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Sample records for accommodate nickel electrode

  1. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  2. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  3. Technique for manufacturing nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Yamane, T.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method of manufacturing nickel electrodes distinctive for its use of a composite material for the electrode made up of nickel compound, electrode material, cobalt in metal form or cobalt in compound form is investigated. The composite is over-discharged (same as reverse charging) in an alkaline solution. After dealkalization, synthetic resin adhesive is added and the electrode is formed. Selection of the cobalt compound is made from a group consisting of cobalt oxide, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt carbonate and cobalt sulfate. The method upgrades plate characteristics by using an active material in a non-sintered type nickel electrode, which is activated by electro-chemical effect.

  4. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  5. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  6. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  7. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  8. Lightweight Electrode For Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved substrate for nickel electrode increases specific energy of nickel/hydrogen cell. Consists of 50 percent by weight nickel fiber, 35 percent nickel powder, and 15 percent cobalt powder. Porosity and thickness of nickel electrodes affect specific energy, initial performance, and cycle life of cell. Substrate easily manufactured with much larger porosities than those of heavy-sintered state-of-art nickel substrate.

  9. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance, thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder. The second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested, and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  10. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Wheeler, James R.; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder and the second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  11. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-04-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  12. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  13. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  14. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  15. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  16. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  17. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  18. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  19. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  20. Lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel/hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Zelter, Gabriela R.

    1993-01-01

    Thick nickel electrodes with lightweight substrate material have been prepared and tested in Ni/H2 boilerplate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte. Lightweight substrates used were either 85 or 90 percent in porosity and either 0.8 or 2 mm in thickness, respectively, compared with 80 to 82 percent porosity and 0.75 to 0.8 mm thickness of the state-of-the-art sintered plaque substrate. All of these thick electrodes had substantially improved theoretical (or chemical) capacity over that of state-of-the-art sintered nickel plaque electrodes. However, utilization of the active material was low (65 to 80 percent) compared with that of the state-of-the-art electrodes (approximately 90 percent) in 26 percent KOH. Due to this low utilization, the electrodes using 85 percent porous substrates did not show any advantage over the state-of-the-art ones. The electrodes using a 90 percent porous substrate, however, showed 17 percent higher usable specific capacity (about 0.13 Ah/g in 26 percent KOH) than that of the state-of-the-art nickel electrodes despite the low utilization. These electrodes achieved up to 4860 cycles at 40 percent depth-of-discharge with neither capacity loss nor any significant changes of rate capability and charging efficiency with cycling.

  1. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  2. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  3. The effects of platinum on nickel electrodes in the nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of platinum and platinum compounds with the nickel electrode that are possible in the nickel hydrogen cell, where both the nickel electrode and a platinum catalyst hydrogen electrode are in intimate contact with the alkaline electrolyte, are examined. Additionally, a mechanism of nickel cobalt oxyhydroxide formation in NiH2 cells is presented.

  4. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  5. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  6. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  7. Factors Affecting Nickel-oxide Electrode Capacity in Nickel-hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The nickel-oxide electrode common to the nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell is by design the limiting or capacity determining electrode on both charge and discharge. The useable discharge capacity from this electrode, and since it is the limiting electrode, the useable discharge capacity of the cell as well, can and is optimized by rate of charge, charge temperature and additives to electrode and electrolyte. Recent tests with nickel hydrogen cells and tests performed almost 25 years ago with nickel cadmium cells indicate an improvement of capacity as a result of using increased electrolyte concentration.

