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Sample records for accommodate nickel electrode

  1. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  2. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  3. Method of producing nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Ohira, T.; Kumano, Y.; Nakao, T.

    1982-01-01

    A large capacity nickel electrode is provided in which the charging efficiency and discharge utilization coefficient are improved in comparison to nickel electrodes which are produced by the conventional method. Nickel electrodes retaining nickel active material or nickel active material and cobalt compounds on a porous nickel substrate are immersed in a cobalt sulfate aqueous solution whose pH is adjusted in the range of 3.5 to 6.0, followed by crystallization of the hydroxide or oxide by pyrolysis or immersion in alkali, thereby coating the surface of the nickel active material with cobalt crystals and simultaneously promoting alloying of the nickel-cobalt.

  4. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  5. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  6. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  7. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  8. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  9. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance, thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder. The second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested, and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  10. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Wheeler, James R.; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder and the second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  11. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  12. Lightweight Nickel Electrode Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1998-01-01

    Because of its relatively high specific energy and excellent cycling capability, the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) cell is used extensively to store energy in aerospace systems. For the past several years, the NASA Lewis Research Center has been developing the Ni-H2 cell to improve its components, design, and operating characteristics. The battery size and weight are crucial parameters in aerospace and spacecraft power systems for applications such as the International Space Station, space satellites, and space telescopes. The nickel electrode has been identified as the heaviest and most critical component of the Ni-H2 cell. Consequently, Lewis began and is leading a program to reduce the electrode's weight by using lightweight plaques.

  13. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  14. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  15. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  16. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  17. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  18. Recent developments in nickel electrode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteley, Richard V.; Daman, M. E.; Kaiser, E. Q.

    1991-01-01

    Three aspects of nickel electrode analysis for Nickel-Hydrogen and Nickel-Cadmium battery cell applications are addressed: (1) the determination of active material; (2) charged state nickel (as NiOOH + CoOOH); and (3) potassium ion content in the electrode. Four deloading procedures are compared for completeness of active material removal, and deloading conditions for efficient active material analyses are established. Two methods for charged state nickel analysis are compared: the current NASA procedure and a new procedure based on the oxidation of sodium oxalate by the charged material. Finally, a method for determining potassium content in an electrode sample by flame photometry is presented along with analytical results illustrating differences in potassium levels from vendor to vendor and the effects of stress testing on potassium content in the electrode. The relevance of these analytical procedures to electrode performance is reviewed.

  19. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  20. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  1. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  2. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  3. The effects of platinum on nickel electrodes in the nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of platinum and platinum compounds with the nickel electrode that are possible in the nickel hydrogen cell, where both the nickel electrode and a platinum catalyst hydrogen electrode are in intimate contact with the alkaline electrolyte, are examined. Additionally, a mechanism of nickel cobalt oxyhydroxide formation in NiH2 cells is presented.

  4. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  5. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  6. Development of Sintered Fiber Nickel Electrodes for Aerospace Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Brill, Jack

    1997-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in nickel battery systems. A concerted effort is currently underway to improve NiH2 performance while decreasing system cost. Increased performance with electrode specific energy (mAh/g) is the major goal of this effort. However, cost reduction is also an important part of the overall program, achieved by reducing the electrode weight. A lightweight, high energy density, nickel electrode is being, developed based on a highly porous, sintered fiber, nickel substrate. This developing technology has many applications, but is highly, applicable to the military and aerospace industries.

  7. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  8. High performance nickel electrodes for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adanuvor, Prosper K.; Pearson, Johnnie A.; Miller, Brian; Tatarchuk, Bruce; Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    The specific energy density and the performance of nickel electrodes are generally limited by the electrode microstructure and the nature of the active material within the electrode matrix. Progress is being made in our laboratory in a collaborative effort with NASA-LEWIS Research Center to develop lighter weight, mechanically stable and highly efficient nickel electrodes for aerospace applications. Our approach is based on an electrode microstructure fabricated from a mixture of nickel fibers as small as 2 micro m diameter and cellulose fibers. Results will be presented to show the optimum conditions for impregnating this electrode microstructure with nickel hydroxide active material. Performance data in half-cell tests and cycle life data will also be presented. The flexibility of this electrode microstructure and the significant advantages it offers in terms of weight and performance will be demonstrated, in particular its ability to accept charge at high rates and to discharge at high rates.

  9. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  10. Process for producing nickel electrode having lightweight substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A nickel electrode having a lightweight porous nickel substrate is subjected to a formation cycle involving heavy overcharging and under-discharging in a KOH electrolyte having a concentration of 26% to 31%, resulting in electrodes displaying high active material utilization.

  11. Nongassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The failure of nickel-cadmium storage batteries due to severe gassing during charging is discussed. In order to increase the life of such cells, nongassing positive and negative electrodes are used. The gassing characteristics of nickel electrodes were evaluated as a function of their loading, charge rate, and charge temperature.

  12. High Performance Nickel Electrodes for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adanuvor, Prosper K.; Pearson, Johnnie A.; Miller, Brian; Tatarchuk, Bruce; Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics such as efficiency, specific energy density and power density of nickel electrodes are generally limited by the electrode microstructure and nature of the active material within the electrode matrix. Progress is being made in our laboratory in a collaborative effort with NASA-Lewis Research Center to develop lighter weight, mechanically stable and highly efficient nickel electrodes for aerospace applications. Our approach is based on an electrode microstructure fabricated from a mixture of nickel fibers as small as 2 microns diameter and cellulose fibers. Performance data in flooded cell tests and cycle life data are presented. Performance characteristics are compared to other electrode microstructures such as the Fibrex Fiber mat and the Fibrex Powder substrate. The flexibility of our electrode microstructure and the significant advantages it offers in terms of weight and performance are demonstrated, in particular, its ability to accept charge at high rates and to discharge at high rates.

  13. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to empirically controlled nickel electrode structural variations, and has unique potential for structural characterization of these materials. How the structure relates to electrochemical properties is examined so that the latter can be more completely understood, controlled, and optimized. Electrodes were impregnated and cycled, and cyclic voltammetry is being used for electrochemical characterization. Structural variation was observed which has escaped detection using other methods. Structural changes are induced by: (1) cobalt doping, (2) the state of change or discharge, (3) the preparation conditions and type of buffer used, and (4) the formation process. Charged active mass has an NiOOH-type structure, agreeing with X-ray diffraction results. Discharged active mass, however, is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. Chemically prepared alpha phases are not isostructural either. A disordered structural model, containing point defects, is proposed for the cycled materials. This model explains K(+) incorporation. Band assignments were made and spectra interpreted for beta-Ni(OH)2, electrochemical NiOOH and chemically precipitated NiOOH.

  14. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  15. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  16. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  17. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  18. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  19. Development of lightweight nickel electrodes for zinc/nickel oxide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taucher, Waltraud; Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    A method for fabricating lightweight nickel electrodes has been developed by electrochemical impregnation of two different nickel fiber substrates. The electrochemical impregnation technique was applied galvanostatically at 35-50 mA/cm 2 in acidic solutions of nickel and cobalt nitrates (pH = 3). The nickel and cobalt contents of impregnated and formed electrodes was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the amount of active nickel hydroxide was calculated. NiOOH electrode cycle-life performance testing was carried out in alkaline electrolyte (4.2-6.9 M KOH, 1 M LiOH) at a ˜ C/5 rate during charge and discharge. Electrodes based on substrate materials of high porosity (90%, FN 090 Nickel Felt, Sorapec) deliver excellent specific capacities of 133-145 mAh/g in moderately alkaline electrolyte (4.2 M KOH) with an active material utilization of 67-95% depending on the quantity of co-precipitated cobalt (1.3-8.3%). NiOOH electrodes using substrates with lower porosity (81%, Fibrex {50}/{50}= fiber/Ni powder, National Standard) obtain very stable specific capacities (400 cycles) of 91-93 mAh/g with a utilization rate of 110% in highly alkaline electrolytes (6.9 M KOH).

  20. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  1. Performance of suspension-impregnated sintered nickel composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrando, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    Direct impregnation for the development of a porous, sintered, nickel-plated graphite fiber plaque by fine particulate Ni(OH)2 is examined. The suspension impregnation method is described, noting that the entire process can be carried out in a very short time. The use of a cobalt additive to improve utilization and the life cycle of nickel electrodes is mentioned. It is found that the suspension method of active material impregnation has potential to produce high energy density, electrically durable, light weight nickel composite electrodes. It is also found that excellent life cycle durability results are obtained with the suspension-impregnated composite electrode. Finally, the electrochemical process, an alternative method of active material Ni(OH)2 impregnation, is mentioned.

  2. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  3. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  4. Characterization of cobalt-dipped nickel electrodes with fibrex substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngman, Carolyn A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    Nickel electrodes using fibrous substrates have poorer initial utilization of the active material than those using conventional nickel sinter substrates. Previous investigators had shown that utilization can be dramatically improved by dipping these electrodes in a cobalt solution immediately after the electrochemical impregnation, before formation and cycling is carried out. The present study looked at the gas evolution behavior of dipped and undipped electrodes, impedance curves, and the charge-discharge curves to try to understand the reasons for the improvement in utilization. Impedance measurements under open circuit conditions indicate that some of the improvement is due to a reduction in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the particles, in agreement with earlier work. The charge-discharge curves suggest that there may also be an additional increase in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the undipped electrode during charging.

  5. Mathematical models for electrochemical impregnation of nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Chien-Hsien; Nagarajan, Gowri S.; Murthy, Mahesh; VanZee, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Single step and two-step tetramer precipitation models for electrochemical impregnation of nickel electrodes are presented. The objectives for developing the impregnation model are: to predict the impregnation conditions for uniform loading, to develop quality control tools for electrode manufacturing, and to use it as basis for predicting the performance of batteries with non-uniform loadings. This paper, with the help of graphs and charts, discusses the development and application of the impregnation model.

  6. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  7. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  8. Electrochemical investigation of the voltammetric determination of hydrochlorothiazide using a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Machini, Wesley B S; David-Parra, Diego N; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2015-12-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode as well as its behavior as electrocatalyst toward the oxidation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were investigated. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrooxidation of HCTZ were explored using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric response of the modified electrode in the detection of HCTZ is based on the electrochemical oxidation of the Ni(II)/Ni(III) and a chemical redox process. The analytical parameters for the electrooxidation of HCTZ by the nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode were obtained in NaOH solution, in which the linear voltammetric response was in the concentration range from 1.39×10(-5) to 1.67×10(-4)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.92×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 0.138 μA Lmmol(-1). Tafel analysis was used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of HCTZ oxidation by the modified electrode.

  9. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Luis De Los Santos; Felix, Lizbet Leon; Dominguez, Angel Bustamante; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Khondaker, Saiful I; Barnes, Crispin H W; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-11-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  10. Performance characterization of sintered iron electrodes in nickel/iron alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periasamy, P.; Ramesh Babu, B.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.

    A nickel/iron storage battery with a porous, sintered, iron negative electrode and a nickel positive electrode is a high power system by virtue of its low internal resistance. A dry-powder sintering procedure is used to fabricate negative and positive electrodes. Negative iron electrodes are activated with various salt solutions such as CdSO 4, BaCl 2, HgCl 2 and sulfur. Positive electrodes are impregnated with nickel hydroxide by a chemical method. Tests are performed in 10 Ah capacity nickel/iron cells and two types of activated iron electrodes are used. The present work deals with electrode fabrication, charge/discharge studies, self-discharge, temperature performance and cycle life. Finally, the best iron electrodes are coupled with nickel electrodes to obtain a 1.37 V, 75 Ah nickel/iron cell. The performance of this cell is discussed.

  11. Light Weight Design Nickel-Alkaline Cells Using Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Willis, Bob; Britton, Doris; Saelens, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Using fiber electrode technology, currently produced by Bekaert Corporation (Bekaert), Electro Energy, Inc., (EEI) Mobile Energy Products Group (formerly, Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC., Power Systems Department) in Colorado Springs, CO has demonstrated that it is feasible to manufacture flight weight nickel-hydrogen cells having about twice the specific energy (80 vs. 40 watt-hr/kg) as state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen cells that are flown on geosynchronous communications satellites. Although lithium-ion battery technology has made large in-roads to replace the nickel-alkaline technology (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride), the technology offered here competes with lithium-ion weight and offers alternatives not present in the lithium-ion chemistry such as ability to undergo continuous overcharge, reversal on discharge and sustain rate capability sufficient to start automotive and aircraft engines at subzero temperatures. In development to date seven 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen have been constructed, acceptance tested and briefly tested in a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime. The effort was jointly funded by Electro Energy, Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH. Five of the seven cells have been shipped to NASA GRC for further cycle testing. Two of the cells experienced failure due to internal short circuits during initial cycle testing at EEL Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) of one of the cells has shown the failure mode to be due to inadequate hydrogen catalyst electrodes that were not capacity balanced with the higher energy density nickel oxide electrodes. In the investigators opinion, rebuild of the cells using proper electrode balance would result in cells that could sustain over 30,000 cycles at moderate depths-of-discharge in a LEO regime or endure over 20 years of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) cycling while realizing a two-fold increase in specific energy for the battery or a 1.1 kg weight savings per 50 ampere-hour cell. Additional

  12. Modeling of Nickel Hydroxide Electrode Containing Multiple Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical models of alkaline rechargeable nickel cell systems (e.g., Ni-Cd, Ni-H(sub 2) and Ni-MH) have so far been developed based on the assumption that the active material at Ni electrode exists primarily in a single phase as Beta-NiOOH -- Beta-Ni(OH)(sub 2), despite enough experimental evidence for the second phase, i.e., Gamma-NiOOH -- Alpha-Ni(OH)(sub 2), especially under conditions of extended coverage. Here, we have incorporated the additional couple of Gamma-NiOOH -- Alpha-Ni(OH)(sub 2) into the modeling of the Ni electrode.

  13. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  14. Hydrometallurgical treatment of nickel-metal hydride battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery electrodes have been developed as a substitute for cadmium-containing negative electrodes. Use of NI-MH electrodes offers enhanced electrochemical properties in many instances as well as reduced environmental toxicity. Rechargeable batteries using NI-MH electrodes are also strong candidates for electric vehicles. During the production and secondary reclamation of these battery types, recycling procedures will be needed to prevent environmental impact caused by these wastes as well as to recover the value inherent in the scrap. The US Bureau of Mines (USBM) is investigating hydrometallurgical technology that separates and recovers purified metallic components from Ni-MH battery scrap of two types, AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}. An investigation of acid dissolution and metal recovery techniques has determined several processing alternatives that may be used to promote the successful recycling of much of the battery fabrication scrap and eventual secondary scrap. The metals recovered are Ni, Co, and rare earth metals. Although recovery techniques have been identified in principal, their applicability to mixed battery waste stream and economic attractiveness remain to be demonstrated.

  15. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells and batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher specific energy than the heavy sintered state of the art nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber, felt, and nickel plated plastic) are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested at 40 and 80 percent depths of discharge (DOD). Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. Over 7,000 cycles of life cycle testing have been accumulated at 40 percent DOD, using the lightweight fiber electrode in a boiler plate Ni-H2 cell with stable voltage.

  16. Study of nickel electrode oxidation as a function of 80% depth of discharge cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, D.F. Jr.; Scoles, D.L.; Johnson, Z.W.; Hayden, J.W.; Pennington, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oxidation of nickel sinter used in nickel oxide electrodes in aerospace nickel cadmium cells leads to hydrogen gassing and the potential for cell rupture. The oxidation is directly related to loss of overcharge protection built into the cell during manufacturing. In nickel hydrogen cells, excessive oxidation of the nickel sinter can eventually lead to a burst before leak situation and is a potential source of failure. It is well known that nickel cadmium cells having nylon separators contribute to loss of overcharge via a hydrolysis reaction of the nylon in the potassium hydroxide electrolyte environment in the cell. The hydrolysis reaction produces lower chain organics which are oxidized by the positive electrode and oxygen. Oxidation of the organics diminishes the overcharge protection. With introduction of the Super NiCd{trademark} and the Magnum{trademark} nickel cadmium cells the nylon hydrolysis reaction is eliminated, but any reducing agent in the cell such as nickel or an organic additive can contribute to loss of overcharge protection. The present effort describes chemical analyses made to evaluate the extent of overcharge protection loss in nickel cadmium cells which do not have nylon hydrolysis, and quantifies the amount of hydrogen buildup in nickel hydrogen cells which are subjected to 80% depth of discharge cycling with and without the presence of cadmium in the positive electrode.

  17. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  18. Method of making porous conductive supports for electrodes. [by electroforming and stacking nickel foils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Porous conductive supports for electrochemical cell electrodes are made by electroforming thin corrugated nickel foil, and by stacking pieces of the corrugated foil alternatively with pieces of thin flat nickel foil. Corrugations in successive corrugated pieces are oriented at different angles. Adjacent pieces of foil are bonded by heating in a hydrogen atmosphere and then cutting the stack in planes perpendicular to the foils.

  19. Effect of impregnation method on cycle life of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode has been identified as the life limiting component for individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells when cycled under a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at deep depths of discharge. As a part of an overall program to develop a long life nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cells, the effect of two different methods of electrochemical impregnation on the cycle life of the nickel electrode was investigated. One method was the Pickett (aqueous/ethanolic) process. The other was the modified Bell (aqueous) process. The plaques for both impregnation methods were made by sintering dry carbonyl nickel powder in a reducing atmosphere. The plaques contain a nickel screen substrate. Electrodes made from both processes were cycle tested in Air Force design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells. The only factor different for this test was the method of plaque impregnation; all other factors were the same. The cells were cycled to failure under a 90 min LEO cycle regime at a deep depth of discharge (80 percent DOD). Failure for this test was defined to occur when the cell voltage degraded to 1.0 V prior to the completion of the 35 min discharge.

  20. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-11-30

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  1. Structural comparison of nickel electrodes and precursor phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Shan, Xiaoyin; Loyselle, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    A summary of previous Raman spectroscopic results and a discussion of important structural differences in the various phases of active mass and active mass precurors are presented. Raman spectra provide unique signatures for these phases, and allow one to distinguish each phase, even when the compound is amorphous to X-rays (i.e., does not scatter X-rays because of a lack of order and/or small particle size). The structural changes incurred during formation, charge and discharge, cobalt addition, and aging will be discussed and related to electrode properties. Important structural differences include NiO2 layer stacking, nonstoichiometry (especially cation-deficit nonstoichiometry), disorder, dopant content, and water content. The results indicate that optimal nickel active mass is non-close packed and nonstoichiometric. The formation process transforms precursor phases into this structure. Therefore, the precursor disorder, or lack thereof, influences this final active mass structure and the rate of formation. Aging processes induce structural change which is believed to be detrimental. The role of cobalt addition can be appreciated in terms of structures favored or stabilized by the dopant. In recent work, the in situ Raman technique to characterize the critical structural parameters was developed. An in situ method relates structure, electrochemistry, and preparation. In situ Raman spectra of cells during charge and discharge, either during cyclic voltammetry or under constant current conditions were collected. With the structure-preparation knowledge and the in situ Raman tool, it will be possible to define the structure-property-preparation relations in more detail. This instrumentation has application to a variety of electrode systems.

  2. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell. III - Results of an accelerated test and failure analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    Nineteen different designs of nickel electrodes were tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells in an accelerated low earth orbit cycle regime to the end of their life. The failure analyses of these cells showed that the major performance changes due to the cycling was a severe reduction of their high rate discharge capability rather than an absolute capacity reduction. Many physical changes of the nickel electrodes were observed after the cycling test. These changes include dimensional expansion, sinter rupture, loose black powdering of the active material, morphology changes, active material migration, increase of pore volume, change of pore distribution, and increase of surface area. All of these were caused by active material expansion with cycling. Among these changes, the morphology change which involves migration of active material away from the current collecting nickel sinter appears to be that most responsible for the reduction of the rate capability.

  3. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell. III - Results of an accelerated test and failure analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen different designs of nickel electrodes were tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells in an accelerated low earth orbit cycle regime to the end of their life. The failure analyses of these cells showed that the major performance changes due to the cycling was a severe reduction of their high rate discharge capability rather than an absolute capacity reduction. Many physical changes of the nickel electrodes were observed after the cycling test. These changes include dimensional expansion, sinter rupture, loose black powdering of the active material, morphology changes, active material migration, increase of pore volume, change of pore distribution, and increase of surface area. All of these were caused by active material expansion with cycling. Among these changes, the morphology change which involves migration of active material away from the current collecting nickel sinter appears to be that most responsible for the reduction of the rate capability.

  4. Electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols on electrodes consisting of hydrophobicized supports coated with nickel oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chaenko, N.V.; Kornienko, V.L.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M.Ya.

    1987-12-01

    Two methods are presented to intensify the electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols with low water solubility and to simplify end-product separation. One method comprised direct addition of higher nickel oxides to the active material of the electrode to be fabricated; the other involved depositing a layer of higher nickel oxides on a hydrophobicized support consisting of a mixture of a conducting material and the FP-4D hydrophobicizer. Electrolysis was carried out in a diaphragm-free two-compartment cell, one reagent and the other the electrolyte. Results are shown of hexyl alcohol oxidation on various composition supports coated with higher nickel oxides.

  5. Facile preparation of nickel/carbonized wood nanocomposite for environmentally friendly supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-09-01

    We are reporting a facile way to prepare nickel/carbon nanocomposites from wood as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors. The surface morphology and the structure of the as-prepared electrodes were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that after high-temperature carbonization process, the wood is converted into graphitic carbon with nickel nanoparticles uniformly distributed within the three dimensional structure of the wood. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were conducted. These results showed that the introduction of nickel into the carbonized wood improves the specific capacitance and the cyclic stability of the nanocomposite electrode over that of the pure carbonized wood electrode. The composite electrode displayed an enhanced capacitive performance of 3616 F/g at 8 A/g, and showed an excellent capacitance retention after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results endow the nickel nanoparticles impregnated carbonized wood with a great potential for future application in supercapacitors.

