we focus on recent progress made in engineering large-volume microfluidic cell-sorting methods and the new applications enabled by them. PMID:26194427

  14. Measurement of large liquid volumes by turbine meters

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubenas, P.P.

    1996-09-01

    Traditionally the petroleum industry has used turbine meters for custody transfer measurement of large volumes of low viscosity products, but more recently, the trend is to apply turbine meters to higher viscosity fluids particularly crude oils. This trend is to a great extent prompted by analysis of initial capital outlay only, rather than considering total cost of ownership, as the initial cost of the turbine meter itself is considerably less than a positive displacement meter of equal flow capacity. However, another reason why the trend is continuing is related to technological advances. This paper will address meter selection basics, turbine meter theory and the recent technological advances that may permit the use of turbine meters for applications for which heretofore they could not be considered. Also the difficult to identify operational costs that may occur when using large turbine meters on high viscosity products will be discussed.

  15. Measurement of large liquid volumes by turbine meters

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubenas, P.P.

    1995-12-01

    Traditionally the petroleum industry has used turbine meters for custody transfer measurement of large volumes of low viscosity products, but more recently, the trend is to apply turbine meters to higher viscosity fluids particularly crude oils. This trend is to a great extent prompted by analysis of initial capital outlay only, rather than considering total cost of ownership, as the initial cost of the turbine meter itself is considerably less than a positive displacement meter of equal flow capacity. However another reason why the trend is continuing is related to technological advances. This paper will address meter selection basics, turbine meter theory and the recent technological advances that may permit the use of turbine meters for applications for which heretofore they could not be considered. Also the difficult to identify operational costs that may occur when using large turbine meters on high viscosity products will be discussed.

  16. New 3000 Ton Large Volume Multi-Anvil Apparatus Installed at the University of Western Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secco, R.; Yong, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 6-8 type multi-anvil apparatus has been widely adopted to study the high pressure and high temperature behavior of minerals, rocks and other materials ever since its original invention, because of its advantages of large sample volumes, quasi-hydrostatic pressures, and relatively uniform temperatures. Recently, a 3000-ton multi-anvil apparatus was installed in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Western Ontario. This new apparatus has the capability of fully automatic control of both pressure and temperature in a user defined path. This new 3000-ton press employs a split-cylinder module that accommodates WC cubes up to 32 mm in edge length, allowing large sample volumes. Calibration experiments for the 18/11 OEL/TEL configuration were performed with Cr2O3-doped MgO octahedra and pyrophyllite gaskets. Room temperature calibration was achieved using Bi I-II and III-V transitions at 2.55 GPa and 7.7 GPa respectively, and Sn I-II transition at 9.4 GPa. High temperature calibration at 1200°C is based on the quartz-coesite transition at 3.2 GPa, the garnet -perovskite transition in CaGeO3 at 5.9 GPa, and coesite-stishovite transition at 9.2 GPa. The sample volume can reach up to ~35 mm3 at pressures up to 10 GPa and temperatures over 2000°C, ideal for chemical synthesis of high pressure phases intended for subsequent analysis such as calorimetry.

  17. Analysis of volume holographic storage allowing large-angle illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Advanced technological developments have stimulated renewed interest in volume holography for applications such as information storage and wavelength multiplexing for communications and laser beam shaping. In these and many other applications, the information-carrying wave fronts usually possess narrow spatial-frequency bands, although they may propagate at large angles with respect to each other or a preferred optical axis. Conventional analytic methods are not capable of properly analyzing the optical architectures involved. For mitigation of the analytic difficulties, a novel approximation is introduced to treat narrow spatial-frequency band wave fronts propagating at large angles. This approximation is incorporated into the analysis of volume holography based on a plane-wave decomposition and Fourier analysis. As a result of the analysis, the recently introduced generalized Bragg selectivity is rederived for this more general case and is shown to provide enhanced performance for the above indicated applications. The power of the new theoretical description is demonstrated with the help of specific examples and computer simulations. The simulations reveal some interesting effects, such as coherent motion blur, that were predicted in an earlier publication.

  18. SUSY’s Ladder: Reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    DOE PAGES

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague othermore » supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. As a result, this gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.« less

  19. High density three-dimensional localization microscopy across large volumes

    PubMed Central

    Legant, Wesley R.; Shao, Lin; Grimm, Jonathan B.; Brown, Timothy A.; Milkie, Daniel E.; Avants, Brian B.; Lavis, Luke D.; Betzig, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Extending three-dimensional (3D) single molecule localization microscopy away from the coverslip and into thicker specimens will greatly broaden its biological utility. However, localizing molecules in 3D with high precision in such samples, while simultaneously achieving the extreme labeling densities required for high resolution of densely crowded structures is challenging due to the limitations both of conventional imaging modalities and of conventional labeling techniques. Here, we combine lattice light sheet microscopy with newly developed, freely diffusing, cell permeable chemical probes with targeted affinity towards either DNA, intracellular membranes, or the plasma membrane. We use this combination to perform high localization precision, ultra-high labeling density, multicolor localization microscopy in samples up to 20 microns thick, including dividing cells and the neuromast organ of a zebrafish embryo. We also demonstrate super-resolution correlative imaging with protein specific photoactivable fluorophores, providing a mutually compatible, single platform alternative to correlative light-electron microscopy over large volumes. PMID:26950745

  20. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  1. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST) is reported. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. The LST is an unmanned astronomical observatory facility, consisting of an optical telescope assembly (OTA), scientific instrument package (SIP), and a support systems module (SSM). The report consists of five volumes. The report describes the constraints and trade off analyses that were performed to arrive at a reference design for each system and for the overall LST configuration. A low cost design approach was followed in the Phase A study. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and the sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads.

  2. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  3. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  4. Volume visualization of multiple alignment of large genomicDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Dillard, Scott E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Hamann, Bernd

    2005-07-25

    Genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced to date, and many more are being sequenced. As more and more sequence data sets become available, and as the challenge of comparing these massive ''billion basepair DNA sequences'' becomes substantial, so does the need for more powerful tools supporting the exploration of these data sets. Similarity score data used to compare aligned DNA sequences is inherently one-dimensional. One-dimensional (1D) representations of these data sets do not effectively utilize screen real estate. As a result, tools using 1D representations are incapable of providing informatory overview for extremely large data sets. We present a technique to arrange 1D data in 3D space to allow us to apply state-of-the-art interactive volume visualization techniques for data exploration. We demonstrate our technique using multi-millions-basepair-long aligned DNA sequence data and compare it with traditional 1D line plots. The results show that our technique is superior in providing an overview of entire data sets. Our technique, coupled with 1D line plots, results in effective multi-resolution visualization of very large aligned sequence data sets.

  5. Preliminary Results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) Deformation Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Couvy, H.; Skemer, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) apparatus, currently under development in the rock deformation lab at Washington University in St. Louis. The LVT is designed to deform disk-shaped samples (~4 mm in diameter) in torsion at lower-crustal to upper-mantle pressure and temperature conditions. Conceptually, the LVT complements and is similar in design to the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) (Yamakazi & Karato, 2001), which deforms smaller samples at higher pressures. As part of our recent development efforts, benchmarking experiments were performed on Carrara marble. Samples were deformed in torsion at a strain rate of ~5 x 10-5 s-1 to moderate shear strains (γ ≤ 10) under lower crustal conditions (800°C, 2 GPa confining pressure). Microstructural observations from optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show evidence for relict grain elongation and alignment; an increase in calcite twin density; and grain size reduction concurrent with recrystallized grain nucleation. Microstructural observations are comparable to data obtained from previous studies at lower pressure (e.g. Barnhoorn et al., 2004), confirming that the LVT provides reliable microstructural results.

  6. Large volume behaviour of Yang-Mills propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S. Maas, Axel; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2007-12-15

    We investigate finite volume effects in the propagators of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory using Dyson-Schwinger equations on a 4-dimensional torus. In particular, we demonstrate explicitly how the solutions for the gluon and the ghost propagator tend towards their respective infinite volume forms in the corresponding limit. This solves an important open problem of previous studies where the infinite volume limit led to an apparent mismatch, especially of the infrared behaviour, between torus extrapolations and the existing infinite volume solutions obtained in 4-dimensional Euclidean space-time. However, the correct infinite volume limit is approached rather slowly. The typical scales necessary to see the onset of the leading infrared behaviour emerging already imply volumes of at least 10-15 fm in lengths. To reliably extract the infrared exponents of the infinite volume solutions requires even much larger ones. While the volumes in the Monte-Carlo simulations available at present are far too small to facilitate that, we obtain a good qualitative agreement of our torus solutions with recent lattice data in comparable volumes.

  7. Making Decisions about the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Large-Scale Assessments: A Report on a Working Conference To Develop Guidelines on Inclusion and Accommodations. Synthesis Report 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    This report is a summary of a March 1994 meeting to agree on guidelines for making inclusion and accommodation decisions concerning students with disabilities in national and state large-scale assessments. Much of the discussion at the meeting focused on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Factors that lead to the exclusion of…

  8. The 1980 Large space systems technology. Volume 2: Base technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopriver, F., III (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Technology pertinent to large antenna systems, technology related to large space platform systems, and base technology applicable to both antenna and platform systems are discussed. Design studies, structural testing results, and theoretical applications are presented with accompanying validation data. A total systems approach including controls, platforms, and antennas is presented as a cohesive, programmatic plan for large space systems.

  9. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results, attachment 2. Phase A: Conceptual design and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    The study results from the conceptual design and programmatics segment of the Space Platform and Station Accommodation for Life Sciences Research Facilities. The results and significant findings of the conceptual design and programmatics were generated by these tasks: (1) the review and update engineering and science requirements; (2) analysis of life sciences mission transition scenario; (3) the review and update of key trade issues; (4) the development of conceptual definition and designs; and (5) the development of the work breakdown schedule and its dictionary, program schedule, and estimated costs.

  10. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (Bx) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (Bz ˜ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (ne ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-3 and Te ˜ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.

  11. Bilateral anterolateral thigh flaps for large-volume breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jason J; Chandawarkar, Rajiv; Ross, Merrick I; Chevray, Pierre M

    2004-01-01

    Autologous tissue reconstruction of a large breast in patients who are not candidates for a TRAM flap is a difficult problem. We present a case report of the use of bilateral free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps for immediate reconstruction of a unilateral large breast in a patient who had a previous abdominoplasty. Use of ALT flaps allows two or three surgical teams to work simultaneously, does not require intraoperative patient repositioning, has minimal donor-site morbidity, and can provide ample malleable soft tissue for breast reconstruction. These are advantages compared to the use of gluteal donor sites. The disadvantages include more conspicuous donor-site scarring on the anterior thighs.

  12. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  13. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  14. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  15. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.

  16. Special Properties of Coherence Scanning Interferometers for large Measurement Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, W.

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to many other optical methods the uncertainty of Coherence Scanning Interferometer (CSI) in vertical direction is independent from the field of view. Therefore CSIs are ideal instruments for measuring 3D-profiles of larger areas (36×28mm2, e.g.) with high precision. This is of advantage for the determination of form parameters like flatness, parallelism and steps heights within a short time. In addition, using a telecentric beam path allows measurements of deep lying surfaces (<70mm) and the determination of form parameters with large step-heights. The lateral and spatial resolution, however, are reduced. In this presentation different metrological characteristics together with their potential errors are analyzed for large-scale measuring CSIs. Therefore these instruments are ideal tools in quality control for good/bad selections, e.g. The consequences for the practical use in industry and for standardization are discussed by examples of workpieces of automotive suppliers or from the steel industry.

  17. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  18. Accommodation for flickering stimuli.

    PubMed

    Owens, D A; Wolfe, J M

    1985-01-01

    A laser optometer was used to measure accommodative responses of three observers for sinusoidal gratings presented in Maxwellian view at optical distances ranging from 0 to 4 diopters. Contrast of the stimuli was modulated spatially at 1.0, 4.2 and 6.5 cycles deg.-1 (cpd), and temporally at six frequencies ranging from 3.0 to 40 Hz. Accommodation was consistently more accurate for the 4.2 cpd than for either the 1.0 or 6.5 cpd gratings. Furthermore, accommodative responsiveness for the 4.2 cpd was not affected by temporal modulation, while that for the other spatial frequencies improved monotonically as a function of temporal frequency. These results reinforce earlier reports that accommodation is most responsive for contrast of intermediate spatial frequencies and they indicate that stimulus flicker generally degrades accommodation for spatial contrast.

  19. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  20. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  1. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Ng, Joseph D; Baird, James K; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M; Hodge, Teresa A; Huang, Sijay

    2015-04-01

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. These include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  2. Evaluation of isolator system and large-volume centrifugation method for culturing body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Elston, H R; Wang, M; Philip, A

    1990-01-01

    The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body fluids other than blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. A total of 155 body fluid samples were processed for the recovery of clinically significant organisms. Of the 55 positive cultures, Isolator detected 94% and the large-volume centrifugation method detected 64%. The time necessary to indicate positivity was not significantly different in the two methods; however, in five cases, the Isolator system yielded clinically significant organisms 24 h sooner than the conventional method. The Isolator system was found to be a more sensitive alternative than the conventional large-volume centrifugation method. PMID:2405006

  3. [INFLUENCE OF LIPOSUCTION OF LARGE VOLUME ON SYSTEMIC AND LUNG CIRCULATION, OXIGENATED LUNG FUNCTION].

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, I P; Kapranova, A S; Popova, V B; Lodyagin, A N; Frolova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The authors measured the changes of hemodynamics in 72 patients. It was also estimated a blood oxygenation and volume of liquid sectors of the organism in different degree of obesity before and after liposuction of the large volume. It was shown, that this operation facilitated to an improvement of respiratory lung function due to changes of pulmonary circulation.

  4. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  5. Sand tank experiment of a large volume biodiesel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, K.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the subsurface have been well studied, the impacts of subsurface releases of highly degradable alternative fuels, including biodiesel, are not as well understood. One concern is the generation of CH4­ which may lead to explosive conditions in underground structures. In addition, the biodegradation of biodiesel consumes O2 that would otherwise be available for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons that may be present at a site. Until now, biodiesel biodegradation in the vadose zone has not been examined in detail, despite being critical to understanding the full impact of a release. This research involves a detailed study of a laboratory release of 80 L of biodiesel applied at surface into a large sandtank to examine the progress of biodegradation reactions. The experiment will monitor the onset and temporal evolution of CH4 generation to provide guidance for site monitoring needs following a biodiesel release to the subsurface. Three CO2 and CH4 flux chambers have been deployed for long term monitoring of gas emissions. CO2 fluxes have increased in all chambers over the 126 days since the start of the experiment. The highest CO2 effluxes are found directly above the spill and have increased from < 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1 to ~3.8 μmol m-2 s-1, indicating an increase in microbial activity. There were no measurable CH4 fluxes 126 days into the experiment. Sensors were emplaced to continuously measure O2, CO2, moisture content, matric potential, EC, and temperature. In response to the release, CO2 levels have increased across all sensors, from an average value of 0.1% to 0.6% 126 days after the start of the experiment, indicating the rapid onset of biodegradation. The highest CO2 values observed from samples taken in the gas ports were 2.5%. Average O2 concentrations have decreased from 21% to 17% 126 days after the start of the experiment. O2 levels in the bottom central region of the sandtank declined to approximately 12%.

  6. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures, Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure (LSS) technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. It is concluded that an LSS flight demonstration using an Automated Beam Builder and the orbiter as a construction base, could be performed in the 1983-1984 time period. The estimated cost is $24 million exclusive of shuttle launch costs. During the mission, a simple space platform could be constructed in-orbit to accommodate user requirements associated with earth viewing and materials exposure experiments needs.

  7. Accommodating Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  8. Necessary conditions on Calabi-Yau manifolds for large volume vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, James; He, Yang-Hui; Jejjala, Vishnu; Jurke, Benjamin; Nelson, Brent; Simón, Joan

    2012-11-01

    We describe an efficient, construction independent, algorithmic test to determine whether Calabi-Yau threefolds admit a structure compatible with the large volume moduli stabilization scenario of type IIB superstring theory. Using the algorithm, we scan complete intersection and toric hypersurface Calabi-Yau threefolds with 2≤h1,1≤4 and deduce that 418 among 4434 manifolds have a large volume limit with a single large four-cycle. We describe major extensions to this survey, which are currently underway.

  9. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in...

  10. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in...

  11. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in...

  12. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in...

  13. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in...

  14. Presbyopia correction and the accommodation in reserve.

    PubMed

    Millodot, M; Millodot, S

    1989-04-01

    One method of determining the additional correction for presbyopia suggests leaving a percentage of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The rationale for this assumption seems logical because using all of the available accommodation is not sustainable without discomfort. However there is no empirical evidence indicating what percentage of the amplitude of accommodation should actually be left in reserve. Common figures adopted have been one-half and one-third. In this investigation the percentage of accommodation used is deduced mathematically after having determined the following: 1. The 'add' by the direct subjective clinical method. 2. Measured the amplitude of accommodation. 3. Measured the reading distance in 305 presbyopes ranging from 40 to 83 years of age. The results showed a small decline in the amplitude of accommodation up to the age of 52, after which age the measurements were scattered about a steady level. This finding suggests that after the age of 52 the results are based on the depth-of-focus of the eye. Females had slightly greater accommodation than males of the same age. The power of the add was significantly correlated to the age of the subject. The mean percentage of accommodation used for the 305 subjects was found to be 50.7%, thus confirming the rule of leaving half of the accommodation in reserve, although there were large variations: there were differences between males and females and with age the percentage of measured accommodation used, after having determined the correct add, diminished. Similarly the percentage of accommodation also decreased for shorter reading distances.

  15. How does the mid-crust accommodate deformation in large, hot collisional orogens? A review of recent research in the Himalayan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Larson, Kyle P.; Kellett, Dawn A.

    2015-09-01

    The presence of hot, weak crust is a central component of recent hypotheses that seek to explain the evolution of continent-continent collisions, and in particular may play an important role in accommodating the >3000 km of convergence within the Himalaya-Tibetan collision over the last ˜55 Myr. Models that implicate flow of semi-viscous midcrustal rocks south toward the front of the Himalayan orogen, 'channel flow', are able to account for many geologic observations in the Himalaya, while alternative models of collision, particularly 'thrust-wedge taper', demonstrate that much of the observed geology could have formed in the absence of a low-viscosity mid-crustal layer. Several recent studies, synthesized here, have prompted a shift from initial assumptions that channel flow and thrust-wedge taper processes are by definition mutually exclusive. These new studies reveal the presence of several tectonometamorphic discontinuities in the midcrust that appear to reflect a continuum of deformation in which both channel- and wedge-type processes operate in spatially and temporally distinct domains within the orogen, and further, that the system may migrate back and forth between these types of behavior. This continuum of deformation styles within the collisional system is of crucial importance for explaining the evolution of the Himalayan orogen and, hence, for understanding the evolution of Earth's many continent-continent collision zones.

  16. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D.; MacRae, Marion; Bădescu, Vasile; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2005-05-01

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<1 pathogenic bacteria per ml) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a flow through immunomagnetic separator (FTIMS) has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (>50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method.

  17. Challenges and strategies in the preparation of large-volume polymer-based monolithic chromatography adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Ongkudon, Clarence M; Kansil, Tamar; Wong, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    To date, the number of published reports on the large-volume preparation of polymer-based monolithic chromatography adsorbents is still lacking and is of great importance. Many critical factors need to be considered when manufacturing a large-volume polymer-based monolith for chromatographic applications. Structural integrity, validity, and repeatability are thought to be the key factors determining the usability of a large-volume monolith in a separation process. In this review, we focus on problems and solutions pertaining to heat dissipation, pore size distribution, "wall channel" effect, and mechanical strength in monolith preparation. A template-based method comprising sacrificial and nonsacrificial techniques is possibly the method of choice due to its precise control over the porous structure. However, additional expensive steps are usually required for the template removal. Other strategies in monolith preparation are also discussed.

  18. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  19. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  20. Large-volume en-bloc staining for electron microscopy-based connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yunfeng; Laserstein, Philip; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale connectomics requires dense staining of neuronal tissue blocks for electron microscopy (EM). Here we report a large-volume dense en-bloc EM staining protocol that overcomes the staining gradients, which so far substantially limited the reconstructable volumes in three-dimensional (3D) EM. Our protocol provides densely reconstructable tissue blocks from mouse neocortex sized at least 1 mm in diameter. By relaxing the constraints on precise topographic sample targeting, it makes the correlated functional and structural analysis of neuronal circuits realistic. PMID:26235643

  1. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  2. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  3. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  4. Alternatives for Reorganizing Large Urban Unified School Districts. Volume 2: Appendixes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    This second volume of the report to California State Legislature's Joint Committee on Reorganization of Large Urban Unified School Districts includes the results of the several discreet research tasks carried out in the course of the study. It comprises the data base from which most of the conclusions and recommendations are derived. (For complete…

  5. A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of enteric viruses in environmental water usually requires the concentration of viruses from large volumes of water. The 1MDS electropositive filter is commonly used for concentrating enteric viruses from water but unfortunately these filters are not cost-effective...

  6. Evaluation of Bacillus oleronius as a Biological Indicator for Terminal Sterilization of Large-Volume Parenterals.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masamitsu; Fujifuru, Masato; Okada, Aki; Takai, Katsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Udagawa, Takeshi; Miyake, Makoto; Naruyama, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Goro; Yoden, Hikaru; Aoki, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the production of large-volume parenterals in Japan, equipment and devices such as tanks, pipework, and filters used in production processes are exhaustively cleaned and sterilized, and the cleanliness of water for injection, drug materials, packaging materials, and manufacturing areas is well controlled. In this environment, the bioburden is relatively low, and less heat resistant compared with microorganisms frequently used as biological indicators such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 7953) and Bacillus subtilis 5230 (ATCC 35021). Consequently, the majority of large-volume parenteral solutions in Japan are manufactured under low-heat sterilization conditions of F0 <2 min, so that loss of clarity of solutions and formation of degradation products of constituents are minimized. Bacillus oleronius (ATCC 700005) is listed as a biological indicator in "Guidance on the Manufacture of Sterile Pharmaceutical Products Produced by Terminal Sterilization" (guidance in Japan, issued in 2012). In this study, we investigated whether B. oleronius is an appropriate biological indicator of the efficacy of low-heat, moist-heat sterilization of large-volume parenterals. Specifically, we investigated the spore-forming ability of this microorganism in various cultivation media and measured the D-values and z-values as parameters of heat resistance. The D-values and z-values changed depending on the constituents of large-volume parenteral products. Also, the spores from B. oleronius showed a moist-heat resistance that was similar to or greater than many of the spore-forming organisms isolated from Japanese parenteral manufacturing processes. Taken together, these results indicate that B. oleronius is suitable as a biological indicator for sterility assurance of large-volume parenteral solutions subjected to low-heat, moist-heat terminal sterilization. PMID:26889054

  7. Evaluation of Bacillus oleronius as a Biological Indicator for Terminal Sterilization of Large-Volume Parenterals.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masamitsu; Fujifuru, Masato; Okada, Aki; Takai, Katsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Udagawa, Takeshi; Miyake, Makoto; Naruyama, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Goro; Yoden, Hikaru; Aoki, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the production of large-volume parenterals in Japan, equipment and devices such as tanks, pipework, and filters used in production processes are exhaustively cleaned and sterilized, and the cleanliness of water for injection, drug materials, packaging materials, and manufacturing areas is well controlled. In this environment, the bioburden is relatively low, and less heat resistant compared with microorganisms frequently used as biological indicators such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 7953) and Bacillus subtilis 5230 (ATCC 35021). Consequently, the majority of large-volume parenteral solutions in Japan are manufactured under low-heat sterilization conditions of F0 <2 min, so that loss of clarity of solutions and formation of degradation products of constituents are minimized. Bacillus oleronius (ATCC 700005) is listed as a biological indicator in "Guidance on the Manufacture of Sterile Pharmaceutical Products Produced by Terminal Sterilization" (guidance in Japan, issued in 2012). In this study, we investigated whether B. oleronius is an appropriate biological indicator of the efficacy of low-heat, moist-heat sterilization of large-volume parenterals. Specifically, we investigated the spore-forming ability of this microorganism in various cultivation media and measured the D-values and z-values as parameters of heat resistance. The D-values and z-values changed depending on the constituents of large-volume parenteral products. Also, the spores from B. oleronius showed a moist-heat resistance that was similar to or greater than many of the spore-forming organisms isolated from Japanese parenteral manufacturing processes. Taken together, these results indicate that B. oleronius is suitable as a biological indicator for sterility assurance of large-volume parenteral solutions subjected to low-heat, moist-heat terminal sterilization.