  8. Microfibrous nickel substrates and electrodes for battery system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Durben, Peter J.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The use of microfibrous nickel substrates is advantageous for increasing the surface area available for the deposition of active material and reducing the substrate weight and consequently, yields a higher specific capacity for nickel hydroxide electrodes. Porous, microfiber-based nickel substrates were produced by sintering a composite preform. The preforms, consisting of nickel fibers with diameters as small as 2 μm and cellulose fibers, were formed using a papermaking process. The fabricated nickel electrodes that included a supporting nickel mesh in the substrate tested in a 26% KOH half-cell delivered a specific capacity of more than 250 mAh/g of the electrode weight (i.e. fibrous substrate, nickel mesh, and active material) at a 1.0 C discharge rate. An Auburn electrode without a nickel mesh tested in the same half-cell attained a higher specific capacity of 268 mAh/g at a 1.37 C discharge rate. The substrates used in these electrodes had porosities of 95-97%, and greatly improved the specific capacity of the nickel electrode. With the use of the microfibrous electrode, improved specific energies of nickel-based cell and battery designs are possible. When assembled in a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H 2) boilerplate cell, the specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh/g was observed for the nickel electrode at a 0.5 C rate during the 127th cycle test. The results of high specific capacity and quick rise in utilization of microfibrous nickel hydroxide electrodes make these electrodes good candidates for significantly improving the energy density and performance of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  9. Development of a micro-fiber nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  10. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  11. Structural models for nickel electrode active mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, B. C.; Karjala, P. J.; Loyselle, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data allow one to distinguish nickel electrode active mass, alpha and beta phase materials. Discharges active mass is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. This is contrary to the generally accepted model for the discharged beta phase of active mass. It is concluded that charged active mass displays a disordered and nonstoichiometric, nonclose packed structure of the R3 bar m, NiOOH structure type. Raman spectral data and X ray diffraction data are analyzed and shown to be consistent with this structural model.

  12. Structural models for nickel electrode active mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Karjala, P. J.; Loyselle, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data allow one to distinguish nickel electrode active mass, alpha and beta phase materials. Discharges active mass is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. This is contrary to the generally accepted model for the discharged beta phase of active mass. It is concluded that charged active mass displays a disordered and nonstoichiometric, nonclose packed structure of the R3 bar m, NiOOH structure type. Raman spectral data and x ray diffraction data are analyzed and shown to be consistent with this structural model.

  13. High performance nickel electrodes for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adanuvor, Prosper K.; Pearson, Johnnie A.; Miller, Brian; Tatarchuk, Bruce; Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    The specific energy density and the performance of nickel electrodes are generally limited by the electrode microstructure and the nature of the active material within the electrode matrix. Progress is being made in our laboratory in a collaborative effort with NASA-LEWIS Research Center to develop lighter weight, mechanically stable and highly efficient nickel electrodes for aerospace applications. Our approach is based on an electrode microstructure fabricated from a mixture of nickel fibers as small as 2 micro m diameter and cellulose fibers. Results will be presented to show the optimum conditions for impregnating this electrode microstructure with nickel hydroxide active material. Performance data in half-cell tests and cycle life data will also be presented. The flexibility of this electrode microstructure and the significant advantages it offers in terms of weight and performance will be demonstrated, in particular its ability to accept charge at high rates and to discharge at high rates.

  14. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  15. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed.

  16. Process for producing nickel electrode having lightweight substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A nickel electrode having a lightweight porous nickel substrate is subjected to a formation cycle involving heavy overcharging and under-discharging in a KOH electrolyte having a concentration of 26% to 31%, resulting in electrodes displaying high active material utilization.

  17. High Performance Nickel Electrodes for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adanuvor, Prosper K.; Pearson, Johnnie A.; Miller, Brian; Tatarchuk, Bruce; Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics such as efficiency, specific energy density and power density of nickel electrodes are generally limited by the electrode microstructure and nature of the active material within the electrode matrix. Progress is being made in our laboratory in a collaborative effort with NASA-Lewis Research Center to develop lighter weight, mechanically stable and highly efficient nickel electrodes for aerospace applications. Our approach is based on an electrode microstructure fabricated from a mixture of nickel fibers as small as 2 microns diameter and cellulose fibers. Performance data in flooded cell tests and cycle life data are presented. Performance characteristics are compared to other electrode microstructures such as the Fibrex Fiber mat and the Fibrex Powder substrate. The flexibility of our electrode microstructure and the significant advantages it offers in terms of weight and performance are demonstrated, in particular, its ability to accept charge at high rates and to discharge at high rates.

  18. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to empirically controlled nickel electrode structural variations, and has unique potential for structural characterization of these materials. How the structure relates to electrochemical properties is examined so that the latter can be more completely understood, controlled, and optimized. Electrodes were impregnated and cycled, and cyclic voltammetry is being used for electrochemical characterization. Structural variation was observed which has escaped detection using other methods. Structural changes are induced by: (1) cobalt doping, (2) the state of change or discharge, (3) the preparation conditions and type of buffer used, and (4) the formation process. Charged active mass has an NiOOH-type structure, agreeing with X-ray diffraction results. Discharged active mass, however, is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. Chemically prepared alpha phases are not isostructural either. A disordered structural model, containing point defects, is proposed for the cycled materials. This model explains K(+) incorporation. Band assignments were made and spectra interpreted for beta-Ni(OH)2, electrochemical NiOOH and chemically precipitated NiOOH.