  6. Facile preparation of nickel/carbonized wood nanocomposite for environmentally friendly supercapacitor electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a facile way to prepare nickel/carbon nanocomposites from wood as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors. The surface morphology and the structure of the as-prepared electrodes were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that after high-temperature carbonization process, the wood is converted into graphitic carbon with nickel nanoparticles uniformly distributed within the three dimensional structure of the wood. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were conducted. These results showed that the introduction of nickel into the carbonized wood improves the specific capacitance and the cyclic stability of the nanocomposite electrode over that of the pure carbonized wood electrode. The composite electrode displayed an enhanced capacitive performance of 3616 F/g at 8 A/g, and showed an excellent capacitance retention after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results endow the nickel nanoparticles impregnated carbonized wood with a great potential for future application in supercapacitors. PMID:27651005

  7. Facile preparation of nickel/carbonized wood nanocomposite for environmentally friendly supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a facile way to prepare nickel/carbon nanocomposites from wood as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors. The surface morphology and the structure of the as-prepared electrodes were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that after high-temperature carbonization process, the wood is converted into graphitic carbon with nickel nanoparticles uniformly distributed within the three dimensional structure of the wood. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were conducted. These results showed that the introduction of nickel into the carbonized wood improves the specific capacitance and the cyclic stability of the nanocomposite electrode over that of the pure carbonized wood electrode. The composite electrode displayed an enhanced capacitive performance of 3616 F/g at 8 A/g, and showed an excellent capacitance retention after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results endow the nickel nanoparticles impregnated carbonized wood with a great potential for future application in supercapacitors. PMID:27651005

  8. Improvement of the process for electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comtat, M.; Lafage, B.; Leonardi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 11g/dsqm hydroxide, with capacities of 3.6 to 3.8 Ah/dsqm were prepared at 353 K by electrochemical impregnation. The reproducibility of the results is obtained by readjusting the pH before each preparation. The control of each electrode is done during two cycles of charge and discharge following the manufacture by a potential relaxation method.

  9. Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel, and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. |; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc, and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrate ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and a nickel anode is an efficient means of removing nitrate from strongly alkaline solutions. Electrode pretreatment and solution conditions were chosen to correspond to those that might be encountered in practical applications, for example, the cleanup of radioactive waste solutions.

  10. Loading and utilization of active material in nickel composite electrodes: optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.; Ferrando, W.A.; Sutula, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    As an attempt to reduce nickel battery weight, the nickel composite electrode, has been under development. Investigations were undertaken to determine the optimum conditions for loading and utilizing nickel hydroxide active material in nickel composite electrodes. The main emphasis was placed on the improvement of both loading efficiency by electrochemical impregnation and utilization efficiency of the Ni(OH)2 active material. The efficiencies were examined as functions of such electrochemical conditions as current density, nickel concentration, pH, temperature of the impregnating bath, the continuity of current flow and manner of adding Co(OH)S additive. Also studied was the loading efficiency of chemical impregnation (polarization method) and the suspension method which enables a direct loading of externally prepared active material into the composite body. The most important factor for a quick utilization of the active material was found to be the additive distribution. A model of the additive distribution in the active material is proposed to account for different patterns of utilization exhibited by the electrodes.

  11. Impedances of Nickel Electrodes Cycled in Various KOH Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    Impedances were measured of electrodes from boiler-plate cells cycled i n KOH concentrations from 21% to 36%. These cells under accelerated conditions at 80% DOD to failure, defined discharge voltage. Cell life ranged from about 1,000 t o 40 impedances were measured at five voltages corresponding to charge. The results were analyzed using a standard circuit model including a Warburg impedance term. The kinetic resistances and Warburg slopes were greater for those electrodes which had failed earliest. Other circuit models have also been examined. The results are considered indicative but not conclusive, since the cells had been stored after failure for varying lengths of time which is known to affect the impedance. In order to minimize the effects of storage, the electrodes were cycled 10 times before the impedance measurements were taken.

  12. Electrophoretic self-assembly of expanded mesocarbon microbeads with attached nickel nanoparticles as a high-rate electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Fu, Yan-Hao

    2014-03-01

    Expanded mesocarbon microbeads (EMCMBs) with graphene oxide (GO) sheets were prepared by expanding graphitized mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) using a simple solution-based oxidative process. EMCMB-supported nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 4.6 nm were fabricated by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method in the presence of nickel nitrate additive. Nickel ions were self-assembled on the fluffy GO sheets resulting in a more positively charged EMCMB particle for facilitating EPD and dispersion. After heat treatment at 300 °C, GO could be converted to graphene which could provide a conductive network for facilitating the transport of electrons. Well-dispersed nickel nanoparticles on graphene sheets could act as a redox center to allow storage of extra charge and a nanospacer to prevent the graphene sheets from restacking. The specific capacitance of EMCMB-supported nickel electrode could reach 491 F g-1, which is much higher than that of EMCMB electrode (43 F g-1) and bare nickel electrode (146 F g-1) at a discharge current of 5 A g-1. More importantly, the EMCMB-supported nickel electrode is capable of delivering a high specific capacitance of 440 F g-1 at a discharge current of 50 A g-1, and could pave the way towards high-rate supercapacitors.Expanded mesocarbon microbeads (EMCMBs) with graphene oxide (GO) sheets were prepared by expanding graphitized mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) using a simple solution-based oxidative process. EMCMB-supported nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 4.6 nm were fabricated by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method in the presence of nickel nitrate additive. Nickel ions were self-assembled on the fluffy GO sheets resulting in a more positively charged EMCMB particle for facilitating EPD and dispersion. After heat treatment at 300 °C, GO could be converted to graphene which could provide a conductive network for facilitating the transport of electrons. Well-dispersed nickel nanoparticles on graphene sheets

  13. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  14. Modelling of nickel-cadmium batteries using porous electrode theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Glueck, Peter R.; Perrone, David E.

    1991-01-01

    A porous electrode modeling technique is discussed which is considered a viable means for quantitatively predicting Ni-Cd cell performance. The authors describe the integration of the cell model into a battery model useful in the design and operation of aerospace applications. Test data from a sealed boilerplate cell are presented for constant current charge and discharge conditions. Performance predictions for similar cases have been performed, and a comparison to the boilerplate data is made. Areas for further development are also noted.

  15. Potentiometric determination of potassium cations using a nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate-modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, R J; Barbeira, P J; Sene, A F; Stradiotto, N R

    1999-06-14

    Electroactive nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) thin film modified electrodes are effective potentiometric sensors for the determination of potassium ions. The NiHCF films are deposited onto glassy carbon electrodes by repetitive potential cycling in K(3)Fe(CN)(6)/NaNO(3)/Ni(NO(3))(2) solution. The modified electrodes exhibit a linear response to potassium ions in the concentration range 1x10(-3) to 2.0 mol dm(-3), with a near-Nernstian slope (45-49 mV per decade) at 25 degrees C. In the determination of potassium ion in syrups used for treatment of potassium deficiency, the NiHCF-modified electrode gave comparable results to those obtained using flame emission spectrophotometry. PMID:18967597

  16. Enzyme-free ethanol sensor based on electrospun nickel nanoparticle-loaded carbon fiber paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Qiaohui; Hou, Haoqing; You, Tianyan

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a novel nickel nanoparticle-loaded carbon fiber paste (NiCFP) electrode for enzyme-free determination of ethanol. An electrospinning technique was used to prepare the NiCF composite with large amounts of spherical nanoparticles firmly embedded in carbon fibers (CF). In application to electroanalysis of ethanol, the NiCFP electrode exhibited high amperometric response and good operational stability. The calibration curve was linear up to 87.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.25 mM, which is superior to that obtained with other transition metal based electrodes. For detection of ethanol present in liquor samples, the values obtained with the NiCFP electrode were in agreement with the ones declared on the label. The attractive analytical performance and simple preparation method make this novel material promising for the development of effective enzyme-free sensors.

  17. Graphene-passivated nickel as an oxidation-resistant electrode for spintronics.

    PubMed

    Dlubak, Bruno; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Weatherup, Robert S; Yang, Heejun; Deranlot, Cyrile; Blume, Raoul; Schloegl, Robert; Fert, Albert; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Hofmann, Stephan; Seneor, Pierre; Robertson, John

    2012-12-21

    We report on graphene-passivated ferromagnetic electrodes (GPFE) for spin devices. GPFE are shown to act as spin-polarized oxidation-resistant electrodes. The direct coating of nickel with few layer graphene through a readily scalable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process allows the preservation of an unoxidized nickel surface upon air exposure. Fabrication and measurement of complete reference tunneling spin valve structures demonstrate that the GPFE is maintained as a spin polarizer and also that the presence of the graphene coating leads to a specific sign reversal of the magneto-resistance. Hence, this work highlights a novel oxidation-resistant spin source which further unlocks low cost wet chemistry processes for spintronics devices.

  18. Reliability of Nickel Inner Electrode Lead-Free Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kawada, Shinichiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Nakai, Yoshihiro; Tabata, Toyokazu; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Nada, Kazushige; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The environmental reliability of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3-based multilayer ceramics with nickel inner electrodes was studied. The multilayer specimen with good piezoelectric properties was successfully obtained by adding excess zirconium to a (K,Na)NbO3-based composition. Excess zirconium probably accelerated the solid solution of potassium into the crystal lattice and prevented potassium evaporation. The electric resistivity and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were extremely stable at a high temperature (85 °C), a low temperature (-40 °C), and a high humidity [85 °C/85% relative humidity (RH)]. Their change rates were below 10% in 500 h studies. The stability was also high in the thermal shock (from -40 to 85 °C) test. It is thus concluded that the (K,Na)NbO3-based composition containing excess zirconium is a good candidate material for nickel electrode multilayer ceramics.

  19. Screenable all-metal solar cell electrodes of nickel and copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    Screenable thick film solar cell electrodes are made using the all-metal electrode system, which eliminates the commonly used glass frit and substitutes an oxide scavenger such as silver fluoride. The low temperature firing copper metal systems give good results on solar cells obtaining cell efficiencies of 13% AM1, and adhering sintered structures are demonstrated with nickel systems. The potential effect of copper upon cell performance at elevated temperatures over long periods of time is determined, and it is found that the formation of a copper-silicon eutectic at 550 C produces needle-like structures with broad bases on the silicon, extending into and occasionally through the metallization layer.

  20. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  1. A study of the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxide electrodes with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Ke, Jia-Jun; Yu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Deng-Jun

    Nickel composite electrodes (NCE) with various additives are prepared by a chemical impregnation method from nitrate solutions on sintered porous plaques. The electrochemical properties, such as utilization of active material, swelling and the discharge potential of the nickel oxide electrode (NOE) are determined mainly through the composition of the active material and the characteristics of nickel plaques. Most additives (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Co, Li and Al hydroxide) exert effects on the discharge potential and swelling of the NOE. Chemical co-precipitation with the addition of calcium, zinc, magnesium and barium hydroxide increases the discharge potential by more than 20 mV, but that with zinc hydroxide results in an obvious decrease of active-material utilization and that with calcium and magnesium hydroxide produces a larger increase of electrode thickness. The effects of anion additives are also examined. Less than 1% mol of NiS in the active material increases the discharge potential. Cadmium, cobalt and zinc hydroxide are excellent additives for preventing swelling of the NCE. Slow voltammetry (0.2 mV s -1) in 6 M KOH is applied to characterize the oxygen-evolving potential of the NCE. The difference between the oxygen-evolution potential and the potential of the oxidation peak for the NCE with additives of calcium, lithium, barium and aluminium hydroxide is at least + 60 mV.

  2. Enhanced performance of layered titanate nanowire-based supercapacitor electrodes by nickel ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijia; Liu, Xiaojun; Sang, Yuanhua; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Hong; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-03-26

    Titania nanostructured materials have been used extensively for the fabrication of electrochemical capacitors. However, the devices typically exhibit relatively low capacitance and poor cycling stability. Herein, we report the synthesis of a core-shell heterostructure based on layered titanate nanowires coated with nickel hydroxide nanosheets on a titanium mesh, referred to as K2Ti4O9@Ni(OH)2/Ti, by a simple nickel ion exchange reaction. The incorporation of nickel into the titanate nanowires is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements and elemental mapping. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic measurements show the formation of a highly porous network of the hybrid nanowires. Electrochemical studies show that the K2Ti4O9@Ni(OH)2/Ti electrodes possess a high specific capacitance of 340 mF/cm(2) at 50 mV/s in an aqueous electrolyte of 3 M KOH and 3 mF/cm(2) at 0.04 mA/cm(2) in the KOH/PVA solid-state electrolyte, with an excellent retention rate of 92.5% after 2000 cycles and 92.7% after 10 000 cycles, respectively. Such a performance is a few tens of times better than that of the unmodified K2Ti4O9/Ti electrode. The enhanced capability of the chemically modified titanate electrodes may open up new opportunities in the development of low-cost, high-performance, and flexible supercapacitors.

  3. Electroanalysis of tetracycline using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Treetepvijit, Surudee; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Chailapakult, Orawon

    2005-05-01

    The electrochemical analysis of tetracycline was investigated using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with a flow injection system. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. Comparison experiments were carried out using as-deposited boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD). Nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (Ni-DIA) provided well-resolved oxidation irreversible cyclic voltammograms. The current signals were higher than those obtained using the as-deposited BDD electrode. Results using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode in flow injection system coupled with amperometric detection are presented. The optimum potential for tetracycline was 1.55 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear range of 1.0 to 100 microM and the detection limit of 10 nM were obtained. In addition, the application for drug formulation was also investigated.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical performance of pasted β-nickel hydroxide electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shruthi, B.; Bheema Raju, V.; Madhu, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    β-Nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH)2) was successfully synthesized using precipitation method. The structure and property of the β-Ni(OH)2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR), Raman spectra and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results of the FTIR spectroscopy and TG-DTA studies indicate that the β-Ni(OH)2 contains water molecules and anions. The microstructural and composition studies have been performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. A pasted-type electrode is prepared using β-Ni(OH)2 powder as the active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were performed to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the β-Ni(OH)2 electrode in 6 M KOH electrolyte. CV curves showed a pair of strong redox peaks as a result of the Faradaic redox reactions of β-Ni(OH)2. The proton diffusion coefficient (D) for the present β-Ni(OH)2 electrode material is found to be 1.44 × 10-12 cm2 s-1. Further, electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the β-Ni(OH)2 electrode reaction processes are diffusion controlled.

  5. Flexible, silver nanowire network nickel hydroxide core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Kalay, Yunus Eren; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel one-dimensional coaxial architecture composed of silver nanowire (Ag NW) network core and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) shell for the realization of coaxial nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitors. Ag NWs are formed conductive networks via spray coating onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and Ni(OH)2 is gradually electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to fabricate core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors. Synergy of highly conductive Ag NWs and high capacitive Ni(OH)2 facilitate ion and electron transport, enhance electrochemical properties and result in a specific capacitance of 1165.2 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1. After 3000 cycles, fabricated nanocomposite electrodes show 93% capacity retention. The rational design explored in this study points out the potential of nanowire based coaxial energy storage devices.

  6. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency. PMID:22519122

  7. Electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode for optimum electrochemical recovery of nickel from plating rinsing effluents.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Tapia, J R; Vazquez-Arenas, J; González, I

    2013-11-15

    This study is devoted to analyze the metallic electrochemical recovery of nickel from synthetic solutions simulating plating rinsing discharges, in order to meet the water recycling policies implemented in these industries. These effluents present dilute Ni(II) concentrations (100 and 200 ppm) in chloride and sulfate media without supporting electrolyte (397-4202 μS cm(-1)), which stems poor current distribution, limited mass transfer, ohmic drops and enhancement of parasitic reactions. An electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) and a pH controller were utilized to overcome these problems. The pH control around 4 was crucial to yield high purity nickel, and thus prevent the precipitation of hydroxides and oxides. Macroelectrolysis experiments were systematically conducted to analyze the impacts of the applied current density in the recovery efficiency and energy consumption, particularly for very diluted effluents (100 and 200 ppm Ni(II)), which present major recovery problems. Promising nickel recoveries in the order of 90% were found in the former baths using a current density of -3.08 mA cm(-2), and with overall profits of 9.64 and 14.69 USD kg(-1), respectively. These estimations were based on the international market price for nickel ($18 USD kg(-1)).

  8. Electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode for optimum electrochemical recovery of nickel from plating rinsing effluents.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Tapia, J R; Vazquez-Arenas, J; González, I

    2013-11-15

    This study is devoted to analyze the metallic electrochemical recovery of nickel from synthetic solutions simulating plating rinsing discharges, in order to meet the water recycling policies implemented in these industries. These effluents present dilute Ni(II) concentrations (100 and 200 ppm) in chloride and sulfate media without supporting electrolyte (397-4202 μS cm(-1)), which stems poor current distribution, limited mass transfer, ohmic drops and enhancement of parasitic reactions. An electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) and a pH controller were utilized to overcome these problems. The pH control around 4 was crucial to yield high purity nickel, and thus prevent the precipitation of hydroxides and oxides. Macroelectrolysis experiments were systematically conducted to analyze the impacts of the applied current density in the recovery efficiency and energy consumption, particularly for very diluted effluents (100 and 200 ppm Ni(II)), which present major recovery problems. Promising nickel recoveries in the order of 90% were found in the former baths using a current density of -3.08 mA cm(-2), and with overall profits of 9.64 and 14.69 USD kg(-1), respectively. These estimations were based on the international market price for nickel ($18 USD kg(-1)). PMID:24121642

  9. Effect of zinc and iron ions on the electrochemistry of nickel oxide electrode: Slow cyclic voltammetry. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Krejci, I.; Vanysek, P.

    1993-04-07

    Porous sintered nickel oxide electrodes were prepared by cathodic electroprecipitation from metal nitrate solutions and characterized by slow (0.1 mV/s) voltammetry in 6 mol/l KOH. Presence of iron or zinc ions resulted in decrease of electrode charging ability and similar changes in voltammograms were observed for both ions. Removal of iron or zinc ions and introduction of lithium ions partially restored the electrode and corresponding voltammogram to original conditions. Presence of cobalt in the electrode material diminished substantially the influence of zinc ions on the electrode properties.... Storage batteries, Power sources, Membrane transport, Ion transport, Nafion.

  10. Nickel foam-based manganese dioxide-carbon nanotube composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 2-4 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of slurries of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into porous nickel foam current collectors. In the composite electrodes, MWCNT formed a secondary conductivity network within the nickel foam cells. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 0-20 wt.% MWCNT with total mass loading of 40 mg cm -2, showed a capacitive behavior in the 0.1-0.5 M Na 2SO 4 solutions. The highest specific capacitance (SC) of 155 F g -1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s -1 in the 0.5 M Na 2SO 4 solutions. The SC increased with increasing MWCNT content in the composite materials and increasing Na 2SO 4 concentration in the solutions and decreased with increasing scan rate.

  11. Reactively sputtered nickel nitride as electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo Kang, Jin; Park, Min-Ah; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ha Park, Sun; Young Chung, Dong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin; Park, Jongwoo; Choi, Jung-Woo; Jae Lee, Kyung; Jeong, Juwon; Jae Ko, Min; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-01

    Nickel nitride electrodes were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel under a N2 atmosphere at room temperature for application in mesoscopic dye- or quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. This facile and reliable method led to the formation of a Ni2N film with a cauliflower-like nanostructure and tetrahedral crystal lattice. The prepared nickel nitride electrodes exhibited an excellent chemical stability toward both iodide and polysulfide redox electrolytes. Compared to conventional Pt electrodes, the nickel nitride electrodes showed an inferior electrocatalytic activity for the iodide redox electrolyte; however, it displayed a considerably superior electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox electrolyte. As a result, compared to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with a conversion efficiency (η) = 7.62%, and CdSe-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, η = 2.01%) employing Pt counter electrodes (CEs), the nickel nitride CEs exhibited a lower conversion efficiency (η = 3.75%) when applied to DSCs, but an enhanced conversion efficiency (η = 2.80%) when applied to CdSe-based QDSCs.

  12. Electrochemical properties of monolithic nickel sulfide electrodes for use in sodium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Dae-Yeon; Park, Jinsoo; Noh, Pan-Jin; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Nam, Tae-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Ki-Won

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We succeeded in preparing monolithic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} integrated electrode through the sulfuration. • The sulfuration is a facile and useful method to synthesize metal sulfides with nanostructure. • As-prepared monolithic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes showed very stable and cycle performance over charge/discharge cycling. - Abstract: Monolithic nickel sulfide electrodes were prepared using a facile synthesis method, sulfuration and annealing. As-prepared Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal stability was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Electrochemical properties were measured by galvanostatic charge and discharge cycling for Na-ion batteries. Three kinds of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes were prepared by varying the sulfuration time (5, 15 and 25 min). The electrochemical results indicated that the capacities increased with an increase in sulfuration time and the cycle performance was stable as a result of monolithic integration of nanostructured Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} on Ni plates, leading to low interfacial resistance.

  13. Three-dimensional nickel foam/graphene/NiCo2O4 as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Hoa; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A facile and efficient two-step method for the decoration of graphene sheets and nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles on conducting nickel foam was developed. First, graphene and a bimetallic (Ni, Co) hydroxide precursor were deposited on a Ni foam support by electrodeposition followed by a thermal transformation of the bimetallic hydroxide to NiCo2O4. The graphene layer with a thickness of a few nanometers was decorated with NiCo2O4 nanoparticles, ranging in size from 3 to 5 nm. The nickel foam electrode supported graphene and NiCo2O4 exhibited rapid electron and ion transport, large electroactive surface area, and excellent structural stability. The specific capacitance of the obtained electrode was as high as 1950 F g-1 at a high current density of 7.5 A g-1, suggesting its promising applications as an efficient electrode for electrochemical capacitors.

  14. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  15. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g‑1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  16. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  17. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g−1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  18. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-06-07

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  19. Nickel incorporated carbon nanotube/nanofiber composites as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash; Zhou, Zhengping; Poudel, Prashant; Thapa, Amit; Wu, Xiang-Fa; Qiao, Qiquan

    2012-08-01

    A nickel incorporated carbon nanotube/nanofiber composite (Ni-CNT-CNF) was used as a low cost alternative to Pt as counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Measurements based on energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) showed that the majority of the composite CE was carbon at 88.49 wt%, while the amount of Ni nanoparticles was about 11.51 wt%. Measurements based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the Ni-CNT-CNF composite electrode was 0.71 Ω cm2, much lower than that of the Pt electrode (1.81 Ω cm2). Such a low value of Rct indicated that the Ni-CNT-CNF composite carried a higher catalytic activity than the traditional Pt CE. By mixing with CNTs and Ni nanoparticles, series resistance (Rs) of the Ni-CNT-CNF electrode was measured as 5.96 Ω cm2, which was close to the Rs of 5.77 Ω cm2 of the Pt electrode, despite the significant difference in their thicknesses: ~22 μm for Ni-CNT-CNF composite, while ~40 nm for Pt film. This indicated that use of a thick layer (tens of microns) of Ni-CNT-CNF counter electrode does not add a significant amount of resistance to the total series resistance (Rs-tot) in DSCs. The DSCs based on the Ni-CNT-CNF composite CEs yielded an efficiency of 7.96% with a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 15.83 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.63, which was comparable to the device based on Pt, that exhibited an efficiency of 8.32% with Jsc of 15.01 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.83, and FF of 0.67.