  8. The large volume radiometric calorimeter system: A transportable device to measure scrap category plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R.; Breakall, K.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An innovative design concept has been used to design a large volume calorimeter system. The new design permits two measuring cells to fit in a compact, nonevaporative environmental bath. The system is mounted on a cart for transportability. Samples in the power range of 0.50 to 12.0 W can be measured. The calorimeters will receive samples as large as 22.0 cm in diameter by 43.2 cm high, and smaller samples can be measured without lengthening measurement time or increasing measurement error by using specially designed sleeve adapters. This paper describes the design considerations, construction, theory, applications, and performance of the large volume calorimeter system. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Rüfenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-21

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.

  10. Workplace accommodations: evidence based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schartz, Helen A; Hendricks, D J; Blanck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    One central component to meaningful employment for people with disabilities is the ADA's workplace accommodation provision that allows qualified individuals to perform essential job functions. Little empirical evidence is available to evaluate the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of accommodations. Previous research has focused on direct costs. This article advocates an inclusive accommodation cost/benefit analysis to include direct and indirect costs and benefits and to differentiate disability-related accommodation costs from typical employee costs. The inclusive cost/benefit analysis is applied to preliminary data from interviews with employers who contacted the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). Results suggest that accommodations are low cost, beneficial and effective.

  11. Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability

    SciTech Connect

    Magni, V.

    1986-01-01

    Resonators containing a focusing rod are thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, as a function of the dioptric power of the rod, two stability zones of the same width exist and that the mode volume in the rod always presents a stationary point. At this point, the output power is insensitive to the focal length fluctuations, and the mode volume inside the rod is inversely proportional to the range of the input power for which the resonator is stable. The two zones are markedly different with respect to misalignment sensitivity, which is, in general, much greater in one zone than in the other. Two design procedures are presented for monomode solid-state laser resonators with large mode volume and low sensitivity both to focal length fluctuations and to misalignment.

  12. Constitutive modeling of large inelastic deformation of amorphous polymers: Free volume and shear transformation zone dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref

    2016-06-01

    Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.

  13. Lossless compression of very large volume data with fast dynamic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongkai; Tao, Tao; Gabriel, Michael; Belford, Geneva

    2002-09-01

    The volumetric data set is important in many scientific and biomedical fields. Since such sets may be extremely large, a compression method is critical to store and transmit them. To achieve a high compression rate, most of the existing volume compression methods are lossy, which is usually unacceptable in biomedical applications. We developed a new context-based non-linear prediction method to preprocess the volume data set in order to effectively lower the prediction entropy. The prediction error is further encoded using Huffman code. Unlike the conventional methods, the volume is divided into cubical blocks to take advantage of the data's spatial locality. Instead of building one Huffman tree for each block, we developed a novel binning algorithm that build a Huffman tree for each group (bin) of blocks. Combining all the effects above, we achieved an excellent compression rate compared to other lossless volume compression methods. In addition, an auxiliary data structure, Scalable Hyperspace File (SHSF) is used to index the huge volume so that we can obtain many other benefits including parallel construction, on-the-fly accessing of compressed data without global decompression, fast previewing, efficient background compressing, and scalability etc.

  14. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  15. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  16. HYBRID BRIDGMAN ANVIL DESIGN: AN OPTICAL WINDOW FOR IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPY IN LARGE VOLUME PRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-07-29

    The absence of in-situ optical probes for large volume presses often limits their application to high-pressure materials research. In this paper, we present a unique anvil/optical window-design for use in large volume presses, which consists of an inverted diamond anvil seated in a Bridgman type anvil. A small cylindrical aperture through the Bridgman anvil ending at the back of diamond anvil allows optical access to the sample chamber and permits direct optical spectroscopy measurements, such as ruby fluorescence (in-situ pressure) or Raman spectroscopy. This performance of this anvil-design has been demonstrated by loading KBr to a pressure of 14.5 GPa.

  17. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  18. The development of visual accommodation during early infancy.

    PubMed

    Banks, M S

    1980-09-01

    4 experiments were conducted concerning the development of visual accommodation in 1- to 3-month-old infants. In experiments 1 and 2 dynamic retinoscopy was used to measure accomodation responses at 3 stimulus distances. The results of experiment 1 revealed better accommodative capability from 1 to 3 months than reported originally. The procedure of experiment 2 was somewhat different but the results confirmed those of experiment 1. In experiment 3, accommodative responses at 7 stimulus distances were carefully measured in a small number of infants. These data provided estimates of the shape of infants' accommodation functions. In experiment 4, we used infrared photography to measure infants' pupil diameters while they viewed the stimuli of experiments 1 and 2. 2 simple hypotheses of the developmental mechanisms which underlie early accommodative development were considered. First, development of the motor component of the accommodative system might determine accommodative development. Second, development of the sensory component of the accommodative system might determine the observed development. The first hypothesis was tentatively rejected because it is inconsistent with some clinical findings. Evaluation of the second hypothesis involved calculating infants' depth of focus. We used those depth-of-focus values to predict how well infants of different ages should accommodate if their only limitation were in the sensory component of the accommodative system. The agreement between those predictions and observed accommodation was excellent, suggesting that changes in depth of focus in the first 3 months are largely responsible for growth in accommodation. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  19. Rapid Adaptive Optical Recovery of Optimal Resolution over LargeVolumes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Milkie, Dan; Saxena, Ankur; Engerer, Peter; Misgeld, Thomas; Bronner, Marianne E.; Mumm, Jeff; Betzig, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using a de-scanned, laser-induced guide star and direct wavefront sensing, we demonstrate adaptive correction of complex optical aberrations at high numerical aperture and a 14 ms update rate. This permits us to compensate for the rapid spatial variation in aberration often encountered in biological specimens, and recover diffraction-limited imaging over large (> 240 μm)3 volumes. We applied this to image fine neuronal processes and subcellular dynamics within the zebrafish brain. PMID:24727653

  20. Large-N volume independence in conformal and confining gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle

    2010-08-26

    Consequences of large N volume independence are examined in conformal and confining gauge theories. In the large N limit, gauge theories compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} are independent of the S{sup 1} radii, provided the theory has unbroken center symmetry. In particular, this implies that a large N gauge theory which, on R{sup d}, flows to an IR fixed point, retains the infinite correlation length and other scale invariant properties of the decompactified theory even when compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k}. In other words, finite volume effects are 1/N suppressed. In lattice formulations of vector-like theories, this implies that numerical studies to determine the boundary between confined and conformal phases may be performed on one-site lattice models. In N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, the center symmetry realization is a matter of choice: the theory on R{sup 4-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} has a moduli space which contains points with all possible realizations of center symmetry. Large N QCD with massive adjoint fermions and one or two compactified dimensions has a rich phase structure with an infinite number of phase transitions coalescing in the zero radius limit.

  1. Diurnal fluctuations in brain volume: Statistical analyses of MRI from large populations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kunio; Brown, Robert A; Narayanan, Sridar; Collins, D Louis; Arnold, Douglas L

    2015-09-01

    We investigated fluctuations in brain volume throughout the day using statistical modeling of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from large populations. We applied fully automated image analysis software to measure the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), defined as the ratio of the brain parenchymal volume and intracranial volume, thus accounting for variations in head size. The MRI data came from serial scans of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in clinical trials (n=755, 3269 scans) and from subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n=834, 6114 scans). The percent change in BPF was modeled with a linear mixed effect (LME) model, and the model was applied separately to the MS and ADNI datasets. The LME model for the MS datasets included random subject effects (intercept and slope over time) and fixed effects for the time-of-day, time from the baseline scan, and trial, which accounted for trial-related effects (for example, different inclusion criteria and imaging protocol). The model for ADNI additionally included the demographics (baseline age, sex, subject type [normal, mild cognitive impairment, or Alzheimer's disease], and interaction between subject type and time from baseline). There was a statistically significant effect of time-of-day on the BPF change in MS clinical trial datasets (-0.180 per day, that is, 0.180% of intracranial volume, p=0.019) as well as the ADNI dataset (-0.438 per day, that is, 0.438% of intracranial volume, p<0.0001), showing that the brain volume is greater in the morning. Linearly correcting the BPF values with the time-of-day reduced the required sample size to detect a 25% treatment effect (80% power and 0.05 significance level) on change in brain volume from 2 time-points over a period of 1year by 2.6%. Our results have significant implications for future brain volumetric studies, suggesting that there is a potential acquisition time bias that should be randomized or statistically controlled to

  2. Detection and Volume Estimation of Large Landslides by Using Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yu-chung; Hou, Chin-Shyong; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Fei, Li-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Lung

    2014-05-01

    Large landslides are frequently triggered by strong earthquakes and heavy rainfalls in the mountainous areas of Taiwan. The heavy rainfall brought by the Typhoon Morakot has triggered a large amount of landslides. The most unfortunate case occurred in the Xiaolin village, which was totally demolished by a catastrophic landslide in less than a minute. Continued and detailed study of the characteristics of large landslides is urgently needed to mitigate loss of lives and properties in the future. Traditionally known techniques cannot effectively extract landslide parameters, such as depth, amount and volume, which are essential in all the phases of landslide assessment. In addition, it is very important to record the changes of landslide deposits after the landslide events as accurately as possible to better understand the landslide erosion process. The acquisition of digital elevation models (DEMs) is considered necessary for achieving accurate, effective and quantitative landslide assessments. A new technique is presented in this study for quickly assessing extensive areas of large landslides. The technique uses DEMs extracted from several remote sensing approaches, including aerial photogrammetry, airborne LiDAR and UAV photogrammetry. We chose a large landslide event that occurred after Typhoon Sinlaku in Meiyuan the mount, central Taiwan in 2008. We collected and processed six data sets, including aerial photos, airborne LiDAR data and UAVphotos, at different times from 2005 to 2013. Our analyses show the landslide volume being 17.14 × 106 cubic meters, deposition volume being 12.75 × 106 cubic meters, and about 4.38 × 106 cubic meters being washed out of the region. Residual deposition ratio of this area is about 74% in 2008; while, after a few years, the residual deposition ratio is down below 50%. We also analyzed riverbed changes and sediment transfer patterns from 2005 to 2013 by multi-temporal remote sensing data with desirable accuracy. The developed

  3. Management of large volume CT contrast medium extravasation injury: technical refinement and literature review.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, Mark V; Evison, Demetrius; McCulley, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of radiographic contrast medium extravasation is on the rise due to the rapid increase in availability of contrast enhanced imaging. There is no consensus, however, regarding its management. There is a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from localised erythema and oedema to skin necrosis, which is related to the osmolarity and volume of the extravasated contrast medium. It is not possible to predict the degree of final tissue injury at initial examination. The increase in use of automated bolus injection has led to an increase in incidence of large volume extravasation injuries. Here we present a review of the literature regarding clinical presentation, risk factors, and management of contrast extravasation injuries. We also report the management of a large volume computed tomography contrast extravasation injury following mechanical bolus injection using a combination of liposuction and saline washout as described by Gault, and the use of compression by a Rhys-Davies exsanguinator as a technical refinement to achieve immediate resolution of the soft tissue oedema. PMID:17459795

  4. A pyramid-based approach to visual exploration of a large volume of vehicle trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Advances in positioning and wireless communicating technologies make it possible to collect large volumes of trajectory data of moving vehicles in a fast and convenient fashion. These data can be applied to traffic studies. Behind this application, a methodological issue that still requires particular attention is the way these data should be spatially visualized. Trajectory data physically consists of a large number of positioning points. With the dramatic increase of data volume, it becomes a challenge to display and explore these data. Existing commercial software often employs vector-based indexing structures to facilitate the display of a large volume of points, but their performance downgrades quickly when the number of points is very large, for example, tens of millions. In this paper, a pyramid-based approach is proposed. A pyramid method initially is invented to facilitate the display of raster images through the tradeoff between storage space and display time. A pyramid is a set of images at different levels with different resolutions. In this paper, we convert vector-based point data into raster data, and build a gridbased indexing structure in a 2D plane. Then, an image pyramid is built. Moreover, at the same level of a pyramid, image is segmented into mosaics with respect to the requirements of data storage and management. Algorithms or procedures on grid-based indexing structure, image pyramid, image segmentation, and visualization operations are given in this paper. A case study with taxi trajectory data in Shanghai is conducted. Results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing commercial software.

  5. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings. PMID:26040598

  6. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings.

  7. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  8. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings. PMID:26040598

  9. Generation of large volume hydrostatic pressure to 8 GPa for ultrasonic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuki, Yasushi; Yoneda, Akira; Fujimura, Akio; Sawamoto, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Mineo

    1986-09-01

    The design and performance of a liquid-solid hybrid cell to generate high hydrostatic pressures in a relatively large volume (for use in measurements of the pressure dependence of the physical properties of materials) are reported. A 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture is employed in 12-mm-side and 20-mm-side versions of an eight-cubic-anvil apparatus driven by a 10-kt press. Pressures up to 8 GPa are obtained safely in a 16-cu cm volume by applying uniaxial force of 3 kt. The cell is used to obtain measurements of the velocity of ultrasonic waves in fused quartz: the experimental setup is described, and sample results are presented graphically.

  10. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy Moriarty, John

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  11. Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-01-21

    We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

  12. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  13. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  14. GMP Cryopreservation of Large Volumes of Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Active Control of the Freezing Process

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G. John

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to −60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze—viabilities at 93.4%±7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3±1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5±1.7

  15. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  16. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  17. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-12-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water-ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation.

  18. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G. John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water–ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24 h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation. PMID:25219980

  19. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes. PMID:19838277

  20. Accommodating to new ears: the effects of sensory and sensory-motor feedback.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Balachandar, Kapilesh; Kelly, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Changing the shape of the outer ear using small in-ear molds degrades sound localization performance consistent with the distortion of monaural spectral cues to location. It has been shown recently that adult listeners re-calibrate to these new spectral cues for locations both inside and outside the visual field. This raises the question as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity. Furthermore, large individual differences in the extent and rate of accommodation suggests a number of factors may be driving this process. A training paradigm exploiting multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback during accommodation was examined to determine whether it might accelerate this process. So as to standardize the modification of the spectral cues, molds filling 40% of the volume of each outer ear were custom made for each subject. Daily training sessions for about an hour, involving repetitive auditory stimuli and exploratory behavior by the subject, significantly improved the extent of accommodation measured by both front-back confusions and polar angle localization errors, with some improvement in the rate of accommodation demonstrated by front-back confusion errors. This work has implications for both the process by which a coherent representation of auditory space is maintained and for accommodative training for hearing aid wearers.

  1. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-07-12

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'"parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  2. MPI-hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-03-20

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  3. Points based reconstruction and rendering of 3D shapes from large volume dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingchang; Tian, Jie; He, Huiguang; Li, Guangming

    2003-05-01

    In the field of medical imaging, researchers often need visualize lots of 3D datasets to get the informaiton contained in these datasets. But the huge data genreated by modern medical imaging device challenge the real time processing and rendering algorithms at all the time. Spurring by the great achievement of Points Based Rendering (PBR) in the fields of computer graphics to render very large meshes, we propose a new algorithm to use the points as basic primitive of surface reconstruction and rendering to interactively reconstruct and render very large volume dataset. By utilizing the special characteristics of medical image datasets, we obtain a fast and efficient points-based reconstruction and rendering algorithm in common PC. The experimental results show taht this algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  4. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-06-14

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  5. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi- and Many-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2011-01-01

    With the computing industry trending towards multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, ray-casting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with datasets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  6. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  7. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the deep stagnant deep water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. Large volume changes have been calculated for the period 1887-2014 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Thus, LVCs can be calculated from the mean sea level variations. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting of at least 100 km³ of water volume change have been chosen for a closer study of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of a LVC is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones will move along characteristic storm tracks. We obtained three main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 58-62°N, passing the northern North Sea, Oslo, Sweden and the Island of Gotland, while a second, less frequent one, is approaching from the west at about 65°N, crossing Scandinavia south-eastwards passing the Sea of Bothnia and entering Finland. A third very frequent one is entering the study area north of Scotland turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. Thus, the conditions for a LVC to happen are a temporal clustering of deep cyclones in certain

  8. Adrenal suppression with inhaled budesonide and fluticasone propionate given by large volume spacer to asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D. J.; Clark, R. A.; Lipworth, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the systemic bioactivity of inhaled budesonide (B) and fluticasone propionate (F), each given by large volume spacer, on a microgram equivalent basis in asthmatic children. METHODS: Ten stable asthmatic children of mean age 11 years and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 81.6% predicted, who were receiving treatment with < or = 400 micrograms/day of inhaled corticosteroid, were studied in a placebo controlled single blind (investigator blind) randomised crossover design comparing single doses of inhaled budesonide and fluticasone propionate 400 micrograms, 800 micrograms, and 1250 micrograms. Doses were given at 20.00 hours with mouth rinsing and an overnight 12 hour urine sample was collected for estimation of free cortisol and creatinine excretion. RESULTS: The results of overnight 12 hour urinary cortisol output (nmol/12 hours) showed suppression with all doses of fluticasone propionate (as geometric means): F400 micrograms (11.99), F800 micrograms (6.49), F1250 micrograms (7.00) compared with placebo (24.43), whereas budesonide caused no suppression at any dose. A comparison of the drugs showed that there were differences at 800 micrograms and 1250 micrograms levels for urinary cortisol: B800 micrograms versus F800 micrograms (2.65-fold, 95% CI 1.26 to 5.58), B1250 micrograms versus F1250 micrograms (2.94-fold, 95% CI 1.67 to 5.15). The results for the cortisol/creatinine ratio were similar to that of urinary cortisol, with fluticasone causing suppression at all doses and with differences between the drugs at 800 micrograms and 1250 micrograms. CONCLUSIONS: Single doses of inhaled fluticasone produce greater systemic bioactivity than budesonide when given by large volume spacer on a microgram equivalent basis in asthmatic children. The systemic bioactivity of fluticasone, like budesonide, is due mainly to lung bioavailability. PMID:8984708

  9. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2006-09-21

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators

  10. Controlled ice nucleation--Is it really needed for large-volume sperm cryopreservation?

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Osmers, Jan-Hendrik; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-04-15

    Controlled ice nucleation (CIN) is an integral stage of slow freezing process when relatively large volumes (usually 1 mL or larger) of biological samples in suspension are involved. Without it, a sample will supercool to way below its melting point before ice crystals start forming, resulting in multiple damaging processes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that when freezing large volumes by the directional freezing technique, a CIN stage is not needed. Semen samples collected from ten bulls were frozen in 2.5-mL HollowTubes in a split-sample manner with and without a CIN stage. Thawed samples were evaluated for viability, acrosome integrity, rate of normal morphology, and, using computer-aided sperm analysis system, for a wide range of motility parameters that were also evaluated after 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Analysis of the results found no difference between freezing with and without CIN stage in any and all of the 29 parameters compared (P > 0.1 for all). This similarity was maintained through 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Possibly, because of its structure, the directional freezing device promotes continuous ice nucleation so a specific CIN stage is no longer needed, thus reducing costs, energy use, and carbon footprint. PMID:26806291

  11. Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose clean-up of a large volume naphthenic acid extract.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Der Kraak, Glen Van; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    The Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 174 billion barrels of bitumen. During oil sands refining processes, an extraction tailings mixture is produced that has been reported as toxic to aquatic organisms and is therefore collected in settling ponds on site. Investigation into the toxicity of these tailings pond waters has identified naphthenic acids (NAs) and their sodium salts as the major toxic components, and a multi-year study has been initiated to identify the principal toxic components within NA mixtures. Future toxicity studies require a large volume of a NA mixture, however, a well-defined bulk extraction technique is not available. This study investigated the use of a weak anion exchanger, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), to remove humic-like material present after collecting the organic acid fraction of oil sands tailings pond water. The NA extraction and clean-up procedure proved to be a fast and efficient method to process large volumes of tailings pond water, providing an extraction efficiency of 41.2%. The resulting concentrated NA solution had a composition that differed somewhat from oil sands fresh tailings, with a reduction in the abundance of lower molecular weight NAs being the most significant difference. This reduction was mainly due to the initial acidification of tailings pond water. The DEAE-cellulose treatment had only a minor effect on the NA concentration, no noticeable effect on the NA fingerprint, and no significant effect on the mixture toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. PMID:16469358

  12. Development of large volume double ring penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ram; Vyas, Gheesa Lal; Jain, Jalaj; Prajapati, Jitendra; Pal, Udit Narayan; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Manchanda, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of large volume double ring Penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions is reported. The developed Penning discharge source consists of two cylindrical end cathodes of stainless steel having radius 6 cm and a gap 5.5 cm between them, which are fitted in the top and bottom flanges of the vacuum chamber. Two stainless steel anode rings with thickness 0.4 cm and inner diameters 6.45 cm having separation 2 cm are kept at the discharge centre. Neodymium (Nd(2)Fe(14)B) permanent magnets are physically inserted behind the cathodes for producing nearly uniform magnetic field of ~0.1 T at the center. Experiments and simulations have been performed for single and double anode ring configurations using helium gas discharge, which infer that double ring configuration gives better light emissions in the large volume Penning plasma discharge arrangement. The optical emission spectroscopy measurements are used to complement the observations. The spectral line-ratio technique is utilized to determine the electron plasma density. The estimated electron plasma density in double ring plasma configuration is ~2 × 10(11) cm(-3), which is around one order of magnitude larger than that of single ring arrangement.

  13. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  14. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ``volume`` permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques.

  15. Controlled ice nucleation--Is it really needed for large-volume sperm cryopreservation?

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Osmers, Jan-Hendrik; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-04-15

    Controlled ice nucleation (CIN) is an integral stage of slow freezing process when relatively large volumes (usually 1 mL or larger) of biological samples in suspension are involved. Without it, a sample will supercool to way below its melting point before ice crystals start forming, resulting in multiple damaging processes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that when freezing large volumes by the directional freezing technique, a CIN stage is not needed. Semen samples collected from ten bulls were frozen in 2.5-mL HollowTubes in a split-sample manner with and without a CIN stage. Thawed samples were evaluated for viability, acrosome integrity, rate of normal morphology, and, using computer-aided sperm analysis system, for a wide range of motility parameters that were also evaluated after 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Analysis of the results found no difference between freezing with and without CIN stage in any and all of the 29 parameters compared (P > 0.1 for all). This similarity was maintained through 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Possibly, because of its structure, the directional freezing device promotes continuous ice nucleation so a specific CIN stage is no longer needed, thus reducing costs, energy use, and carbon footprint.