  19. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  20. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  1. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  2. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  3. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  4. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  5. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  6. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell. I Initial performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.; Blaser, C.; Keener, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, an investigation was begun to study the effects of sinter structure and active material loading level on the long life performance of nickel electrodes. This paper is a report on the initial performance of these electrodes as a part of an accelerated life test program. Seven different types of nickel plaques were made which included three levels of both their mechanical strength and median pore size. These plaques were impregnated with three levels of active material loading. The resultant electrodes were tested by a 200-cycle stress test which was conducted in flooded electrolyte, and also for initial performance in a Ni/H2 boiler plate cell. An interesting and unexpected observation was that an increased initial utilization of the active material was due more to its complete discharge to the lower average oxidation state than its increased charge acceptance in the charged state.

  7. A point defect model for nickel electrode structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyselle, Patricia L.; Karjala, Philip J.; Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra for nickel electrode active mass indicate a single formula-unit crystallographic unit cell of the layered NiOOH-type. Empirical stoichiometric formulas require that extensive point defects, cation dopants and nickel vacancies, be incorporated on nickel sites. Structural differences between the alpha/gamma and beta/beta cycles, and the influence of cobalt addition on the structure will be discussed in terms of the point defect model. Other empirical data supporting the point defect model will be considered.

  8. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  9. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  10. Characterization of cobalt-dipped nickel electrodes with fibrex substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngman, Carolyn A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    Nickel electrodes using fibrous substrates have poorer initial utilization of the active material than those using conventional nickel sinter substrates. Previous investigators had shown that utilization can be dramatically improved by dipping these electrodes in a cobalt solution immediately after the electrochemical impregnation, before formation and cycling is carried out. The present study looked at the gas evolution behavior of dipped and undipped electrodes, impedance curves, and the charge-discharge curves to try to understand the reasons for the improvement in utilization. Impedance measurements under open circuit conditions indicate that some of the improvement is due to a reduction in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the particles, in agreement with earlier work. The charge-discharge curves suggest that there may also be an additional increase in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the undipped electrode during charging.

  11. Past developments and the future of nickel electrode cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.

    1984-01-01

    The nickel hydroxide electrode has evolved over nearly 100 years from the pocket electrode structure through to the present design of a light weight, porous, plaque structure. Before discussing the historical aspects, it would be helpful to point out that there are basically two parts to the electrode: the active material and the current (electron) collector. Together they provide the essential properties for storing and converting the chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. The electrical energy is stored in the nickel hydroxide active material during charge, in which the electrode is oxidized. The chemical energy is converted back to electrical energy during discharge. The active material is itself initially non-conductive. Therefore it must be housed in a high conductivity metallic structure which serves as the current collector. This is, in turn, connected to another high conductivity metallic structure called the terminal.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  13. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Coates, Dwaine

    1996-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  14. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-11-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (< 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  15. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-02-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  16. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  17. The failure mechanism of a nickel electrode in a nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on a number of types of nickel electrodes after cycle failure in a Ni/H2 cell showed that the failure is due to the loss of high rate discharge capability rather than an absolute capacity loss. The failure mechanism is speculated to be a combination of migration of the active material away from the current collecting nickel sinter, increased porosity of the active material caused by cycling, and an electrical isolation process of the active material during discharge.