  20. Evaluations of solid electrodes for use in voltammetric monitoring of heavy metals in samples from metallurgical nickel industry.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Øyvind; Skogvold, Silje Marie; Schrøder, Knut H; Gjerde, Magne Ivar; Aarhaug, Thor Anders

    2003-09-01

    Evaluation of different solid electrode systems for detection of zinc, lead, cobalt, and nickel in process water from metallurgical nickel industry with use of differential pulse stripping voltammetry has been performed. Zinc was detected by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) on a dental amalgam electrode as intermetallic Ni-Zn compound after dilution in ammonium buffer solution. The intermetallic compound was observed at -375 mV, and a linear response was found in the range 0.2-1.2 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.98) for 60 s deposition time. Simultaneous detection of nickel and cobalt in the low microg L(-1) range was successfully performed by use of adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) of dimethylglyoxime complexes on a silver-bismuth alloy electrode, and a good correlation was found with corresponding AAS results (r(2)=0.999 for nickel and 0.965 for cobalt). Analyses of lead in the microg L(-1) range in nickel-plating solution were performed with good sensitivity and stability by DPASV, using a working electrode of silver together with a glassy carbon counter electrode in samples diluted 1:3 with distilled water and acidified with H(2)SO(4) to pH 2. A new commercial automatic at-line system was tested, and the results were found to be in agreement with an older mercury drop system. The stability of the solid electrode systems was found to be from one to several days without any maintenance needed. PMID:12898113

  1. Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromatteo, E.

    1986-10-01

    Nickel was first isolated in impure form in 1751 by Cronstedt from an ore containing niccolite (NiAs). An ore of this type had earlier caused trouble in the smelting of copper and silver in Saxony, yielding an unusually brittle product. This interfering substance was referred to as kupfernick after Old Nick and his mischievous gnomes and Cronstedt applied the name nickel to this new element. The pure metal was first prepared by Richter in 1804 and he described some of the useful properties of nickel. This paper discusses the properties, sources, and toxicity of nickel.

  2. Nickel-Tin Electrode Materials for Nonaqueous Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Grant M.; Durand, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Experimental materials made from mixtures of nickel and tin powders have shown promise for use as the negative electrodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical power cells. During charging (or discharging) of a lithium-ion cell, lithium ions are absorbed into (or desorbed from, respectively) the negative electrode, typically through an intercalation or alloying process. The negative electrodes (for this purpose, designated as anodes) in state-of-the-art Li-ion cells are made of graphite, in which intercalation occurs. Alternatively, the anodes can be made from metals, in which alloying can occur. For reasons having to do with the electrochemical potential of intercalated lithium, metallic anode materials (especially materials containing tin) are regarded as safer than graphite ones; in addition, such metallic anode materials have been investigated in the hope of obtaining reversible charge/discharge capacities greater than those of graphite anodes. However, until now, each of the tin-containing metallic anode formulations tested has been found to be inadequate in some respect.

  3. Nickel Nanofoam/Different Phases of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrodes for Superior Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsuk; Song, Haeni; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Choi, Soo Hyung; Jang, Jong Hyun; Char, Kookheon; Son, Jeong Gon

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have received considerable attention due to their high power density and potential for obtaining improved energy density in comparison to the lithium ion battery. Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising candidate for use as an EDLC electrode because it has a high specific surface area (SSA), providing a wider charge storage space and size-controllable mesopore structure with a long-range order, suppling high accessibility to the electrolyte ions. However, OMCs fabricated using conventional methods have several drawbacks including low electronic conductivity and long ionic diffusion paths in mesopores. We used nickel nanofoam, which has a relatively small pore (sub-100 nm to subμm) network structure, as a current collector. This provides a significantly shortened electronic/ionic current paths and plentiful surface area, enabling stable and close attachment of OMCs without the use of binders. Thus, we present hierarchical binder-free electrode structures based on OMC/Ni nanofoams. These structures give rise to enhanced specific capacitance and a superior rate capability. We also investigated the mesopore structural effect of OMCs on electrolyte transport by comparing the capacitive performances of collapsed lamellar, cylindrical, and spherical mesopore electrodes. The highly ordered and straightly aligned cylindrical OMCs exhibited the highest specific capacitance and the best rate capability. PMID:27490161

  4. Electrochemical glucose biosensor based on nickel oxide nanoparticle-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ceren; Zeybek, Derya Koyuncu; Aydoğdu, Gözde; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Sule; Kılıç, Esma

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, we designed an amperometric glucose biosensor based on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs)-modified carbon paste electrode. The biosensor was prepared by incorporation of glucose oxidase and NiONPs into a carbon paste matrix. It showed good analytical performances such as high sensitivity (367 μA mmolL(-1)) and a wide linear response from 1.9×10(-3) mmolL(-1) to 15.0 mmolL(-1) with a limit of detection (0.11 μmolL(-1)). The biosensor was used for the determination of glucose in human serum samples. The results illustrate that NiONPs have enormous potential in the construction of biosensor for determination of glucose.

  5. A nonstoichiometric structural model to characterize changes in the nickel hydroxide electrode during cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Venkat; Bahne, C. Cornilsen; Weidner, John W.

    2003-09-15

    Experimental capacities and mass changes are recorded using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance during the first 9 charge and discharge cycles of nickel hydroxide thin films cycled in 3.0 weight percent (wt%) potassium hydroxide electrolyte. For the first time, the film capacities have been corrected for the oxygen evolution side reaction, and the data used as input into the point defect-containing structural model to track the changes that occur during short-term cycling. Variations in capacity and mass during formation and charge/discharge cycling are related to changes in the point defect parameters, thus providing a structural origin for the unique experimental variations observed here and often reported in the literature, but previously unexplained. Proton-, potassium-, and water-content vary in the active material during charge/discharge cycling. The observed capacity loss, or ''capacity fade'', is explained by incomplete incorporation of potassium ions in (or near) the nickel vacancy during charge, as additional protons are then allowed to occupy the vacant lattice site. The increase in water content during reduction parallels the expansion of the electrode that is well known during cycling. This result confirms the origin of the swelling phenomenon as being caused by water incorporation. The model and methodology developed in this paper can be used to correlate electrochemical signatures with material chemical structure.

  6. Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle electrodes for aqueous sodium and potassium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wessells, Colin D; Peddada, Sandeep V; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology. (1, 2) Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid.

  7. Nickel hydroxide deposited indium tin oxide electrodes as electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of carbohydrates in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Farzana, S.; Berchmans, Sheela

    In this work, the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates using nickel hydroxide modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in alkaline medium is demonstrated; suggesting the feasibility of using carbohydrates as a novel fuel in alkaline fuel cells applications. The chosen monosaccharides are namely glucose and fructose; disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose; and sugar acid like ascorbic acid for this study. ITO electrodes are chemically modified using a hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase template electrodeposition of nickel. Structural morphology, growth, orientation and electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposits are characterized using SEM, XRD, XPS and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Further electrochemical potential cycling process in alkaline medium is employed to convert these Ni deposits into corresponding nickel hydroxide modified electrodes. These electrodes are used as novel platform to perform the electrocatalytic oxidation of various carbohydrates in alkaline medium. It was found that bare and Ni coated ITO electrodes are inactive towards carbohydrates oxidation. The heterogeneous rate constant values are determined and calculated to be two orders of magnitude higher in the case of template method when compared to non-template technique. The observed effect is attributed to the synergistic effect of higher surface area of these deposits and catalytic ability of Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple.

  8. Migration of Co in nickel oxide/hydroxide of a nickel electrode in a Ni/H2 cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Doty, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Cobalt redistribution in nickel active material has been reported. This redistribution was suspected to be related to capacity fading. The objective of this work is to establish a relationship between cobalt redistribution and capacity fading. Microscopic cobalt distribution in nickel active material was studied using three EDX techniques: line scan, point-by-point analysis, and dot maps. Results from this study are presented.

  9. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh; Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-01

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  10. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  11. Electrodeposition of hierarchically structured three-dimensional nickel-iron electrodes for efficient oxygen evolution at high current densities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2015-03-17

    Large-scale industrial application of electrolytic splitting of water has called for the development of oxygen evolution electrodes that are inexpensive, robust and can deliver large current density (>500 mA cm(-2)) at low applied potentials. Here we show that an efficient oxygen electrode can be developed by electrodepositing amorphous mesoporous nickel-iron composite nanosheets directly onto macroporous nickel foam substrates. The as-prepared oxygen electrode exhibits high catalytic activity towards water oxidation in alkaline solutions, which only requires an overpotential of 200 mV to initiate the reaction, and is capable of delivering current densities of 500 and 1,000 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 240 and 270 mV, respectively. The electrode also shows prolonged stability against bulk water electrolysis at large current. Collectively, the as-prepared three-dimensional structured electrode is the most efficient oxygen evolution electrode in alkaline electrolytes reported to the best of our knowledge, and can potentially be applied for industrial scale water electrolysis.

  12. Flower-like nickel cobalt sulfide microspheres modified with nickel sulfide as Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jinghao; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Tu, Yongguang; Lan, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    The nickel cobalt sulfide/nickel sulfide (NiCo2S4/NiS) microspheres which exhibit flower-like morphologies are synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method. Then the NiCo2S4/NiS microspheres are deposited on a fluorine doped SnO2 substrate by spin-casting the isopropyl alcohol solution of as-prepared microspheres. The cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel tests are employed to measure the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4/NiS counter electrode. The NiCo2S4 and NiS all are used to improve the conductivity and electrocatalytic ability of the films, and the NiS can also increase the specific surface area of microspheres. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the NiCo2S4/NiS counter electrode exhibite a power conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which is higher than that of DSSC with Pt counter electrode (8.1%) under the light intensity of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5 G).

  13. Nickel hydroxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrodes: crystallinity dependent performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhai, Shengli; Wei, Li; Yuan, Yang; Yu, Dingshan; Wang, Liang; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) is a promising pseudocapacitive material to increase the energy storage capacity of supercapacitors. Ni(OH)2 has three common crystalline structures: amorphous (amor-), α-, and β-Ni(OH)2. There is a lack of good understanding on their pros and cons as supercapacitor electrodes. In this work, we synthesized three nanocomposites with thin layers (10-15 nm) of amor-, α-, and β-Ni(OH)2 deposited on conductive multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The mass loading of Ni(OH)2 is analogous in these nanocomposites, ranging from 49.1-52.2 wt% with a comparable narrow-pore size distribution centered around 4-5 nm. They were fabricated into supercapacitor electrodes at a mass loading of 6 mg cm-2 with a thickness of ˜250 μm, similar to the electrodes used in commercial supercapacitors. Our results show that MWCNT/amor-Ni(OH)2 has the highest specific capacitance (1495 or 2984 F g-1, based on the mass of total active materials or Ni(OH)2 only at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte). It also has the best rate capability among the three nanocomposites. Better performances can be attributed to its disordered structure, which increases its effective surface area and reduces diffusion resistance for redox reactions. However, superior performances gradually deteriorate to the same level as that of MWCNT/β-Ni(OH)2 over 3000 charge/discharge cycles, because amor- and α-Ni(OH)2 transform slowly to more ordered β-Ni(OH)2. Our results highlight that the electrochemical performances of MWCNT/Ni(OH)2 nanocomposites depend on the crystallinity of Ni(OH)2, and the performances of electrodes change upon the crystalline structure transformation of Ni(OH)2 under repeated redox reactions. Future research should focus on improving the structure stability of amor-Ni(OH)2.

  14. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M. João; Silva, Teresa M.; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  15. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited nickel sulphide film and its application as a potential counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jaymin; Patel, Mitesh; Ghediya, Prashant; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2016-07-01

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) film has emerged as a counter electrode in many applications, such as thin film batteries, dye sensitized solar cells, and supercapacitors. In this regard, we report the direct liquid coating of pure hexagonal NiS films on glass using a precursor solution of nickel-thiourea complex. A uniform and void free film is observed using scanning electron microscopy. The room temperature electrical conductivity of ˜5 × 103 S cm-1 and the positive thermoelectric power (+6 μV K-1) specify p-type conduction. The temperature variation conductivity in the range 77-300 K depicts the transition of NiS films from conducting to semi-conducting behaviour at certain transition temperatures. Preliminary results from a cyclic voltammetry study shows the feasibility of NiS films as counter electrodes.

  16. Electrodeposition of palladium and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites on foam-nickel electrode for electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Lan; Shan, Jun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-06-15

    A high-performance palladium (Pd) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite electrode was prepared on foam-nickel (foam-Ni) via two-step electrodeposition processes. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that the obtained Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode displayed a uniform and compact morphology. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirmed the successful deposition of Pd and RGO on nickel substrate. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements indicated that the presence of RGO greatly enhanced the active surface area of Pd particles deposited on foam-Ni. The as-deposited Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was applied to electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination (ECH) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). Various factors influencing the dechlorination of 4-CP such as dechlorination current, initial concentration of 4-CP, Na2SO4 concentration and initial pH were systematically investigated. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the dechlorination reaction of 4-CP at different temperatures followed the first-order kinetics and the activation energy for 4-CP dechlorination on Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was calculated to be 51.96 kJ mol(-1). Under the optimum conditions, the dechlorination efficiency of 4-CP could reach 100% after 60-min ECH treatment. Moreover, the prepared Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode showed good stability for recycling utilization in ECH of 4-CP.

  17. Electrodeposition of palladium and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites on foam-nickel electrode for electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Lan; Shan, Jun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-06-15

    A high-performance palladium (Pd) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite electrode was prepared on foam-nickel (foam-Ni) via two-step electrodeposition processes. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that the obtained Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode displayed a uniform and compact morphology. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirmed the successful deposition of Pd and RGO on nickel substrate. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements indicated that the presence of RGO greatly enhanced the active surface area of Pd particles deposited on foam-Ni. The as-deposited Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was applied to electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination (ECH) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). Various factors influencing the dechlorination of 4-CP such as dechlorination current, initial concentration of 4-CP, Na2SO4 concentration and initial pH were systematically investigated. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the dechlorination reaction of 4-CP at different temperatures followed the first-order kinetics and the activation energy for 4-CP dechlorination on Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was calculated to be 51.96 kJ mol(-1). Under the optimum conditions, the dechlorination efficiency of 4-CP could reach 100% after 60-min ECH treatment. Moreover, the prepared Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode showed good stability for recycling utilization in ECH of 4-CP. PMID:25731146

  18. Nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  19. Functional porous carbon/nickel oxide nanocomposites as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2015-05-26

    High-surface-area, guava-leaf-derived, heteroatom-containing activated carbon (GHAC) materials were synthesized by means of a facile chemical activation method with KOH as activating agent and exploited as catalyst supports to disperse nickel oxide (NiO) nanocrystals (average size (2.0±0.1) nm) through a hydrothermal process. The textural and structural properties of these GHAC/NiO nanocomposites were characterized by various physicochemical techniques, namely, field-emission SEM, high-resolution TEM, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized GHAC/NiO nanocomposites were employed as binder-free electrodes, which exhibited high specific capacitance (up to 461 F g(-1) at a current density of 2.3 A g(-1)) and remarkable cycling stability, which may be attributed to the unique properties of GHAC and excellent electrochemical activity of the highly dispersed NiO nanocrystals. PMID:25882793

  20. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  1. Characterization of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell as a power generator based on a nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Mardanpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) using nickel as a novel alternative for conventional electrodes and a non-phatogenic strain of Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The feasibility of a microfluidic MFC as an efficient power generator for production of bioelectricity from glucose and urea as organic substrates in human blood and urine for implantable medical devices (IMDs) was investigated. A maximum open circuit potential of 459 mV was achieved for the batch-fed microfluidic MFC. During continuous mode operation, a maximum power density of 104 Wm(-3) was obtained with nutrient broth. For the glucose-fed microfluidic MFC, the maximum power density of 5.2 μW cm(-2) obtained in this study is significantly greater than the power densities reported previously for microsized MFCs and glucose fuel cells. The maximum power density of 14 Wm(-3) obtained using urea indicates the successful performance of a microfluidic MFC using human excreta. It features high power density, self-regeneration, waste management and a low production cost (<$1), which suggest it as a promising alternative to conventional power supplies for IMDs. The performance of the microfluidic MFC as a power supply was characterized based on polarization behavior and cell potential in different substrates, operational modes, and concentrations.

  2. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample.

  3. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability. PMID:26720271

  4. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability.

  5. Impedance studies of nickel/cadmium and nickel/hydrogen cells using the cell case as a reference electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    Impedance measurements have been made on several Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 flight-weight cells using the case as a reference electrode. For these measurements, the voltage of the case with respect to the anode or cathode is unimportant provided that it remains stable during the measurement of the impedance. In the cells measured so far, the voltage of the cell cases with respect to the individual electrodes differ from cell to cell, even at the same overall cell voltage, but they remain stable with time. The measurements can thus be used to separate the cell impedance into the contributions of each electrode, allowing improved diagnosis of cell problems.

  6. Adhesion of Germanium Electrode on Nickel Substrate for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaranjan, Aadithya

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have gained increasing popularity due to their high potential, low self-discharge, zero priming and minimal memory effect. However, the emergence of electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles in the automobile industry, where LIBs are predominantly in use, instilled a need to improve LIB batteries by experimenting with new materials. Graphite, the commonly used anode material for LIBs suffers from low theoretical capacity (372 mA h g-1) and torpid rate performance. Germanium (Ge) seems to be a promising substitute of carbon due to its high theoretical capacity, high Li+ diffusivity and electrical conductivity. However, Ge undergoes large volumetric change (+/-370%). This causes deboning of the thin film Ge electrode from the substrate current collector, causing a rapid decrease in the electrolytic performance. The process of ion beam mixing claims to have overcome this problem. In our current study, the adhesion strength of Ge thin film over Nickel (Ni) substrate (with and without ion beam mixing) is being measured using nanoindentation and the superlayer indentation test. Nanoindentation is one of the popular techniques to measure the mechanical properties and adhesion of thin film coatings. In this technique, a very small indenter of a desired geometry indents the film/substrate pair and the work of adhesion is calculated by knowing the plastic depth of indentation and the radius of indentation. Superlayer indentation is analogous to normal indentation but with a highly stressed superlayer on top to restrict the out-of-plane displacements, it reduces the plastic pile up around the indenter tip. The results from our study strongly suggest the possibility of dramatically increasing the adhesion strength by ion bombardment, which can be achieved by atomic level intermixing of the film/substrate pair. These, in turn, suggest that Ge could be an effective successor to graphite in the near future.

  7. Highly sensitive sensor for picomolar detection of insulin at physiological pH, using GC electrode modified with guanine and electrodeposited nickel oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Abdollah; Noorbakhash, Abdollah; Sharifi, Ensieh; Semnani, Abolfazl

    2008-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of insulin at glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and guanine was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry technique has been used for electrodeposition of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiOx) and immobilization of guanine on the surface GC electrode. In comparison to glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and bare GC electrode modified with adsorbed guanine, the guanine/nickel oxide nanoparticles/modified GC electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of insulin in physiological pH solutions at reduced overpotential. The modified electrode was applied for insulin detection using cyclic voltammetry or hydrodynamic amperometry techniques. It was found that the calibration curve was linear up to 4muM with a detection limit of 22pM and sensitivity of 100.9pA/pM under the optimized condition for hydrodynamic amperometry using a rotating disk modified electrode. In comparison to other electrochemical insulin sensors, this sensor shows many advantages such as simple preparation method without using any special electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity at physiological pH values, short response time, long-term stability and remarkable antifouling property toward insulin and its oxidation product. Additionally, it is promising for the monitoring of insulin in chromatographic effluents.

  8. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-01-01

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0-1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0-10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor. PMID:26690438

  9. Nickel (II) incorporated AlPO-5 modified carbon paste electrode for determination of thioridazine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mandana; Sohrabnezhad, Shabnam; Rahimi, Azad

    2014-04-01

    In this approach, synthesis of nickel (II) incorporated aluminophosphate (NiAlPO-5) was performed by using hydrothermal method. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were applied in order to characterize synthesized compounds. The NiAlPO-5 was used as a modifier in carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of thioridazine which is an antidepressant drug. This research is the first example of an aluminophosphate being employed in electroanalysis. The effective catalytic role of the modified electrode toward thioridazine oxidation can be attributed to the electrocatalytic activity of nickel (II) in the aluminaphosphate matrix. In addition, NiAlPO-5 has unique properties such as the high specific surface area which increases the electron transfer of thioridazine. The effects of varying the percentage of modifier, pH and potential sweep rate on the electrode response were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for quantitative determination as a sensitive method. A dynamic linear range was obtained in the range of 1.0×10(-7)-1.0×10(-5)mol L(-1). The determination of thioridazine in real samples such as commercial tablets and human serum was demonstrated.

  10. Design of a neutral three-dimensional electro-Fenton system with foam nickel as particle electrodes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel three-dimensional electro-Fenton system (3D-E-Fenton) for wastewater treatment with foam nickel, activated carbon fiber and Ti/RuO(2)-IrO(2) as the particle electrodes, the cathode, and the anode respectively. This 3D-E-Fenton system could exhibit much higher rhodamine B removal efficiency (99%) than the counterpart three-dimensional electrochemical system (33%) and E-Fenton system (19%) at neutral pH in 30 min. The degradation efficiency enhancement was attributed to much more hydroxyl radicals generated in the 3D-E-Fenton system because foam nickel particle electrodes could activate molecular oxygen to produce O(2)(-) via a single-electron transfer pathway to subsequently generate more H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radicals. This is the first observation of molecular oxygen activation over the particle electrodes in the three-dimensional electrochemical system. These interesting findings could provide some new insight on the development of high efficient E-Fenton system for wastewater treatment at neutral pH. PMID:23141376

  11. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-01-01

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0–1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0–10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor. PMID:26690438

  12. Fabrication and characterization of protonic-ceramic fuel cells and electrolysis cells utilizing infiltrated lanthanum nickelate electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiniec, Sean M.