  16. Large range rotation distortion measurement for remote sensing images based on volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Tian; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2012-10-01

    Volume holographic optical correlator can compute the correlation results between images at a super-high speed. In the application of remote imaging processing such as scene matching, 6,000 template images have been angularly multiplexed in the photorefractive crystal and the 6,000 parallel processing channels are achieved. In order to detect the correlation pattern of images precisely and distinguishingly, an on-off pixel inverted technology of images is proposed. It can fully use the CCD's linear range for detection and expand the normalized correlation value differences as the target image rotates. Due to the natural characteristics of the remote sensing images, the statistical formulas between the rotation distortions and the correlation results can be estimated. The rotation distortion components can be estimated by curve fitting method with the data of correlation results. The intensities of the correlation spots are related to the distortion between the two images. The rotation distortion could be derived from the intensities in the post processing procedure. With 18 rotations of the input image and sending them into the volume holographic system, the detection of the rotation variation in the range of 180° can be fulfilled. So the large range rotation distortion detection is firstly realized. It offers a fast, large range rotation measurement method for image distortions.

  17. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters. PMID:27550886

  18. Formation of Large-Volume High-Pressure Plasma in Triode-Configuration Discharge Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Wang, Youqing

    2006-03-01

    A ``plane cathode micro-hollow anode discharge (PCHAD)'' is studied in comparison with micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD). A new triode-configuration discharge device is also designed for large-volume, high-pressure glow discharges plasma without glow-to-arc transitions, as well as with an anode metal needle, and a cathode of PCHAD. It has a ``needle-hole" sustained glow discharge. Its discharge circuit employs only one power supply circuit with a variable resistor. The discharge experiments have been carried out in the air. The electrical properties and the photo-images in PCHAD, multi-PCHAD and ``needle-hole" sustained discharge have been investigated. The electrical and the optical measurements show that this triode-configuration discharge device can operate stably at high-pressure, in parallel without individual ballasting resistance. And the electron density of the plasma is estimated to be up to 1012cm-3. Compared with the two-supply circuit system, this electrode configuration is very simple with lower cost in generating large-volume plasma at high pressures.

  19. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    DOE PAGES

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-03-23

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form amore » narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. Furthermore, these results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.« less

  20. The Biological Response following Autogenous Bone Grafting for Large-Volume Defects of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    DeLano, Mark C.; Spector, Myron; Jeng, Lily; Pittsley, Andrew; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report focuses on the biological events occurring at various intervals following autogenous bone grafting of large-volume defects of the knee joint’s femoral condyle secondary to osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) or osteonecrosis (ON). It was hypothesized that the autogenous bone graft would integrate and the portion exposed to the articular surface would form fibrocartilage, which would endure for years. Methods: Between September 29, 1987 and August 8, 1994, there were 51 patients treated with autogenous bone grafting for large-volume osteochondral defects. Twenty-five of the 51 patients were available for long-term follow-up up to 21 years. Patient follow-up was accomplished by clinical opportunity and intentional research. Videotapes were available on all index surgeries for review and comparison. All had preoperative and postoperative plain film radiographs. Long-term follow-up included MRI up to 21 years. Second-look arthroscopy and biopsy were obtained on 14 patients between 8 weeks and 20 years. Results: Radiological assessment showed the autogenous bone grafts integrated with the host bone. The grafts retained the physical geometry of the original placement. MRI showed soft tissue covering the grafts in all cases at long-term follow-up. Interval biopsy showed the surface covered with fibrous tissue at 8 weeks and subsequently converted to fibrocartilage with hyaline cartilage at 20 years. Conclusion: Autogenous bone grafting provides a matrix for large osteochondral defects that integrates with the host bone and results in a surface repair of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage that can endure for up to 20 years. PMID:26069622

  1. Semicommunication and Accommodation: Observations from the Linguistic Situation in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunmuller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on semicommunication and accommodation and discusses two longer extracts from a large corpus of authentic communication from Scandinavia. Various aspects of a comprehensive model of semicommunication are presented and discussed, showing code switching and accommodation are not considered antagonistic but rather as scalar phenomena covering…

  2. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  3. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  4. Random forest classification of large volume structures for visuo-haptic rendering in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastmeyer, Andre; Fortmeier, Dirk; Handels, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    For patient-specific voxel-based visuo-haptic rendering of CT scans of the liver area, the fully automatic segmentation of large volume structures such as skin, soft tissue, lungs and intestine (risk structures) is important. Using a machine learning based approach, several existing segmentations from 10 segmented gold-standard patients are learned by random decision forests individually and collectively. The core of this paper is feature selection and the application of the learned classifiers to a new patient data set. In a leave-some-out cross-validation, the obtained full volume segmentations are compared to the gold-standard segmentations of the untrained patients. The proposed classifiers use a multi-dimensional feature space to estimate the hidden truth, instead of relying on clinical standard threshold and connectivity based methods. The result of our efficient whole-body section classification are multi-label maps with the considered tissues. For visuo-haptic simulation, other small volume structures would have to be segmented additionally. We also take a look into these structures (liver vessels). For an experimental leave-some-out study consisting of 10 patients, the proposed method performs much more efficiently compared to state of the art methods. In two variants of leave-some-out experiments we obtain best mean DICE ratios of 0.79, 0.97, 0.63 and 0.83 for skin, soft tissue, hard bone and risk structures. Liver structures are segmented with DICE 0.93 for the liver, 0.43 for blood vessels and 0.39 for bile vessels.

  5. Determination of the large scale volume weighted halo velocity bias in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-06-01

    A profound assumption in peculiar velocity cosmology is bv=1 at sufficiently large scales, where bv is the volume-weighted halo(galaxy) velocity bias with respect to the matter velocity field. However, this fundamental assumption has not been robustly verified in numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is challenged by structure formation theory (Bardeen, Bond, Kaiser and Szalay, Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986); Desjacques and Sheth, Phys. Rev D 81, 023526 (2010), which predicts the existence of velocity bias (at least for proto-halos) due to the fact that halos reside in special regions (local density peaks). The major obstacle to measuring the volume-weighted velocity from N-body simulations is an unphysical sampling artifact. It is entangled in the measured velocity statistics and becomes significant for sparse populations. With recently improved understanding of the sampling artifact (Zhang, Zheng and Jing, 2015, PRD; Zheng, Zhang and Jing, 2015, PRD), for the first time we are able to appropriately correct this sampling artifact and then robustly measure the volume-weighted halo velocity bias. (1) We verify bv=1 within 2% model uncertainty at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc and z =0 - 2 for halos of mass ˜1012- 1013h-1M⊙ and, therefore, consolidate a foundation for the peculiar velocity cosmology. (2) We also find statistically significant signs of bv≠1 at k ≳0.1 h /Mpc . Unfortunately, whether this is real or caused by a residual sampling artifact requires further investigation. Nevertheless, cosmology based on the k ≳0.1 h /Mpc velocity data should be careful with this potential velocity bias.

  6. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Mammosser, S. Ahmed, K. Macha, J. Upadhyay, M. Nikoli, S. Popovi, L. Vuakovi

    2012-07-01

    We report the preliminary results on plasma generation in a 5-cell CEBAF superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity for the application of cavity interior surface cleaning. CEBAF currently has {approx}300 of these five cell cavities installed in the Jefferson Lab accelerator which are mostly limited by cavity surface contamination. The development of an in-situ cavity surface cleaning method utilizing a resonant microwave discharge could lead to significant CEBAF accelerator performance improvement. This microwave discharge is currently being used for the development of a set of plasma cleaning procedures targeted to the removal of various organic, metal and metal oxide impurities. These contaminants are responsible for the increase of surface resistance and the reduction of RF performance in installed cavities. The CEBAF five cell cavity volume is {approx} 0.5 m2, which places the discharge in the category of large-volume plasmas. CEBAF cavity has a cylindrical symmetry, but its elliptical shape and transversal power coupling makes it an unusual plasma application, which requires special consideration of microwave breakdown. Our preliminary study includes microwave breakdown and optical spectroscopy, which was used to define the operating pressure range and the rate of removal of organic impurities.

  7. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Manganese content of large-volume parenteral solutions and of nutrient additives.

    PubMed

    Kurkus, J; Alcock, N W; Shils, M E

    1984-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in a variety of commercially produced solutions and additives commonly used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amount of Mn in preparations tested varied among manufacturers and among lots. It was generally present in very small amounts with amino acid preparations supplying the major portion in the TPN formulas. Among amino acid solutions, Aminosyn 10% had the highest Mn content (5.2-17.0 micrograms/liter) with Veinamine 8%, FreAmine II, 8.5%, Travasol 10%, and Nephramine having less than 6.7 micrograms/liter. Other large volume parenterals contained appreciably less Mn, eg, Dextrose 50% had 0.64-2.5 micrograms/liter. Some of the additives were high in Mn, eg, potassium phosphate--280 micrograms/liter, magnesium sulfate 50%--up to 225 micrograms/liter, and Berocca C--245.8 micrograms/liter but their actual contributions to daily TPN intake was no more than 3.3 micrograms. The calculated Mn content in TPN formulas with varying source materials ranged from 8.07-21.75 micrograms per total daily volume. These values agreed with those obtained from analysis of actual TPN solutions. The values for 10% Intralipid and 20% Liposyn were 0.5 and 3.0 micrograms/liter, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of Large Volume SrI2(Eu) Scintillator Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, B W; Cherepy, N J; Drury, O B; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Magyar, A F; Payne, S A; Burger, A; Boatner, L A; Ramey, J O; Shah, K S; Hawrami, R

    2010-11-18

    There is an ever increasing demand for gamma-ray detectors which can achieve good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and room-temperature operation. We are working to address each of these requirements through the development of large volume SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator detectors. In this work, we have evaluated a variety of SrI{sub 2} crystals with volumes >10 cm{sup 3}. The goal of this research was to examine the causes of energy resolution degradation for larger detectors and to determine what can be done to mitigate these effects. Testing both packaged and unpackaged detectors, we have consistently achieved better resolution with the packaged detectors. Using a collimated gamma-ray source, it was determined that better energy resolution for the packaged detectors is correlated with better light collection uniformity. A number of packaged detectors were fabricated and tested and the best spectroscopic performance was achieved for a 3% Eu doped crystal with an energy resolution of 2.93% FWHM at 662keV. Simulations of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystals were also performed to better understand the light transport physics in scintillators and are reported. This study has important implications for the development of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) detectors for national security purposes.

  10. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  11. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  12. Practical Gamma Spectroscopy Assay Techniques for Large Volume Low-Level Waste Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Sheffing, C. C.; Gallegos, L.; Bustos, R.

    2002-02-26

    A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAP (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known standards in large metal waste boxes (2.5 m3 volume). The trials were designed to test the accuracy and variance of the analytical results for low-density combustible matrices and higher-density metal matrices at two discrete gamma-ray energies: 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV. For both matrix types the measurement method that produced the most accurate results with the lowest associated standard deviation involved combining four individual measurements taken at the geometric center of each of the box's four vertical sides.

  13. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Suffet, I.H.; Malaiyandi, Murugan

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  14. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  15. Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration.

  16. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  17. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descovich, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Boston, A. J.; Dobson, J.; Gros, S.; Cresswell, J. R.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Regan, P. H.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Sellin, P.; Pearson, C. J.

    2005-11-01

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the γ-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7 mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions.

  18. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Michael; Melchior Hansen, Anders; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads.

  19. Measurement of the velocity of neutrinos from the CNGS beam with the large volume detector.

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N Yu; Aglietta, M; Antonioli, P; Ashikhmin, V V; Bari, G; Bertoni, R; Bressan, E; Bruno, G; Dadykin, V L; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Ghia, P L; Giusti, P; Kemp, E; Mal'gin, A S; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Persiani, R; Pless, I A; Ryasny, V G; Ryazhskaya, O G; Saavedra, O; Sartorelli, G; Shakyrianova, I R; Selvi, M; Trinchero, G C; Vigorito, C; Yakushev, V F; Zichichi, A; Razeto, A

    2012-08-17

    We report the measurement of the time of flight of ∼17 GeV ν(μ) on the CNGS baseline (732 km) with the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The CERN-SPS accelerator has been operated from May 10th to May 24th 2012, with a tightly bunched-beam structure to allow the velocity of neutrinos to be accurately measured on an event-by-event basis. LVD has detected 48 neutrino events, associated with the beam, with a high absolute time accuracy. These events allow us to establish the following limit on the difference between the neutrino speed and the light velocity: -3.8 × 10(-6) < (v(ν)-c)/c < 3.1 × 10(-6) (at 99% C.L.). This value is an order of magnitude lower than previous direct measurements. PMID:23006352

  20. Anatomic Landmarks Versus Fiducials for Volume-Staged Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Large Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Paula L. . E-mail: ppetti@radonc.ucsf.edu; Coleman, Joy; McDermott, Michael; Smith, Vernon; Larson, David A.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the accuracy of using internal anatomic landmarks instead of surgically implanted fiducials in the image registration process for volume-staged gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations. Methods and Materials: We studied 9 patients who had undergone 10 staged GK sessions for large arteriovenous malformations. Each patient had fiducials surgically implanted in the outer table of the skull at the first GK treatment. These markers were imaged on orthogonal radiographs, which were scanned into the GK planning system. For the same patients, 8-10 pairs of internal landmarks were retrospectively identified on the three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging studies that had been obtained for treatment. The coordinate transformation between the stereotactic frame space for subsequent treatment sessions was then determined by point matching, using four surgically embedded fiducials and then using four pairs of internal anatomic landmarks. In both cases, the transformation was ascertained by minimizing the chi-square difference between the actual and the transformed coordinates. Both transformations were then evaluated using the remaining four to six pairs of internal landmarks as the test points. Results: Averaged over all treatment sessions, the root mean square discrepancy between the coordinates of the transformed and actual test points was 1.2 {+-} 0.2 mm using internal landmarks and 1.7 {+-} 0.4 mm using the surgically implanted fiducials. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that using internal landmarks to determine the coordinate transformation between subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans for volume-staged GK arteriovenous malformation treatment sessions is as accurate as using surgically implanted fiducials and avoids an invasive procedure.

  1. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  2. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  3. Determination of 235U enrichment with a large volume CZT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortreau, Patricia; Berndt, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature CdZnTe and CdTe detectors have been routinely used in the field of Nuclear Safeguards for many years [Ivanov et al., Development of large volume hemispheric CdZnTe detectors for use in safeguards applications, ESARDA European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Le Corum, Montpellier, France, 1997, p. 447; Czock and Arlt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 175; Arlt et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 428 (1999) 127; Lebrun et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 448 (2000) 598; Aparo et al., Development and implementation of compact gamma spectrometers for spent fuel measurements, in: Proceedings, 21st Annual ESARDA, 1999; Arlt and Rudsquist, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 455; Khusainov et al., High resolution pin type CdTe detectors for the verification of nuclear material, in: Proceedings, 17th Annual ESARDA European Safeguards Research and Development Association, 1995; Mortreau and Berndt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 183; Ruhter et al., UCRL-JC-130548, 1998; Abbas et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 405 (1998) 153; Ruhter and Gunnink, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 353 (1994) 716]. Due to their performance and small size, they are ideal detectors for hand-held applications such as verification of spent and fresh fuel, U/Pu attribute tests as well as for the determination of 235U enrichment. The hemispherical CdZnTe type produced by RITEC (Riga, Latvia) [Ivanov et al., 1997] is the most widely used detector in the field of inspection. With volumes ranging from 2 to 1500 mm 3, their spectral performance is such that the use of electronic processing to correct the pulse shape is not required. This paper reports on the work carried out with a large volume (15×15×7.5 mm 3) and high efficiency hemispherical CdZnTe detector for the determination of 235U enrichment. The measurements were made with certified uranium samples whose enrichment ranging from 0.31% to 92.42%, cover the whole range of in-field measurement conditions. The interposed

  4. Designing an elastomeric binder for large-volume-change electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zonghai

    It is of commercial importance to develop high capacity negative and positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries to meet the energy requirements of portable electronic devices. Excellent capacity retention has been achieved for thin sputtered films of amorphous Si, Ge and Si-Sn alloys even when cycled to 2000 mAh/g and above, which suggests that amorphous alloys are capable of extended cycling. However, PVDF-based composite electrodes incorporating a-Si0.64Sn0.36/Ag powder (10 wt% silver coating) (˜10mum) still suffer from severe capacity fading because of the huge volumetric changes of a-Si0.64Sn0.36/Ag during charge/discharge cycling. It is the objective of this thesis to understand the problem scientifically and to propose practical solutions to solve this problem. Mechanical studies of binders for lithium battery electrodes have never been reported in the literature. The mechanical properties of commonly used binders, such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), haven't been challenged because commercially used active materials, such as LiCoO2 and graphite, have small volumetric changes (<10%) during charge/discharge cycling. However, the recently proposed metallic alloys have huge volumetric changes (up to 250%) during cycling. In this case, the mechanical properties of the binder become critical. A tether model is proposed to qualitatively understand the capacity fading of high-volume-change electrodes, and to predict the properties of a good binder system. A crosslinking/coupling route was used to modify the binder system according to the requirements of the tether model. A poly(vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylenepropylene)-based elastomeric binder system was designed to successfully improve the capacity retention of a-Si0.64 Sn0.36/Ag composite electrodes. In this thesis, it has also proven nontrivial to maximize the capacity retention of large-volume-change electrodes even when a fixed elastomeric binder system was used. The parameters that

  5. Large Volume Coagulation Utilizing Multiple Cavitation Clouds Generated by Array Transducer Driven by 32 Channel Drive Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Asai, Ayumu; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is a noninvasive treatment, in which focused ultrasound is generated outside the body and coagulates a diseased tissue. The advantage of this method is minimal physical and mental stress to the patient, and the disadvantage is the long treatment time caused by the smallness of the therapeutic volume by a single exposure. To improve the efficiency and shorten the treatment time, we are focusing attention on utilizing cavitation bubbles. The generated microbubbles can convert the acoustic energy into heat with a high efficiency. In this study, using the class D amplifiers, which we have developed, to drive the array transducer, we demonstrate a new method to coagulate a large volume by a single HIFU exposure through generating cavitation bubbles distributing in a large volume and vibrating all of them. As a result, the coagulated volume by the proposed method was 1.71 times as large as that of the conventional method.

  6. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  7. Large-volume hot spots in gold spiky nanoparticle dimers for high-performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Anran; Li, Shuzhou

    2014-11-01

    Hot spots with a large electric field enhancement usually come in small volumes, limiting their applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Using a finite-difference time-domain method, we demonstrate that spiky nanoparticle dimers (SNPD) can provide hot spots with both large electric field enhancement and large volumes because of the pronounced lightning rod effect of spiky nanoparticles. We find that the strongest electric fields lie in the gap region when SNPD is in a tip-to-tip (T-T) configuration. The enhancement of electric fields (|E|(2)/|E0|(2)) in T-T SNPD with a 2 nm gap can be as large as 1.21 × 10(6). And the hot spot volume in T-T SNPD is almost 7 times and 5 times larger than those in the spike dimer and sphere dimer with the same gap size of 2 nm, respectively. The hot spot volume in SNPD can be further improved by manipulating the arrangements of spiky nanoparticles, where crossed T-T SNPD provides the largest hot spot volume, which is 1.5 times that of T-T SNPD. Our results provide a strategy to obtain hot spots with both intense electric fields and large volume by adding a bulky core at one end of the spindly building block in dimers. PMID:25233050

  8. Plasma Cathodes as Electron Sources for Large Volume, High-Pressure Glow Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-10-01

    A method to suppress the glow-to-arc transition in high pressure glow discharges is the use of a plasma cathode consisting of microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) [1]. In our experiment a microhollow cathode discharge with a 100 micrometer diameter cathode hole and identical anode hole was used to provide electrons for a large volume main discharge, sustained between the hollow anode of the MHCD and a third electrode. Current and voltage characteristics, and the visual appearance of the main discharge and MHCD were studied in argon and air by using the micro plasma cathode as electron source. We are able to get stable dc operation in argon up to 1 atm and in air up to 600 torr. The main discharge is ignited when the current in the plasma cathode (MHCD), which is on the order of mA, reaches a threshold value. This threshold current increases with reduced applied voltage across the main gap. Above this transition the current in the main discharge is on the same order as the MHCD current and can be controlled by the MHCD current. Experiments with two MHCDs in parallel have indicated that large area high pressure stable glow discharges can be generated by using arrays of MHCDs as electron sources. [1] K. H. Schoenbach et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Techn. 6, 468 (1997). This work was solely funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) in cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI program.

  9. Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwala, Karan R.; Kruger, Ekaterina S.; Mathews, Steven; Kruger, Philip B.

    1995-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that targets illuminated by monochromatic (narrow-band) light are less effective in stimulating the eye to change its focus than are black-white (broadband) targets. The present study investigates the influence of target spectral bandwidth on the dynamic accommodation response in eight subjects. The fixation target was a 3.5-cycle / deg square-wave grating illuminated by midspectral light of various bandwidths [10, 40, and 80 nm and white (CIE Illuminant B)]. The target was moved sinusoidally toward and away from the eye, and accommodation responses were recorded and Fourier analyzed. Accommodative gain increases, and phase lag decreases, with increasing spectral bandwidth. Thus the eye focuses more accurately on targets of wider spectral bandwidth. The visual system appears to have the ability to analyze polychromatic blur to determine the state of focus of the eye for the purpose of guiding the accommodation response. blur, chromatic, focus, retinal image, spectral, wavelength

  10. The oligocene Lund Tuff, Great Basin, USA: A very large volume monotonous intermediate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maughan, L.L.; Christiansen, E.H.; Best, M.G.; Gromme, C.S.; Deino, A.L.; Tingey, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual monotonous intermediate ignimbrites consist of phenocryst-rich dacite that occurs as very large volume (> 1000 km3) deposits that lack systematic compositional zonation, comagmatic rhyolite precursors, and underlying plinian beds. They are distinct from countless, usually smaller volume, zoned rhyolite-dacite-andesite deposits that are conventionally believed to have erupted from magma chambers in which thermal and compositional gradients were established because of sidewall crystallization and associated convective fractionation. Despite their great volume, or because of it, monotonous intermediates have received little attention. Documentation of the stratigraphy, composition, and geologic setting of the Lund Tuff - one of four monotonous intermediate tuffs in the middle-Tertiary Great Basin ignimbrite province - provides insight into its unusual origin and, by implication, the origin of other similar monotonous intermediates. The Lund Tuff is a single cooling unit with normal magnetic polarity whose volume likely exceeded 3000 km3. It was emplaced 29.02 ?? 0.04 Ma in and around the coeval White Rock caldera which has an unextended north-south diameter of about 50 km. The tuff is monotonous in that its phenocryst assemblage is virtually uniform throughout the deposit: plagioclase > quartz ??? hornblende > biotite > Fe-Ti oxides ??? sanidine > titanite, zircon, and apatite. However, ratios of phenocrysts vary by as much as an order of magnitude in a manner consistent with progressive crystallization in the pre-eruption chamber. A significant range in whole-rock chemical composition (e.g., 63-71 wt% SiO2) is poorly correlated with phenocryst abundance. These compositional attributes cannot have been caused wholly by winnowing of glass from phenocrysts during eruption, as has been suggested for the monotonous intermediate Fish Canyon Tuff. Pumice fragments are also crystal-rich, and chemically and mineralogically indistinguishable from bulk tuff. We

  11. Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Mixing in Large Passive Containment Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2002-10-17

    This final report details results from the past three years of the three-year UC Berkeley NEER investigation of mixing phenomena in large-scale passive reactor containments. We have completed all of our three-year deliverables specified in our proposal, as summarized for each deliverable in the body of this report, except for the experiments of steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas. We have particularly exiting results from the experiments studying the mixing in large insulated containment with a vertical cooling plate. These experiments now have shown why augmentation has been observed in wall-condensation experiments due to the momentum of the steam break-flow entering large volumes. More importantly, we also have shown that the forced-jet augmentation can be predicted using relatively simple correlations, and that it is independent of the break diameter and depends only on the break flow orientation, location, and momentum. This suggests that we will now be able to take credit for this augmentation in reactor safety analysis, improving safety margins for containment structures. We have finished the version 1 of 1-D Lagrangian flow and heat transfer code BMIX++. This version has ability to solve many complex stratified problems, such as multi-components problems, multi-enclosures problems (two enclosures connected by one connection for the current version), incompressible and compressible problems, multi jets, plumes, sinks in one enclosure problems, problems with wall conduction, and the combinations of the above problems. We believe the BMIX++ code is a very powerful computation tool to study stratified enclosures mixing problems.