  18. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  19. Electrochemical investigation of the voltammetric determination of hydrochlorothiazide using a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Machini, Wesley B S; David-Parra, Diego N; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2015-12-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode as well as its behavior as electrocatalyst toward the oxidation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were investigated. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrooxidation of HCTZ were explored using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric response of the modified electrode in the detection of HCTZ is based on the electrochemical oxidation of the Ni(II)/Ni(III) and a chemical redox process. The analytical parameters for the electrooxidation of HCTZ by the nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode were obtained in NaOH solution, in which the linear voltammetric response was in the concentration range from 1.39×10(-5) to 1.67×10(-4)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.92×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 0.138 μA Lmmol(-1). Tafel analysis was used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of HCTZ oxidation by the modified electrode. PMID:26354274

  20. Light Weight Design Nickel-Alkaline Cells Using Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Willis, Bob; Britton, Doris; Saelens, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Using fiber electrode technology, currently produced by Bekaert Corporation (Bekaert), Electro Energy, Inc., (EEI) Mobile Energy Products Group (formerly, Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC., Power Systems Department) in Colorado Springs, CO has demonstrated that it is feasible to manufacture flight weight nickel-hydrogen cells having about twice the specific energy (80 vs. 40 watt-hr/kg) as state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen cells that are flown on geosynchronous communications satellites. Although lithium-ion battery technology has made large in-roads to replace the nickel-alkaline technology (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride), the technology offered here competes with lithium-ion weight and offers alternatives not present in the lithium-ion chemistry such as ability to undergo continuous overcharge, reversal on discharge and sustain rate capability sufficient to start automotive and aircraft engines at subzero temperatures. In development to date seven 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen have been constructed, acceptance tested and briefly tested in a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime. The effort was jointly funded by Electro Energy, Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH. Five of the seven cells have been shipped to NASA GRC for further cycle testing. Two of the cells experienced failure due to internal short circuits during initial cycle testing at EEL Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) of one of the cells has shown the failure mode to be due to inadequate hydrogen catalyst electrodes that were not capacity balanced with the higher energy density nickel oxide electrodes. In the investigators opinion, rebuild of the cells using proper electrode balance would result in cells that could sustain over 30,000 cycles at moderate depths-of-discharge in a LEO regime or endure over 20 years of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) cycling while realizing a two-fold increase in specific energy for the battery or a 1.1 kg weight savings per 50 ampere-hour cell. Additional

  1. Modeling of Nickel Hydroxide Electrode Containing Multiple Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical models of alkaline rechargeable nickel cell systems (e.g., Ni-Cd, Ni-H(sub 2) and Ni-MH) have so far been developed based on the assumption that the active material at Ni electrode exists primarily in a single phase as Beta-NiOOH -- Beta-Ni(OH)(sub 2), despite enough experimental evidence for the second phase, i.e., Gamma-NiOOH -- Alpha-Ni(OH)(sub 2), especially under conditions of extended coverage. Here, we have incorporated the additional couple of Gamma-NiOOH -- Alpha-Ni(OH)(sub 2) into the modeling of the Ni electrode.

  2. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for a Nickel-hydrogen Cell: Cycle Life Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, cycle life tests of nickel electrodes were carried out in Hi/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45-minute low earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. The results show that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength did not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. The best plaque type appears to be one which is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has a median pore size of 13 micron.

  3. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  4. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-01

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes. PMID:26575957

  5. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells and batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher specific energy than the heavy sintered state of the art nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber, felt, and nickel plated plastic) are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested at 40 and 80 percent depths of discharge (DOD). Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. Over 7,000 cycles of life cycle testing have been accumulated at 40 percent DOD, using the lightweight fiber electrode in a boiler plate Ni-H2 cell with stable voltage.

  6. Charge control of nickel-cadmium batteries by coulometer and third electrode method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F.; Paulkovitch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Combined coulometer/third electrode control circuit for a nickel-cadmium battery included at least one cell of the third electrode type is illustrated. The coulometer/third electrode sensing circuit controls the series regulator as necessary to maintain the sensing voltage at the preset sensing level.

  7. Effects of addition of different carbon materials on the electrochemical performance of nickel hydroxide electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Katarzyna; Lota, Grzegorz

    Nickel hydroxide is used as an active material in positive electrodes of rechargeable alkaline batteries. The capacity of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries depends on the specific capacity of the positive electrode and utilization of the active material because of the Ni(OH) 2/NiOOH electrode capacity limitation. The practical capacity of the positive nickel electrode depends on the efficiency of the conductive network connecting the Ni(OH) 2 particle with the current collector. As β-Ni(OH) 2 is a kind of semiconductor, the additives are necessary to improve the conductivity between the active material and the current collector. In this study the effect of adding different carbon materials (flake graphite, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)) on the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrode was established. A method of production of MWNT special type of catalysts had an influence on the performance of the nickel electrodes. The electrochemical tests showed that the electrode with added MWNT (110-170 nm diameter) exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage and cycling stability. The nickel electrodes with MWNT addition (110-170 nm diameter) have exhibited a specific capacity close to 280 mAh g -1 of Ni(OH) 2, and the degree of active material utilization was ∼96%.