    High-temperature protonic ceramics (HTPCs) have gained interest as fuel cell and electrolysis cell electrolytes, as well as hydrogen separation membranes. The transport of hydrogen as opposed to oxygen results in several benefits and applications, including higher fuel efficiency, dehydrogenation of fuel streams, and hydrogen-based chemical synthesis. However, limited work has been done in the development of air/steam electrodes for these devices. This work presents the characterization of lanthanum nickelate, La 2NiO4+delta (LN), as a potential air/steam electrode material for use with BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3-delta (BCZY27) HTPC electrolytes fabricated by the solid-state reactive sintering technique. Two types of devices were made; a symmetric cell used for electrode characterization, and a full fuel cell/electrolysis cell used for device performance characterization. The symmetric cell consists of a 1 mm thick BCZY27 substrate with identical air/steam electrodes on both sides. Air/steam electrodes were made by infiltrating ˜ 50 nm lanthanum nickelate nanoparticles into a BCZY27 porous backbone. The fuel cell/electrolysis cell consists of a 1mm thick Ni/BCZY27 anode support, a 25 mum thick BCZY27 electrolyte, and a 50 mum thick porous BCZY27 backbone infiltrated with lanthanum nickelate. Through symmetric cell testing, it was found that the electrode polarization resistance decreases with increasing oxygen content, indicating good oxygen reduction reaction characteristics. A minimum polarization resistance was found as 2.58 Ohm-cm2 in 3% humidied oxygen at 700 °C. Full cell testing revealed a peak power density of 27 mW-cm-2 at 700 °C. Hydrogen flux measurements were also taken in the both galvanic/post-galvanic and electrolytic operation. Galvanic/post-galvanic fluxes exhibit a very high faradaic efficiency. However, electrolytic hydrogen fluxes were much lower than the calculated hydrogen faradaic flux, indicating a different charge carrier other than protons is

  13. Study of the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction at Raney nickel electrodes in the presence of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, A.K.; Lasia, A.; Lessard, J. . Dept. de Chimie)

    1994-04-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has been studied at Raney nickel electrodes in the absence and presence of several organic compounds. A poisoning effect of nonreducible organic substrates on the kinetics of the HER was studied. It was found that only pyridine had a strong inhibiting effect on the HER. A compound having one reducible double bond, trans-cinnamic acid, was used as a model in a study of the mechanism of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) reaction and its influence on the HER. It was established that the HER proceeds via the Volmer-Hyrovsky reaction mechanism, and the slowest step is the Heyrovsky reaction.

  14. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  15. Electrochemical Imprinted Polycrystalline Nickel-Nickel Oxide Half-Nanotube-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode for the Detection of L-Serine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Li, Hongji; Li, Mingji; Li, Cuiping; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2015-10-21

    This paper presents a novel and versatile method for the fabrication of half nanotubes (HNTs) using a flexible template-based nanofabrication method denoted as electrochemical imprinting. With use of this method, polycrystalline nickel and nickel(II) oxide (Ni-NiO) HNTs were synthesized using pulsed electrodeposition to transfer Ni, deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene template, onto a boron-doped diamond (BDD) film. The Ni-NiO HNTs exhibited semicircular profiles along their entire lengths, with outer diameters of 50-120 nm and inner diameters of 20-50 nm. The HNT walls were formed of Ni and NiO nanoparticles. A biosensor for the detection of L-serine was fabricated using a BDD electrode modified with Ni-NiO HNTs, and the device demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance with high sensitivity (0.33 μA μM(-1)) and a low limit of detection (0.1 μM). The biosensor also exhibited very good reproducibility and stability, as well as a high anti-interference ability against amino acids such as L-leucine, L-tryptophan, L-cysteine, L-phenylalanine, L-arginine, and L-lysine.

  16. Synthesis and assembly of nickel nanoparticles by electrodeposition on conductive polymer composite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinig, N. F.; Kharbanda, N.; Zhou, X. J.; Leung, K. T.

    2004-03-01

    Uniformly sized and well dispersed nickel nanoparticles have been grown on polypyrrole substrates by electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical synthesis can produce highly ordered crystallites, and is a quick and cost-effective way of producing nanostructures. Depending on growth conditions, the nickel particles ranged in size from 10 to 50 nm. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Optimum growth conditions are determined and discussed. The nickel nanoparticle growth mechanism is compared and contrasted with previous work on copper nanoparticles on polypyrrole.

  17. Real time charge efficiency monitoring for nickel electrodes in NICD and NIH2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The charge efficiency of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells is critical in spacecraft applications for determining the amount of time required for a battery to reach a full state of charge. As the nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries approach about 90 percent state of charge, the charge efficiency begins to drop towards zero, making estimation of the total amount of stored charge uncertain. Charge efficiency estimates are typically based on prior history of available capacity following standardized conditions for charge and discharge. These methods work well as long as performance does not change significantly. A relatively simple method for determining charge efficiencies during real time operation for these battery cells would be a tremendous advantage. Such a method was explored and appears to be quite well suited for application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells. The charge efficiency is monitored in real time, using only voltage measurements as inputs. With further evaluation such a method may provide a means to better manage charge control of batteries, particularly in systems where a high degree of autonomy or system intelligence is required.

  18. Effect of the bimetal ratio on the growth of nickel cobalt sulfide on the Ni foam for the battery-like electrode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Fong; Lin, Lu-Yin

    2016-11-15

    The nickel cobalt sulfide is one of the most attractive electroactive materials for battery-like electrodes with multiple oxidation states for Faradaic reactions. Novel structures of the nickel cobalt sulfide with large surface areas and high conductivities have been proposed to improve the performance of the battery-like electrodes. The hydrothermal reaction is the most common used method for synthesizing nickel cobalt sulfide nanostructures due to the simple and cost-effective features, but the precursor concentration on the morphology and the resulting electrochemical performance is barely discussed. In this study, various Ni to Co ratios are used in the hydrothermal reaction to make nickel cobalt sulfides on the nickel foam, and the Ni to Co ratio is found to play great roles on the morphology and the electrocapacitive performance for the pertinent battery-like electrodes. The sheet-like structures are successfully obtained with large surface area for charge accumulation, and the optimized sample presents the largest nanosheets among all with several wrinkles on the surface. A high specific capacity of 258.2mAh/g measured at the current density of 5A/g and a high-rate charge/discharge capacity are also attended for the optimized battery-like electrodes. The excellent cycling stability of 94.5% retention after 2000 cycles repeated charge/discharge process is also obtained for this system.

  19. Deposition of three-dimensional graphene aerogel on nickel foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shibing; Feng, Jiachun; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-08-14

    We reported a new type of graphene aerogel-nickel foam (GA@NF) hybrid material prepared through a facile two-step approach and explored its energy storage application as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode. By simple freeze-drying and the subsequent thermal annealing of graphene oxide hydrogel-NF hybrid precursor, three-dimensional graphene aerogels with high mass, hierarchical porosity, and high conductivity were deposited on a NF framework. The resulting binder-free GA@NF electrode exhibited satisfactory double-layer capacitive behavior with high rate capability, good electrochemical cyclic stability, and a high specific capacitance of 366 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 A g(-1). The versatility of this approach was further verified by the successful preparation of 3D graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogel-NF as a supercapacitor electrode, also with improved electrochemical performance. With advantageous features, such a facile and versatile fabrication technique shows great promise in the preparation of various types of carbon-metal hybrid electrodes.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of bis nitrato[4-hydroxyacetophenonesemicarbazone) nickel(II) complex as ionophore for thiocyanate-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Hooda, Sunita; Tomar, Praveen Kumar; Malik, Amrita; Kumar, Ankit; Malik, Sakshi; Gautam, Seema

    2016-05-01

    The PVC based-ion selective electrode viz., bis nitrato[4-hydroxyacetophenone semicarbazone] nickel(II) as an ionophore was prepared for the determination of thiocyanate ion. The ionophore was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD, magnetic moment and elemental analysis (CHN). On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 31% PVC, 63% 2-nitrophenyl octylether, 4.0% ionophore and 2.0% trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride. The electrode exhibited an excellent Nernstian response to SCN(-) ion ranging from 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-1)M with a detection limit of 8.6 × 10(-8)M and a slope of -59.4 ± 0.2 mV/decade over a wide pH range (1.8-10.7) with a fast response time (6s) at 25 °C. The proposed electrode showed high selectivity for thiocyanate ion over a number of common inorganic and organic anions. It was successfully applied to direct determination of thiocyanate in biological (urine and saliva) samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers, environmental samples and as an indicator electrode for titration of thiocyanate ions with AgNO3 solution. PMID:26952393

  1. Hydrothermal deposition of manganese dioxide nanosheets on electrodeposited graphene covered nickel foam as a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Ying; Yang, Sainan; Zhang, Dongming; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Jinling; Wang, Guiling; Xu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the graphene oxide nanosheets are simultaneously reduced and deposited on nickel foam (denoted as Ni-foam@GNS) by one step electrodeposition method. The interconnected crumpled graphene nanosheets grown on Ni foam serve as a three-dimensional (3D) conductive skeleton for hydrothermal deposition of MnO2 nanosheets by in-situ redox reaction. The MnO2 nanosheets anchored on the graphene covered nickel foam (denoted as Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2) show unique 3D porous interconnected networks. The samples are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The capacitive performances are researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 462 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and excellent capacitance retention of 93.1% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 electrode delivers a high energy density of 26.1 Wh kg-1 even at a high power density of 3981 W kg-1. These results demonstrate that the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 composite offers great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications.

  2. Ternary Platinum-Copper-Nickel Nanoparticles Anchored to Hierarchical Carbon Supports as Free-Standing Hydrogen Evolution Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lua, Aik Chong; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping

    2016-02-10

    Developing cost-effective and efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts for hydrogen production is of paramount importance to attain a sustainable energy future. Reported herein is a novel three-dimensional hierarchical architectured electrocatalyst, consisting of platinum-copper-nickel nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofiber arrays, which are conformally assembled on carbon felt fabrics (PtCuNi/CNF@CF) by an ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition coupled with a spontaneous galvanic replacement reaction. The free-standing PtCuNi/CNF@CF monolith exhibits high porosities, a well-defined geometry shape, outstanding electron conductivity, and a unique characteristic of localizing platinum-copper-nickel nanoparticles in the tips of carbon nanofibers. Such features render PtCuNi/CNF@CF as an ideal binder-free HER electrode for hydrogen production. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PtCuNi/CNF@CF possesses superior intrinsic activity as well as mass-specific activity in comparison with the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts, both in acidic and alkaline solutions. With well-tuned composition of active nanoparticles, Pt42Cu57Ni1/CNF@CF showed excellent durability. The synthesis strategy reported in this work is likely to pave a new route for fabricating free-standing hierarchical electrodes for electrochemical devices. PMID:26784023

  3. A facile electrochemical fabrication of hierarchically structured nickel-copper composite electrodes on nickel foam for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zuwei; Chen, Fuyi

    2014-11-01

    A NiCu composite electrode with hierarchical structure has been successfully fabricated by an electrochemical method, which consisted of galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), activation process and cyclic voltammetry (CV) treatment. The three-dimensional (3D) Ni-Cu precursors were prepared firstly by dipping Ni foam into three kinds of different copper ion solutions and identified that CuCl2 is a favorite electrolyte. This may be attributed to the adsorption of chloride ion on copper surface to form the CuCln1-n complex and the hydrolysis of CuCln1-n. After an activation process to reduce the hydrolytic product Cu2O into Cu, a CV treatment was performed to form a hierarchical structure to improve the surface area and to heighten the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. The optimal number of CV cycles is 3.

  4. Study on the influences of reduction temperature on nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anode using nickel oxide-film electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zhenjun; Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the reduction processes of nickel oxide at different temperatures were investigated using nickel-film anode to study the influences of reduction temperature on the initial performances and stability of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia anode. Compared to conventional nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia composite cermet anode, nickel-film anode has the advantage of direct observation at nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface. The microstructural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The reduction process of nickel oxide is considered to be determined by the competition between the mechanisms of volume reduction in nickel oxide-nickel reaction and nickel sintering. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to analyze the time variation of the nickel-film anode electrochemical characteristics. The anode performances and microstructural changes before and after 100 hours discharging and open circuit operations were analyzed. The degradation of nickel-film anode is considered to be determined by the co-effect between the nickel sintering and the change of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface bonding condition.

  5. An Ultralong, Highly Oriented Nickel-Nanowire-Array Electrode Scaffold for High-Performance Compressible Pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Ziheng; Yang, Cheng; Zou, Peichao; Xie, Binghe; Lin, Ziyin; Zhang, Zhexu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Ultralong, highly oriented Ni nanowire arrays are used as the electrode scaffold to support metal-oxide- and conductive-polymer-based electrode materials with a high mass loading; the as-obtained asymmetric supercapacitor can be compressed by fourfold and exhibits superior energy and power densities with ultrahigh cycle stability.

  6. The zinc electrode - Its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling.

  7. Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  8. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  9. Vanadium nanobelts coated nickel foam 3D bifunctional electrode with excellent catalytic activity and stability for water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Gao, Wenyu; Shen, Zongxu; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Shuliang; Song, Weiguo; Ding, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity.Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More SEM, TEM images, XRD patterns, LSV curves, XPS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02395a

  10. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and biosensing for glucose based on boron-doped carbon-coated nickel modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Xiong, Huayu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu; Zhang, Xungao

    2011-05-15

    A novel biosensor for detecting glucose had been constructed by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on chitosan-boron-doped carbon-coated nickel (BCNi) nanoparticle modified electrode. The GOD-chitosan-BCNi bionanocomposite film was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The film was propitious to the immobilization of GOD and to the retention of its bioactivity. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of GOD on modified electrode had been investigated by cyclic voltammogram (CV) and amperometric measurements. The GOD displayed a pair of stable, well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Furthermore, the biosensor was applied to detect glucose with a broad linear range from 2.50×10(-5) to 1.19×10(-3) M, the detection limit was brought down to 8.33×10(-6) M at a signal to noise ratio of 3 and with an applied potential of -0.2V. The proposed biosensor showed rapid response (within 3s), low detection limit, high affinity to glucose and accepted storage stability over one-month period, which demonstrated that the chitosan-BCNi film has potential applications in the immobilization of other third-generation enzyme biosensors.

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of insulin at nickel oxide nanoparticles-multiwalled carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Banafsheh; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-08-15

    Nickel oxide nanoparticles modified nafion-multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode (NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/SPE) were prepared using pulsed electrodeposition of NiONPs on the MWCNTs/SPE surface. The size, distribution and structure of the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and also the results show that NiO nanoparticles were homogeneously electrodeposited on the surfaces of MWCNTs. Also, the electrochemical behavior of NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs composites in aqueous alkaline solutions of insulin was studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the prepared nanoparticles have excellent electrocatalytic activity towards insulin oxidation due to special properties of NiO nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs film modified SPE, lowers the overpotentials and improves electrochemical behavior of insulin oxidation, as compared to the bare SPE. Amperometry was also used to evaluate the analytical performance of modified electrode in the quantitation of insulin. Excellent analytical features, including high sensitivity (1.83 μA/μM), low detection limit (6.1 nM) and satisfactory dynamic range (20.0-260.0 nM), were achieved under optimized conditions. Moreover, these sensors show good repeatability and a high stability after a while or successive potential cycling.

  12. Counter electrodes from polymorphic platinum-nickel hollow alloys for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-10-01

    Precious platinum counter electrode (CE) has been an economic burden for future commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Low-platinum alloy CE catalysts are promising in bringing down the solar cell cost without reducing photovoltaic performances. We present here a facile strategy of fabricating ZnO nanorods assisted platinum-nickel (PtNi) alloy microtube CEs for liquid-junction DSSCs. By adjusting the concentration of zinc precursors, the ZnO nanostructures and therefore PtNi alloys are optimized to maximize the electrocatalytic behaviors toward triiodide reduction reaction. The maximal power conversion efficiency is determined as high as 8.43% for liquid-junction DSSC device with alloyed PtNi microtube CE synthesized at 75 mM Zn(NO3)2 aqueous solution, yielding a 32.8% enhancement in cell efficiency in comparison with the solar cell from pristine platinum electrode. Moreover, the dissolution resistance and charge-transfer ability toward redox couples have also been markedly enhanced due to competitive dissolution reactions and alloyed effects.

  13. FeS/nickel foam as stable and efficient counter electrode material for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Huifang; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Quan, Linlin; Xi, Fanxing; Su, Xunwen

    2015-05-01

    A stable and efficient FeS/nickel foam (NF) counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is first fabricated by electrochemistry deposition and characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), current voltage and impedance spectroscopy. The QDSC based on FeS/NF CE achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.39% attributing to the high fill factor (FF) of 0.58, and the PCE is much higher than that of based on FeS/FTO CE (2.76%) and other reported FeS CEs (1.76% and 3.34%). The phenomenon that the electrode can transform between FeS/NF (in the polysulfide electrolyte) and Fe2O3/NF (in the air) spontaneously is first reported. And the excellent stability in photoelectric performance of the CE is also demonstrated in the present work. Therefore, the FeS/NF is very promising as a stable and efficient CE for QDSCs.

  14. Efficient Nickel Sulfide and Graphene Counter Electrodes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Gentian; Li, Fumin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-12-01

    We reported a facile two-step electrochemical-chemical approach for in situ growth of nickel sulfide and graphene counter electrode (CE) decorated with silver nanoparticles (signed NiS/Gr-Ag) and served in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Under optimum conditions, the DSSC achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.36 % assembled with the NiS/Gr-Ag CE, much higher than that based on the Pt CE (7.76 %). The surface morphology of NiS/Gr-Ag CE exhibited a smooth surface with cross-growth of NiS, graphene, and Ag nanoparticles, which was beneficial to the fast mass transport of electrolytes; increased the contact area of electrolytes and active materials; and enabled to speed up the reduction of triiodide to iodide. The research on the electrochemical properties also showed that the NiS/Gr-Ag CE possessed lower charge transfer resistance and more excellent electrocatalytic activity in iodide/triiodide electrolyte compared to the Pt electrode.

  15. Efficient Nickel Sulfide and Graphene Counter Electrodes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Gentian; Li, Fumin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-05-01

    We reported a facile two-step electrochemical-chemical approach for in situ growth of nickel sulfide and graphene counter electrode (CE) decorated with silver nanoparticles (signed NiS/Gr-Ag) and served in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Under optimum conditions, the DSSC achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.36 % assembled with the NiS/Gr-Ag CE, much higher than that based on the Pt CE (7.76 %). The surface morphology of NiS/Gr-Ag CE exhibited a smooth surface with cross-growth of NiS, graphene, and Ag nanoparticles, which was beneficial to the fast mass transport of electrolytes; increased the contact area of electrolytes and active materials; and enabled to speed up the reduction of triiodide to iodide. The research on the electrochemical properties also showed that the NiS/Gr-Ag CE possessed lower charge transfer resistance and more excellent electrocatalytic activity in iodide/triiodide electrolyte compared to the Pt electrode.

  16. NiO nanoarrays of a few atoms thickness on 3D nickel network for enhanced pseudocapacitive electrode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Kadumudi, Firoz Babu; Ho, Nhu Thuy; Kim, Ji-Woong; Park, Sungkyun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Choi, Won Mook; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The present work focuses on the development of template-free mesoporous NiO nanoarrays with large surface area grown on 3D nickel foam networks by a seed mediated aqueous chemical growth technique and subsequent annealing process. The resultant binder-free, well-aligned and vertically grown NiO nanoarrays exhibits a micron-sized planar structure as well as an ultrathin thickness (˜7 nm). The unique surface and electronic structure facilitates surface-dependent electrochemical reaction processes with no dead volume. They deliver a high capacitance of 2065 F g-1 at a current density of 16 A g-1 as a three electrode system. A specific capacitance of 1247 F g-1 is maintained at a higher current rate of 70 A g-1 with 88.9% retention after 5000 cycles. Finally, in a solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor configuration using NiO//activated carbon, the device delivers an enhanced supercapacitive performance, with an energy density of 43.5 Wh kg-1 and power density of 2.1 kW kg-1. Thus, the current research paves the way for the use of NiO nanoarrays as an electrode material for practical supercapacitor devices with higher cycling retention and rate capacity.

  17. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-24

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  18. Application of Gold Electrodes for the Study of Nickel Based Homogeneous Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Liu, Fei; Roberts, John A.; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-08-12

    Gold and glassy carbon working electrode materials are compared as suitable substrates for the hydrogen oxidation reaction with Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2(BF4)2 used as a catalyst. Voltammetric responses showing electrocatalytic hydrogen oxidation mediated by the homogeneous electrocatalyst Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2(BF4)2 are identical at glassy carbon and gold electrodes, which shows that gold electrode can be used for hydrogen oxidation reaction. This work is supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under FWP 56073.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Chromium-Free Nickel Alloy Electrode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraj, J. R.; Krishna, M.; Murthy, H. N. Narasimha; Prasad, C. S.; Bhanukiran, V. T.; Sharma, S. C.

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of two Cr-free nickel-based alloys designated as 1S with 6.5 pct Mn and 2H without Mn of compositions varying between 40 to 43.5Ni, 20Mo, 22 to 25Fe, 10Cu, 6.5 to 0Mn, 1Ti, and 0.5Al (wt pct) as filler materials for TIG welding application was performed. New filler materials were developed to reduce carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) fumes generated during the welding of 300 series austenitic stainless steel. The Cr-free nickel alloys were characterized for microstructure and mechanical properties. The developed alloys showed good microstructure stability in as-cast and solution-treated conditions. A material properties simulation software JMatPro predicted that 2H alloy has 2 wt pct more γ (solid solution) phase than in 1S but has 2.2 wt pct less γ' (strengthening precipitates) phase than in 1S alloy. The tensile strength of 1S alloy was about 2.2 pct more than 2H. The solution treatment of both alloys decreased the hardness, tensile and yield strengths by about 21 pct but ductility improved by about 17 pct. Fracture studies of both alloys showed the ductile mode of failure.