  12. Applications of large-volume sampling assemblies for the determination of organochlorines in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.W.; Lappe, B.W. de; Ramer, R.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s an overly ambitious attempt to construct a global mass balance of PCBs was thwarted by the difficulties in obtaining credible values of their seawater concentrations. Concepts of transfer processes have since shifted from a simplistic one-way passage of PCBs from land to sea to continuous exchanges between and among all local media, including transfer from seawater to the atmosphere, with the net fluxes determined by local chemical potentials. Seawater measurements continue to be critically important. The authors describe the latest in a series of sampling assemblies for the determination of PCBs and other organochlorines in natural waters. Each has used glass fiber filters for the collection of particles and a high-density porous polyurethane foam for extraction from the seawater phase. The latest versions provide for the prevention of channeling around the foam medium, forcing water through the foam, and for the possibility of the analysis of separate modular units to estimate recoveries. Sample volumes have ranged from 100 to 3,600 liters at sites in coastal California and San Francisco Bay, the eastern Pacific, and coastal Catalonia. The latest version (1995) addresses and at least partially corrects the principal deficiencies of earlier versions --, the large volume of solvents and the considerable personnel time required in sample workup. The authors present recovery data for PCBs, other organochlorines, PAHs, and several herbicides. In the eastern Pacific, PCBs were not detected at a sensitivity level in the order of 1 pg/liter; toxaphene and alpha-HCH were the most abundant organochlorines at those sites. They are now somewhat closer to the goal of formulating global mass balance equations and of estimating global inventories of these contaminants.

  13. Annealing as grown large volume CZT single crystals increased spectral resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Longxia Li

    2008-03-19

    The spectroscopic performance of current large-volume Cadmium 10% Zinc Telluride, Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te, (CZT) detectors is impaired by cumulative effect of tellurium precipitates (secondary phases) presented in CZT single-crystal grown by low-pressure Bridgman techniques(1). This statistical effect may limit the energy resolution of large-volume CZT detectors (typically 2-5% at 662 keV for 12-mm thick devices). The stochastic nature of the interaction prevents the use of any electronic or digital charge correction techniques without a significant reduction in the detector efficiency. This volume constraint hampers the utility of CZT since the detectors are inefficient at detecting photons >1MeV and/or in low fluency situations. During the project, seven runs CZT ingots have been grown, in these ingots the indium dopant concentrations have been changed in the range between 0.5ppm to 6ppm. The I-R mapping imaging method has been employed to study the Te-precipitates. The Teprecipitates in as-grown CZT wafers, and after annealing wafers have been systematically studied by using I-R mapping system (home installed, resolution of 1.5 {micro}m). We employed our I-R standard annealing CZT (Zn=4%) procedure or two-steps annealing into radiation CZT (Zn=10%), we achieved the 'non'-Te precipitates (size < 1 {micro}m) CZT n+-type with resistivity > 10{sup 9-10} {Omega}-cm. We believe that the Te-precipitates are the p-type defects, its reducing number causes the CZT became n+-type, therefore we varied or reduced the indium dapant concentration during the growth and changed the Te-precipitates size and density by using different Cd-temperature and different annealing procedures. We have made the comparisons among Te-precipitates size, density and Indium dopant concentrations, and we found that the CZT with smaller size of Te-precipitates is suitable for radiation uses but non-Te precipitates is impossible to be used in the radiation detectors, because the CZT would became

  14. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Megan A.; Leckie, Regina L.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants aged 30–54 (M = 43; SD = 7.32) from the University of Pittsburgh Adult Health and Behavior II project (n = 404; 53% female) were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. Hippocampal volumes were determined using an automated segmentation algorithm using FreeSurfer. A mediation model tested whether hippocampal volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and mood. Secondary analyses included seasonally fluctuating variables (i.e., sleep and physical activity) which have been shown to influence hippocampal volume. Shorter photoperiods were significantly associated with higher BDI scores (R2= 0.01, β =−0.12, p = 0.02) and smaller hippocampal volumes (R2= 0.40, β = 0.08, p = 0.04). However, due to the lack of an association between hippocampal volume and Beck Depression Inventory scores in the current sample, the mediation hypothesis was not supported. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between season and hippocampal volume. These data offer preliminary evidence that human hippocampal plasticity could be associated with photoperiod and indicates a need for longitudinal studies. PMID:25394737

  15. Radiometric Dating of Large Volume Flank Collapses in The Lesser Antilles Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidelleur, X.; Samper, A.; Boudon, G.; Le Friant, A.; Komorowski, J.

    2004-12-01

    It is now admitted that flank collapses, probably triggered by magmatic inflation and/or gravitational collapses, is a recurrent process of the evolution of the Lesser Antilles Arc volcanoes. Large magnitude debris avalanche deposits have been identified offshore, in the Grenada basin (Deplus et al., 2001; Le Friant et al., 2001). The widest extensions have been observed off the coast of Dominica and St Lucia, with associated volumes up to 20 km3. Another large-scale event, with marine evidences probably covered by sediments and latter flank collapses, has been inferred onland from morphological evidences and characteristic deposits of the Carbets structure in Martinique. We present radiometric dating of these three major events using the K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique performed on selected groundmass. Both volcanic formations preceding flank collapses (remnants of the horseshoe shaped structures or basal lava flows) and following landslides (lava domes) have been dated. In the Qualibou depression of St. Lucia, the former structure has been dated at 1096+-16 ka and the collapse constrained by dome emplacement prior to 97+-2 ka (Petit Piton). In Dominica, several structures have been associated with repetitive flank collapse events inferred from marine data (Le Friant et al., 2002). The Plat-Pays event probably occurred after 96+-2 ka. Inside the inherited depression, Scotts Head, which is interpreted as a proximal pluri-kilometric megabloc from the Soufriere avalanche, has been dated at 14+-1 ka, providing an older bound for this event. In Martinique Island, three different domes within the Carbets structure have been dated at 335+-5 ka. Assuming a rapid magma emplacement following pressure release due to deloading, this constrains the age of this high magnitude event. Finally, these results obtained from three of the most voluminous flank collapses provide constraints to estimate the recurrence of these events, which represent one of the major hazards associated

  16. Radiometric dating of three large volume flank collapses in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samper, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Boudon, G.; Le Friant, A.; Komorowski, J. C.

    2008-10-01

    It is now recognised that flank collapses are a recurrent process in the evolution of the Lesser Antilles Arc volcanoes. Large magnitude debris-avalanche deposits have been identified off the coast of Dominica, Martinique and St. Lucia, with associated volumes up to 20 km 3 [Deplus, C., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Komorowski, J.-C., Villemant, B., Harford, C., Ségoufin, J., Cheminée, J.-L., 2001. Submarine evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 192: 145-157.]. We present new radiometric dating of three major events using the K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique. In the Qualibou depression of St. Lucia, a collapse has been constrained by dome emplacement prior to 95 ± 2 ka. In Dominica, where repetitive flank collapse events have occurred [Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Komorowski, J.-C., Deplus, C., 2002. L'île de la Dominique, à l'origine des avalanches de débris les plus volumineuses de l'arc des Petites Antilles. C.R. Geoscience, 334: 235-243], the Plat Pays event probably occurred after 96 ± 2 ka. Inside the depression caused by this event, Scotts Head, which is interpreted as a proximal megabloc from the subsequent Soufriere avalanche event has been dated at 14 ± 1 ka, providing an older bound for this event. On Martinique three different domes within the Carbets structure dated at 337 ± 5 ka constrain the age of this high magnitude event. Finally, these results obtained from three of the most voluminous flank collapses provide constraints to estimate the recurrence of these events, which represent one of the major hazards associated with volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles Arc.

  17. High-resolution and large-volume tomography reconstruction for x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chang-Chieh; Hwu, Yeukuang; Ching, Yu-Tai

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method of X-ray image acquisition for the high-resolution tomography reconstruction that uses a light source of synchrotron radiation to reconstruct a three-dimensional tomographic volume dataset for a nanoscale object. For large objects, because of the limited field-of-view, a projection image of an object should to be taken by several shots from different locations, and using an image stitching method to combine these image blocks together. In this study, the overlap of image blocks should be small because our light source is the synchrotron radiation and the X-ray dosage should be minimized as possible. We use the properties of synchrotron radiation to enable the image stitching and alignment success when the overlaps between adjacent image blocks are small. In this study, the size of overlaps can reach to 15% of the size of each image block. During the reconstruction, the mechanical stability should be considered because it leads the misalignment problem in tomography. We adopt the feature-based alignment

  18. Twinning in vapour-grown, large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, B. K.; Mullins, J. T.; Pym, A. T. G.; Maneuski, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of twinning from (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) to (1 bar 3 bar 3 bar) in large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals, grown by vapour transport on (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) , often referred to as (211)B, oriented GaAs seeds, has been investigated using X-ray diffraction imaging (X-ray topography). Twinning is not associated with strains at the GaAs/CdTe interface as the initial growth was always in (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) orientation. Nor is twinning related to lattice strains associated with injection of Zn subsequent to initial nucleation and growth of pure CdTe as in both cases twinning occurred after growth of several mm length of Cd1-xZnxTe. While in both cases examined, there was a region of disturbed growth prior to the twinning transition, in neither crystal does this strain appear to have nucleated the twinning process. In both cases, un-twinned material remained after twinning was observed, the scale of the resulting twin boundaries being sub-micron. Simultaneous twinning across the whole sample surface was observed in one sample, whereas in the other, twinning was nucleated at different points and times in the growth.

  19. Translational and Brownian motion in laser-Doppler flowmetry of large tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Seghier, M L; Delpy, D T

    2004-12-21

    This study reports the derivation of a precise mathematical relationship existing between the different p-moments of the power spectrum of the photoelectric current, obtained from a laser-Doppler flowmeter (LDF), and the red blood cell speed. The main purpose is that both the Brownian (defining the 'biological zero') and the translational movements are taken into account, clarifying in this way what the exact contribution of each parameter is to the LDF derived signals. The derivation of the equations is based on the quasi-elastic scattering theory and holds for multiple scattering (i.e. measurements in large tissue volumes and/or very high red blood cell concentration). The paper also discusses why experimentally there exists a range in which the relationship between the first moment of the power spectrum and the average red blood cells speed may be considered as 'linear' and what are the physiological determinants that can result in nonlinearity. A correct way to subtract the biological zero from the LDF data is also proposed. The findings should help in the design of improved LDF instruments and in the interpretation of experimental data.

  20. Large Volume Calorimeter Comparison Measurement Results Collected at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter capable of measuring the power output from special nuclear material in 208-liter (55-gal) shipping or storatge containers was designed and fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This high-sensitivity, large-volume calorimeter (LVC) provides a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult-to-assay forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. The entire calorimeter is 104 cm wide x 157 cm deep x 196 cm high in the closed position. The LVC also requires space for a standard electronics rack. A standard 208-1 drum with a 60-cm-diameter retaining ring with bolt will fit into the LVC measurement chamber. With careful positioning, cylindrical items up to 66 cm in diameter and 100 cm tall can be assayed in the LVC. The LVC was used to measure numerous plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 drums at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Measurement results from real waste drums that were previously assayed using multiple NDA systems are compared with the LVC results. The calorimeter previously performed well under laboratory conditions using Pu-238 heat standards. The in-plant instrument performance is compared with the laboratory performance. Assay times, precision, measurement threshold, and operability of the LVC are also presented.

  1. Practical gamma spectroscopy assay techniques for large volume low-level waste boxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.; Gruetzmacher, K. M.; Scheffing, C. C.; Gallegos, L. E.; Bustos, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAPrM (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known standards in large metal waste boxes (2.5 m' volume). The trials were designed to test the accuracy and variance of the analytical results for low-density combustible matrices and higher-density metal matrices at two discrete gamma-ray energies: 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV. For both matrix types the measurement method that produced the most accurate results with the lowest associated standard deviation involved combining four individual measurements taken at the geometric center of each of the box's four vertical sides. With this method the overall bias and the standard deviation amongst 24 individual results for the 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV gamma rays were as follows: 3.38% (k 20.19%) and 3.68% (k 15.47%) for the combustible matrix and 37,88% (k 67.64%) and 9.38% (k 33.15%) for the metal matrix. The persistent positive bias from measurements of the metal box is believed to be a result of a nonhomogenously distributed matrix.

  2. Multi-stage polymer systems for the autonomic regeneration of large damage volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Cruz, Windy Ann

    Recovery of catastrophic damage requires a robust chemistry capable of addressing the complex challenges encountered by autonomic regeneration. Although self-healing polymers have the potential to increase material lifetimes and safety, these systems have been limited to recovery of internal microcracks and surface damage. Current technologies thereby fail to address the restoration of large, open damage volumes. A regenerative chemistry was developed by incorporating a gel scaffold within liquid healing agents. The healing system undergoes two stages, sol-gel and gel-polymer. Stage 1, rapid formation of a crosslinked gel, creates a synthetic support for the healing agents as they deposit across the damage region. Stage 2 comprises the polymerization of monomer using a room temperature redox initiation system to recover the mechanical properties of the substrate. The two stages are chemically compatible and only react when a specific reaction trigger is introduced -- an acid catalyst for gelation and initiator-promoter for polymerization. Cure kinetics, chemical and mechanical properties can be tuned by employing different monomer systems. The versatile gelation chemistry gels over 20 vinyl monomers to yield both thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. The healing efficacy of the two-stage system was studied in thin, vascularized epoxy sheets. By splitting the chemistry into two low viscosity fluids, we demonstrated regeneration of gaps up to 9 mm in diameter. The combination of microvascular networks and a new healing chemistry demonstrates an innovative healing system that significantly exceeds the performance of traditional methods.

  3. A large-volume microwave plasma source based on parallel rectangular waveguides at low pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Guixin; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Liming

    2011-02-01

    A large-volume microwave plasma with good stability, uniformity and high density is directly generated and sustained. A microwave cavity is assembled by upper and lower metal plates and two adjacently parallel rectangular waveguides with axial slots regularly positioned on their inner wide side. Microwave energy is coupled into the plasma chamber shaped by quartz glass to enclose the space of working gas at low pressures. The geometrical properties of the source and the existing modes of the electric field are determined and optimized by a numerical simulation without a plasma. The calculated field patterns are in agreement with the observed experimental results. Argon, helium, nitrogen and air are used to produce a plasma for pressures ranging from 1000 to 2000 Pa and microwave powers above 800 W. The electron density is measured with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to be on the order of 1014 cm-3 and the electron temperature is obtained using atomic emission spectrometry to be in the range 2222-2264 K at a pressure of 2000 Pa at different microwave powers. It can be seen from the interferograms at different microwave powers that the distribution of the plasma electron density is stable and uniform.

  4. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. PMID:25977349

  5. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joshua; Cui, Yanou; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  6. Analysis of Nucleosides in Municipal Wastewater by Large-Volume Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Lunte, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are components of both DNA and RNA, and contain either a ribose (RNA) or 2deoxyribose (DNA) sugar and a purine or pyrimidine base. In addition to DNA and RNA turnover, modified nucleosides found in urine have been correlated to a diminished health status associated with AIDS, cancers, oxidative stress and age. Nucleosides found in municipal wastewater influent are potentially useful markers of community health status, and as of now, remain uninvestigated. A method was developed to quantify nucleosides in municipal wastewater using large-volume injection, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Method accuracy ranged from 92 to 139% when quantified by using isotopically labeled internal standards. Precision ranged from 6.1 to 19% of the relative standard deviation. The method’s utility was demonstrated by the analysis of twenty-four hour composite wastewater influent samples that were collected over a week to investigate community nucleoside excretion. Nucleosides originating from RNA were more abundant that DNA over the study period, with total loads of nucleosides ranging from 2 to 25 kg/day. Given this relatively high amount of nucleosides found over the study period they present an attractive analyte for the investigation of community health. PMID:26322136

  7. Development of a large mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating for APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, James; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Mike; Smee, Steve; Barkhouser, Robert; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Hearty, Fred; Harding, Al; Maseman, Paul; Holtzman, Jon; Schiavon, Ricardo; Gillespie, Bruce; Majewski, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are increasingly being used as diffractive elements in astronomical instruments due to their potential for very high peak diffraction efficiencies and the possibility of a compact instrument design when the gratings are used in transmission. Historically, VPH grating (VPHG) sizes have been limited by the size of manufacturer's holographic recording optics. We report on the design, specification and fabrication of a large, 290 mm × 475 mm elliptically-shaped, mosaic VPHG for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph. This high-resolution near-infrared multi-object spectrograph is in construction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). The 1008.6 lines/mm VPHG was designed for optimized performance over a wavelength range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. A step-and-repeat exposure method was chosen to fabricate a three-segment mosaic on a 305 mm × 508 mm monolithic fused-silica substrate. Specification considerations imposed on the VPHG to assure the mosaic construction will satisfy the end use requirements are discussed. Production issues and test results of the mosaic VPHG are discussed.

  8. Development testing of large volume water sprays for warm fog dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.; Beard, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new brute-force method of warm fog dispersal is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray induced air flow. Fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of the technique depends upon the drop size spectra in the spray, the height to which the spray can be projected, the efficiency with which fog laden air is processed through the curtain of spray, and the rate at which new fog may be formed due to temperature differences between the air and spray water. Results of a field test program, implemented to develop the data base necessary to assess the proposed method, are presented. Analytical calculations based upon the field test results indicate that this proposed method of warm fog dispersal is feasible. Even more convincingly, the technique was successfully demonstrated in the one natural fog event which occurred during the test program. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermokinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway.

  9. A study on high strength concrete prepared with large volumes of low calcium fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, C.S.; Lam, L.; Wong, Y.L.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on high strength concrete prepared with large volumes of low calcium fly ash. The parameters studied included compressive strength, heat of hydration, chloride diffusivity, degree of hydration, and pore structures of fly ash/cement concrete and corresponding pastes. The experimental results showed that concrete with a 28-day compressive strength of 80 MPA could be obtained with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.24, with a fly ash content of 45%. Such concrete has lower heat of hydration and chloride diffusivity than the equivalent plain cement concrete or concrete prepared with lower fly ash contents. The test results showed that at lower w/b ratios, the contribution to strength by the fly ash was higher than in the mixes prepared with higher w/b ratios. The study also quantified the reaction rates of cement and fly ash in the cementitious materials. The results demonstrated the dual effects of fly ash in concrete: (1) act as a micro-aggregate and (2) being a pozzolana. It was also noted that the strength contribution of fly ash in concrete was better than in the equivalent cement/fly ash pastes suggesting the fly ash had improved the interfacial bond between the past and the aggregates in the concrete. Such an improvement was also reflected in the results of the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test.

  10. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  11. Spectroscopic properties of large-volume virtual Frisch-grid CdMnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, Chansun; Kim, Pilsu; Cho, Shinhaeng; Lee, Jinseo; Hong, T. K.; Hossain, A.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; James, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    CdMnTe(CMT) is a promising alternative material for use as a room-temperature radiation detector. Frisch-grid detectors have a simple configuration and outstanding spectral performance compared with other single-carrier collection techniques. The energy resolution of large-volume virtual Frisch-grid CMT detectors was tested by using several isotopes such as 57Co, 22 Na, 133Ba, and 137Cs together or separately. Energy resolutions of 6.7% and 2.1% were obtained for 122-keV 57Co and 662-keV 137Cs gamma rays, respectively, without using any additional signal processing techniques. Also, a 12-mm-thick CMT detector detected the 511-keV and 1.277-MeV gamma peaks of 22Na with values of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.7% and 1.5%, respectively. In addition, multiple low- and high-energy gamma peaks of 133Ba were well separated. The mobilitylifetime product calculated from the shift of the 662-keV photo-peak vs. bias by using Hecht's equation was 7 × 10 -3 cm2/V. These results show the possibility of using CMT detectors in response to various requirements for gamma-ray detection at room-temperature.

  12. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers’ coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  13. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  14. Large volume flow electroporation of mRNA: clinical scale process.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhong; Allen, Cornell; Shivakumar, Rama; Peshwa, Madhusudan V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic modification for enhancing cellular function has been continuously pursued for fighting diseases. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transfection is found to be a promising solution in modifying hematopoietic and immune cells for therapeutic purpose. We have developed a flow electroporation-based system for large volume electroporation of cells with various molecules, including mRNA. This allows robust and scalable mRNA transfection of primary cells of different origin. Here we describe transfection of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) mRNA into NK cells to modulate the ability of NK cells to target tumor cells. High levels of CAR expression in NK cells can be maintained for 3-7 days post transfection. CD19-specific CAR mRNA transfected NK cells demonstrate targeted lysis of CD19-expressing tumor cells OP-1, primary B-CLL tumor cells, and autologous CD19+ B cells in in vitro assays with enhanced potency: >80% lysis at effector-target ratio of 1:1. This allows current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and regulatory compliant manufacture of CAR mRNA transfected NK cells for clinical delivery. PMID:23296932

  15. A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    1999-01-01

    A parallel, finite-volume algorithm has been developed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows. This algorithm includes piecewise linear least-square reconstruction, trilinear finite-element interpolation, Roe flux-difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. Parallel implementation is done using the message-passing programming model. In this paper, the numerical algorithm is described. To validate the numerical method for turbulence simulation, LES of fully developed turbulent flow in a square duct is performed for a Reynolds number of 320 based on the average friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) results are available for this test case, and the accuracy of this algorithm for turbulence simulations can be ascertained by comparing the LES solutions with the DNS results. The effects of grid resolution, upwind numerical dissipation, and subgrid-scale dissipation on the accuracy of the LES are examined. Comparison with DNS results shows that the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation adversely affects the accuracy of the turbulence simulation. For accurate turbulence simulations, only 3-5 percent of the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation is needed.

  16. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  17. Research of Making Large Volume Atmospheric Pressure Plasma by Parallel MCS Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Kazumi; Kon, Akira; Yamazaki, Yuki; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    We research parallel microhollow cathode sustained (MCS) discharge plasma that is generated by parallel operations of the Microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) plasma to produce a large volume atmospheric pressure plasma. We propose the cylindrical parallel MCS discharge plasma expecting electron supply by MHCD plasma and electron trapping effects of logarithm potential. Several MHCD electrodes are placed on cylindrical surface of 19 mm in radius and a thin wire is placed at a cylinder center axis. MHCD electrodes are supplied repetitive pulse voltage and the central wire anode is supplied DC voltage. So far, 8 parallel MCS discharge plasmas could be generated at 50 kPa. In this paper, the relationship between axial distance of MHCD electrodes and number of parallel discharge electrodes, and the condition to increase power supplied to MCS discharge were studied. Axial distance of MHCD electrodes were arranged to 6 mm and 16 parallel cylindrical MCS discharge in atmospheric pressure was generated. Power supplied to MCS discharge could be increased without decreasing number of parallel discharge electrodes by reducing current limiting resistor and shortening MHCD pulse width.

  18. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  19. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  20. Accommodative load for stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Masako; Ishihara, Shin'ya; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Hisao; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Tahara, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the visual accommodation of subjects who were gazing fixedly at 3D images from two different displays: a cathode ray tube (CRT) while wearing special glasses and a liquid crystal display (LCD) while not wearing special glasses. The subjects were 3 people aged 20 years (2 people) and 36 years, all with normal vision. Visual function was tested using a custom-made apparatus (Nidek AR-1100). The instrument objectively measured visual accommodative changes of the right eye in both binocular and natural viewing conditions. The target shown to subjects moved away slowly and disappeared at a distance about 3 m from the eye. The results suggested that it was easy and comfortable to focus on both the LCD and CRT. When the subjects viewed the progressively receding target, their accommodation was about 0.8 D at the presumed furthest points, a level at which the ciliary muscle is relaxed. The accommodative power differed by about 1.5 D from the near to far point. Thus, the ciliary muscle is repeatedly strained and relaxed while the subject views the moving target. In the present study, the subjects" accommodative amplitude was changed when the target moved from the near to far point.

  1. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  2. “Finite” non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-03-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, arXiv: 0707.0105] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th

  3. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  4. Hepatic Arterial Embolization and Chemoembolization in the Management of Patients with Large-Volume Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, Paresh P.; Gupta, Sanjay Ensor, Joe E.; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Wallace, Michael J.; Hicks, Marshall E.

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of hepatic arterial embolization (HAE) and chemoembolization (HACE) in patients with large-volume liver metastases. Patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, melanomas, or gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with >75% liver involvement who underwent HAE or HACE were included in the study. Radiologic response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and postprocedure complications were assessed. Sixty patients underwent 123 treatment sessions. Of the 48 patients for whom follow-up imaging was available, partial response was seen in 12 (25%) patients, minimal response in 6 (12%), stable disease in 22 (46%), and progressive disease in 8 (17%). Median OS and PFS were 9.3 and 4.9 months, respectively. Treatment resulted in radiologic response or disease stabilization in 82% and symptomatic response in 65% of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors had higher response rates (44% vs. 27% and 0%; p = 0.31) and longer PFS (9.2 vs. 2.0 and 2.3 months; p < 0.0001) and OS (17.9 vs. 2.4 and 2.3 months; p < 0.0001) compared to patients with melanomas and GISTs. Major complications occurred in 21 patients after 23 (19%) of the 123 sessions. Nine of the 12 patients who developed major complications resulting in death had additional risk factors-carcinoid heart disease, sepsis, rapidly worsening performance status, or anasarca. In conclusion, in patients with neuroendocrine tumors with >75% liver involvement, HAE/HACE resulted in symptom palliation and radiologic response or disease stabilization in the majority of patients. Patients with hepatic metastases from melanomas and GISTs, however, did not show any appreciable benefit from this procedure. Patients with massive liver tumor burden, who have additional risk factors, should not be subjected to HAE/HACE because of the high risk of procedure-related mortality.

  5. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhao, Jie; McDowell, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Wenting; Cui, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has ten times the theoretical capacity of its state-of-the-art carbonaceous counterpart. Silicon anodes can be used both in traditional lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li-O2 and Li-S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite-forming lithium metal anodes. The main challenges associated with silicon anodes are structural degradation and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the large volume change (~300%) during cycling, the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte, and the low volumetric capacity when the material size is reduced to a nanometre scale. Here, we propose a hierarchical structured silicon anode that tackles all three of these problems. Our design is inspired by the structure of a pomegranate, where single silicon nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction following lithiation and delithiation. An ensemble of these hybrid nanoparticles is then encapsulated by a thicker carbon layer in micrometre-size pouches to act as an electrolyte barrier. As a result of this hierarchical arrangement, the solid-electrolyte interphase remains stable and spatially confined, resulting in superior cyclability (97% capacity retention after 1,000 cycles). In addition, the microstructures lower the electrode-electrolyte contact area, resulting in high Coulombic efficiency (99.87%) and volumetric capacity (1,270 mAh cm-3), and the cycling remains stable even when the areal capacity is increased to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm-2).

  6. Toroidal transducer with two large focal zones for increasing the coagulated volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenot, J.; Melodelima, D.; Kocot, A.; Chavrier, F.; Chapelon, J. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Toroidal HIFU transducers have been shown to generate large conical ablations (7 cm3 in 40 seconds). The focal zone is composed of a first ring-shaped focal zone and an overlap of ultrasound beams behind this first focus. A HIFU device has been developed on this principle to treat liver metastases during an open procedure. Although these large lesions contribute to reduce treatment time, it is still needed to juxtapose 4 to 9 single HIFU lesions to treat liver metastasis (2 cm in diameter) with safety margins. In this work, a different toroidal geometry was used. With this transducer, the overlap area is located between the probe and the focal ring. The objective was to use this transducer with electronic focusing in order to create a spherical shape lesion with sufficient volume for the destruction of a metastasis of 2 cm in diameter without any mechanical displacement. The operating frequency of the toroidal transducer was 2.5 MHz. The radius of curvature was 70 mm with a diameter of 67 mm. The focal ring had a radius of 15 mm. The overlap zone extent between 35 to 55 mm from the emitting surface. An ultrasound-imaging probe (working at 7.5 MHz) was placed in a central circular opening of 26 mm in the HIFU transducer and was aligned with the focal plane. The transducer was divided into 32 rings of 78 mm2. Using a 32 channels amplifier with a phase resolution of 1.4 degrees, it was possible to change the diameter (0 to 15 mm) and depth (45 to 85 mm) of the focus circle to maximize dimensions of the lesion. Tests were conducted in vitro, in bovine liver samples. This toroidal geometry and the use of electronic beam steering allow the creation of roughly spherical lesions (diameter of 47 mm, depth of 35 mm). This treatment was obtained in 6 minutes and 10 seconds without any mechanical displacement of the transducer. The lesions obtained were homogeneous and no untreated area was observed. In conclusion, these results indicate that the treatment of a liver

  7. A Distributed Data Implementation of the Perspective Shear-Warp Volume Rendering Algorithm for Visualisation of Large Astronomical Cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeson, Brett; Barnes, David G.; Bourke, Paul D.

    We describe the first distributed data implementation of the perspective shear-warp volume rendering algorithm and explore its applications to large astronomical data cubes and simulation realisations. Our system distributes sub-volumes of 3-dimensional images to leaf nodes of a Beowulf-class cluster, where the rendering takes place. Junction nodes composite the sub-volume renderings together and pass the combined images upwards for further compositing or display. We demonstrate that our system out-performs other software solutions and can render a `worst-case' 512 × 512 × 512 data volume in less than four seconds using 16 rendering and 15 compositing nodes. Our system also performs very well compared with much more expensive hardware systems. With appropriate commodity hardware, such as Swinburne's Virtual Reality Theatre or a 3Dlabs Wildcat graphics card, stereoscopic display is possible.

  8. Endotracheal cuff pressure and tracheal mucosal blood flow: endoscopic study of effects of four large volume cuffs.

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, R D; van Hasselt, G L

    1984-01-01

    Large volume, low pressure endotracheal tube cuffs are claimed to have less deleterious effect on tracheal mucosa than high pressure, low volume cuffs. Low pressure cuffs, however, may easily be overinflated to yield pressures that will exceed capillary perfusion pressure. Various large volume cuffed endotracheal tubes were studied, including Portex Profile, Searle Sensiv, Mallinkrodt Hi-Lo, and Lanz. Tracheal mucosal blood flow in 40 patients undergoing surgery was assessed using an endoscopic photographic technique while varying the cuff inflation pressure. It was found that these cuffs when overpressurised impaired mucosal blood flow. This impairment of tracheal mucosal blood flow is an important factor in tracheal morbidity associated with intubation. Hence it is recommended that a cuff inflation pressure of 30 cm H2O (22 mm Hg) should not be exceeded. Images FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6423162

  9. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  10. Effect of filtration rates on hollow fiber ultrafilter concentration of viruses and protozoans from large volumes of water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To describe the ability of tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration to recover viruses from large volumes of water when run either at high filtration rates or lower filtration rates and recover Cryptosporidium parvum at high filtration rates. Methods and Results: Wate...

  11. Case discussion: large volume blood loss and delirium in a patient with subtrochanteric fracture, dementia, and multiple comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Colleen; Mears, Simon C; Sieber, Frederick E; Votsis, Julie; Wood, Ronald C; Friedman, Susan M

    2011-09-01

    This case presents a discussion of a 92-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, who presents with a subtrochanteric fracture. His course is complicated by large volume blood loss intraoperatively, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring postoperatively. His course is also complicated by delirium.

  12. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  13. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  14. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  15. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  16. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  17. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  18. Accommodating Law Faculty with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bonnie Poitras; Smith, Joseph F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The obligations of law schools, under federal law, to accommodate faculty with disabilities are examined. Employment provisions of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the definition of a disabled individual are reviewed, and real and hypothetical scenarios in hiring and employing law teachers are…

  19. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Candidate deployable linear platform system concepts suitable for development to technology readiness by 1986 are reviewed. The systems concepts were based on trades of alternate deployable/retractable structure concepts, integration of utilities, and interface approaches for docking and assembly of payloads and subsystems. The deployable volume studies involved generation of concepts for deployable volumes which could be used as unpressurized or pressurized hangars, habitats and interconnecting tunnels. Concept generation emphasized using flexible materials and deployable truss structure technology.

  20. Effect of crowd size on patient volume at a large, multipurpose, indoor stadium.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, R A; Gray, B C; Bennett, P C; Lamparella, V J

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of patient volume expected at "mass gatherings" is desirable in order to provide optimal on-site emergency medical care. While several methods of predicting patient loads have been suggested, a reliable technique has not been established. This study examines the frequency of medical emergencies at the Syracuse University Carrier Dome, a 50,500-seat indoor stadium. Patient volume and level of care at collegiate basketball and football games as well as rock concerts, over a 7-year period were examined and tabulated. This information was analyzed using simple regression and nonparametric statistical methods to determine level of correlation between crowd size and patient volume. These analyses demonstrated no statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for basketball and football events. There was a small but statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for concerts. A comparison of similar crowd size for each of the three events showed that patient frequency is greatest for concerts and smallest for basketball. The study suggests that crowd size alone has only a minor influence on patient volume at any given event. Structuring medical services based solely on expected crowd size and not considering other influences such as event type and duration may give poor results.

  1. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of split field and fixed jaw techniques for large IMRT target volumes in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ± 1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  4. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  5. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts.

  6. Large Volume Self-Organization of Polymer/Nanoparticle Hybrids with Millimeter Scale Grain Sizes using Brush Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongpo; Watkins, James

    The lack of sufficient long-range order in self-assembled nanostructures is a bottleneck for many nanotechnology applications. In this work, we report that exceptionally large volume of highly ordered arrays (single grains) on the order of millimeters in scale can be rapidly created through a unique innate guiding mechanism of brush block copolymers (BBCPs). The grain volume is over 1 billion times larger relative to that of typical self-assembled linear BCPs (LBCPs). The use of strong interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and BBCPs enables the high loadings of functional materials, up to 76 wt% (46 vol%) in the target domain, while maintaining excellent long-range order. Overall this work provides a simple route to precisely control the spatial orientation of functionalities at nanometer length scales over macroscopic volumes, thereby enabling the production of hybrid materials for many important applications.

  7. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  8. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  9. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  10. COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION/LARGE VOLUME INJECTION PROCEDURES FOR METHOD 8270

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two solid phase (SPE) and one traditional continuous liquid-liquid extraction method are compared for analysis of Method 8270 SVOCs. Productivity parameters include data quality, sample volume, analysis time and solvent waste.

    One SPE system, unique in the U.S., uses aut...

  11. Teaching Large Classes: Tools and Strategies. Survival Skills for Scholars, Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elisa

    This book deals with the challenges of teaching large classes at institutions of higher learning, and addresses such issues as how instruction can be personalized and made more interactive with large numbers of students. The material for the book arose out of a "large classes project" at the University of Maryland, where the subject was identified…

  12. Fabrics, Facies And Flow Through A Large-Volume Ignimbrite: Pampa De Oxaya, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, Ellen; Cooper, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Large volume pyroclastic currents form during some of the most destructive volcanic eruptions on the planet, yet because they are underrepresented in the geological record they remain poorly understood. The Miocene Oxaya ignimbrites, exposed along the western Andean slopes in northern Chile, form one of the largest ignimbrite provinces on earth. We use anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in conjunction with rock magnetic measurements to investigate flow behavior and depositional processes in one of the largest members of the Oxaya succession, the Cardones ignimbrite. Despite its prominence the location of the source caldera remains unknown and fundamental processes remain poorly constrained. During 2012 nearly 8km (7,773m) of core was recovered from the early Miocene ignimbrites in 11 holes at elevations ranging from 2336m to 3805m along the Andean escarpment east of Arica, Chile. The drill cores are remarkable in that they penetrate through the entirety of the ignimbrite sequence and into the basement below. Samples for this study were collected from a > 1 km long core drilled at an altitude 3692m. The core sampled 981 m of Cardones ignimbrite and 15 m of underlying sediments and volcaniclastics before penetrating 148 m of basement. Detailed measurements of the variation in bulk magnetic properties including natural remanent magnetization (NRM), susceptibility, ARM, and IRM, were used to monitor changes in concentration, composition and grainsize of the magnetic components though the ignimbrite. AMS in conjunction with detailed rock magnetic measurements were used to constrain flow processes. The data reveal a well-defined flow direction and systematic variations in flow processes with depth. Low field bulk magnetic susceptibility averages 3.2x10-3 SI. Rock magnetic studies and petrographic examination indicate that magnetite is likely to be the dominant magnetic phase although paramagnetic mineral phases also contribute to the magnetic fabric. The degree

  13. A parallel finite volume algorithm for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Trong Tri

    1998-11-01

    A parallel unstructured finite volume algorithm is developed for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows. Major components of the algorithm include piecewise linear least-square reconstruction of the unknown variables, trilinear finite element interpolation for the spatial coordinates, Roe flux difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack explicit time marching. The computer code is designed from the start to take full advantage of the additional computational capability provided by the current parallel computer systems. Parallel implementation is done using the message passing programming model and message passing libraries such as the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI). The development of the numerical algorithm is presented in detail. The parallel strategy and issues regarding the implementation of a flow simulation code on the current generation of parallel machines are discussed. The results from parallel performance studies show that the algorithm is well suited for parallel computer systems that use the message passing programming model. Nearly perfect parallel speedup is obtained on MPP systems such as the Cray T3D and IBM SP2. Performance comparison with the older supercomputer systems such as the Cray YMP show that the simulations done on the parallel systems are approximately 10 to 30 times faster. The results of the accuracy and performance studies for the current algorithm are reported. To validate the flow simulation code, a number of Euler and Navier-Stokes simulations are done for internal duct flows. Inviscid Euler simulation of a very small amplitude acoustic wave interacting with a shock wave in a quasi-1D convergent-divergent nozzle shows that the algorithm is capable of simultaneously tracking the very small disturbances of the acoustic wave and capturing the shock wave. Navier-Stokes simulations are made for fully developed laminar flow in a square duct, developing laminar flow in a

  14. Moduli thermalization and finite temperature effects in "big" divisor large volume D3/ D7 Swiss-cheese compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    In the context of Type IIB compactified on a large volume Swiss-Cheese orientifold in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of fluxed D7-branes wrapping the "big" divisor Σ B of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi Yau in WCP 4[1, 1, 1, 6, 9], we explore various implications of moduli dynamics and discuss their couplings and decay into MSSM (-like) matter fields early in the history of universe to reach thermal equilibrium. Like finite temperature effects in O'KKLT, we observe that the local minimum of zero-temperature effective scalar potential is stable against any finite temperature corrections (up to two-loops) in large volume scenarios as well. Also we find that moduli are heavy enough to avoid any cosmological moduli problem.

  15. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  16. The Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Silvanus Phillips

    2011-05-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Childhood, and upbringing at Glasgow; 2. Cambridge; 3. Post-graduate studies at Paris and Peterhouse; 4. The Glasgow Chair; 5. The young professor; 6. Thermodynamics; 7. The laboratory; 8. The Atlantic telegraph: failure; 9. Strenuous years; 10. The epoch-making treatise; 11. The Atlantic telegraph: success; 12. Labour and sorrow; 13. The geological controversy; 14. Later telegraphic work: the siphon recorder. Volume 2: 15. The 'Lalla Rookh', the British Association, and the 'Hooper'; 16. In the Seventies; 17. Navigation - the compass and the sounding machine; 18. Gyrostatics and wave motion; 19. In the Eighties; 20. The Baltimore lectures; 21. Gathering up the threads; 22. The peerage; 23. The jubilee. Retirement; 24. The great comprehensive theory; 25. Views and opinions; 26. The closing years; Appendices; Index.

  17. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  18. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Calculations of impact-melt volumes and crater scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Along with an apparent convergence in estimates of impact-melt volumes produced during planetary impact events, intensive efforts at deriving scaling relationships for crater dimensions have also yielded results. It is now possible to examine a variety of phenomena associated with impact-melt production during large cratering events and apply them to planetary problems. This contribution describes a method of combining calculations of impact-melt production with crater scaling to investigate the relationship between the two.

  19. Effect of radical prostatectomy surgeon volume on complication rates from a large population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Almatar, Ashraf; Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Herschorn, Sender; Saskin, Refik; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Kodama, Ronald T.; Nam, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical volume can affect several outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP). We examined if surgical volume was associated with novel categories of treatment-related complications following RP. Methods: We examined a population-based cohort of men treated with RP in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to examine the effect of physician, hospital and patient demographic factors on rates of treatment-related hospital admissions, urologic procedures, and open surgeries. Results: Over the study interval, 15 870 men were treated with RP. A total of 196 surgeons performed a median of 15 cases per year (range: 1–131). Patients treated by surgeons in the highest quartile of annual case volume (>39/year) had a lower risk of hospital admission (hazard ratio [HR]=0.54, 95% CI 0.47–0.61) and urologic procedures (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.64–0.75), but not open surgeries (HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.47–1.45) than patients treated by surgeons in the lowest quartile (<15/year). Treatment at an academic hospital was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization (HR=0.75, 95% CI 0.67–0.83), but not of urologic procedures (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01) or open surgeries (HR=0.87, 95% CI 0.54–1.39). There was no significant trend in any of the outcomes by population density. Conclusions: The annual case volume of the treating surgeon significantly affects a patient’s risk of requiring hospitalization or urologic procedures (excluding open surgeries) to manage treatment-related complications. PMID:26977206

  20. Gravitational search for cryptovolcanism on the Moon: Evidence for large volumes of early igneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sori, Michael M.; Zuber, Maria T.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.

    2016-07-01

    We define lunar cryptovolcanism as volcanic deposits on the Moon hidden by overlying material. Notably, cryptovolcanism includes both cryptomaria (subsurface extrusive basaltic deposits that are obscured by overlying higher albedo basin and crater ejecta) and earlier candidate extrusives, such as the Mg-suite. Knowledge of the volume and extent of cryptovolcanism is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of lunar volcanic history, particularly in early (pre 3.8 Ga) epochs when abundant impact craters and basins obscured surface volcanic deposits by lateral emplacement of ejecta. We use Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gravity and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography data to construct maps of the Moon's positive Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, and explore the possibility that these features are due to mass excesses associated with cryptovolcanism by cross-referencing the regions with geologic data such as dark halo craters. We model the potential cryptovolcanic deposits as buried high-density rectangular prisms at depth in the upper crust, and find a volume of candidate buried cryptovolcanism between 0.4 × 106 km3 and 4.8 × 106 km3, depending on assumptions about density and crustal compensation state. These candidate deposits correspond to a surface area of between 0.50 × 106 km2 and 1.14 × 106 km2, which would increase the amount of the lunar surface containing volcanic deposits from 16.6% to between 17.9% and 19.5%. The inferred volume of cryptovolcanism is comparable to the smallest estimates of the volume of visible mare basalts and up to ∼50% of the largest estimates; the high-resolution GRAIL and LOLA observations thus would collectively indicate that early (pre 3.8 Ga) lunar volcanism is an important element of lunar thermal evolution. Alternatively, the buried material could represent the presence of intrusive Mg-suite sills or plutons.

  1. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 1: Initial concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 1 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described in Volume 2.

  2. Axial vascularization of a large volume calcium phosphate ceramic bone substitute in the sheep AV loop model.

    PubMed

    Beier, Justus P; Horch, Raymund E; Hess, Andreas; Arkudas, Andreas; Heinrich, Johanna; Loew, Johanna; Gulle, Heinz; Polykandriotis, Elias; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Kneser, Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    Vascularization still remains an obstacle to engineering of bone tissue with clinically relevant dimensions. Our aim was to induce axial vascularization in a large volume of a clinically approved biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic by transferring the arteriovenous (AV) loop approach to a large animal model. HA/beta-TCP granula were mixed with fibrin gel for a total volume of 16 cm(3), followed by incorporation into an isolation chamber together with an AV loop. The chambers were implanted into the groins of merino sheep and the development of vascularization was monitored by sequential non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The chambers were explanted after 6 and 12 weeks, the pedicle was perfused with contrast agent and specimens were subjected to micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan and histological analysis. Sequential MRI demonstrated a significantly increased perfusion in the HA/beta-TCP matrices over time. Micro-CT scans and histology confirmed successful axial vascularization of HA/beta-TCP constructs. This study demonstrates, for the first time, successful axial vascularization of a clinically approved bone substitute with a significant volume in a large animal model by means of a microsurgically created AV loop, thus paving the way for the first microsurgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered, axially vascularized bone with clinically relevant dimensions.

  3. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. Definition of a flight demonstration involving an Automated Beam Builder and the building and assembling of large structures is presented.

  4. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  5. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  6. Construction of Large-Volume Tissue Mimics with 3D Functional Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae-Yun; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We used indirect stereolithography (SL) to form inner-layered fluidic networks in a porous scaffold by introducing a hydrogel barrier on the luminal surface, then seeded the networks separately with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung fibroblasts to form a tissue mimic containing vascular networks. The artificial vascular networks provided channels for oxygen transport, thus reducing the hypoxic volume and preventing cell death. The endothelium of the vascular networks significantly retarded the occlusion of channels during whole-blood circulation. The tissue mimics have the potential to be used as an in vitro platform to examine the physiologic and pathologic phenomena through vascular architecture. PMID:27228079

  7. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  8. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  9. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  10. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  11. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  12. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  13. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  15. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of SR-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 2 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described.

  16. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  17. Large scale optimization of beam weights under dose-volume restrictions.