  20. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  1. The definition of the process of electrochemical impregnation of nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical impregnation was studied during a series of experiments designed to define the optimal conditions for the fabrication of dimensionally stable cell anodes of Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd systems. The influence of various parameters, such as current and duration of electrolysis, temperature and acidity of the chemical bath, the concentrations of Ni and Co as well as the use of ethanol was determined. Results show that the electrochemical impregnation process as defined is industrially feasible and it is suggested that Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd type electrodes be produced in sufficient quantity to further evaluate their performance characteristics.

  2. Highly effective nickel sulfide counter electrode catalyst prepared by optimal hydrothermal treatment for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-02-01

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) thin film has been deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by a hydrothermal method using 3-mercaptopropionic acid and used as an efficient counter electrode (CE) for polysulfide redox reactions in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). NiS has low toxicity and environmental compatibility. In the present study, the size of the NiS nanoparticle increases with the hydrothermal deposition time. The performance of the QDSSCs is examined in detail using polysulfide electrolyte with the NiS CE. A TiO2/CdS/CdSe/ZnS-based QDSSC using the NiS CE shows enhanced photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.03%, which is superior to that of a cell with Pt CE (PCE 2.20%) under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved photovoltaic performance of the NiS-based QDSSC may be attributed to a low charge transfer resistance (5.08 Ω) for the reduction of polysulfide on the CE, indicating greater electrocatalytic activity of the NiS. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and Tafel-polarization measurements were used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of the NiS and Pt CEs.

  3. Ultrafast Dynamics of Hole Injection and Recombination in Organometal Halide Perovskite Using Nickel Oxide as p-Type Contact Electrode.

    PubMed

    Corani, Alice; Li, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; El Nahhas, Amal; Zheng, Kaibo; Yartsev, Arkady; Sundström, Villy; Ponseca, Carlito S

    2016-04-01

    There is a mounting effort to use nickel oxide (NiO) as p-type selective electrode for organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells. Recently, an overall power conversion efficiency using this hole acceptor has reached 18%. However, ultrafast spectroscopic investigations on the mechanism of charge injection as well as recombination dynamics have yet to be studied and understood. Using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, we show that hole transfer is complete on the subpicosecond time scale, driven by the favorable band alignment between the valence bands of perovskite and NiO nanoparticles (NiO(np)). Recombination time between holes injected into NiO(np) and mobile electrons in the perovskite material is shown to be hundreds of picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Because of the low conductivity of NiO(np), holes are pinned at the interface, and it is electrons that determine the recombination rate. This recombination competes with charge collection and therefore must be minimized. Doping NiO to promote higher mobility of holes is desirable in order to prevent back recombination.

  4. Nickel hexacyanoferrate modified screen-printed carbon electrode for sensitive detection of ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhou, Dao Min; Hocevar, Samo B; McAdams, Eric T; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Zhang, Xueji

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemically modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) has been prepared by electrodepositing nickel hexacyanoferrate(III) (NiHCF) onto the electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The performance of NiHCF-SPCE sensor was characterized and optimized by controlling several operational parameters. The NiHCF film has been proven to remain stable after CV scanning from 0 to +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the pH range of 3 to 10 and is re-useable. The most favourable supporting electrolyte solution exhibiting the optimum electroanalytical performance of the NiHCF-SPCE sensor was found to be 0.2 mol/L sodium nitrate. The electrochemical response toward ascorbic acid (AA) and H2O2 in 0.2 mol/L sodium nitrate solution was studied by using CV and the results showed that both analytes were electrocatalytically oxidized at approximately +0.4 V, while H2O2 also revealed a reduction signal at -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The NiHCF-SPCE sensor exhibited highly linear response for AA and H2O2 in the examined concentration range from 5.0x10-5 to 1.5x10-3 mol/L and from 2.0x10-5 to 1.0x10-3 mol/L (at +0.4 V), with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.998, respectively. The reproducibility of the NiHCF-SPCE sensor was followed for the determination of AA by using four individual electrodes, and the relative standard deviation of CV peak currents varied between 0.9 % and 2.2 %. The proposed NiHCF-SPCE has been shown to be a very attractive electrochemical sensor for AA and H2O2, also in a view of inexpensive mass production of disposable single-use sensors. The NiHCF-SPCE sensor was tested by measuring AA in multivitamin tablets, with recoveries obtained between 94.4 % and 108.2 % (n=5).

  5. Studies on hydride-forming alloys as the active material of a metal hydride electrode for a nickel metal hydride cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.S.; Zelter, G.R.; Allison, D.U.; Reilly, J.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Stockel, J.F.

    1997-12-01

    Multi-component AB{sub 5} hydrides are attractive replacements for the cadmium electrode in nickel-cadmium batteries. The archetype compound of the AB{sub 5} alloy class is LaNi{sub 5}, but in a typical battery electrode mischmetal is substituted for La and Ni is substituted in part by variety of metals. This paper deals with the effect on cycle life upon the partial substitution of various lanthanides for La and Sn, In, Al, Co, and Mn for Ni. The presence of Ce was shown to enhance cycle life as did Sn in some cases. An electrode of La{sub 0.67}Ce{sub 0.33}B{sub 5} alloy gave over 3,500 cycles (to specific capacity of 200 mAh/g), indicating that it is a very attractive alloy for a practical Ni/MH{sub x} cell.

  6. High-performance hybrid supercapacitor with 3D hierarchical porous flower-like layered double hydroxide grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luojiang; Hui, Kwun Nam; San Hui, Kwan; Lee, Haiwon

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as electroactive material has been well reported; however, fabricating an LDH electrode with excellent electrochemical performance at high current density remains a challenge. In this paper, we report a 3D hierarchical porous flower-like NiAl-LDH grown on nickel foam (NF) through a liquid-phase deposition method as a high-performance binder-free electrode for energy storage. With large ion-accessible surface area as well as efficient electron and ion transport pathways, the prepared LDH-NF electrode achieves high specific capacity (1250 C g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 401 C g-1 at 50 A g-1) after 5000 cycles of activation at 20 A g-1 and high cycling stability (76.7% retention after another 5000 cycles at 50 A g-1), which is higher than those of most previously reported NiAl-LDH-based materials. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor with LDH-NF as the positive electrode and porous graphene nanosheet coated on NF (GNS-NF) as the negative electrode, delivers high energy density (30.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1) and long cycle life, which outperforms the other devices reported in the literature. This study shows that the prepared LDH-NF electrode offers great potential in energy storage device applications.

  7. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  8. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  9. NiSe Nanowire Film Supported on Nickel Foam: An Efficient and Stable 3D Bifunctional Electrode for Full Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Cheng, Ningyan; Pu, Zonghua; Xing, Wei; Sun, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    Active and stable electrocatalysts made from earth-abundant elements are key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis. The growth of NiSe nanowire film on nickel foam (NiSe/NF) in situ by hydrothermal treatment of NF using NaHSe as Se source is presented. When used as a 3D oxygen evolution electrode, the NiSe/NF exhibits high activity with an overpotential of 270 mV required to achieve 20 mA cm(-2) and strong durability in 1.0 M KOH, and the NiOOH species formed at the NiSe surface serves as the actual catalytic site. The system is also highly efficient for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction in basic media. This bifunctional electrode enables a high-performance alkaline water electrolyzer with 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 1.63 V.

  10. Nickel nanocrystals grown on sparse hierarchical CuS microflowers as high-performance counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Wei; Ma, Yiran

    2016-07-01

    Three kinds of hierarchical CuS microflowers composed of thin nanosheets have been synthesized by a simple wet chemical method. It is shown that the CuS microflowers provide suitable substrates to grow nickel nanocrystals. The prepared Ni@CuS hybrids combined with conductive glass (FTO) have been used as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrode made of the active material of Ni@CuS microflowers with sparsest petals show an optimal photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.89%, better than those made of single component of Ni (3.39%) or CuS (1.65%), and other two Ni@CuS composites. The improved performances could be ascribed to the synergetic effect of the catalytic effect towards I3‑/I‑ from sparse CuS hierarchical structure and uniformly grown Ni nanocrystals. Besides, the introduced Ni nanocrystals could increase the conductivity of the hybrid and facilitate the transport of electrons. The hybrid Ni@CuS composites serving as counter electrodes have much enhanced electrochemical properties, which provide a feasible route to develop high-active non-noble hybrid counter electrode materials.

  11. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  12. Amorçage d'une décharge dans le vide entre deux electrodes d'argent ou des alliages argent-nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouache, N.; Lefort, A.

    1997-03-01

    Comparison of the characteristics of an electric are breakdown in vacuum between two silver or silver-nickel alloy electrodes prompted us to study the evolution of the breakdown voltage with electrode separation, with resistance value placed between the anode and the high voltage supply used for the breakdown, and with the effect of conditionning by heating in vacuum. The measurement of the commutation time and delay time, and the observations by a metallographic microscope of the electrodes surfaces after one breakdown, enabled us to evidence the origin of the electric arc for each of the studied materials. La comparaison des caractéristiques de l'amorçage d'un arc électrique dans le vide entre deux électrodes bombées de 8mm de diamètre et de rayon de courbure en surface de 16mm, constituées d'argent ou de son alliage avec le nickel, nous a amené à étudier l'évolution de la tension d'amorçage avec plusieurs paramètres : la distance inter-électrodes, les valeurs de la résistance intercalée entre la source haute tension servant au claquage et les électrodes et le conditionnement par chauffage sous vide des électrodes. La mesure du temps de commutation, du temps de retard et les observations au microscope métallographique de la surface des électrodes après un amorçage donnent des informations sur l'origine de l'arc électrique concernant chaque matériau étudié.

  13. Nickel oxide microfibers immobilized onto electrode by electrospinning and calcination for nonenzymatic glucose sensor and effect of calcination temperature on the performance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei; Guo, Shu; Ma, Huiyan; Shan, Decai; Yang, Shengxue; Gong, Jian

    2011-01-15

    Nickel oxide microfibers (NiO-MFs) were directly immobilized onto the surface of fluorine tin oxide (FTO) electrode by electrospinning and calcination without using any immobilization matrix for nonenzymatic glucose sensor. Morphology and structure of NiO-MFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performances of the NiO-MFs modified electrodes prepared at different calcination temperatures ranging from 300 to 500°C were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV results have demonstrated that NiO-MFs modified electrode prepared at 300°C displayed distinct increase in electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose, which is explored to develop an amperometric nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The NiO-MFs prepared at 300°C based amperometric nonenzymatic glucose sensor has ultrasensitive current (1785.41 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) response and low detection limit of 3.3×10(-8) M (signal/noise ratio (S/N)=3), which are among the best values reported in literature. Additionally, excellent selectivity and stability have also been obtained.

  14. Mesoporous composite nickel cobalt oxide/graphene oxide synthesized via a template-assistant co-precipitation route as electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjie; Wang, Lincai; Cao, Peiqi; Cai, Chuanlin; Fu, Yanbao; Ma, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    A simple co-precipitation method utilizing SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as template and ammonia as precipitant is successfully employed to synthesize nickel cobalt oxide/graphene oxide (NiCo2O4/GO) composite. The as-prepared composite (NCG-10) exhibits a high capacitance of 1211.25 F g-1, 687 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, 10 A g-1 and good cycling ability which renders NCG-10 as promising electrode material for supercapacitors. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) (full button cell) has been constructed with NCG-10 as positive electrode and lab-made reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as negative electrode. The fabricated NCG-10//rGO with an extended stable operational voltage of 1.6 V can deliver a high specific capacitance of 144.45 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The as-prepared NCG-10//rGO demonstrates remarkable energy density (51.36 W h kg-1 at 1 A g-1), high power density (50 kW kg-1 at 20 A g-1). The retention of capacitance is 88.6% at the current density of 8 A g-1 after 2000 cycles. The enhanced capacitive performance can be attributed to the improved specific surface area and 3D open area of NCG-10 generated by the pores and channels with the substantial function of SDS.

  15. DNA/nickel oxide nanoparticles/osmium(III)-complex modified electrode toward selective oxidation of l-cysteine and simultaneous detection of l-cysteine and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Ensiyeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Shams, Esmaeil

    2012-08-01

    The modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with electrodeposited nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiOxNPs) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is utilized as a new efficient platform for entrapment of osmium (III) complex. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite modified electrode (GC/DNA/NiOxNPs/Os(III)-complex) were investigated by FESEM, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the excellent electrocatalytic activity of the resulting electrode toward oxidation of l-cysteine (CySH) at reduced overpotential (0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Using chronoamperometry to CySH detection, the sensitivity and detection limit of the biosensor are obtained as 44 μA mM(-1) and 0.07 μM with a concentration range up to 1000 μM. The electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode not only for oxidation of low molecular-mass biothiols derivatives such as, glutathione, l-cystine, l-methionine and electroactive biological species ( dopamine, uric acid, glucose) is negligible but also for very similar biothiol compound (homocysteine) no recognizable response is observed at the applied potential window. Furthermore, the simultaneous voltammetric determination of l-cysteine and homocysteine compounds without any separation or pretreatment process was reported for the first time in this work. Finally, the applicability of sensor for the analysis of CySH concentration in complex serum samples was successfully demonstrated. Highly selectivity, excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability, remarkable antifouling property toward thiols and their oxidation products, as well as the ability for simultaneous detection of l-cysteine and homocysteine are remarkably advantageous of the proposed DNA based biosensor.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel-iron layered double hydroxide: application as a novel modified electrode in electrocatalytic reduction of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Kamellia; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2014-02-01

    A new and simple approach based on the electrochemical method was used for preparation of reproducible nanostructure thin film of Ni/Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni/Fe-LDH) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of the Ni/Fe-LDH deposited on GCE electrode is studied. Study of the scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of a nanostructure thin film on the glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments show that Ni/Fe-LDH modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity with Metronidazole. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of Metronidazole in tablets. The results were favorably compared to those obtained by the reported BP method.

  17. One-Step Fabrication of a Multifunctional Magnetic Nickel Ferrite/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid-Modified Electrode for the Determination of Benomyl in Food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Yang, Jichun; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2015-05-20

    Benomyl, as one kind of agricultural pesticide, has adverse impact on human health and the environment. It is urgent to develop effective and rapid methods for quantitative determination of benomyl. A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method for determination of benomyl using a magnetic nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanohybrid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was presented. The electrocatalytic properties and electroanalysis of benomyl on the modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) of pH 6.0, this constructed biosensor exhibited two linear relationships with the benomyl concentration range from 1.00 × 10(-7) to 5.00 × 10(-7) mol/L and from 5.00 × 10(-7) to 1.00 × 10(-5) mol/L, respectively. The detection limit was 2.51 × 10(-8) mol/L (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine benomyl in real samples with satisfactory results. The NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/GCE showed good reproducibility and stability, excellent catalytic activity, and anti-interference.

  18. Electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid biosensor based on electrodeposited graphene and nickel oxide nanoparticle modified electrode for the detection of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Yongxi; Gong, Shixing; Qi, Xiaowei; Lei, Bingxin; Sun, Zhenfan; Li, Guangjiu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was prepared by using graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. GR and NiO nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the CILE surface step-by-step to get the nanocomposite. Due to the strong affinity of NiO with phosphate groups of ssDNA, oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group could be attached on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE, which could further hybridize with the target ssDNA sequence. Methylene blue (MB) was used as the electrochemical indicator for monitoring the hybridization reaction. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current of MB was proportional to the concentration of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) with a detection limit as 3.12×10(-14)molL(-1). This electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good discrimination ability to one-base and three-base mismatched ssDNA sequences, and the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of salmonella enteritidis gene sequences were further detected with satisfactory results. PMID:25686924

  19. Electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid biosensor based on electrodeposited graphene and nickel oxide nanoparticle modified electrode for the detection of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Yongxi; Gong, Shixing; Qi, Xiaowei; Lei, Bingxin; Sun, Zhenfan; Li, Guangjiu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was prepared by using graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. GR and NiO nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the CILE surface step-by-step to get the nanocomposite. Due to the strong affinity of NiO with phosphate groups of ssDNA, oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group could be attached on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE, which could further hybridize with the target ssDNA sequence. Methylene blue (MB) was used as the electrochemical indicator for monitoring the hybridization reaction. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current of MB was proportional to the concentration of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) with a detection limit as 3.12×10(-14)molL(-1). This electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good discrimination ability to one-base and three-base mismatched ssDNA sequences, and the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of salmonella enteritidis gene sequences were further detected with satisfactory results.

  20. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  1. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit. PMID:27430868

  2. Investigation on the Microstructure and Ductility-Dip Cracking Susceptibility of the Butt Weld Welded with ENiCrFe-7 Nickel-Base Alloy-Covered Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Renyao; Wang, Huang; He, Guo

    2015-03-01

    The weld metal of the ENiCrFe-7 nickel-based alloy-covered electrodes was investigated in terms of the microstructure, the grain boundary precipitation, and the ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Besides the dendritic gamma-Ni(Cr,Fe) phase, several types of precipitates dispersed on the austenitic matrix were observed, which were determined to be the Nb-rich MC-type carbides with "Chinese script" morphology and size of approximately 3 to 10 µm, the Mn-rich MO-type oxides with size of approximately 1 to 2 µm, and the spherical Al/Ti-rich oxides with size of less than 1 µm. The discontinuous Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides predominantly precipitate on the grain boundaries, which tend to coarsen during reheating but begin to dissolve above approximately 1273 K (1000 °C). The threshold strain for DDC at each temperature tested shows a certain degree of correlation with the grain boundary carbides. The DDC susceptibility increases sharply as the carbides coarsen in the temperature range of 973 K to 1223 K (700 °C to 950 °C). The growth and dissolution of the carbides during the welding heat cycles deteriorate the grain boundaries and increase the DDC susceptibility. The weld metal exhibits the minimum threshold strain of approximately 2.0 pct at 1323 K (1050 °C) and the DTR less than 873 K (600 °C), suggesting that the ENiCrFe-7—covered electrode has less DDC susceptibility than the ERNiCrFe-7 bare electrode but is comparable with the ERNiCrFe-7A.

  3. Didymium compound improves nickel-cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Nickel electrodes impregnated with an additive solution of didymium hydrate and nitric acid mixed with nickel nitrate increases ampere-hour capacity of cells and does not affect the voltage characteristics.

  4. Discontinuous and Continuous Processing of Low-Solvent Battery Slurries for Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, Henning; Bockholt, Henrike; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2015-11-01

    Different discontinuously and continuously working dispersing devices were investigated to determine their influence on the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes made from commercial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode active material. A laboratory-scale dispersing device was compared with a discontinuously working laboratory kneader and a continuously working extruder, both using 50% less solvent than the dissolver process. Rheological, mechanical, structural, conductive, imaging, and electrochemical analyses (C-rate test, long-term cycling) were carried out. The dispersing method and time were found to have a considerable impact on the structure and electrochemical performance. The continuous extrusion process resulted in good performance with more than 20% higher specific capacity at elevated C-rates compared with the discontinuous process. This can be attributed to better deagglomeration of the carbon black in the slurries, also resulting in 60% higher electrode conductivity. On top of these positive results, the changes in the drying step due to the reduced solvent use led to a 50% decrease in the time required for the constant-drying-rate period. The continuously working extrusion process was found to be most suitable for large-scale, cost-efficient, environmentally friendly production of slurries for lithium-ion battery electrodes.

  5. Hierarchical NiO Nanoflake Arrays on Nickel Foam as a Supercapacitor Electrode with High Capacitance and High Rate Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangwu; He, Bing; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Hulin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating hierarchical NiO nanoflake arrays on nickel foam. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to study the morphology and structure of the as-synthesized NiO materials. Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that the hierarchical NiO nanocomposite displays excellent capacitive behavior between the potential range of -0.1-0.5 V, and a maximum specific capacitance as high as 823 F g-1 can be achieved at a charge/discharge current density of 4 A g-1, and it only decreases by 20% when the current density increases to 12 A g-1. The remarkable electrochemical performance of this hierarchical NiO nanocomposite indicates the areat application potential in supercapacitors. PMID:27451782

  6. Oxidation of methanol on perovskite-type La 2- xSr xNiO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) film electrodes modified by dispersed nickel in 1 M KOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Singh, A.; Mishra, D.; Anindita; Chartier, P.

    Finely-dispersed nickel particles are electrodeposited on high surface-area perovskite-type La 2- xSr xNiO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) electrodes for possible use in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The study is conducted by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, impedance spectroscopy and anodic Tafel polarization techniques. The results show that the apparent electrocatalytic activities of the modified oxide electrodes are much higher than those of unmodified electrodes under similar experimental conditions; the observed activity is the greatest with the modified La 1.5Sr 0.5NiO 4 electrode. At 0.550 V (vs. Hg|HgO) in 1 M KOH + 1 M CH 3OH at 25 °C, the latter electrode delivers a current density of over 200 mA cm -2, whereas other electrodes of the series produce relatively low values (65-117 mA cm -2). To our knowledge, such high methanol oxidation current densities have not been reported on any other non-platinum electrode in alkaline solution. Further, the modified electrodes are not poisoned by methanol oxidation intermediates/products.

  7. High-rate discharge properties of nickel hydroxide/carbon composite as positive electrode for Ni/MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. K.; Xia, X. H.; Huang, H.; Gan, Y. P.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    A chemical co-precipitation method was attempted to synthesize nickel hydroxide/carbon composite material for high-power Ni/MH batteries. The XRD analysis showed that there were a large amount of defects among the crystal lattice of the Ni(OH) 2/C composite, and the SEM investigation revealed that the as-synthesized spherical particles were composed of hundreds of nanometer crystals with a unique three-dimensional petal shape. Compared with pure Ni(OH) 2, the Ni(OH) 2/C composite showed improved electrochemical properties such as superior cycling stability, higher discharge capacity and higher mean voltage of discharge under high-rate discharge conditions, the discharge capacity and the mean discharge voltage of the Ni(OH) 2/C composite were about 281 mAh g -1 and 0.303 V (vs. Hg/HgO) at 1 C-rate, 273 mAh g -1 and 0.296 V at 5 C-rate, 250 mAh g -1 and 0.292 V at 10 C-rate, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests showed that the Ni(OH) 2/C composite exhibited good electrochemical reversibility and the formation of γ-NiOOH during the charge-discharge processes was prevented. The existence of carbon in the Ni(OH) 2/C composite contributed great effect on the improvement of high-rate discharge performance.