    PubMed

    Langer, M; Brown, R; Urie, M; Leong, J; Stracher, M; Shapiro, J

    1990-04-01

    The problem of choosing weights for beams in a multifield plan which maximizes tumor dose under conditions that recognize the volume dependence of organ tolerance to radiation is considered, and its solution described. Structures are modelled as collections of discrete points, and the weighting problem described as a combinatorial linear program (LP). The combinatorial LP is solved as a mixed 0/1 integer program with appropriate restrictions on normal tissue dose. The method is illustrated through the assignment of weights to a set of 10 beams incident on a pelvic target. Dose-volume restrictions are placed on surrounding bowel, bladder, and rectum, and a limit placed on tumor dose inhomogeneity. Different tolerance restrictions are examined, so that the sensitivity of the target dose to changes in the normal tissue constraints may be explored. It is shown that the distributions obtained satisfy the posed constraints. The technique permits formal solution of the optimization problem, in a time short enough to meet the needs of treatment planners. PMID:2323977

  18. Estimating the eruptive volume of a large pyroclastic body: the Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Geoffrey W.; Wolff, John A.; Self, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    The 1.60 Ma caldera-forming eruption of the Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff produced Plinian and coignimbrite fall deposits, outflow and intracaldera ignimbrite, all of it deposited on land. We present a detailed approach to estimating and reconstructing the original volume of the eroded, partly buried large ignimbrite and distal ash-fall deposits. Dense rock equivalent (DRE) volume estimates for the eruption are 89 + 33/-10 km3 of outflow ignimbrite and 144 ± 72 km3 of intracaldera ignimbrite. Also, there was at least 65 km3 (DRE) of Plinian fall when extrapolated distally, and 107 + 40/-12 km3 of coignimbrite ash was "lost" from the outflow sheet to form an unknown proportion of the distal ash fall. The minimum total volume is 216 km3 and the maximum is 550 km3; hence, the eruption overlaps the low end of the super-eruption spectrum (VEI ˜8.0). Despite an abundance of geological data for the Otowi Member, the errors attached to these estimates do not allow us to constrain the proportions of intracaldera (IC), outflow (O), and distal ash (A) to better than a factor of three. We advocate caution in applying the IC/O/A = 1:1:1 relation of Mason et al. (2004) to scaling up mapped volumes of imperfectly preserved caldera-forming ignimbrites.

  19. Proceedings of the Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidich, C. A.; Pittman, B.

    1984-01-01

    A large ambient temperature, for infrared submillimeter telescope in space was discussed. The results of the scientific and technical activities were summarized. The scientific effort consisted of reviewing the science rationale for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and arriving at a concensus set of scientific requirements. The telescope requirements were then compared to the current and anticipated state of the various technologies involved, and the technological shortfalls identified.

  20. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 3: Systems and Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidich, C. A. (Editor); Pittman, R. B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of five technology panels which convened to discuss the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are presented. The proposed LDR is a large, ambient-temperature, far infrared/submillimeter telescope designed for space. Panel topics included optics, materials and structures, sensing and control, science instruments, and systems and missions. The telescope requirements, the estimated technology levels, and the areas in which the generic technology work has to be augmented are enumerated.

  1. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  2. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  3. Effects of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid infusion on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors.

    PubMed

    Jacobshagen, Claudius; Pax, Anja; Unsöld, Bernhard W; Seidler, Tim; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Maier, Lars S

    2009-11-01

    International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend mild hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) for 12-24h in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. To induce therapeutic hypothermia a variety of external and intravascular cooling devices are available. A cheap and effective method for inducing hypothermia is the infusion of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid. There are concerns regarding the effects of rapid infusion of large volumes of fluid on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors. We have retrospectively studied the effects of high volume cold fluid infusion on respiratory function in 52 resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. The target temperature of 32-34 degrees C was achieved after 4.1+/-0.5h (cooling rate 0.48 degrees C/h). During this period 3427+/-210 mL ice-cold fluid was infused. Despite significantly reduced LV-function (EF 35.8+/-2.2%) the respiratory status of these patients did not deteriorate significantly. On intensive care unit admission the mean PaO(2) was 231.4+/-20.6 mmHg at a F(i)O(2) of 0.82+/-0.03 (PaO(2)/F(i)O(2)=290.0+/-24.1) and a PEEP level of 7.14+/-0.31 mbar. Until reaching the target temperature of large volume, ice-cold fluid is an effective and inexpensive method for inducing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with a deterioration in respiratory function. The infusion of large volumes of cold fluid does not cause a statistically significant further deterioration in respiratory function. A larger, randomized and prospective study is required to assess the efficacy and safety of ice-cold fluid infusion for

  4. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  5. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  6. Rapid plasma volume decline upon quiet standing reflects large filtration capacity in dependent limbs.

    PubMed

    Lundvall, J; Bjerkhoel, P; Quittenbaum, S; Lindgren, P

    1996-10-01

    The plasma volume (PV) decline upon 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 35 min periods of quiet standing was studied (Hb/Hct) in male volunteers (n = 7). This approach permitted detailed definition of the time-course of the volume change. PV decreased by as much as 8.5 +/- 0.4% (328 +/- 15 mL) after 3 min standing and by no less than 11.7 +/- 0.4% (466 +/- 22 mL) after 5 min. The reduction was 14.3 +/- 0.7, 16.8 +/- 0.8, 17.7 +/- 0.8 and 17.4 +/- 0.9% after 8, 10, 15 and 35 min, or 568 +/- 30, 671 +/- 39, 707 +/- 41 and 691 +/- 44 mL. These data, in conjunction with the 1.5 min experiments, indicated a very rapid approximately 125 mL min-1 fluid loss initially on standing. However, the PV loss showed marked decline with time and was virtually completed within 10 min. Finally, the observation was made that the rate of PV recovery after standing was inversely related to the duration of standing. It is suggested that (a) the transcapillary hydraulic conductivity in the dependent limbs, the predominant targets for fluid filtration on standing, is about 0.010 mL min-1 100 mL-1 mmHg-1 and much greater than indicated previously. However, protective mechanisms restrict rapid fluid loss to early phases of standing. (b) Decrease in PV may contribute importantly to haemodynamic stress and to orthostatic, fainting reactions during short quiet standing. Apparently, PV loss may be equally important as pooling of blood, traditionally regarded as a dominant cause of adverse orthostatic reactions. (c) The duration of standing, as such, may be critical for the rate of PV recovery after standing. PMID:8899063

  7. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  8. A large volume particulate and water multi-sampler with in situ preservation for microbial and biogeochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, J. A.; Sheik, C. S.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Sayre-McCord, R. T.; Sanger, R.; Rauch, C.; Coleman, M.; Bennett, S. A.; Cron, B. R.; Li, M.; German, C. R.; Toner, B. M.; Dick, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    A new tool was developed for large volume sampling to facilitate marine microbiology and biogeochemical studies. It was developed for remotely operated vehicle and hydrocast deployments, and allows for rapid collection of multiple sample types from the water column and dynamic, variable environments such as rising hydrothermal plumes. It was used successfully during a cruise to the hydrothermal vent systems of the Mid-Cayman Rise. The Suspended Particulate Rosette V2 large volume multi-sampling system allows for the collection of 14 sample sets per deployment. Each sample set can include filtered material, whole (unfiltered) water, and filtrate. Suspended particulate can be collected on filters up to 142 mm in diameter and pore sizes down to 0.2 μm. Filtration is typically at flowrates of 2 L min-1. For particulate material, filtered volume is constrained only by sampling time and filter capacity, with all sample volumes recorded by digital flowmeter. The suspended particulate filter holders can be filled with preservative and sealed immediately after sample collection. Up to 2 L of whole water, filtrate, or a combination of the two, can be collected as part of each sample set. The system is constructed of plastics with titanium fasteners and nickel alloy spring loaded seals. There are no ferrous alloys in the sampling system. Individual sample lines are prefilled with filtered, deionized water prior to deployment and remain sealed unless a sample is actively being collected. This system is intended to facilitate studies concerning the relationship between marine microbiology and ocean biogeochemistry.

  9. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 3: Thermal analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    the development of large space structure technology is discussed. A detailed thermal analysis of a model space fabricated 1 meter beam is presented. Alternative thermal coatings are evaluated, and deflections, stresses, and stiffness variations resulting from flight orientations and solar conditions are predicted.

  10. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  11. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  12. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 3: Systems and Technology Assessment. Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical parameters of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) required to achieve the anticipated astronomical objectives are reviewed briefly. System parameters and performance requirements for the LDR are enumerated. The LDR was compared with the Cosmic Background Experiment (COBE), the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Angular resolution and high resolution spectroscopy requirements for LDR were considered.

  13. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 3: Systems and Technology Assessment. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), a proposed 20 m diameter telescope designed for infrared and submillimeter astronomical measurements from space, is discussed in terms of scientific purposes, capabilities, current status, and history of development. The LDR systems goals and functional/telescope requirements are enumerated.

  14. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  15. Large volume splitless injection with concurrent solvent recondensation: keeping the sample in place in the hot vaporizing chamber.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Fiscalini, Alessandro; Grob, Koni

    2004-10-01

    An injector liner packed with a plug of glass wool is compared with a laminar and a mini laminar liner for large volume (20-50 microL) splitless injection with concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR-LV splitless injection). Videos from experiments with perylene solutions injected into imitation injectors show that glass wool perfectly arrested the sample liquid and kept it in place until the solvent had evaporated. The sample must be transferred from the needle to the glass wool as a band, avoiding 'thermospraying' by partial solvent evaporation inside the needle. The liquid contacted the liner wall when the band was directed towards it, but from there it was largely diverted to the glass wool. In the laminar liners, part of the liquid remained and evaporated at the entrance of the obstacle, while the other proceeded to the center cavity. Vapors formed in the center cavity drove liquid from the entrance of the obstacle upwards, but the importance of such problems could not be verified in the real injector. Some liquid split into small droplets broke through the obstacle and entered the column. Breakthrough through the laminar liners was confirmed by a chromatographic experiment. An improved design of a laminar liner for large volume injection is discussed as a promising alternative if glass wool causes problems originating from insufficient inertness. PMID:15537071

  16. Reirradiation of Large-Volume Recurrent Glioma With Pulsed Reduced-Dose-Rate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Adkison, Jarrod B.; Tome, Wolfgang; Seo, Songwon; Richards, Gregory M.; Robins, H. Ian; Rassmussen, Karl; Welsh, James S.; Mahler, Peter A.; Howard, Steven P.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Pulsed reduced-dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a reirradiation technique that reduces the effective dose rate and increases the treatment time, allowing sublethal damage repair during irradiation. Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with recurrent glioma underwent reirradiation using PRDR (86 considered to have Grade 4 at PRDR). PRDR was delivered using a series of 0.2-Gy pulses at 3-min intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min to a median dose of 50 Gy (range, 20-60) delivered in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. The mean treatment volume was 403.5 {+-} 189.4 cm{sup 3} according to T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a 2-cm margin. Results: For the initial or upgraded Grade 4 cohort (n = 86), the median interval from the first irradiation to PRDR was 14 months. Patients undergoing PRDR within 14 months of the first irradiation (n = 43) had a median survival of 21 weeks. Those treated {>=}14 months after radiotherapy had a median survival of 28 weeks (n = 43; p = 0.004 and HR = 1.82 with a 95% CI ranging from 1.25 to 3.10). These data compared favorably to historical data sets, because only 16% of the patients were treated at first relapse (with 46% treated at the second relapse, 32% at the third or fourth relapse, and 4% at the fourth or fifth relapse). The median survival since diagnosis and retreatment was 6.3 years and 11.4 months for low-grade, 4.1 years and 5.6 months for Grade 3, and 1.6 years and 5.1 months for Grade 4 tumors, respectively, according to the initial histologic findings. Multivariate analysis revealed age at the initial diagnosis, initial low-grade disease, and Karnofsky performance score of {>=}80 to be significant predictors of survival after initiation of PRDR. Conclusion: PRDR allowed for safe retreatment of larger volumes to high doses with palliative benefit.

  17. Using large volume samplers for the monitoring of particle bound micro pollutants in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittlaus, Steffen; Fuchs, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The requirements of the WFD as well as substance emission modelling at the river basin scale require stable monitoring data for micro pollutants. The monitoring concepts applied by the local authorities as well as by many scientists use single sampling techniques. Samples from water bodies are usually taken in volumes of about one litre and depending on predetermined time steps or through discharge thresholds. For predominantly particle bound micro pollutants the small sample size of about one litre results in a very small amount of suspended particles. To measure micro pollutant concentrations in these samples is demanding and results in a high uncertainty of the measured concentrations, if the concentration is above the detection limit in the first place. In many monitoring programs most of the measured values were below the detection limit. This results in a high uncertainty if river loads were calculated from these data sets. The authors propose a different approach to gain stable concentration values for particle bound micro pollutants from river monitoring: A mixed sample of about 1000 L was pumped in a tank with a dirty-water pump. The sampling usually is done discharge dependant by using a gauge signal as input for the control unit. After the discharge event is over or the tank is fully filled, the suspended solids settle in the tank for 2 days. After this time a clear separation of water and solids can be shown. A sample (1 L) from the water phase and the total mass of the settled solids (about 10 L) are taken to the laboratory for analysis. While the micro pollutants can't hardly be detected in the water phase, the signal from the sediment is high above the detection limit, thus certain and very stable. From the pollutant concentration in the solid phase and the total tank volume the initial pollutant concentration in the sample can be calculated. If the concentration in the water phase is detectable, it can be used to correct the total load. This

  18. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  19. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm2. For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm2, yielding good statistic results.

  20. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm(2). For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm(2), yielding good statistic results. PMID:25854547

  1. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Scientific Rationale and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The scientific rationale for the large deployable reflector (LDR) and the overall technological requirements are discussed. The main scientific objectives include studies of the origins of planets, stars and galaxies, and of the ultimate fate of the universe. The envisioned studies require a telescope with a diameter of at least 20 m, diffraction-limited to wavelengths as short as 30-50 micron. In addition, light-bucket operation with 1 arcsec spatial resolution in the 2-4 microns wavelength region would be useful in studies of high-redshifted galaxies. Such a telescope would provide a large increase in spectroscopic sensitivity and spatial resolving power compared with existing or planned infrared telescopes.

  2. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  3. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  4. Study of auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    A range of single shuttle launched large space systems were identified and characterized including a NASTRAN and loading dynamics analysis. The disturbance environment, characterization of thrust level and APS mass requirements, and a study of APS/LSS interactions were analyzed. State-of-the-art capabilities for chemical and ion propulsion were compared with the generated propulsion requirements to assess the state-of-the-art limitations and benefits of enhancing current technology.

  5. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  6. Hybrid-toroidal anvil: a replacement for the conventional WC anvil used for the large volume cubic high pressure apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Jia, Xiao-Peng; Ma, Hong-An

    2014-10-01

    We propose a design and operation of a hybrid-toroidal anvil used for the large volume cubic high pressure apparatus (LV-CHPA), such that it is possible to obtain a higher sintered quality, less weight and cost of tungsten carbide (WC) anvil than the conventional anvil. We use the finite element simulations to show the distributions of the stress on the surface and in the bulk of the WC anvils, and conclude that, for a given load on the hybrid-toroidal anvil, the volume of the compressed press medium has increased by 4.88%, and the rate of the transmitted pressure has increased by 6.72% compared with the conventional anvil. Furthermore, the advantages of the hybrid-toroidal anvil are that the movement of anvils increases by 37.14% and the growth rate of the fatigue crack decreases by 40%. This has been proved by the high pressure experiments. This work gives an approach to optimize the WC anvils used for the LV-CHPA and presents a simple method to achieve the higher sample pressure and the larger sample volume.

  7. Automated sample treatment with the injection of large sample volumes for the determination of contaminants and metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; García-Gómez, Diego; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the development of a simple and automated method for the quantitative determination of several contaminants (triazine, phenylurea, and phenoxyacid herbicides; carbamate insecticides and industrial chemicals) and their metabolites in human urine with a simplified sample treatment. The method is based on the online coupling of an extraction column with RP LC separation-UV detection; this coupling enabled fast online cleanup of the urine samples, efficiently eliminating matrix components and providing appropriate selectivity for the determination of such compounds. The variables affecting the automated method were optimized: sorbent type, washing solvent and time, and the sample volume injected. The optimized sample treatment reported here allowed the direct injection of large volumes of urine (1500 microL) into the online system as a way to improve the sensitivity of the method; limits of detection in the 1-10 ng/mL range were achieved for an injected volume of 1500 microL of urine, precision being 10% or better at a concentration level of 20 ng/mL. The online configuration proposed has advantages such as automation (all the steps involved in the analysis - injection of the urine, sample cleanup, analyte enrichment, separation and detection - are carried out automatically) with high precision and sensitivity, reducing manual sample manipulation to freezing and sample filtration.

  8. Large-volume volcanic edifi ce failures in Central America and associated hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siebert, L.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Vallance, J.W.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2006-01-01

    Edifi ce-collapse phenomena have, to date, received relatively little attention in Central America, although ??40 major collapse events (??0.1 km3) from about two dozen volcanoes are known or inferred in this volcanic arc. Volcanoes subjected to gravitational failure are concentrated at the arc's western and eastern ends. Failures correlate positively with volcano elevation, substrate elevation, edifi ce height, volcano volume, and crustal thickness and inversely with slab descent angle. Collapse orientations are strongly infl uenced by the direction of slope of the underlying basement, and hence are predominately perpendicular to the arc (preferentially to the south) at its extremities and display more variable failure directions in the center of the arc. The frequency of collapse events in Central America is poorly constrained because of the lack of precise dating of deposits, but a collapse interval of ??1000-2000 yr has been estimated during the Holocene. These high-impact events fortunately occur at low frequency, but the proximity of many Central American volcanoes to highly populated regions, including some of the region's largest cities, requires evaluation of their hazards. The primary risks are from extremely mobile debris avalanches and associated lahars, which in Central America have impacted now-populated areas up to ??50 km from a source volcano. Lower probability risks associated with volcanic edifi ce collapse derive from laterally directed explosions and tsunamis. The principal hazards of the latter here result from potential impact of debris avalanches into natural or man-made lakes. Much work remains on identifying and describing debris-avalanche deposits in Central America. The identifi cation of potential collapse sites and assessing and monitoring the stability of intact volcanoes is a major challenge for the next decade. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. Large-volume volcanic edifice failures in Central America and associated hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siebert, Lee; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Vallance, James W.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Edifice-collapse phenomena have, to date, received relatively little attention in Central America, although ∼40 major collapse events (≥0.1 km3) from about two dozen volcanoes are known or inferred in this volcanic arc. Volcanoes subjected to gravitational failure are concentrated at the arc's western and eastern ends. Failures correlate positively with volcano elevation, substrate elevation, edifice height, volcano volume, and crustal thickness and inversely with slab descent angle. Collapse orientations are strongly influenced by the direction of slope of the underlying basement, and hence are predominately perpendicular to the arc (preferentially to the south) at its extremities and display more variable failure directions in the center of the arc.The frequency of collapse events in Central America is poorly constrained because of the lack of precise dating of deposits, but a collapse interval of ∼1000–2000 yr has been estimated during the Holocene. These high-impact events fortunately occur at low frequency, but the proximity of many Central American volcanoes to highly populated regions, including some of the region's largest cities, requires evaluation of their hazards. The primary risks are from extremely mobile debris avalanches and associated lahars, which in Central America have impacted now-populated areas up to ∼50 km from a source volcano. Lower probability risks associated with volcanic edifice collapse derive from laterally directed explosions and tsunamis. The principal hazards of the latter here result from potential impact of debris avalanches into natural or man-made lakes. Much work remains on identifying and describing debris-avalanche deposits in Central America. The identification of potential collapse sites and assessing and monitoring the stability of intact volcanoes is a major challenge for the next decade.

  10. Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes.

    PubMed

    Harb, Elise; Thorn, Frank; Troilo, David

    2006-08-01

    Accommodation has long been suspected to be involved in the development of myopia because near work, particularly reading, is known to be a risk factor. In this study, we measured several dynamic characteristics of accommodative behavior during extended periods of reading under close-to-natural conditions in 20 young emmetropic and stable myopic subjects. Accommodative responses, errors, and variability (including power spectrum analysis) were analyzed and related to accommodative demand and subject refractive error. All accommodative behaviors showed large inter-subject variability at all of the reading demands. Accommodative lags and variability significantly increased with closer demands for all subjects (ANOVA, p<0.05). Myopes had significantly greater variability in their accommodation responses compared to emmetropes (ANOVA, p<0.05) and had larger accommodative lags at further reading distances (unpaired t test p<0.05). Power spectrum analysis showed a significant increase in the power of accommodative microfluctuations with closer demands (ANOVA, p<0.05) and with increasing myopia at the closest reading demand (ANOVA, p<0.01). The difference in the stability of the accommodative behavior between individuals with different refractive states suggests a possible relationship between variability in accommodation and the development of myopia.

  11. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  12. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-01-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  13. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 12. Computer architecture for very large knowledge bases. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Berra, P.B.; Ghafoor, A.; Chung, S.M.; Hachem, N.I.; Marcinkowski, S.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications systems control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge of base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the development of architectures for very large knowledge bases, especially in light of real time requests, parallelism, and the advent of optical computing.

  14. Magnetostructural martensitic transformations with large volume changes and magneto-strains in all-d-metal Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K.; Li, Y.; Han, X. L.; Du, Z. W.; Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2016-08-01

    The all-d-metal Mn2-based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Mn50Ni40-xCoxTi10 (x = 8 and 9.5) are realized. With a generic comparison between d-metal Ti and main-group elements in lowering the transformation temperature, the magnetostructural martensitic transformations are established by further introducing Co to produce local ferromagnetic Mn-Co-Mn configurations. A 5-fold modulation and (3, -2) stacking of [00 10] of martensite are determined by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis. Based on the transformation, a large magneto-strain of 6900 ppm and a large volume change of -2.54% are observed in polycrystalline samples, which makes the all-d-metal magnetic martensitic alloys of interest for magnetic/pressure multi-field driven applications.

  15. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Three-dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis for rapid and highly-accurate large-volume metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M.; Barber, Zeb W.; Reibel, Randy R.

    2015-09-01

    Currently large volume, high accuracy three-dimensional (3D) metrology is dominated by laser trackers, which typically utilize a laser scanner and cooperative reflector to estimate points on a given surface. The dependency upon the placement of cooperative targets dramatically inhibits the speed at which metrology can be conducted. To increase speed, laser scanners or structured illumination systems can be used directly on the surface of interest. Both approaches are restricted in their axial and lateral resolution at longer stand-off distances due to the diffraction limit of the optics used. Holographic aperture ladar (HAL) and synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) can enhance the lateral resolution of an imaging system by synthesizing much larger apertures by digitally combining measurements from multiple smaller apertures. Both of these approaches only produce two-dimensional imagery and are therefore not suitable for large volume 3D metrology. We combined the SAL and HAL approaches to create a swept frequency digital holographic 3D imaging system that provides rapid measurement speed for surface coverage with unprecedented axial and lateral resolution at longer standoff ranges. The technique yields a "data cube" of Fourier domain data, which can be processed with a 3D Fourier transform to reveal a 3D estimate of the surface. In this paper, we provide the theoretical background for the technique and show experimental results based on an ultra-wideband frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) chirped heterodyne ranging system showing ~100 micron lateral and axial precisions at >2 m standoff distances.

  17. Aging and large-scale functional networks: white matter integrity, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity in the resting state.

    PubMed

    Marstaller, L; Williams, M; Rich, A; Savage, G; Burianová, H

    2015-04-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by neurobiological changes that affect the brain's functional organization and the individual's cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global age-related differences in the cortical white and gray matter on neural activity in three key large-scale networks. We used functional-structural covariance network analysis to assess resting state activity in the default mode network (DMN), the fronto-parietal network (FPN), and the salience network (SN) of young and older adults. We further related this functional activity to measures of cortical thickness and volume derived from structural MRI, as well as to measures of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. First, our results show that, in the direct comparison of resting state activity, young but not older adults reliably engage the SN and FPN in addition to the DMN, suggesting that older adults recruit these networks less consistently. Second, our results demonstrate that age-related decline in white matter integrity and gray matter volume is associated with activity in prefrontal nodes of the SN and FPN, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms. We suggest that age-related differences in gray and white matter properties differentially affect the ability of the brain to engage and coordinate large-scale functional networks that are central to efficient cognitive functioning.

  18. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 degrees C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO(3) have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 degrees C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600+/-100 degrees C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 degrees C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO(3), SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3)) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures.

  19. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  20. Study of electrical and chemical propulsion systems for auxiliary propulsion of large space systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The five major tasks of the program are reported. Task 1 is a literature search followed by selection and definition of seven generic spacecraft classes. Task 2 covers the determination and description of important disturbance effects. Task 3 applies the disturbances to the generic spacecraft and adds maneuver and stationkeeping functions to define total auxiliary propulsion systems requirements for control. The important auxiliary propulsion system characteristics are identified and sensitivities to control functions and large space system characteristics determined. In Task 4, these sensitivities are quantified and the optimum auxiliary propulsion system characteristics determined. Task 5 compares the desired characteristics with those available for both electrical and chemical auxiliary propulsion systems to identify the directions technology advances should take.

  1. Simple and economic compressors for large-volume gas transport laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, H. J. J.; Dow, J.; Seguin, V. A.

    1983-10-01

    A simple and relatively inexpensive design is proposed for a large axial flow gas transport system for a high-power laser. The system can be easily assembled using standard low-cost commercially available blower blades and hubs injection-molded from high-strength plastics, such as polypropylene, delrin, fiberglass, and polyamid glass. Several gas transport systems of different sizes have been built using this approach, and all have demonstrated efficient trouble-free performance, provided the maximum tip speed specification has not been exceeded. It is also shown that the performance of the compressors can be further improved by incorporating a properly designed circular-to-rectangular transition section on each of the blower outputs as well as a venturi section on the inlets.

  2. Study of auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  3. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  4. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments.

  5. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 1, Methodology and results: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen-air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments. 236 figs., 110 tabs.

  6. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  7. A magnetic sorbent for the efficient and rapid extraction of organic micropollutants from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Mengqiao

    2013-11-01

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on a novel magnetic sorbent was proposed for the extraction of target compounds from large-volume water samples. First, magnetic hypercrosslinked microspheres (NAND-1) were prepared via membrane emulsification-suspension polymerization and post crosslinking reaction. To ensure that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles could completely pass through the membrane without blocking the pores, oleic acid was used to modify the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which enhanced lipophilicity and monodispersity of the magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained NAND-1 microspheres exhibited super paramagnetic characteristics and excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization of 2.53 emu/g. In addition, a uniform particle size (~8 μm) and a large average surface area (1303.59 m(2)/g) were also observed, which were both beneficial for the extraction of the target compounds. Thus, NAND-1 has the potential to simultaneously exhibit good extraction efficiencies toward different types of organic micropollutants (OMPs), including triazines, carbamazepine and diethyl phthalate. The conditions of the MSPE based on NAND-1 were optimized by single factor and orthogonal design experiments. This MSPE method needed only a small amount of sorbent (50mg/L) for the extraction of OMPs from a large-volume aquatic sample (5L) and reached equilibrium in a short amount of time (30 min). Moreover, the solution volume, the pH, and the salinity had insignificant influences on the extraction of the eight target OMPs. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the eight OMPs calculated by analyzing the spiked samples were from 91.7% to 99.4%. The NAND-1 could be recycled ten times and still achieve recoveries of the eight OMPs higher than 86%. The limits of detection of the eight OMPs ranged from 1.76 to 27.56 ng/L, and the limits of quantification were from 5.71 to 92.05 ng/L. These results indicated that the proposed method, based on the use of NAND-1

  8. Early Miocene Kirka-Phrigian caldera, western Anatolia - an example of large volume silicic magma generation in extensional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    Large rhyolitic ignimbrite occurrences are close connected to the Early Miocene initiation of extensional processes in the central-west Anatolia along Taşvanlı-Afyon zones. Field correlations, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data lead to a substantial reinterpretation of the ignimbrite surrounding Kırka area, known from its world-class borate deposits, as representing the climatic event of a caldera collapse, unknown up to now and newly named "Kırka-Phrigian caldera". The caldera, which is roughly oval (24 km x 15km) in shape, one of the largest in Turkey, is supposed to have been formed in a single stage collapse event, at ~19 Ma that generated huge volume extracaldera outflow ignimbrites. Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses since 25 Ma ago resulted in the NNW-SSE elongation of the magma chamber and influenced the roughly elliptical shape of the subsided block (caldera floor) belonging to the apex of Eskişehir-Afyon-Isparta volcanic area. Intracaldera post-collapse sedimentation and volcanism (at ~ 18 Ma) was controlled through subsidence-related faults with generation of a series of volcanic structures (mainly domes) showing a large compositional range from saturated silicic rhyolites and crystal-rich trachytes to undersaturated lamproites. Such volcanic rock association is typical for lithospheric extension. In this scenario, enriched mantle components within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle will begin to melt via decompression melting during the initiation of extension. Interaction of these melts with crustal rocks, fractionation processes and crustal anatexis driven by the heat contained in the ascending mantle melts produced the silicic compositions in a large crustal reservoir. Such silicic melts generated the initial eruptions of Kırka-Phrigian caldera ignimbrites. The rock volume and geochemical evidence suggests that silicic volcanic rocks come from a long-lived magma chamber that evolved episodically; after caldera

  9. Thermo-mechanical response of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) large volumes exposed to time-dependent environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraldi, M.; Esposito, L.; Perrella, G.; Cutolo, A.

    2014-02-01

    Low thermal conductivity and elevated absorbance of large bulky volumes of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to moderately aggressive environmental conditions may cooperate to determine critical mechanical conditions, kindling unexpected high thermal stresses values which lead the material to failure. From the engineering point of view, this can be explained as the result of two concomitant phenomena which activate a cascade of events: very sharp thermal gradients engendered by transient thermal processes induced by cyclic environmental conditions, combined with significant bulk heat generation due to the high thermal inertia of massive PMMA volumes, in turn aggravating the steepness of the thermal gradients, may in fact ingenerate severe stress regimes, potentially undermining the structural stability of the material. Moving from these considerations, the present study is aimed to investigate possible rupture of PMMA blocks experiencing heating processes as a consequence of their exposure to outdoor cyclic environmental conditions. The problem is approached by means of both rigorous analytical arguments and the Finite Element based numerical methods, finally exploiting the theoretical outcomes to formulate a hypothesis which might explain the still unclear phenomenon of the sudden breaking of the PMMA structure, named Huge Wine Glass and designed by the world famous Japanese architect Toyo Ito, which occurred in Pescara (Italy) in 2009.

  10. Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation

    SciTech Connect

    Parthipun, A. A. Taylor, J.; Manyonda, I.; Belli, A. M.

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as {>=}10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as {>=}750 cm{sup 3}; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with {>=}4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

  11. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  12. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, S K; Sanyasi, A K; Awasthi, L M; Mattoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface. PMID:27475553

  13. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  14. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting this sample introduction step, such as temperatures, times and gas flows, were optimised. Quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration method using carvacrol as internal standard, providing quantification limits between 0.08 and 0.10 ng g(-1), depending on the compound. The three phenolic compounds were detected in several of the samples, BHT being the most frequently found. Recovery assays for oil samples spiked at two concentration levels, 2.5 and 10 ng g(-1), provided recoveries in the 86-115% range. PMID:26830586

  15. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting this sample introduction step, such as temperatures, times and gas flows, were optimised. Quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration method using carvacrol as internal standard, providing quantification limits between 0.08 and 0.10 ng g(-1), depending on the compound. The three phenolic compounds were detected in several of the samples, BHT being the most frequently found. Recovery assays for oil samples spiked at two concentration levels, 2.5 and 10 ng g(-1), provided recoveries in the 86-115% range.

  16. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from small and large volume water samples using a compressed foam filter system.

    PubMed

    Sartory, D P; Parton, A; Parton, A C; Roberts, J; Bergmann, K

    1998-12-01

    A novel filter system comprising open cell reticulated foam rings compressed between retaining plates and fitted into a filtration housing was evaluated for the recovery of oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water. Mean recoveries of 90.2% from seeded small and large volume (100-2000 l) tap water samples, and 88.8% from 10-20 l river water samples, were achieved. Following a simple potassium citrate flotation concentrate clean-up procedure, mean recoveries were 56.7% for the tap water samples and 60.9% for river water samples. This represents a marked improvement in capture and recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water compared with conventional polypropylene wound cartridge filters and membrane filters.

  17. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  18. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer Service Practices § 1232.10 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  19. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  20. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  1. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  2. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  3. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  4. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the CA/C (convergence accommodation to convergence) linkage but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression, so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4-11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. Methods 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photorefractor set in a remote haploscopic device which assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Responses on decompensation were compared to those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Results Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target reduced significantly (p<0.0001), with resultant mean under-accommodation of 2.33D at 33cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Conclusions Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near. PMID:21873311

  5. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  6. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  7. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  8. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  9. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  10. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to...

  11. Assessment Accommodations for English Language Learners: Implications for Policy-Based Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Lord, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Increased attention to large-scale assessments, the growing number of English language learners in schools, and recent inclusionary policies have collectively made assessment accommodations a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the validity of test results for English language learners. Decisions about which accommodations to use, for whom,…

  12. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  13. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  14. Large Cohort Dose-Volume Response Analysis of Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: Intensity-Modulated Versus Conventional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Moerland, Marinus A.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To compare parotid gland dose-volume response relationships in a large cohort of patients treated with intensity-modulated (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and materials: A total of 221 patients (64 treated with IMRT, 157 with CRT) with various head-and-neck malignancies were prospectively evaluated. The distribution of tumor subsites in both groups was unbalanced. Stimulated parotid flow rates were measured before and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from computed tomography-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow ratio <25% of the pretreatment flow rate. The relative risk of complications was determined for IMRT vs. CRT and adjusted for the mean parotid gland dose using Poisson regression modeling. Results: One year after radiotherapy, NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT were comparable with a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to a 50% complication probability) of 38 and 40 Gy, respectively. Until 6 months after RT, corrected for mean dose, different complication probabilities existed for IMRT vs. CRT. The relative risk of a complication for IMRT vs. CRT after 6 weeks was 1.42 (95% CI 1.21-1.67), after 6 months 1.41 (95% CI; 1.12-1.77), and at 1 year 1.21 (95% CI 0.87-1.68), after correcting for mean dose. Conclusions: One year after radiotherapy, no difference existed in the mean dose-based NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT. Early after radiotherapy (up to 6 months) mean dose based (Lyman) models failed to fully describe the effects of radiotherapy on the parotid glands.

  15. A role for genetic accommodation in evolution?

    PubMed

    Braendle, Christian; Flatt, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Whether evolutionary change can occur by genetic assimilation, or more generally by genetic accommodation, remains controversial. Here we examine some of the experimental evidence for both phenomena. Several experiments in Drosophila suggest that assimilation is possible, and a new paper shows that a color polyphenism in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, can evolve by genetic accommodation. We argue that genetic accommodation, including assimilation, is a plausible mechanism in evolution; however, more work is required to test how this mechanism acts and how often it is involved in evolutionary change.

  16. Low resistance, large dimension entrance to the inner cavity of BK channels determined by changing side-chain volume.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Magleby, Karl L

    2011-06-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels have the largest conductance (250-300 pS) of all K(+)-selective channels. Yet, the contributions of the various parts of the ion conduction pathway to the conductance are not known. Here, we examine the contribution of the entrance to the inner cavity to the large conductance. Residues at E321/E324 on each of the four α subunits encircle the entrance to the inner cavity. To determine if 321/324 is accessible from the inner conduction pathway, we measured single-channel current amplitudes before and after exposure and wash of thiol reagents to the intracellular side of E321C and E324C channels. MPA(-) increased currents and MTSET(+) decreased currents, with no difference between positions 321 and 324, indicating that side chains at 321/324 are accessible from the inner conduction pathway and have equivalent effects on conductance. For neutral amino acids, decreasing the size of the entrance to the inner cavity by substituting large side-chain amino acids at 321/324 decreased outward single-channel conductance, whereas increasing the size of the entrance with smaller side-chain substitutions had little effect. Reductions in outward conductance were negated by high [K(+)](i). Substitutions had little effect on inward conductance. Fitting plots of conductance versus side-chain volume with a model consisting of one variable and one fixed resistor in series indicated an effective diameter and length of the entrance to the inner cavity for wild-type channels of 17.7 and 5.6 Å, respectively, with the resistance of the entrance ∼7% of the total resistance of the conduction pathway. The estimated dimensions are consistent with the structure of MthK, an archaeal homologue to BK channels. Our observations suggest that BK channels have a low resistance, large entrance to the inner cavity, with the entrance being as large as necessary to not limit current, but not much larger. PMID:21576375

  17. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Pollution of natural bodies of water (rivers, lakes, ground water, etc) is unfortunately very common, both from natural sources like volcanic activity; and, even more importantly, from human activity, including disposal of industrial and municipal waste, mining, etc. Many toxic substances are harmful for humans and other organisms even in very low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 µg/L of cadmium is harmful, for Hg it is 0.5 µg/L, for phenol - 1 µg/L), and can remain in water for decades or longer. Cleaning large volumes of water even from low concentrations of pollutants is a challenging technological task and is very expensive. We propose to use suspension of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents, for example, nanostructured ferro-carbon particles, produced by plasmachemical technique, for removing small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water. The suspension is introduced into the water. Due to their small sizes and densities similar to water (we measured the density of FC-4 ferro-carbon to be about 1 g/cm3; presumably due to porosity) the particles do not sediment for a long time (hours, days or longer), move due to Brownian motion and adsorb a variety of substances from the water. The particle surface can be modified to provide selectivity of the adsorption. Sorption capacities of ferro-carbon adsorbents is in dozens of percent. Therefore, to collect 1 kg of a pollutant, 2 to 20 kg of the adsorbents is required. Then the particles with the adsorbed contaminant can be collected (e.g., downstream of the river) using a variety of magnetic traps. The traps can consist of ferromagnetic wires and permanent magnets, a variety of simple and inexpensive designs are available. As a model system, the kinetics of adsorption of a highly diluted (0.002 mg/ml) aqueous solution of a low molecular weight compound (toluidine blue) by a small concentration of a ferro-carbon powder (FC-4) was studied by spectrophotometry. Before each measurement, the particles

  18. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  19. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  20. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  1. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  2. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  3. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  4. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  5. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  6. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  7. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and other similar actions. This list is neither all inclusive nor meant to suggest that employers must... of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to a...

  8. Employers' knowledge and utilization of accommodations.

    PubMed

    Unger, Darlene; Kregel, John

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, employers are providing a variety of accommodations to applicants or employees with disabilities. However, little is know about the resources that employers access to identify and develop accommodations in the recruitment, hiring and retention of employees with disabilities. Human resource professionals and supervisors were surveyed to determine the extent to which businesses were aware of, and utilized, the vast array of workplace supports available. Findings indicated that employers have limited awareness of workplace supports and rely primarily on their own organizational resources in identifying and securing accommodations. Yet, business professionals expressed confidence in their ability to meet and support the needs of employees with disabilities despite many supervisors indicating that they did not have the authority to secure accommodations for workers with disabilities.

  9. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant. ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON...

  10. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leat, S J

    1996-09-01

    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  11. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation would..., number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation,...

  12. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  13. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  14. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  15. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  16. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  17. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  18. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  19. Colorimetric Paper-based Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from Large Volumes of Agricultural Water

    PubMed Central

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A.; Jokerst, Jana C.; Chandler, Jeffrey C.; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M.; Sbodio, Adrian O.; Suslow, Trevor V.; Danyluk, Michelle D.; Henry, Charles S.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water. PMID:24962090

  20. A large volume double channel 1H-X RF probe for hyperpolarized magnetic resonance at 0.0475 T.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2012-07-01

    In this work we describe a large volume 340 mL (1)H-X magnetic resonance (MR) probe for studies of hyperpolarized compounds at 0.0475 T. (1)H/(13)C and (1)H/(15)N probe configurations are demonstrated with the potential for extension to (1)H/(129)Xe. The primary applications of this probe are preparation and quality assurance of (13)C and (15)N hyperpolarized contrast agents using PASADENA (parahydrogen and synthesis allow dramatically enhanced nuclear alignment) and other parahydrogen-based methods of hyperpolarization. The probe is efficient and permits 62 μs (13)C excitation pulses at 5.3 W, making it suitable for portable operation. The sensitivity and detection limits of this probe, tuned to (13)C, are compared with a commercial radio frequency (RF) coil operating at 4.7 T. We demonstrate that low field MR of hyperpolarized contrast agents could be as sensitive as conventional high field detection and outline potential improvements and optimization of the probe design for preclinical in vivo MRI. PASADENA application of this low-power probe is exemplified with (13)C hyperpolarized 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1-(13)C,2,3,3-d(3).

  1. Colorimetric paper-based detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A; Jokerst, Jana C; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M; Sbodio, Adrian O; Suslow, Trevor V; Danyluk, Michelle D; Henry, Charles S; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water. PMID:24962090

  2. Colorimetric paper-based detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A; Jokerst, Jana C; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M; Sbodio, Adrian O; Suslow, Trevor V; Danyluk, Michelle D; Henry, Charles S; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water.

  3. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  4. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  5. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression.

  6. Effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and morphology of martensites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanju, Gu; Xiaoyan, Song; Jianxin, Zhang; Fuxing, Yin; Ruixiang, Wang

    1995-08-01

    The effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and the displacement vector for lattice deformation are discussed. The authors propose that the formation of an invariant habit plane is connected with the self-accomodation between different martensitic variants and results in the formation of internal twinned martensites; the plastic accommodation, rather than self-accommodation, occurs between parent and new phases when the strength is low or the dislocation density is high for the parent phase and the invariant habit plane is difficult to form, resulting in the formation of dislocation martensites.

  7. What Would Be the Effect of Referral to High-Volume Hospitals in a Largely Rural State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Marcia M.; Jaana, Mirou; Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Schneider, John E.; Miller, Thomas; Lei, Yang

    2004-01-01

    Volume of certain surgical procedures has been linked to patient outcomes. The Leapfrog Group and others have recommended evidence-based referral using specific volume thresholds for nonemergent cases. The literature is limited on the effect of such referral on hospitals, especially in rural areas. To examine the impact of evidence-based referral…

  8. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n = 23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50 ± 1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm × 4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  9. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  10. A quantitative geometric mechanics lens model: insights into the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew A

    2014-10-01

    This study expands on a geometric model of ocular accommodation (Reilly and Ravi, Vision Res. 50:330-336; 2010) by relaxing assumptions regarding lens symmetry about the equator. A method for predicting stretching force was derived. Two models were then developed: Model 1 held the equatorial geometry constant at all stages of accommodation, while Model 2 allowed localized deformation at the equator. Both models were compared to recent data for axial thickness, anterior and posterior radii of curvature, surface area, cross-sectional area, volume, and stretching force for the 29-year-old lens. Age-related changes in accommodation were also simulated. Model 1 gave predictions which agreed with the Helmholtz theory of accommodation, while Model 2's predictions agreed with the Schachar mechanism of accommodation. Trends predicted by Model 1 agreed with all available experimental data, while Model 2 disagreed with recent surface area measurements. Further analysis indicated that Model 1 was fundamentally more efficient in that it required less force per diopter change in optical power than Model 2. Model 1 more accurately predicted age-related changes in accommodation amplitude. This implies that the zero-force (fully accommodated) state geometry changes with age due to a shifting balance in residual stresses between the lens and capsule.

  11. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10-4 during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  12. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  13. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhaoli Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Bin

    2015-12-15

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10{sup −4} during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  14. Fully automated circulating tumor cell isolation platform with large-volume capacity based on lab-on-a-disc.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Minseok S; Moon, Hui-Sung; Yoo, Chang Eun; Park, Donghyun; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Lee, June-Young; Oh, Jin Ho; Kim, Sun Soo; Park, Woong-Yang; Lee, Won-Yong; Huh, Nam

    2014-04-15

    Full automation with high purity for circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation has been regarded as a key goal to make CTC analysis a "bench-to-bedside" technology. Here, we have developed a novel centrifugal microfluidic platform that can isolate the rare cells from a large volume of whole blood. To isolate CTCs from whole blood, we introduce a disc device having the biggest sample capacity as well as manipulating blood cells for the first time. The fully automated disc platform could handle 5 mL of blood by designing the blood chamber having a triangular obstacle structure (TOS) with lateral direction. To guarantee high purity that enables molecular analysis with the rare cells, CTCs were bound to the microbeads covered with anti-EpCAM to discriminate density between CTCs and blood cells and the CTCs being heavier than blood cells were only settled under a density gradient medium (DGM) layer. To understand the movement of CTCs under centrifugal force, we performed computational fluid dynamics simulation and found that their major trajectories were the boundary walls of the DGM chamber, thereby optimizing the chamber design. After whole blood was inserted into the blood chamber of the disc platform, size- and density-amplified cancer cells were isolated within 78 min, with minimal contamination as much as approximately 12 leukocytes per milliliter. As a model of molecular analysis toward personalized cancer treatment, we performed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis with HCC827 lung cancer cells and the isolated cells were then successfully detected for the mutation by PCR clamping and direct sequencing.

  15. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10(-4) during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  16. Appraisal of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Left-Sided Pancreatic Cancer: A Large Volume Cohort Study of 152 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang Hyun; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, Ki Byung; Hwang, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Kwang-Min; Lee, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to appraise the value of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) for left-sided pancreatic cancer based on a large volume cohort study. Methods We reviewed data for all consecutive patients undergoing LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) between December 2006 and December 2014. Results A total of 91 male and 61 female patients, with a median age of 62.7 years were included in this study. The median operative duration was 234 minutes. Pathological reports revealed the following: a median tumor size of 3.0 cm (range, 0.4–10.0), T stages (T1 in 7.9%, T2 in 5.3%, T3 in 86.8%, and no T4), the tumor differentiation (well differentiated in 16.4%, moderately differentiated in 75.4%, and poorly differentiated in 8.2%), and R0 resection in 126 patients (82.9%). After pancreatectomy, 96 patients (63.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, and the median time to chemotherapy was 30 days. The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range, 5–31), and the median time to diet resumption was 1 day. Grade B or C postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (9.2%) and grade II or III complications occurred in 27 (17.7%). The median overall survival was 43.0 months. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that tumor size, N1 stage, combined resection, and incompleteness of planned adjuvant chemotherapy affect patient survival. Conclusions LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer is reasonable within selected indications. An international consensus on laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic cancer would be desirable and timely. PMID:27636547

  17. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  18. Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Dedi, Sonia; Kumar, Dimple; Patel, Tanuj; Aloo, Mohammed; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    We manipulated the accommodative response using positive and negative lenses to study any association between symptoms of pattern glare and accommodation. Two groups of eighteen young adults were selected from seventy-eight on the basis (i) that their rate of reading increased by 5% or more with an overlay compared to their rate without it, and (ii) that they reported more than 2 symptoms of pattern glare (group 1) or had no such increment in reading speed and reported fewer than 3 symptoms (group 2). Under double-masked conditions participants observed at 0.4 m a pattern of stripes while measurements of accommodation were made using an open field autorefractor with and without positive and negative trial lenses (0.75 D), and with and without a coloured overlay. Pattern glare was also assessed with and without the trial lenses. Without lenses, the mean accommodative response in group 1 was 1.55 D, a lag of 0.95 D +/- 0.24 D relative to the demand. The lag decreased by 0.43 D (p < 0.0001) when the chosen overlay was used, an effect that was not shown in group 2 even when lag increased with negative trial lenses (p = 0.13). In both groups, pattern glare scores were reduced by the trial lenses, but were unaffected by the sign of the lenses. This suggests that symptoms of pattern glare are not strongly associated with accommodative response. PMID:23586285

  19. Combining sequence stratigraphy with 3-D seismic imaging in low-accommodation basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Pennsylvania-age rocks in several areas of the Midcontinent of the United States were deposited in low-accommodation basinal settings, that is, in basinal areas where only modest verticle reliefs could accept the sediment influx. Many thin Pennsylvanian sequences in these low-accommodation environments exhibit severe lateral heterogeneity because they have been extensively reworked by repeated transgressions and regressions of a fluctuating sea. Consequently, the distinctive geometries of relic depositional features (such as meandering channels) tend to be distorted or even totally destroyed, as compared with how such geometries appear in high-accommodation basins where depositional topography, once buried, is rarely exposed to destructive processes. Our objectives are to show examples of 3-D seismic images of several depositional topographies in a moderate- to low-accommodation basin and to explain how these thin sequences can be identified in well control and interpreted in 3-D seismic data volumes.