  8. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  10. Nickel/cobalt oxide-decorated 3D graphene nanocomposite electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhi Sa; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-15

    A NiCo2O4 bimetallic electro-catalyst was synthesized on three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene) for the non-enzymatic detection of urea. The structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4/3D graphene nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The NiCo2O4/3D graphene was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to fabricate a highly sensitive urea sensor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A high sensitivity of 166 μAmM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) was obtained for the NiCo2O4/3D graphene/ITO sensor. The sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.06-0.30 mM (R(2)=0.998) and a fast response time of approximately 1.0 s with a detection limit of 5.0 µM. Additionally, the sensor exhibited high stability with a sensitivity decrease of only 5.5% after four months of storage in ambient conditions. The urea sensor demonstrates feasibility for urea analysis in urine samples.

  11. Nickel/cobalt oxide-decorated 3D graphene nanocomposite electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhi Sa; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-15

    A NiCo2O4 bimetallic electro-catalyst was synthesized on three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene) for the non-enzymatic detection of urea. The structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4/3D graphene nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The NiCo2O4/3D graphene was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to fabricate a highly sensitive urea sensor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A high sensitivity of 166 μAmM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) was obtained for the NiCo2O4/3D graphene/ITO sensor. The sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.06-0.30 mM (R(2)=0.998) and a fast response time of approximately 1.0 s with a detection limit of 5.0 µM. Additionally, the sensor exhibited high stability with a sensitivity decrease of only 5.5% after four months of storage in ambient conditions. The urea sensor demonstrates feasibility for urea analysis in urine samples. PMID:26433071

  12. Stepwise charging and calcination atmosphere effects for iron and nickel substituted lithium manganese oxide positive electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, Mitsuharu; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Hideka; Doumae, Kyosuke; Yuge, Ryota; Tamura, Noriyuki

    2016-05-01

    Fe- and Ni-substituted Li2MnO3 (Li1+x(FeyNiyMn1-2y)1-xO2, 0 < x < 1/3, y = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) was prepared using coprecipitation-calcination. Its electrochemical properties were sensitive to the calcining atmosphere or the charging mode. Calcination in N2 atmosphere or selecting stepwise charging mode respectively engender better electrochemical performance than calcination in an air atmosphere or selecting galvanostatic charging mode. In fact, the sample for which y = 0.15 calcined in N2 atmosphere exhibited higher discharge capacity than that for the sample calcined in air atmosphere when stepwise charging mode was selected. By selecting stepwise charging mode instead of galvanostatic charging mode, the initial discharge capacity was increased and cyclability was improved. Among the samples calcined in N2 atmosphere, samples for which y = 0.1 and 0.15 were found to have attractive composition as positive electrode materials by selecting stepwise charging mode.

  13. A nickel hydroxide-coated 3D porous graphene hollow sphere framework as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengqiao; Zhu, Dong; Chen, Xi'an; Xu, Xin; Yang, Zhi; Zou, Chao; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming

    2014-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene hollow sphere (PGHS) framework has been fabricated via a hard template method and used to anchor α-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles with the size of about 4 nm through electrochemical deposition. It is found that a 3D PGHS framework can improve the capacitive performance of Ni(OH)2 effectively. In hybrid materials, α-Ni(OH)2 achieves the high specific capacitance of 2815 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) and 1950 F g(-1) even at 200 mV s(-1) with a capacitance retention of about 70%, indicating that the α-Ni(OH)2-coated 3D PGHS framework exhibits high rate capability. The excellent performance of such hybrid material is believed to be due to the smaller size of Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and the PGHS framework with large specific surface area promoting efficient electron transport and facilitating the electrolyte ions migration. These impressive results suggest that the composite is a promising electrode material for an efficient supercapacitor.

  14. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  15. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  16. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM-1 cm-2) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for

  17. Biomass-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Network: A Facile Template for Decoration of Ultrathin Nickel-Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets as High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Lai, Feili; Miao, Yue-E; Zuo, Lizeng; Lu, Hengyi; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    The development of biomass-based energy storage devices is an emerging trend to reduce the ever-increasing consumption of non-renewable resources. Here, nitrogen-doped carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC-N) nanofibers are obtained by one-step carbonization of polyaniline coated bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers, which not only display excellent capacitive performance as the supercapacitor electrode, but also act as 3D bio-template for further deposition of ultrathin nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanosheets. The as-obtained CBC-N@LDH composite electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1949.5 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) , based on active materials), high capacitance retention of 54.7% even at a high discharge current density of 10 A g(-1) and excellent cycling stability of 74.4% retention after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are constructed using CBC-N@LDH composites as positive electrode materials and CBC-N nanofibers as negative electrode materials. By virtue of the intrinsic pseudocapacitive characteristics of CBC-N@LDH composites and 3D nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber networks, the developed ASC exhibits high energy density of 36.3 Wh kg(-1) at the power density of 800.2 W kg(-1) . Therefore, this work presents a novel protocol for the large-scale production of biomass-derived high-performance electrode materials in practical supercapacitor applications. PMID:27135301

  18. A dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1992-02-01

    A dual anode cell with decreased polarization effects provides improved performance characteristics, such as voltage characteristics and depth-of-discharge characteristics. A hydrogen electrode is placed on both sides of a nickel electrode. An electrolyte saturated separator is placed between each hydrogen electrode and the nickel electrode. The electrolyte saturated separator can be a layered-type separator consisting of one layer of zirconia knit cloth next to the hydrogen electrode and a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film next to the nickel electrode. These layers of the electrochemical cell are cut in a pineapple-slice configuration. Both hydrogen electrodes are connected in parallel to form a single electrical node. The electrochemical cell is placed in a vessel pressurized with hydrogen and saturated with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte. A gas screen is placed on the outer surface of each of the hydrogen electrodes.

  19. Recent developments in the NSWC composite electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A characterization of the physical parameters and life cycle data on nickel composite electrodes was conducted. Attempts to improve the nickel composite electrodes with respect to longevity, light weight, and low cost were made. The physical characteristics of a group of electrodes were examined with emphasis on the porosity of the plaques, the thickness of the electrodes, and the potential presence of electrolytes contamination. It was concluded that the nickel composite electrodes exhibit good life cycle characteristics and that their fabrication seems to present real possibilities for the future as a method of making electrodes that are durable, lightweight, and low cost.

  20. Recent developments in the NSWC composite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, W. A.

    1982-03-01

    A characterization of the physical parameters and life cycle data on nickel composite electrodes was conducted. Attempts to improve the nickel composite electrodes with respect to longevity, light weight, and low cost were made. The physical characteristics of a group of electrodes were examined with emphasis on the porosity of the plaques, the thickness of the electrodes, and the potential presence of electrolytes contamination. It was concluded that the nickel composite electrodes exhibit good life cycle characteristics and that their fabrication seems to present real possibilities for the future as a method of making electrodes that are durable, lightweight, and low cost.

  1. Fabrication and testing of large size nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and construction of nickel zinc cells, containing sintered nickel electrodes and asbestos coated inorganic separator materials, were outlined. Negative electrodes were prepared by a dry pressing process while various inter-separators were utilized on the positive electrodes, consisting of non-woven nylon, non-woven polypropylene, and asbestos.

  2. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  3. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. The key element is the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, the following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver-sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures.

  4. Accommodation for flickering stimuli.

    PubMed

    Owens, D A; Wolfe, J M

    1985-01-01

    A laser optometer was used to measure accommodative responses of three observers for sinusoidal gratings presented in Maxwellian view at optical distances ranging from 0 to 4 diopters. Contrast of the stimuli was modulated spatially at 1.0, 4.2 and 6.5 cycles deg.-1 (cpd), and temporally at six frequencies ranging from 3.0 to 40 Hz. Accommodation was consistently more accurate for the 4.2 cpd than for either the 1.0 or 6.5 cpd gratings. Furthermore, accommodative responsiveness for the 4.2 cpd was not affected by temporal modulation, while that for the other spatial frequencies improved monotonically as a function of temporal frequency. These results reinforce earlier reports that accommodation is most responsive for contrast of intermediate spatial frequencies and they indicate that stimulus flicker generally degrades accommodation for spatial contrast.

  5. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-05-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  6. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  7. Accommodating Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  8. Applications of x ray absorption fine structure to the in situ study of the effect of cobalt in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes for fuel cells and rechargeable batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, Donald A.; Scherson, Daniel A.; Antonio, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic and structural aspects of composite nickel-cobalt hydrous oxides have been examined in alkaline solutions using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained have indicated that cobalt in this material is present as cobaltic ions regardless of the oxidation state of nickel in the lattice. Furthermore, careful analysis of the Co K-edge Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveals that the co-electrodeposition procedure generates a single phase, mixed metal hydrous oxide, in which cobaltic ions occupy nickel sites in the NiO2 sheet-like layers and not two intermixed phases each consisting of a single metal hydrous oxide.

  9. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  10. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  11. The effect of compression on individual pressure vessel nickel/hydrogen components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1988-01-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  12. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel hydrogen cells were conceived which should improve the life cycle at deep depths of discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) the use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  13. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been conceived which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  14. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  15. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design, which are not incorporated in state-of-the-art design cells, are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they do not have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test at the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN, under a NASA Lewis Research Center contract. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  16. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  17. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  18. Frequency response measurements in battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of porous zinc, silver, cadmium, and nickel electrodes. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two AgZn cells, one apparently good and the other bad. The impedance data was fit to equivalent circuit models.

  19. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1989-01-01

    A controlled experiment evaluating the capacity loss experienced by nickel electrodes stored under various conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration was conducted using nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. It was found that capacity loss varied with respect to hydrogen pressure, and storage temperature as well as with respect to electrode manufacturing processes. Impedance characteristics were monitored and found to be indicative of electrode manufacturing processes and capacity loss. Cell testing to evaluate state-of-charge effects on capacity loss were inconclusive as no loss was sustained by the cells tested in this experiment.

  20. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  1. Virus enabled 3d nano-array electrodes for integrated Lithium/Sodium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihang

    Multilayers of functional materials (carbon/electrode/nickel) were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors for battery applications. The spaces formed between individual rods effectively accommodated the volume expansion and contraction of electrodes during charge/discharge, while surface carbon coating engineered over these nanorods further enhance the electronic conductivity. The microbattery based on self aligned nanoforests with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, can deliver high energy density and stable cycling stability. C/LiFePO4/Ni/TMV nanoforest cathodes for Li-ion batteries and C/Sn/Ni/TMV nanoforest anodes for Na-ion batteries were assembled using physical sputtering deposition. Both 3D nanoforest electrodes show exceptional cycling stability and rate capability.

  2. High-performance supercapacitor and lithium-ion battery based on 3D hierarchical NH4F-induced nickel cobaltate nanosheet-nanowire cluster arrays as self-supported electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuejiao; Qu, Baihua; Hu, Lingling; Xu, Zhi; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-10-21

    A facile hydrothermal method is developed for large-scale production of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nickel cobaltate nanowire cluster arrays derived from nanosheet arrays with robust adhesion on Ni foam. Based on the morphology evolution upon reaction time, a possible formation process is proposed. The role of NH4F in formation of the structure has also been investigated based on different NH4F amounts. This unique structure significantly enhances the electroactive surface areas of the NiCo2O4 arrays, leading to better interfacial/chemical distributions at the nanoscale, fast ion and electron transfer and good strain accommodation. Thus, when it is used for supercapacitor testing, a specific capacitance of 1069 F g(-1) at a very high current density of 100 A g(-1) was obtained. Even after more than 10,000 cycles at various large current densities, a capacitance of 2000 F g(-1) at 10 A g(-1) with 93.8% retention can be achieved. It also exhibits a high-power density (26.1 kW kg(-1)) at a discharge current density of 80 A g(-1). When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), it presents a high reversible capacity of 976 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 200 mA g(-1) with good cycling stability and rate capability. This array material is rarely used as an anode material. Our results show that this unique 3D hierarchical porous nickel cobaltite is promising for electrochemical energy applications.

  3. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  4. Workplace accommodations: evidence based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schartz, Helen A; Hendricks, D J; Blanck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    One central component to meaningful employment for people with disabilities is the ADA's workplace accommodation provision that allows qualified individuals to perform essential job functions. Little empirical evidence is available to evaluate the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of accommodations. Previous research has focused on direct costs. This article advocates an inclusive accommodation cost/benefit analysis to include direct and indirect costs and benefits and to differentiate disability-related accommodation costs from typical employee costs. The inclusive cost/benefit analysis is applied to preliminary data from interviews with employers who contacted the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). Results suggest that accommodations are low cost, beneficial and effective.

  5. Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

    2013-12-01

    A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  6. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  7. The effect of compression on Individual Pressure Vessel Nickel/Hydrogen components. [for energy storage in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1988-01-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  8. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  9. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  10. Nickel carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Kazimierz S; Sunderman, F William; Salnikow, Konstantin

    2003-12-10

    Human exposure to highly nickel-polluted environments, such as those associated with nickel refining, electroplating, and welding, has the potential to produce a variety of pathologic effects. Among them are skin allergies, lung fibrosis, and cancer of the respiratory tract. The exact mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not known and have been the subject of numerous epidemiologic and experimental investigations. These mechanisms are likely to involve genetic and epigenetic routes. The present review provides evidence for the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of Ni(II) particularly at high doses. Such doses are best delivered into the cells by phagocytosis of sparingly soluble nickel-containing dust particles. Ni(II) genotoxicity may be aggravated through the generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the inhibition of DNA repair by this metal. Broad spectrum of epigenetic effects of nickel includes alteration in gene expression resulting from DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation, as well as activation or silencing of certain genes and transcription factors, especially those involved in cellular response to hypoxia. The investigations of the pathogenic effects of nickel greatly benefit from the understanding of the chemical basis of Ni(II) interactions with intracellular targets/ligands and oxidants. Many pathogenic effects of nickel are due to the interference with the metabolism of essential metals such as Fe(II), Mn(II), Ca(II), Zn(II), or Mg(II). Research in this field allows for identification of putative Ni(II) targets relevant to carcinogenesis and prediction of pathogenic effects caused by exposure to nickel. Ultimately, the investigations of nickel carcinogenesis should be aimed at the development of treatments that would inhibit or prevent Ni(II) interactions with critical target molecules and ions, Fe(II) in particular, and thus avert the respiratory tract cancer and other adverse health effects in nickel workers

  11. Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

    2013-12-01

    A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport. PMID:24132176

  12. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance tests of Eagle-Picher 12.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    An acceptance test program was conducted on 24 cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program were of high quality by the removal of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The cells were rated at 12.0 ampere-hours and equipped with auxiliary electrodes. Test results were: (1) The capacity of the 24 cells ranged from 14.6 to 16.8 ah. All the cells exceeded the rated capacity on all three capacity checks. (2) One cell failed to recover to 1.150 volts after the cell short test. (3) During the overcharge tests, all cells but one failed the test at the c/10 rate after the first minute. (4) A special resistance test was conducted on the auxiliary electrodes of these cells to establish the resistance value necessary which would provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode. The resistance value established was 10 ohms. (5) No electrolyte leakage was observed.

  13. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  14. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  15. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of a Fume Generated from a Nickel-, Copper-Based Electrode to be Used as a Substitute in Stainless Steel Welding

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, James M; Badding, Melissa A; Meighan, Terence G; Keane, Michael; Leonard, Stephen S; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology has indicated a possible increase in lung cancer among stainless steel welders. Chromium (Cr) is a primary component of stainless steel welding fume. There is an initiative to develop alternative welding consumables [nickel (Ni)- and copper (Cu)-based alloys] that do not contain Cr. No study has been performed to evaluate the toxicity of fumes generated from Ni- and Cu-based consumables. Dose–response and time-course effects on lung toxicity of a Ni- and Cu-based welding fume (Ni–Cu WF) were examined using an in vivo and in vitro bioassay, and compared with two other well-characterized welding fumes. Even though only trace amounts of Cr were present, a persistent increase in lung injury and inflammation was observed for the Ni–Cu WF compared to the other fumes. The difference in response appears to be due to a direct cytotoxic effect by the Ni–Cu WF sample on lung macrophages as opposed to an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25392698

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over 3D cubical Co-KIT-6 and nickel decorated graphene by Hummer's method, its application as counter electrode in dye sensitive solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Sunu; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2016-04-01

    The challenges on carbon nanotubes and graphene are still the subject of many research works due to its unique properties. There are three main methods to synthesis carbon nanotubes in which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method can use for large scale production. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. KIT-6 molecular sieve was used as a support to prepare cobalt catalyst for CVD method using metal impregnation method to produce cobalt loadings of 2, 4 and 6 wt%. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR &TEM. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized on Co-KIT-6 was also characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM & Raman spectra. Graphene was synthesized by Hummers method, which is the most common method for preparing graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was prepared by oxidation of graphite using some oxidizing agents like sulphuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate. This graphene oxide is further treated with hydrazine solution to convert it into chemically converted graphene and also decorated with nickel metal and characterized. Hummer's method is important for large scale production of graphene. Both Graphene and carbon nanotubes are used in different fields due to its unique properties. Both Graphene and carbon nanotubes are fabricated in counter electrode of Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). By cyclic voltammetry study, it confirms that both materials are good and efficient to replace platinum in the DSSC.

  17. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  18. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  19. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance test of Eagle-Picher 100 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a group of 29 cells for the purpose of removing from the life cycle program all cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability to recover open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The test findings include the following: (1) All the cells exceeded the rated capacity of 103.5 to 119.0 ampere-hours on all three capacity checks. (2) All cells recovered above the 1.150 volt requirement after the cell short test. (3) The cells cannot be overcharged at the c/10 rate without exceeding 1.500 volts after approximately 12 to 13 hours of charge. (4) The resistance value necessary to provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode was found to be 10 ohms. (5) One cell revealed a definite leak at the negative terminal.

  20. Direct comparison of the performance of a bio-inspired synthetic nickel catalyst and a [NiFe]-hydrogenase, both covalently attached to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Maciá, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J; Rüdiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we have come in mimicking the enzymatic performance. The catalytic properties of the [Ni(P(Cy) 2 N(Gly) 2 )2 ](2+) complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris immobilized on a functionalized electrode were compared under identical conditions. At pH 7, the enzyme shows higher activity and lower overpotential with better stability, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bio-inspired complexes in fuel cells.

  1. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  2. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  3. Jointed Holder For Welding Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Adjustable-angle holder enables use of standard straight electrode with custom-fabricated bent gas cup for welding in difficult-to-reach places. Electrode replaced easily, without removing cup, with aid of tool loosening miniature collet nut on holder. Consumes fewer electrodes for given amount of welding. Angle of holder continuously adjustable to fit angle of gas cup or geometry of part welded. Holder made double-jointed to accommodate gas cup having compound angles.

  4. Nickel metallomics: general themes guiding nickel homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sydor, Andrew M; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-01-01

    The nickel metallome describes the distribution and speciation of nickel within the cells of organisms that utilize this element. This distribution is a consequence of nickel homeostasis, which includes import, storage, and export of nickel, incorporation into metalloenzymes, and the modulation of these and associated cellular systems through nickel-regulated transcription. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of the most common nickel proteins in prokaryotic organisms with a focus on their coordination environments. Several underlying themes emerge upon review of these nickel systems, which illustrate the common principles applied by nature to shape the nickel metallome of the cell.

  5. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  6. A Three-Dimensional reduced Graphene Oxide/Nickel Oxide Composite in a Thin, Porous Carbon Framework to serve as a Supercapacitor Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyeonghee; Varanasi, C. V.; Liu, Jie

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, environmental problems and the depletion of fossil fuels have encouraged intense research to discover ways to store energy such as supercapacitors. NiO is considered as a highly promising candidate for electrodes in supercapacitors due to its high theoretical capacitance, superior stability in alkaline electrolytes and low cost. However, the poor conductivity of NiO limited its capacitance to low value. In this work, NiO coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) network in a conductive carbon matrix was synthesized. A porous carbon paper (CP) was utilized as a conductive framework on which initially Ni(OH)2 was vertically grown via solvothermal reaction. Graphene oxide (GO) hydrogel was formed on the Ni(OH)2 coated carbon paper through the dissolution of Ni(OH)2. Controlling the uniformity of Ni(OH)2 coating on the carbon paper was a key factor to homogeneous loading GO onto the carbon paper. Ni(OH)2 was loaded again on GO hydrogel formed on the carbon paper (CP-GO-Ni(OH)2) as NiO precursor. After annealing, CP-rGO-NiO composite exhibited a high specific capacitance and excellent cycle stability compared to the electrochemical performance of rGO-NiO composite connected to a carbon paper using binder. The structural and electrochemical properties of CP-rGO-NiO composite will be presented.

  7. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  8. Distribution of nickel hydroxide in sintered nickel plaques measured by radiotracer method during electroimpregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, P.K.; Schneider, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered nickel positive electrodes were prepared by electroimpregnating nickel hydroxide inside a porous nickel plaque in a nickel nitrate solution. The distribution of nickel hydroxide inside the plaque was measured using a radio-tracer method with /sup 63/Ni as the radioactivity source. Autoradiography and ..beta.. counting were used to follow qualitative and quantitative distributions, respectively, of the pore filling process. Relatively uniform distribution was observed at low current density, and the precipitation of Ni(OH)/sub 2/ extends to the center of the plaque. At high current density, most of the Ni(OH)/sub 2/ aggregated in the region just underneath the plaque surface, causing a somewhat nonuniform distribution. Nickel hydroxide also precipitates heavily on the surface of the plaque at high current density, reducing the penetration of electrolyte to the inside of the plaque.

  9. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  10. Occupational toxicology of nickel and nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinshun; Shi, Xianglin; Castranova, Vincent; Ding, Min

    2009-01-01

    Nickel and nickel compounds are widely used in industry. The high consumption of nickel products inevitably leads to occupational and environmental pollution. In occupational settings, exposure to nickel and nickel compounds occurs primarily during nickel refining, electroplating, and welding. The most common airborne exposures to nickel in the workplace are to insoluble nickel species, such as metallic nickel, nickel sulfide, and nickel oxides from dusts and fumes. The chemical and physical properties of nickel and nickel compounds strongly influence their bioavailability and toxicity. The lung and the skin are the principal target organs upon occupational exposure. inhalation exposure is a primary route for nickel-induced toxicity in the workplace. The most important adverse health effects due to occupational exposure to nickel and its compounds are skin allergies, lung fibrosis, and lung cancer. The exact mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not clear. This review summarizes the current knowledge on occupational toxicology of nickel and its compounds. The subtopics include: chemical and physical properties, uses, occupational exposures, occupational exposure limits, toxicokinetics, biological monitoring, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and gaps in knowledge. PMID:19888907

  11. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  12. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  13. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  15. Modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental design, parameters, and testing of a modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. Modifications regarding positive plate loading levels and nickel attack levels, loading levels for the negative plates, interelectrode spacing, and the positive electrode impregnation process are addressed.

  16. Mathematical modeling of a nickel-cadmium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Deyuan; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    Extensions are presented for a mathematical model of an Ni-CD cell (Fan and White, 1991). These extensions consist of intercalation thermodynamics for the nickel electrode and oxygen generation and reduction reactions during charge and overcharge. The simulated results indicate that intercalation may be important in the nickel electrode and that including the oxygen reactions provides a means of predicting the efficiency of the cell on charge and discharge.

  17. Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwala, Karan R.; Kruger, Ekaterina S.; Mathews, Steven; Kruger, Philip B.

    1995-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that targets illuminated by monochromatic (narrow-band) light are less effective in stimulating the eye to change its focus than are black-white (broadband) targets. The present study investigates the influence of target spectral bandwidth on the dynamic accommodation response in eight subjects. The fixation target was a 3.5-cycle / deg square-wave grating illuminated by midspectral light of various bandwidths [10, 40, and 80 nm and white (CIE Illuminant B)]. The target was moved sinusoidally toward and away from the eye, and accommodation responses were recorded and Fourier analyzed. Accommodative gain increases, and phase lag decreases, with increasing spectral bandwidth. Thus the eye focuses more accurately on targets of wider spectral bandwidth. The visual system appears to have the ability to analyze polychromatic blur to determine the state of focus of the eye for the purpose of guiding the accommodation response. blur, chromatic, focus, retinal image, spectral, wavelength

  18. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  19. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  20. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  1. Accommodative load for stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Masako; Ishihara, Shin'ya; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Hisao; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Tahara, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the visual accommodation of subjects who were gazing fixedly at 3D images from two different displays: a cathode ray tube (CRT) while wearing special glasses and a liquid crystal display (LCD) while not wearing special glasses. The subjects were 3 people aged 20 years (2 people) and 36 years, all with normal vision. Visual function was tested using a custom-made apparatus (Nidek AR-1100). The instrument objectively measured visual accommodative changes of the right eye in both binocular and natural viewing conditions. The target shown to subjects moved away slowly and disappeared at a distance about 3 m from the eye. The results suggested that it was easy and comfortable to focus on both the LCD and CRT. When the subjects viewed the progressively receding target, their accommodation was about 0.8 D at the presumed furthest points, a level at which the ciliary muscle is relaxed. The accommodative power differed by about 1.5 D from the near to far point. Thus, the ciliary muscle is repeatedly strained and relaxed while the subject views the moving target. In the present study, the subjects" accommodative amplitude was changed when the target moved from the near to far point.

  2. Nickel-dependent metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Boer, Jodi L; Mulrooney, Scott B; Hausinger, Robert P

    2014-02-15

    This review describes the functions, structures, and mechanisms of nine nickel-containing enzymes: glyoxalase I, acireductone dioxygenase, urease, superoxide dismutase, [NiFe]-hydrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl-coenzyme A synthase/decarbonylase, methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and lactate racemase. These enzymes catalyze their various chemistries by using metallocenters of diverse structures, including mononuclear nickel, dinuclear nickel, nickel-iron heterodinuclear sites, more complex nickel-containing clusters, and nickel-tetrapyrroles. Selected other enzymes are active with nickel, but the physiological relevance of this metal specificity is unclear. Additional nickel-containing proteins of undefined function have been identified.

  3. Nickel-Dependent Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Jodi L.; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the functions, structures, and mechanisms of nine nickel-containing enzymes: glyoxalase I, acireductone dioxygenase, urease, superoxide dismutase, [NiFe]-hydrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl-coenzyme A synthase/decarbonylase, methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and lactate racemase. These enzymes catalyze their various chemistries by using metallocenters of diverse structures, including mononuclear nickel, dinuclear nickel, nickel-iron heterodinuclear sites, more complex nickel-containing clusters, and nickel-tetrapyrroles. Selected other enzymes are active with nickel, but the physiological relevance of this metal specificity is unclear. Additional nickel-containing proteins of undefined function have been identified. PMID:24036122

  4. Second Plateau Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second plateau. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.

  5. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  6. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  7. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  8. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  9. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  10. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  11. Accommodating Law Faculty with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bonnie Poitras; Smith, Joseph F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The obligations of law schools, under federal law, to accommodate faculty with disabilities are examined. Employment provisions of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the definition of a disabled individual are reviewed, and real and hypothetical scenarios in hiring and employing law teachers are…

  12. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  13. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  14. Review of electrochemical impregnation for nickel cadmium cells. [aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method of loading active material within the electrodes of nickel cadmium cells is examined. The basic process of electrochemical impregnation of these electrodes is detailed, citing the principle that when current is applied reactions occur which remove hydrogen ions from solution, making the interior of the plaque less acidic. Electrodes result which are superior in energy density, stability, and life. The technology is reviewed and illustrated with typical performance data. Recommendations are made for additional research and development.

  15. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  16. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell, is to store and deliver energy for long term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures, the catalyzed wall wick cells however, are performing better.

  17. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  18. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Warner, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  20. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  1. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  2. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-16

    A method of making a negative electrode is described, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell. 7 figs.

  3. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  4. Metal fiber - carbon electrodes for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert Fendlay

    An investigation was carried out to determine activities for oxygen reduction and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide of commercially available nickel fibers, carbon fibers, and carbon powders. The activities and current efficiencies were determined by conducting Rotating Ring Disk Electrode Experiments (RRDE) on porous electrodes that utilize an interlocking network of metal fibers with carbon fibers and/or powders. Experimentation was also done using PTFE - carbon powder and PTFE - nickel fiber paste electrodes to remove any porosity and symbiotic effects of the nickel - carbon electrodes. Results of the traditional flat plate PTFE electrodes were compared to the porous electrodes to verify the proposed mathematical viability of porous electrode RRDE. RRDE experiments showed that the most active carbons for oxygen reduction have a surface area to volume ratio of 1000 m2/g, and current rent efficiency to hydrogen peroxide was increased as the average pore size increased. A mathematical model and half-cell polarization experiments were used to characterize and optimize oxygen reduction in gas diffusion electrodes consisting of carbon fibers and/or powders entrapped in a sinter-locked network of nickel microfibers. Important electrode physical parameters, such as nickel fiber loading (0.005 to 0.01 g/cm2) , nickel fiber diameter (2 to 12 mum), void volume (73 to 96%), distance of the active layer from the gas supply (0 to 0.005 cm), and addition of a peroxide decomposition catalyst (0 to 0.004 g/cm2) were systematically varied to determine their effects on electrode performance. Experimentally determined total currents and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide were compared to calculated values for model verification. Other important parameters, including intra-electrode oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, overpotentials, and reaction rates, were simulated to help optimize the electrode. Fabricated metal fiber-carbon electrodes were compared to a

  5. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  6. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  7. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  8. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  9. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  10. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  11. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  12. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  13. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  15. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  16. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  17. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  18. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  19. Pulsed electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Schwartz, M.; Nobe, K. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the effects of dc, pulse, and pulse reverse current waveforms on deposition of Fe-Ni alloys studied in unagitated solutions and with a rotating cylindrical electrode. A nickel sulfamate/ferrous chloride electrolyte system at pH 2 less than 2 A/dm{sup 2}. Pulse reverse plating led to a decrease in anomalous deposition at low current densities. Rotating cylindrical electrodes indicated significant mass transfer effects at high current densities. During pulse reverse plating an increase in anodic pulse magnitude decreased anomalous deposition; pulse frequency had its greatest effect in reducing anomalous deposition between 100 and 300 Hz.

  20. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  1. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  2. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  3. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  4. Improved performance of Pd electrocatalyst supported on three-dimensional nickel foam for direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You-Ling; Zhao, Yong-Qing; Xu, Cai-Ling; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Xu, Mao-Wen; Su, Zhong-Xing; Li, Hu-Lin

    To improve the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), a three-dimensional (3D), hierarchically structured Pd electrode has been successfully fabricated by directly electrodepositing Pd nanoparticles on the nickel foam (referred as Pd/Nickel foam electrode hereinafter). The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrode for ethanol oxidation have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that the oxidation peak current density of the Pd/Nickel foam electrode is 107.7 mA cm -2, above 8 times than that of Pd film electrode at the same Pd loading (0.11 mg cm -2), and a 90 mV negative shift of the onset potential is found on the Pd/Nickel foam electrode compared with the Pd film electrode. Furthermore, the peak current density of the 500th cycle remains 98.1% of the maximum value for the Pd/Nickel foam electrode after a 500-cycle test, whereas it is only 14.2% for the Pd film. The improved electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability of the Pd/Nickel foam electrode make it a favorable platform for direct ethanol fuel cell applications.

  5. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  6. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  7. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 26.5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the TIROS-N and NOAA-A satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    This evaluation test program had the purpose to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are referenced to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics. A requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from test.

  8. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  9. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  11. Layered method of electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Russell R.

    1991-07-30

    A process for fabricating a fuel electrode comprising: slurry dipping to form layers which are structurally graded from all or mostly all stabilized zirconia at a first layer, to an outer most layer of substantially all metal powder, such an nickel. Higher performaance fuel electrodes may be achieved if sinter active stabilized zirconia doped for electronic conductivity is used.

  12. The cadmium electrode: Review of the status of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.; Glockling, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations characterizing the negative cadmium electrode used in a nickel cadmium battery cell are summarized with citations to references where more detailed information is available. Emphasis is placed on data pertinent to aerospace applications. An evaluation of some of the published results of cadmium electrode research is included.

  13. Working Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka

    In electrochemistry an electrode is an electronic conductor in contact with an ionic conductor. The electronic conductor can be a metal, or a semiconductor, or a mixed electronic and ionic conductor. The ionic conductor is usually an electrolyte solution; however, solid electrolytes and ionic melts can be used as well. The term "electrode" is also used in a technical sense, meaning the electronic conductor only. If not specified otherwise, this meaning of the term "electrode" is the subject of the present chapter. In the simplest case the electrode is a metallic conductor immersed in an electrolyte solution. At the surface of the electrode, dissolved electroactive ions change their charges by exchanging one or more electrons with the conductor. In this electrochemical reaction both the reduced and oxidized ions remain in solution, while the conductor is chemically inert and serves only as a source and sink of electrons. The technical term "electrode" usually also includes all mechanical parts supporting the conductor (e.g., a rotating disk electrode or a static mercury drop electrode). Furthermore, it includes all chemical and physical modifications of the conductor, or its surface (e.g., a mercury film electrode, an enzyme electrode, and a carbon paste electrode). However, this term does not cover the electrolyte solution and the ionic part of a double layer at the electrode/solution interface. Ion-selective electrodes, which are used in potentiometry, will not be considered in this chapter. Theoretical and practical aspects of electrodes are covered in various books and reviews [1-9].

  14. Presbyopia correction and the accommodation in reserve.

    PubMed

    Millodot, M; Millodot, S

    1989-04-01

    One method of determining the additional correction for presbyopia suggests leaving a percentage of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The rationale for this assumption seems logical because using all of the available accommodation is not sustainable without discomfort. However there is no empirical evidence indicating what percentage of the amplitude of accommodation should actually be left in reserve. Common figures adopted have been one-half and one-third. In this investigation the percentage of accommodation used is deduced mathematically after having determined the following: 1. The 'add' by the direct subjective clinical method. 2. Measured the amplitude of accommodation. 3. Measured the reading distance in 305 presbyopes ranging from 40 to 83 years of age. The results showed a small decline in the amplitude of accommodation up to the age of 52, after which age the measurements were scattered about a steady level. This finding suggests that after the age of 52 the results are based on the depth-of-focus of the eye. Females had slightly greater accommodation than males of the same age. The power of the add was significantly correlated to the age of the subject. The mean percentage of accommodation used for the 305 subjects was found to be 50.7%, thus confirming the rule of leaving half of the accommodation in reserve, although there were large variations: there were differences between males and females and with age the percentage of measured accommodation used, after having determined the correct add, diminished. Similarly the percentage of accommodation also decreased for shorter reading distances.

  15. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer Service Practices § 1232.10 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  16. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  17. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  18. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  19. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  20. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  1. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the CA/C (convergence accommodation to convergence) linkage but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression, so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4-11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. Methods 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photorefractor set in a remote haploscopic device which assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Responses on decompensation were compared to those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Results Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target reduced significantly (p<0.0001), with resultant mean under-accommodation of 2.33D at 33cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Conclusions Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near. PMID:21873311

  2. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  3. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  4. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  5. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  6. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  7. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to...

  8. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  9. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  10. Magnetic loading of graphene-nickel nanoparticle hybrid for electrochemical sensing of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-04-15

    Graphene-nickel nanoparticle hybrid was prepared by the one-step far infrared-assisted reduction of graphene oxide and nickel (II) ions using hydrazine. It was loaded on the surface of a magnetic electrode for electrochemical sensing. The feasibility and performance of the novel electrode were demonstrated by measuring carbohydrates using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. It demonstrated that nickel nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of carbohydrates while graphene improved the electron transduction. The synergistic effect significantly enhanced the current response of carbohydrates.

  11. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  12. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  13. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  14. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  15. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Swarr, Thomas E.; Wnuck, Wayne G.

    1987-12-22

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H.sub.2 gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800.degree. C. is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 weight percent chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  16. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  17. A role for genetic accommodation in evolution?

    PubMed

    Braendle, Christian; Flatt, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Whether evolutionary change can occur by genetic assimilation, or more generally by genetic accommodation, remains controversial. Here we examine some of the experimental evidence for both phenomena. Several experiments in Drosophila suggest that assimilation is possible, and a new paper shows that a color polyphenism in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, can evolve by genetic accommodation. We argue that genetic accommodation, including assimilation, is a plausible mechanism in evolution; however, more work is required to test how this mechanism acts and how often it is involved in evolutionary change.

  18. Ageing of nickel used as sensitive material for early detection of sudomotor dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Hanna; Lair, Virginie; Griveau, Sophie; Galtayries, Anouk; Brunswick, Philippe; Bedioui, Fethi; Cassir, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The surface ageing of nickel electrodes was studied in the frame of the development of non-invasive biomedical devices, dedicated to the detection of sudomotor dysfunction manifested by an alteration of the ionic balance in human sweat. In this kind of technology, low voltage potentials with variable amplitudes are applied to nickel electrodes, placed on skin regions with a high density of sweat glands, and the electrical responses are measured. The trick is that nickel electrodes play alternately the role of anode and cathode, thus the analysis of the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical properties of nickel is of prime importance to ensure the good performance of the device. Electrochemical measurements coupled to surface chemical characterizations (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) were performed on pure Ni samples, immersed in buffered chloride solutions mimicking human sweat. The shapes of voltammograms, recorded in a restricted anodic potential range, show that the nickel surface was gradually passivated as a function of the number of scans. This was confirmed by XPS data, with the formation of a 1 nm thick duplex layer composed by nickel hydroxide (outermost layer) and nickel oxide (inner layer). In a negative extended potential range, though the electrochemical behavior of electrodes was not modified upon cycling the potential, XPS data show that the inner layer was thickening, indicating a surface degradation of the nickel electrode. Below pitting potentials, adsorbed chloride was only hardly detected by XPS, and the surface composition of the nickel samples was similar after treatments in chloride or chloride-free buffered solutions. In a larger potential range enabling to reach the breakdown potential, the highly chemically sensitive ToF-SIMS characterization pointed out that the surface concentration of adsorbed chloride was higher in pits than elsewhere on the surface sample.

  19. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  20. The application of Co-Al-hydrotalcite as a novel additive of positive material for nickel-metal hydride secondary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaobin; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Xiaoe

    2014-11-01

    Co-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the different Co/Al molar ration is synthesized by hydrothermal method and investigated as an additive for positive material of the Ni-MH cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the Co-Al-LDH with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) is well-crystallized and hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of the nickel electrode added with different Co/Al molar ration Co-Al-LDH, the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO are investigated by the cyclic voltammograms (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH has higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. This cell can undergo at least 400 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1 C. The discharge capacity of this cell remains about 287 mAh g-1 after the 400th cycle. Meanwhile, compared with the pure electrode, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH possess a higher rate capability to meet the needs of high-storage applications.

  1. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  2. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  3. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  4. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  5. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  6. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  7. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  8. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  9. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  10. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  11. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and other similar actions. This list is neither all inclusive nor meant to suggest that employers must... of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to a...

  12. Employers' knowledge and utilization of accommodations.

    PubMed

    Unger, Darlene; Kregel, John

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, employers are providing a variety of accommodations to applicants or employees with disabilities. However, little is know about the resources that employers access to identify and develop accommodations in the recruitment, hiring and retention of employees with disabilities. Human resource professionals and supervisors were surveyed to determine the extent to which businesses were aware of, and utilized, the vast array of workplace supports available. Findings indicated that employers have limited awareness of workplace supports and rely primarily on their own organizational resources in identifying and securing accommodations. Yet, business professionals expressed confidence in their ability to meet and support the needs of employees with disabilities despite many supervisors indicating that they did not have the authority to secure accommodations for workers with disabilities.

  13. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant. ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON...

  14. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leat, S J

    1996-09-01

    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  15. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation would..., number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation,...

  16. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  17. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  18. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  19. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  20. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  1. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-11-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  2. A mathematical model of a sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Deyuan; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model for the charge and discharge of a sealed nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery is presented. The model is used to study the effect of transport properties of the electrolyte and kinetic parameters of the electrode reactions on the cell performance during the charge and discharge period. The model can also be used to demonstrate the changes of cell performance during cycling. Some comparisons between model predictions and experimental results indicate that the model predictions appear to fit the experimental data well. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that the sealed nickel-cadmium battery operates under activation control. It is also shown theoretically that oxygen generated on the positive electrode during charge is reduced electrochemically on the negative electrode.

  3. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  4. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  5. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  6. Low Nickel Diet in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav D

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and the commonest cause of metal allergy among the people. Nickel allergy is a chronic, recurring problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient. PMID:23723488

  7. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  8. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. PMID:26548901

  9. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  10. Pulse plating of nickel deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.; Stevenson, M.F.

    1980-02-01

    Pulse plated and conventional nickel deposits have been compared for differences in morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure. The deposits were obtained from nickel sulfamate, nickel chloride, and Watts nickel plating solutions. No significant differences were found in the direct and pulse current deposits from the sulfamate and chloride solutions; however, significant differences in microstructure, yield strength, and microhardness were observed in deposits from the Watts nickel solution.

  11. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  12. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression.

  13. Effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and morphology of martensites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanju, Gu; Xiaoyan, Song; Jianxin, Zhang; Fuxing, Yin; Ruixiang, Wang

    1995-08-01

    The effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and the displacement vector for lattice deformation are discussed. The authors propose that the formation of an invariant habit plane is connected with the self-accomodation between different martensitic variants and results in the formation of internal twinned martensites; the plastic accommodation, rather than self-accommodation, occurs between parent and new phases when the strength is low or the dislocation density is high for the parent phase and the invariant habit plane is difficult to form, resulting in the formation of dislocation martensites.

  14. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  15. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  16. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefel, John P.; ACCESS Accommodation Study Team

    1999-01-01

    ACCESS-Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station-was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the ``knee'' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control, power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  18. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  19. Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Dedi, Sonia; Kumar, Dimple; Patel, Tanuj; Aloo, Mohammed; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    We manipulated the accommodative response using positive and negative lenses to study any association between symptoms of pattern glare and accommodation. Two groups of eighteen young adults were selected from seventy-eight on the basis (i) that their rate of reading increased by 5% or more with an overlay compared to their rate without it, and (ii) that they reported more than 2 symptoms of pattern glare (group 1) or had no such increment in reading speed and reported fewer than 3 symptoms (group 2). Under double-masked conditions participants observed at 0.4 m a pattern of stripes while measurements of accommodation were made using an open field autorefractor with and without positive and negative trial lenses (0.75 D), and with and without a coloured overlay. Pattern glare was also assessed with and without the trial lenses. Without lenses, the mean accommodative response in group 1 was 1.55 D, a lag of 0.95 D +/- 0.24 D relative to the demand. The lag decreased by 0.43 D (p < 0.0001) when the chosen overlay was used, an effect that was not shown in group 2 even when lag increased with negative trial lenses (p = 0.13). In both groups, pattern glare scores were reduced by the trial lenses, but were unaffected by the sign of the lenses. This suggests that symptoms of pattern glare are not strongly associated with accommodative response. PMID:23586285

  20. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes. PMID:19838277

  1. Life cycle assessment of gas atomised sponge nickel for use in alkaline hydrogen fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin P.; Lavery, Nicholas P.; Jarvis, David J.; Anttila, Tomi; Rantanen, Jyri; Brown, Stephen G. R.; Adkins, Nicholas J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a cradle-to-grave comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of new gas atomised (GA) sponge nickel catalysts and evaluates their performance against the both cast and crush (CC) sponge nickel and platinum standards currently used in commercial alkaline fuel cells (AFC). The LCA takes into account the energy used and emissions throughout the entire life cycle of sponge nickel catalysts - ranging from the upstream production of materials (mainly aluminium and nickel), to the manufacturing, to the operation and finally to the recycling and disposal. Through this assessment it was found that the energy and emissions during the operational phase associated with a given catalyst considerably outweigh the primary production, manufacturing and recycling. Primary production of the nickel (and to a lesser extent dopant materials) also has a significant environmental impact but this is offset by operational energy savings over the electrode's estimated lifetime and end of life recyclability. From the results it can be concluded that higher activity spongy nickel catalysts produced by gas atomisation could have a significantly lower environmental impact than either CC nickel or platinum. Doped GA sponge nickel in particular showed comparable performance to that of the standard platinum electrode used in AFCs.