  20. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for the treatment of a large planning target volume in thoracic esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmar S; Moseley, Douglas; Kassam, Zahra; Kim, Sun Mo; Cho, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Recently, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has demonstrated the ability to deliver radiation dose precisely and accurately with a shorter delivery time compared to conventional intensity-modulated fixed-field treatment (IMRT). We applied the hypothesis of VMAT technique for the treatment of thoracic esophageal carcinoma to determine superior or equivalent conformal dose coverage for a large thoracic esophageal planning target volume (PTV) with superior or equivalent sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs) doses, and reduce delivery time and monitor units (MUs), in comparison with conventional fixed-field IMRT plans. We also analyzed and compared some other important metrics of treatment planning and treatment delivery for both IMRT and VMAT techniques. These metrics include: 1) the integral dose and the volume receiving intermediate dose levels between IMRT and VMATI plans; 2) the use of 4D CT to determine the internal motion margin; and 3) evaluating the dosimetry of every plan through patient-specific QA. These factors may impact the overall treatment plan quality and outcomes from the individual planning technique used. In this study, we also examined the significance of using two arcs vs. a single-arc VMAT technique for PTV coverage, OARs doses, monitor units and delivery time. Thirteen patients, stage T2-T3 N0-N1 (TNM AJCC 7th edn.), PTV volume median 395 cc (range 281-601 cc), median age 69 years (range 53 to 85), were treated from July 2010 to June 2011 with a four-field (n = 4) or five-field (n = 9) step-and-shoot IMRT technique using a 6 MV beam to a prescribed dose of 50 Gy in 20 to 25 F. These patients were retrospectively replanned using single arc (VMATI, 91 control points) and two arcs (VMATII, 182 control points). All treatment plans of the 13 study cases were evaluated using various dose-volume metrics. These included PTV D99, PTV D95, PTV V9547.5Gy(95%), PTV mean dose, Dmax, PTV dose conformity (Van't Riet conformation number (CN)), mean lung dose

  1. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  2. Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil

    2014-09-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) model is used to simulate the effects of large rectangular prism-shaped semi-porous barriers of varying densities under neutrally buoyant conditions. RAFLES model resolves flows inside and above forested canopies and other semi-porous barriers, and it accounts for barrier-induced drag on the flow and surface flux exchange between the barrier and the air. Unlike most other models, RAFLES model also accounts for the barrier-induced volume and aperture restriction via a modified version of the cut-cell coordinate system. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the drag, by comparing drag-only simulations (where we prescribed neither volume nor aperture restrictions to the flow), restriction-only simulations (where we prescribed no drag), and control simulations where both drag and volume plus aperture restrictions were included. Previous modelling and empirical work have revealed the development of important areas of increased uplift upwind of forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones downwind of backward-facing steps. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to the presence of semi-porous barriers leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones, and the length and strength of impact and adjustment zones when compared to simulation solutions with a drag-only representation. These are mostly driven by differences to the momentum budget of the streamwise wind velocity by resolved turbulence and pressure gradient fields around the front and back edges of the barrier. We propose that volume plus aperture restriction is an important component of the flow system in semi-porous environments such as forests and cities and should be considered by large-eddy simulation (LES).

  3. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  4. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  5. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  6. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  7. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  8. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  10. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  11. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  12. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  13. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  14. Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J M; Owens, D A

    1981-01-01

    Two adjacent regions define an edge if they differ in either color or luminance. If the difference is purely chromatic, the edge is said to be isoluminant. Isoluminant contours are often perceptually unstable. Perhaps some of this instability could be explained if isoluminant contours were difficult to bring into focus. To test this hypothesis, a vernier optometer was used to measure the accuracy of steady-state accommodation for the vertical boundary of a red-green bipartite field. This edge was presented at optical distances of 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 diopters, with brightness contrasts between the two hemifields of 0% (isoluminant), 15%, 58%, and 100%. Accommodation was essentially unresponsiveness to the isoluminant edge and exhibited increasing focusing accuracy with increased brightness contrast. Control experiments replicated this finding for red-orange, green-blue, and white-white fields. These results imply that luminance contrast is a necessary stimulus for monocular accommodation. Inappropriate accommodation may be a factor contributing to the perceptual instability of isoluminant patterns. PMID:7255083

  15. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  18. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  19. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  20. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  1. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  2. A Developmental Model of Infant Visual Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Martin S.; Leitner, Edward F.

    This paper reports the major findings and interprets the results of longitudinal and cross-sectional exPeriments concerning the development of visual accommodation in infants 1 to 3 months of age. The stimulus was a high-contrast, random checkerboard which was presented at three different distances from the infants (25, 50 or 100 cm). The physical…

  3. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  4. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  5. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  6. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  8. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  9. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  10. Accommodating Students' Religious Needs. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Offers a lesson for secondary students that addresses the role of public schools in religious expression where the students consider how or if schools can accommodate the religious needs of students. Focuses on the religious obligations of Muslim students as a case study. Provides a student handout. (CMK)

  11. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  12. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  13. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  14. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  16. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) Whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a... overall size of the recipient's program or activity with respect to number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation, including...

  17. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  18. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  19. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  20. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  3. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  5. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  9. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  10. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  11. Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Liu, Juan; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    A compact waveguide display system integrating freeform elements and volume holograms is presented here for the first time. The use of freeform elements can broaden the field of view, which limits the applications of a holographic waveguide. An optimized system can achieve a diagonal field of view of 45° when the thickness of the waveguide planar is 3mm. Freeform-elements in-coupler and the volume holograms out-coupler were designed in detail in our study, and the influence of grating configurations on diffraction efficiency was analyzed thoroughly. The off-axis aberrations were well compensated by the in-coupler and the diffraction efficiency of the optimized waveguide display system could reach 87.57%. With integrated design, stability and reliability of this monochromatic display system were achieved and the alignment of the system was easily controlled by the record of the volume holograms, which makes mass production possible. PMID:25836207

  12. Grading-Credit-Diploma: Accommodation Practices for Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Roger; And Others

    This volume contains two papers concerning appropriate accommodations that can be made in the areas of grading and granting credits and diplomas for mildly handicapped high school students. The first paper discusses grades for students with disabilities who are mainstreamed in general education classes. It presents seven guiding principles that…

  13. Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Troilo, David; Quinn, Nicole; Baker, Kayla

    2007-04-01

    Accommodation may indirectly influence visually guided eye growth by affecting the retinal defocus signal used to guide growth. Specifically, increased lags of accommodation associated with low stimulus-response (S-R) function slopes will impose increased hyperopic blur on the retina and may induce axial elongation and myopia. The purpose of this study was (1) to measure accommodation in awake, free viewing marmosets and (2) compare accommodation behavior in marmosets before and after inducing different amounts of myopia with binocular spectacle lenses. In untreated marmosets, the average accommodation S-R slope approached one, but showed considerable inter-individual variability (mean+/-SD: 0.964+/-0.249 for monocular viewing; 0.895+/-0.235 for binocular viewing; monocular and binocular measures not significantly different). The monocular S-R slopes were significantly reduced following a period of lens rearing that produced axial myopia (change in slope=-0.30+/-0.30, p<.01) and the reduction in slope was proportional to the amount of myopia induced (p<.01). The S-R slopes measured either under monocular or binocular conditions before induction of myopia were not well correlated with the degree of myopia induced (monocular: r=-.240, p=.453; binocular: r=-.060, p=.824). These results support the hypothesis that the reduction in S-R slope in myopes is a consequence of the myopia induced. The alternative hypothesis-that low S-R slope increases susceptibility to the development of myopia--is not supported by the weak correlation between the pre-manipulation S-R slopes and the magnitude of the myopic shift.

  14. Derivation and representation of dose-volume response from large clinical trial data sets: an example from the RADAR prostate radiotherapy trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.; Foo, K.; Haworth, A.; Gulliford, S. L.; Kearvall, R.; Kennedy, A.; Richardson, S.; Krawiec, M.; Stewart, N.; Joseph, D. J.; Denham, J. W.

    2014-03-01

    Large multicentre radiotherapy trials incorporating assessment of multiple outcomes at multiple timepoints can generate extensive datasets. We have investigated graphical techniques for presentation of this data and the associated underlying dose-volume response information, necessary for guiding statistical analyses and translating outcomes to future patient treatments. A relational database was used to archive reviewed plan data for patients accrued to the TROG 03.04 RADAR trial. Viewing software was used to clean and enhance the data. Scripts were developed to export arbitrary dose-histogram data which was combined with clinical toxicity data with a median follow-up of 72 months. Graphical representations of dose-volume response developed include prevalence atlasing, univariate logistic regression and dose-volume-point odds ratios, and continuous cut-point derivation via ROC analysis. These representations indicate variable association of toxicities across structures and time-points.

  15. Thirty Years on--A Large Anti-Flynn Effect? The Piagetian Test Volume & Heaviness Norms 1975-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayer, Michael; Ginsburg, Denise; Coe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background: "Volume & Heaviness" was one of three Piagetian tests used in the CSMS survey in 1975/76. However unlike psychometric tests showing the Flynn effect--that is with students showing steady improvements year by year requiring tests to be restandardized--it appeared that the performance of Y7 students has recently been getting steadily…

  16. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  17. Measuring and mitigating inhibition during quantitative real time PCR analysis of viral nucleic acid extracts from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Gibson, K E; Schwab, K J; Spencer, S K; Borchardt, M A

    2012-09-01

    Naturally-occurring inhibitory compounds are a major concern during qPCR and RT-qPCR analysis of environmental samples, particularly large volume water samples. Here, a standardized method for measuring and mitigating sample inhibition in environmental water concentrates is described. Specifically, the method 1) employs a commercially available standard RNA control; 2) defines inhibition by the change in the quantification cycle (C(q)) of the standard RNA control when added to the sample concentrate; and 3) calculates a dilution factor using a mathematical formula applied to the change in C(q) to indicate the specific volume of nuclease-free water necessary to dilute the effect of inhibitors. The standardized inhibition method was applied to 3,193 large-volume water (surface, groundwater, drinking water, agricultural runoff, sewage) concentrates of which 1,074 (34%) were inhibited. Inhibition level was not related to sample volume. Samples collected from the same locations over a one to two year period had widely variable inhibition levels. The proportion of samples that could have been reported as false negatives if inhibition had not been mitigated was between 0.3% and 71%, depending on water source. These findings emphasize the importance of measuring and mitigating inhibition when reporting qPCR results for viral pathogens in environmental waters to minimize the likelihood of reporting false negatives and under-quantifying virus concentration.

  18. Local D3/D7 μ-SPLIT SUSY, 125 GeV Higgs and Large Volume Ricci-Flat Swiss-Cheese Metrics:. a Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    In this paper, we review briefly recent progress made in realizing local(ized around a mobile spacetime filling D3-brane in) D3/D7 μ-split Supersymmetry in (the large volume limit of Type IIB) String Theory (compactified on Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds) as well as obtaining a 125 GeV (light) Higgs in the same setup. We also discuss obtaining the geometric Kähler potential (and hence the Ricci-flat metric) for the Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau in the large volume limit using the Donaldson's algorithm and intuition from GLSM-based calculations — we present new results for Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau (used in the setup) metrics at points finitely away from the "big" divisor.

  19. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof-of-concept and roadmap for future studies

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ho, Yvonne YW; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between schizophrenia cases and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. The current study provides proof-of-concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures), and defines a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural/functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nisha; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Keam, Jennifer; Ballangrud, Ase; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N.; Ho, Alice Y.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary

  1. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  2. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  3. Large optics technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 19-21, 1985. Volume 571

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on telescope primary mirror design and manufacturing technologies considers topics in mirror fabrication and testing, novel technology currently under development, recently instituted large optics development programs, and large mirror materials. Among the topics discussed are aspheric figure generation using feedback from an IR phase-shifting interferometer, thermal stability tests of CFRP sandwich panels for far-IR astronomy, Zerodur lightweight (large mirror) blanks, and the precision machining of grazing-incidence X-ray mirror substrates. Also treated are the rapid fabrication of large aspheric optics, steps toward 8-m honeycomb mirrors, a novel telescope design employing the refraction of prism rows, telescope technology for the Far-UV Spectroscopic Explorer, hot isostatic-pressed Be for large optics, and a concept for a moderate cost large deployable reflector.

  4. Accommodations quality for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and consistency. The participants were 1,350 professionals working with a diverse group of students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing in a variety of roles, including educators, administrators, interpreters, vocational rehabilitation agency staff, and allied service providers. Data were collected from both a national survey and a series of focus groups conducted over a 1-year period. The authors discuss the results in light of the crucial nature of accommodations during the transition into a variety of educational, training, and employment options.

  5. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  6. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role. PMID:20183631

  7. Associations Between Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Drusen Volume Changes During the Lifecycle of Large Drusenoid Pigment Epithelial Detachments

    PubMed Central

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Curcio, Christine A.; Morgan, William H.; Querques, Giuseppe; Capuano, Vittorio; Souied, Eric; Jung, Jesse; Freund, K. Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) are a defined path to atrophy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We analyzed the relationships between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and drusen volume changes during the PED lifecycle, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Twenty-one cases of drusenoid PED tracked using SD-OCT through periods of growth and collapse were evaluated. Volumetric calculations and piece-wise linear regression analysis were used to determine the breakpoint between growth and collapse. Spectral-domain OCT scans were independently evaluated for the appearance of intraretinal hyperreflective foci, acquired vitelliform lesions (AVLs), and disruptions to the RPE+basal lamina band. Timing of these events with respect to the breakpoint was statistically evaluated. Morphometric characteristics of drusenoid PEDs were correlated with rate of PED collapse and final visual acuity. Results Mean age of subjects was 75.3 years and mean period of follow up was 4.1 years (median 4.5 years; range, 0.6–6.6 years). The lifecycle of drusenoid PEDs was asymmetric, in that the rate of collapse (0.199 mm3/month) is significantly faster (P < 0.001) than the rate of growth (0.022 mm3/month). Appearance of intraretinal hyperreflective foci and AVLs preceded the breakpoint (both P < 0.001). The timing of disruptions to the RPE+basal lamina band did not differ from the breakpoint (P = 0.510). Maximal height, volume, and diameter of drusenoid PEDs were inversely correlated with final visual acuity (all P < 0.001) and positively correlated with the rate of PED collapse (all P < 0.001). Conclusions Spectral-domain OCT signatures, plausibly attributable to anteriorly migrated RPE and disintegration of the RPE layer, precede or occur simultaneously with changes in volume of drusenoid PED during the lifecycle of this lesion. PMID:27760262

  8. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  9. Large-scale synthesis of organophilic zirconia nanoparticles and their application in organic-inorganic nanocomposites for efficient volume holography.

    PubMed

    Garnweitner, Georg; Goldenberg, Leonid M; Sakhno, Oksana V; Antonietti, Markus; Niederberger, Markus; Stumpe, Joachim

    2007-09-01

    We present a multigram scale, one-step nonaqueous synthesis route to monodisperse, highly crystalline ZrO(2) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can be stabilized in nonpolar solvents via a simple functionalization procedure using only minute amounts of organic stabilizers. Their great potential in materials applications is demonstrated by the fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites that can be selectively photopolymerized to inscribe extremely effective and volume holographic gratings with the highest refractive index contrast (n(1) of up to 0.024) achieved so far.

  10. Correlation of the Peach Springs Tuff, a large-volume Miocene ignimbrite sheet in California and Arizona ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glazner, A.F.; Nielson, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Miller, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Peach Springs Tuff is a distinctive early Miocene ignimbrite deposit that was first recognized in western Arizona. Recent field studies and phenocryst analyses indicate that adjacent outcrops of similar tuff in the central and eastern Mojave Desert may be correlative. This proposed correlation implies that outcrops of the tuff are scattered over an area of at least 35 000 km2 from the western Colorado Plateau to Barstow, California, and that the erupted volume, allowing for posteruption crustal extension, was at least several hundred cubic kilometres. Thus, the Peach Springs Tuff may be a regional stratigraphic marker, useful for determining regional paleogeography and the time and extent of Tertiary crustal extension. -Authors

  11. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  12. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS+/− mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS+/− mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  13. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  14. MIDAS prototype Multispectral Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 2: Charge coupled device investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F.; Marshall, R.; Sternberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    MIDAS is a third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensors. MIDAS, for example, can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The need for advanced onboard spacecraft processing of remotely sensed data is stated and approaches to this problem are described which are feasible through the use of charge coupled devices. Tentative mechanizations for the required processing operations are given in large block form. These initial designs can serve as a guide to circuit/system designers.

  15. Small-volume chylous ascites after laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Results from a large population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Wei, Zhen-Quan; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report the incidence and potential risk factors of small-volume chylous ascites (SVCA) following laparoscopic radical gastrectomy (LAG). METHODS: A total of 1366 consecutive gastric cancer patients who underwent LAG from January 2008 to June 2011 were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the patients based on the presence or absence of SVCA. RESULTS: SVCA was detected in 57 (4.17%) patients, as determined by the small-volume drainage (range, 30-100 mL/24 h) of triglyceride-rich fluid. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the total number of resected lymph nodes (LNs), No. 8 or No. 9 LN metastasis and N stage were independent risk factors for SVCA following LAG (P < 0.05). Regarding hospital stay, there was a significant difference between the groups with and without SVCA (P < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free and overall survival rates of the patients with SVCA were 47.4% and 56.1%, respectively, which were similar to those of the patients without SVCA (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: SVCA following LAG developed significantly more frequently in the patients with ≥ 32 harvested LNs, ≥ 3 metastatic LNs, or No. 8 or No. 9 LN metastasis. SVCA, which was successfully treated with conservative management, was associated with a prolonged hospital stay but was not associated with the prognosis. PMID:25741151

  16. Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boroughs, Scott; Wolff, John; Bonnichsen, Bill; Godchaux, Martha; Larson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene Bruneau-Jarbidge and adjacent volcanic fields of the central Snake River Plain, southwest Idaho, are dominated by high-temperature rhyolitic tuffs and lavas having an aggregate volume estimated as 7000 km3. Samples from units representing at least 50% of this volume are strongly depleted in 18O, with magmatic feldspar δ18OVSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values between −1.4‰ and 3.8‰. The magnitude of the 18O depletion and the complete lack of any rhyolites with normal values (7‰–10‰) combine to suggest that assimilation or melting of a caldera block altered by near- contemporaneous hydrothermal activity is unlikely. Instead, we envisage generation of the high-temperature rhyolites by shallow melting of Idaho Batholith rocks, under the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot, affected by Eocene meteoric-hydrothermal events. The seeming worldwide scarcity of strongly 18O-depleted rhyolites may simply reflect a similar scarcity of suitable crustal protoliths.

  17. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  18. The dynamics and control of large flexible space structures. Volume 3, part B: The modelling, dynamics, and stability of large Earth pointing orbiting structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Kumar, V. K.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics and stability of large orbiting flexible beams, and platforms and dish type structures oriented along the local horizontal are treated both analytically and numerically. It is assumed that such structures could be gravitationally stabilized by attaching a rigid light-weight dumbbell at the center of mass by a spring loaded hinge which also could provide viscous damping. For the beam, the small amplitude inplane pitch motion, dumbbell librational motion, and the anti-symmetric elastic modes are all coupled. The three dimensional equations of motion for a circular flat plate and shallow spherical shell in orbit with a two-degree-of freedom gimballed dumbbell are also developed and show that only those elastic modes described by a single nodal diameter line are influenced by the dumbbell motion. Stability criteria are developed for all the examples and a sensitivity study of the system response characteristics to the key system parameters is carried out.

  19. A filtration and column-adsorption system for onsite concentration and fractionation of organic substances from large volumes of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    A portable filtration and column-adsorption system which can concentrate suspended sediment and dissolved-aqueous organic substances onsite was developed. Organic solutes also are fractionated into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-acid, base, and neutral fractions. Subsequent isolation of organic solutes from fraction concentrates and extraction of organic constituents in suspended sediment entrained on filter tubes is performed by a variety of procedures in the laboratory. Three surface-water samples and one ground-water sample ranging in volume from 300 to 1,100 liters were processed through the filtration and column-adsorption system, yielding from about 0.8 to 3.0 grams of recovered organic carbon per sample.

  20. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  1. A novel optical microscope for imaging large embryos and tissue volumes with sub-cellular resolution throughout

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Gail; Trägårdh, Johanna; Amor, Rumelo; Dempster, John; Reid, Es; Amos, William Bradshaw

    2016-01-01

    Current optical microscope objectives of low magnification have low numerical aperture and therefore have too little depth resolution and discrimination to perform well in confocal and nonlinear microscopy. This is a serious limitation in important areas, including the phenotypic screening of human genes in transgenic mice by study of embryos undergoing advanced organogenesis. We have built an optical lens system for 3D imaging of objects up to 6 mm wide and 3 mm thick with depth resolution of only a few microns instead of the tens of microns currently attained, allowing sub-cellular detail to be resolved throughout the volume. We present this lens, called the Mesolens, with performance data and images from biological specimens including confocal images of whole fixed and intact fluorescently-stained 12.5-day old mouse embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18659.001 PMID:27661778

  2. Large-Volume Reconstruction of Brain Tissue from High-Resolution Serial Section Images Acquired by SEM-Based Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin. PMID:23086880

  3. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  4. Accommodation of COTS LCDs in military displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James B.; Henz, James M.; Dodd, Sonia R.

    1998-09-01

    Commercial off the shelf (COTS) liquid crystal displays are attractive as an alternative to LCDs that are custom designed and manufactured for the military environment. Commercial displays require significant modification to accommodate their use. This paper describes specific modifications that create a thermal cocoon around a nominal 3.6 X 4.6-inch commercial industrial/automotive display. The thermal design techniques allow the display to function in the particularly challenging F-16 thermal environment without exceeding the display's operating specification. The work is extended to examine what additional design extensions are required for still larger displays.

  5. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  6. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  7. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  8. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1... SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages... compartment suitably separated from other spaces for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have...

  9. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  10. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  11. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  12. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  13. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  14. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  15. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  16. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  17. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  19. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  20. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...