  2. Degradation of nickel anodes in alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, M.; Gülzow, E.

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), especially AFCs need neither expensive electrolytes nor expensive noble metal catalysts. For using of AFCs long-term stability of the components is decisive, in particular the stability of the electrodes, because the electrolyte can be easily exchanged. The long-term behavior of AFC anodes was investigated electrochemically by measuring U- i curves. The electrodes consisting of a mixture of a nickel catalyst, which is formed from an aluminium-nickel alloy by dissolving the aluminum, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as organic binder and with added copper powder, rolled onto a metal web. In addition, these electrodes were characterized physically after different operation times by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), porosimetry measurements by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The electrochemical performance decreases with operating time. The decrease of the electrochemical performance can be described by combination of two exponential functions with different time constants. The physical characterization shows that the PTFE in the electrodes partially decomposes and the nickel catalysts disintegrates. The changes of the physical characteristics can be correlated with the electrochemical performance.

  3. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  4. Soil, nickel and low nickel food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Mimiola, Giancarlo; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Nickel is an ubiquitous trace element and occurs in soil, water, air and in the biosphere. Ni is an essential element for several plants, microorganisms and vertebrates. Human requirement for Ni has not been conclusively demonstrated. Nickel is normally present in human tissues at low concentration and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. Food is the major source of Ni exposure. Nickel is present in many food products, especially vegetables. The amount of Ni present in vegetables is increasing because of environmental contamination and cultural practices. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of a Ni-rich diet can cause an increase of immunological disorders including Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS patients are currently treated with a diet that is closely Ni-free. Therefore, there is a need to produce certified and guaranteed vegetables with a low Ni concentration in the market. The proposed research aims to develop new methods for vegetable production and innovative cultural practices through a suitable choice of agricultural soil, cultivar, amendments and fertilizers as well as good agricultural practices in order to reduce Ni plant uptake and its translocation to the edible plant parts and therefore to produce Ni-free food products for SNAS patients.

  5. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Spengler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  6. Acute nickel carbonyl poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kurta, D L; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1993-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl [Ni(CO)4], is formed when metallic nickel combines with carbon monoxide. It is used in the refining process of nickel and as a catalyst in petroleum, plastic, and rubber production. Nickel carbonyl is considered to be one of the most toxic chemicals used industrially and the magnitude of its morbidity and mortality has been compared to that of hydrogen cyanide. A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department 24 hours after accidental occupational exposure to nickel carbonyl. He admitted to dermal contamination and inhaling the vapor from his clothing after his respiratory protection was removed. On presentation the patient was alert and oriented, complained of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and paresthesias. Examination revealed decreased breath sounds bilaterally and arterial blood gas PO2 of 39% with calculated O2 saturation of 75%. After face mask O2 at 60% his PO2 increased to 85%. The patient required 60% O2 with continuous positive airway pressure of 5 for 4 days. Disulfiram (Antabuse) was administered for the first 2 days until sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (dithiocarb) was obtained. Disulfiram was used because it is metabolized to two molecules of dithiocarb and is hypothetically of value. Dithiocarb was obtained and continued over the next several days. The patient's urine nickel level on the day of admission was 172 micrograms/dL (normal < 5 micrograms/dL) and a serum level of 14.6 micrograms/dL (normal .26-.46 micrograms/dL). The patient's condition gradually improved over the next 10 days. Nickel carbonyl exposure produces mild transient initial symptoms which are followed within 24 hours by more severe life-threatening events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Acute nickel carbonyl poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kurta, D L; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1993-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl [Ni(CO)4], is formed when metallic nickel combines with carbon monoxide. It is used in the refining process of nickel and as a catalyst in petroleum, plastic, and rubber production. Nickel carbonyl is considered to be one of the most toxic chemicals used industrially and the magnitude of its morbidity and mortality has been compared to that of hydrogen cyanide. A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department 24 hours after accidental occupational exposure to nickel carbonyl. He admitted to dermal contamination and inhaling the vapor from his clothing after his respiratory protection was removed. On presentation the patient was alert and oriented, complained of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and paresthesias. Examination revealed decreased breath sounds bilaterally and arterial blood gas PO2 of 39% with calculated O2 saturation of 75%. After face mask O2 at 60% his PO2 increased to 85%. The patient required 60% O2 with continuous positive airway pressure of 5 for 4 days. Disulfiram (Antabuse) was administered for the first 2 days until sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (dithiocarb) was obtained. Disulfiram was used because it is metabolized to two molecules of dithiocarb and is hypothetically of value. Dithiocarb was obtained and continued over the next several days. The patient's urine nickel level on the day of admission was 172 micrograms/dL (normal < 5 micrograms/dL) and a serum level of 14.6 micrograms/dL (normal .26-.46 micrograms/dL). The patient's condition gradually improved over the next 10 days. Nickel carbonyl exposure produces mild transient initial symptoms which are followed within 24 hours by more severe life-threatening events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8383493

  8. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  9. Nickel-hydrogen battery self-discharge mechanism and methods for its inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visintin, Arnaldo; Anani, Anaba; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.; Lim, Hong S.

    1992-01-01

    A review of our studies on the elucidation of the self-discharge mechanism of the Ni/H2 battery and methods to inhibit this phenomena is presented. The results show that (1) the rate of heat generation from nickel hydroxide powders and from electrodes increases with increase of hydrogen pressure, simultaneously, the open-circuit potential of the nickel hydroxide electrode is shifted in a negative direction more rapidly, indicating the transformation of NiOOH to Ni(OH)2; (2) heat generation rates measured in the microcalorimeter are considerably faster for electrolyte starved electrodes than for electrolyte-flooded electrodes; (3) there is a good correlation between the extent of self-discharge, as determined by heat generation in microcalorimetric measurement and capacity change; and (4) the self-discharge in Ni/H2 battery occurs via direct reduction of the active material by pressurized hydrogen. The addition of cadmium to the electrode reduces the self-discharge.

  10. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  11. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  12. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  13. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  14. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  15. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  16. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  17. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  18. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  19. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  20. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  1. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  2. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  3. Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J M; Owens, D A

    1981-01-01

    Two adjacent regions define an edge if they differ in either color or luminance. If the difference is purely chromatic, the edge is said to be isoluminant. Isoluminant contours are often perceptually unstable. Perhaps some of this instability could be explained if isoluminant contours were difficult to bring into focus. To test this hypothesis, a vernier optometer was used to measure the accuracy of steady-state accommodation for the vertical boundary of a red-green bipartite field. This edge was presented at optical distances of 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 diopters, with brightness contrasts between the two hemifields of 0% (isoluminant), 15%, 58%, and 100%. Accommodation was essentially unresponsiveness to the isoluminant edge and exhibited increasing focusing accuracy with increased brightness contrast. Control experiments replicated this finding for red-orange, green-blue, and white-white fields. These results imply that luminance contrast is a necessary stimulus for monocular accommodation. Inappropriate accommodation may be a factor contributing to the perceptual instability of isoluminant patterns. PMID:7255083

  4. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  7. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  8. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  9. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  10. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  11. A Developmental Model of Infant Visual Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Martin S.; Leitner, Edward F.

    This paper reports the major findings and interprets the results of longitudinal and cross-sectional exPeriments concerning the development of visual accommodation in infants 1 to 3 months of age. The stimulus was a high-contrast, random checkerboard which was presented at three different distances from the infants (25, 50 or 100 cm). The physical…

  12. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  13. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  14. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  15. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  16. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  17. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  18. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  19. Accommodating Students' Religious Needs. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Offers a lesson for secondary students that addresses the role of public schools in religious expression where the students consider how or if schools can accommodate the religious needs of students. Focuses on the religious obligations of Muslim students as a case study. Provides a student handout. (CMK)

  20. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  1. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  2. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  3. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  4. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  5. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) Whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a... overall size of the recipient's program or activity with respect to number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation, including...

  6. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  7. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  8. Comparison of Standard and Heart-pacer Type 3rd Electrodes in Design Variable Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Nine packs of sealed aerospace nickel cadmium cells were put on life test in February 1979. Each 5 cell pack contained one cell with a standard sensor signal electrode and one cell with a new heart pacer sensor signal electrode. Testing was discontinued in May 1983 and the signal electrode performance data was studied. It was found that the heart pacer electrode generally provided a greater voltage swing over a cycle; that both types of electrodes lost significant sensitivity during life, and that both types of electrodes show great signal variation from cell to cell.

  9. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  10. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  11. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  12. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  13. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  14. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  15. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  16. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  17. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  18. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  19. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  20. Vertically porous nickel thin film supported Mn3O4 for enhanced energy storage performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xiu-Chen; Liang, Minghui; Chu, Wei-Guo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensionally porous metal materials are often used as the current collectors and support for the active materials of supercapacitors. However, the applications of vertically porous metal materials in supercapacitors are rarely reported, and the effect of vertically porous metal materials on the energy storage performance of supported metal oxides is not explored. To this end, the Mn3O4-vertically porous nickel (VPN) electrodes are fabricated via a template-free method. The Mn3O4-VPN electrode shows much higher volumetric specific capacitances than that of flat nickel film supported Mn3O4 with the same loading under the same measurement conditions. The volumetric specific capacitance of the vertically porous nickel supported Mn3O4 electrode can reach 533Fcm(-3) at the scan rate of 2mVs(-1). The fabricated flexible all-solid microsupercapacitor based on the interdigital Mn3O4-VPN electrode has a volumetric specific capacitance of 110Fcm(-3) at the current density of 20μAcm(-2). The capacitance retention rate of this microsupercapacitor reaches 95% after 5000 cycles under the current density of 20μAcm(-2). The vertical pores in the nickel electrode not only fit the micro/nanofabrication process of the Mn3O4-VPN electrode, but also play an important role in enhancing the capacitive performances of supported Mn3O4 particles.

  1. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  2. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list.

  3. Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Troilo, David; Quinn, Nicole; Baker, Kayla

    2007-04-01

    Accommodation may indirectly influence visually guided eye growth by affecting the retinal defocus signal used to guide growth. Specifically, increased lags of accommodation associated with low stimulus-response (S-R) function slopes will impose increased hyperopic blur on the retina and may induce axial elongation and myopia. The purpose of this study was (1) to measure accommodation in awake, free viewing marmosets and (2) compare accommodation behavior in marmosets before and after inducing different amounts of myopia with binocular spectacle lenses. In untreated marmosets, the average accommodation S-R slope approached one, but showed considerable inter-individual variability (mean+/-SD: 0.964+/-0.249 for monocular viewing; 0.895+/-0.235 for binocular viewing; monocular and binocular measures not significantly different). The monocular S-R slopes were significantly reduced following a period of lens rearing that produced axial myopia (change in slope=-0.30+/-0.30, p<.01) and the reduction in slope was proportional to the amount of myopia induced (p<.01). The S-R slopes measured either under monocular or binocular conditions before induction of myopia were not well correlated with the degree of myopia induced (monocular: r=-.240, p=.453; binocular: r=-.060, p=.824). These results support the hypothesis that the reduction in S-R slope in myopes is a consequence of the myopia induced. The alternative hypothesis-that low S-R slope increases susceptibility to the development of myopia--is not supported by the weak correlation between the pre-manipulation S-R slopes and the magnitude of the myopic shift.

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-25

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  5. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-01

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  6. Pulse electrodeposited nickel-indium tin oxide nanocomposite as an electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Sivasakthi, P; Ramesh Bapu, G N K; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2016-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-ITO nanocomposite on mild steel substrate were prepared by pulse electrodeposition method from nickel sulphamate electrolyte and were examined as electrocatalysts for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The surface morphology, chemical composition, preferred orientation and oxidation states of the nickel metal ion in the deposits were characterized by SEM, EDAX, XRD and XPS. Electrochemical sensing of glucose was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The modified Ni-ITO nanocomposite electrode showed higher electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium and exhibited a linear range from 0.02 to 3.00 mM with a limit of detection 3.74 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The higher selectivity, longer stability and better reproducibility of this electrode compared to nickel in the sensing of glucose are pointers for exploitation in practical clinical applications.

  7. Determination of nickel-63

    SciTech Connect

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample.

  8. Electron emission from nickel-alloy surfaces in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manda, M.; Jacobson, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cesiated electron emission was measured for three candidate electrodes for use as collectors in thermionic converters. Nickel, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy were tested with a 412 K cesium reservoir. Peak emission from the alloys was found to be comparable to that from pure nickel. Both the Inconel and the Hastelloy samples had work functions of 1.64 eV at peak emission. The minimum work functions were estimated to be 1.37 eV at a probe temperature of 750 K for Inconel and 1.40 eV for Hastelloy at 665 K. The bare work function for both alloys is estimated to be approximately the same as for pure nickel, 4.8 eV.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  10. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOEpatents

    Sindorf, John F.

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  12. Amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres with ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials.

    PubMed

    Li, H B; Yu, M H; Wang, F X; Liu, P; Liang, Y; Xiao, J; Wang, C X; Tong, Y X; Yang, G W

    2013-01-01

    Among numerous active electrode materials, nickel hydroxide is a promising electrode in electrochemical capacitors. Nickel hydroxide research has thus far focused on the crystalline rather than the amorphous phase, despite the impressive electrochemical properties of the latter, which includes an improved electrochemical efficiency due to disorder. Here we demonstrate high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors prepared from amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres synthesized via simple, green electrochemistry. The amorphous nickel hydroxide electrode exhibits high capacitance (2,188 F g(-1)), and the asymmetric pseudocapacitors of the amorphous nickel hydroxide exhibit high capacitance (153 F g(-1)), high energy density (35.7 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 490 W kg(-1)) and super-long cycle life (97% and 81% charge retentions after 5,000 and 10,000 cycles, respectively). The integrated electrochemical performance of the amorphous nickel hydroxide is commensurate with crystalline materials in supercapacitors. These findings promote the application of amorphous nanostructures as advanced electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials.

  13. Amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres with ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. B.; Yu, M. H.; Wang, F. X.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Wang, C. X.; Tong, Y. X.; Yang, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Among numerous active electrode materials, nickel hydroxide is a promising electrode in electrochemical capacitors. Nickel hydroxide research has thus far focused on the crystalline rather than the amorphous phase, despite the impressive electrochemical properties of the latter, which includes an improved electrochemical efficiency due to disorder. Here we demonstrate high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors prepared from amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres synthesized via simple, green electrochemistry. The amorphous nickel hydroxide electrode exhibits high capacitance (2,188 F g−1), and the asymmetric pseudocapacitors of the amorphous nickel hydroxide exhibit high capacitance (153 F g−1), high energy density (35.7 W h kg−1 at a power density of 490 W kg−1) and super-long cycle life (97% and 81% charge retentions after 5,000 and 10,000 cycles, respectively). The integrated electrochemical performance of the amorphous nickel hydroxide is commensurate with crystalline materials in supercapacitors. These findings promote the application of amorphous nanostructures as advanced electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials. PMID:23695688

  14. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the Electro Energy, Inc.'s bipolar nickel metal hydride battery. The advantages of the design are that each cell is individually sealed, and that there are no external cell terminals, no electrode current collectors, it is compatible with plastic bonded electrodes, adaptable to heat transfer fins, scalable to large area, capacity and high voltage. The design will allow for automated flexible manufacturing, improved energy and power density and lower cost. The development and testing of the battery's component are described. Graphic presentation of the results of many of the tests are included.

  15. Exposure to soluble nickel in electrolytic nickel refining.

    PubMed

    Kiilunen, M; Utela, J; Rantanen, T; Norppa, H; Tossavainen, A; Koponen, M; Paakkulainen, H; Aitio, A

    1997-04-01

    Past and present exposure to nickel was studied in an electrolytic nickel refinery, where an increased incidence of nasal cancer had been reported, using nickel analyses in air, blood and urine. Genotoxic effects were studied using analysis of micronuclei from acridine orange-stained smears from the buccal mucosa of the workers. Workers used respirators or masks in tasks where the exposure was expected to be high. Inside the mask, nickel concentrations were 0.9-2.4 micrograms m-3 in such tasks. In those tasks where masks were not used, nickel concentrations in the breathing zone were 1.3-21 micrograms m-3. Air-borne nickel concentrations (stationary sampling) varied between 230 and 800 micrograms m-3 in 1966-1988 with no systematic change; thereafter lower concentrations (170-460 micrograms m-3) have been observed. After-shift urinary concentrations of nickel were 0.1-2 mumol l-1; they showed no correlation with nickel concentrations in the air. Concentrations of nickel in the urine were still elevated after a 2-4 week vacation. The frequency of micronucleated epithelial cells in the buccal mucosa of nickel refinery workers was not significantly elevated by comparison with referents. No relationship was observed between micronucleus frequencies and levels of nickel in air, urine or blood. PMID:9155238

  16. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  17. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  18. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  19. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  1. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  2. Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of electrode processes

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R; Cook, G M; Yao, N P

    1982-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental applications of Raman spectroscopic techniques to the study of battery electrode processes are described. In particular, the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ analytical tool for the characterization of the structure and composition of electrode surface layers at electrode-electrolyte interfaces during electrolysis is examined. It is anticipated that this understanding of the battery electrode processes will be helpful in designing battery active material with improved performance. The applications of Raman spectroscopy to the in-situ study of electrode processes has been demonstrated in a few selected areas, including: (1) the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid and (2) the anodization and sulfation of tetrabasicleadsulfate in sulfuric acid. Preliminary results on the anodization of iron and on the electrochemical behavior of nickel positive-electrode active material in potassium hydroxide electrolytes are presented in the Appendix.

  3. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  4. Quantitative analysis of electroplated nickel coating on hard metal.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Hassan A; Noordin, M Y; Izman, S; Kurniawan, Denni

    2013-01-01

    Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Hassan A.; Noordin, M. Y.; Izman, S.

    2013-01-01

    Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models. PMID:23997678

  6. Nickel and epigenetic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

  7. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  8. High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paserin, Vlad

    High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit

  9. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  10. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role. PMID:20183631

  11. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  12. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  13. Treatment of cadmium and nickel electroplating rinse water by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Parlak, N U; Yigit, S

    2010-12-01

    Treatments of cadmium-cyanide and nickel-cyanide electroplating rinse water were investigated in an electrochemical reactor equipped with iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, and operating time were explored with respect to removal efficiencies of cadmium, nickel and cyanide in electroplating rinse water and operating costs as well. Removal efficiencies and operating costs under the optimum conditions (30 A/m2, 30 min and pH 8-10 for cadmium; 60A/m2, 80 min and pH 8-10 for nickel) for the EC process in electroplating rinse water were determined as 99.4% and 1.05/m3 for cadmium, 99.1% and 2.45/m3 for nickel and > 99.7% for cyanide, respectively. The results indicated that EC was very effective treatment for the removals of cadmium, nickel, and cyanide ions from the electroplating rinse water.

  14. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  15. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  16. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  17. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  18. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  19. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  20. Accommodation of COTS LCDs in military displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James B.; Henz, James M.; Dodd, Sonia R.

    1998-09-01

    Commercial off the shelf (COTS) liquid crystal displays are attractive as an alternative to LCDs that are custom designed and manufactured for the military environment. Commercial displays require significant modification to accommodate their use. This paper describes specific modifications that create a thermal cocoon around a nominal 3.6 X 4.6-inch commercial industrial/automotive display. The thermal design techniques allow the display to function in the particularly challenging F-16 thermal environment without exceeding the display's operating specification. The work is extended to examine what additional design extensions are required for still larger displays.

  1. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  2. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  3. Hexacyanoferrate-based composite ion-sensitive electrodes for voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Düssel, H; Dostal, A; Scholz, F

    1996-04-01

    Composite electrodes made of graphite, paraffin and metal hexacyanoferrates exhibit a voltammetric response of the hexacyanoferrate ions, the potential of which depends linearly on the logarithm of concentration of alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions. This behaviour has been observed on account of the fact that the electrochemical reaction is accompanied by an exchange of these ions between the solution and the zeolitic lattice of the hexacyanoferrates for charge compensation. The voltammetric determination of the formal potential of these electrodes in a solution allows the quantitative analysis of the ions which are exchanged between the metal hexacyanoferrates and the aqueous solutions. Iron(III), copper(II), silver(I), nickel(II) and cadmium(II) hexacyanoferrates have been studied for the determination of H(+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+), NH(+)(4), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+). In some cases, the selectivity constants are as low as 3.10(-4), or even so small that their exact value is inaccessible. Electrodes made of iron (III), copper (II), silver (I), nickel (II) and cadmium (II) hexacyanoferrates are most suitable for the determination of potassium ions. Electrodes with nickel (II) and cadmium (II) hexacyanoferrates are also suitable for the determination of caesium ions. The working range of the electrodes also depends on the conductivity of the solutions and can range from 10(-5) to 1 mol l(-1). Typical standard deviations of the potential measurements are 3 mV.

  4. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  5. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  6. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  7. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1... SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages... compartment suitably separated from other spaces for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have...

  8. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  9. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  10. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  11. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  12. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  13. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  14. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  15. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  16. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  17. The development of visual accommodation during early infancy.

    PubMed

    Banks, M S

    1980-09-01

    4 experiments were conducted concerning the development of visual accommodation in 1- to 3-month-old infants. In experiments 1 and 2 dynamic retinoscopy was used to measure accomodation responses at 3 stimulus distances. The results of experiment 1 revealed better accommodative capability from 1 to 3 months than reported originally. The procedure of experiment 2 was somewhat different but the results confirmed those of experiment 1. In experiment 3, accommodative responses at 7 stimulus distances were carefully measured in a small number of infants. These data provided estimates of the shape of infants' accommodation functions. In experiment 4, we used infrared photography to measure infants' pupil diameters while they viewed the stimuli of experiments 1 and 2. 2 simple hypotheses of the developmental mechanisms which underlie early accommodative development were considered. First, development of the motor component of the accommodative system might determine accommodative development. Second, development of the sensory component of the accommodative system might determine the observed development. The first hypothesis was tentatively rejected because it is inconsistent with some clinical findings. Evaluation of the second hypothesis involved calculating infants' depth of focus. We used those depth-of-focus values to predict how well infants of different ages should accommodate if their only limitation were in the sensory component of the accommodative system. The agreement between those predictions and observed accommodation was excellent, suggesting that changes in depth of focus in the first 3 months are largely responsible for growth in accommodation. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  18. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  19. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  20. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...