  8. Study of nickel electrode oxidation as a function of 80% depth of discharge cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, D.F. Jr.; Scoles, D.L.; Johnson, Z.W.; Hayden, J.W.; Pennington, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oxidation of nickel sinter used in nickel oxide electrodes in aerospace nickel cadmium cells leads to hydrogen gassing and the potential for cell rupture. The oxidation is directly related to loss of overcharge protection built into the cell during manufacturing. In nickel hydrogen cells, excessive oxidation of the nickel sinter can eventually lead to a burst before leak situation and is a potential source of failure. It is well known that nickel cadmium cells having nylon separators contribute to loss of overcharge via a hydrolysis reaction of the nylon in the potassium hydroxide electrolyte environment in the cell. The hydrolysis reaction produces lower chain organics which are oxidized by the positive electrode and oxygen. Oxidation of the organics diminishes the overcharge protection. With introduction of the Super NiCd{trademark} and the Magnum{trademark} nickel cadmium cells the nylon hydrolysis reaction is eliminated, but any reducing agent in the cell such as nickel or an organic additive can contribute to loss of overcharge protection. The present effort describes chemical analyses made to evaluate the extent of overcharge protection loss in nickel cadmium cells which do not have nylon hydrolysis, and quantifies the amount of hydrogen buildup in nickel hydrogen cells which are subjected to 80% depth of discharge cycling with and without the presence of cadmium in the positive electrode.

  9. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  10. Method of making porous conductive supports for electrodes. [by electroforming and stacking nickel foils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Porous conductive supports for electrochemical cell electrodes are made by electroforming thin corrugated nickel foil, and by stacking pieces of the corrugated foil alternatively with pieces of thin flat nickel foil. Corrugations in successive corrugated pieces are oriented at different angles. Adjacent pieces of foil are bonded by heating in a hydrogen atmosphere and then cutting the stack in planes perpendicular to the foils.

  11. Effect of impregnation method on cycle life of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode has been identified as the life limiting component for individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells when cycled under a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at deep depths of discharge. As a part of an overall program to develop a long life nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cells, the effect of two different methods of electrochemical impregnation on the cycle life of the nickel electrode was investigated. One method was the Pickett (aqueous/ethanolic) process. The other was the modified Bell (aqueous) process. The plaques for both impregnation methods were made by sintering dry carbonyl nickel powder in a reducing atmosphere. The plaques contain a nickel screen substrate. Electrodes made from both processes were cycle tested in Air Force design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells. The only factor different for this test was the method of plaque impregnation; all other factors were the same. The cells were cycled to failure under a 90 min LEO cycle regime at a deep depth of discharge (80 percent DOD). Failure for this test was defined to occur when the cell voltage degraded to 1.0 V prior to the completion of the 35 min discharge.

  12. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-11-30

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  13. Structural comparison of nickel electrodes and precursor phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Shan, Xiaoyin; Loyselle, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    A summary of previous Raman spectroscopic results and a discussion of important structural differences in the various phases of active mass and active mass precurors are presented. Raman spectra provide unique signatures for these phases, and allow one to distinguish each phase, even when the compound is amorphous to X-rays (i.e., does not scatter X-rays because of a lack of order and/or small particle size). The structural changes incurred during formation, charge and discharge, cobalt addition, and aging will be discussed and related to electrode properties. Important structural differences include NiO2 layer stacking, nonstoichiometry (especially cation-deficit nonstoichiometry), disorder, dopant content, and water content. The results indicate that optimal nickel active mass is non-close packed and nonstoichiometric. The formation process transforms precursor phases into this structure. Therefore, the precursor disorder, or lack thereof, influences this final active mass structure and the rate of formation. Aging processes induce structural change which is believed to be detrimental. The role of cobalt addition can be appreciated in terms of structures favored or stabilized by the dopant. In recent work, the in situ Raman technique to characterize the critical structural parameters was developed. An in situ method relates structure, electrochemistry, and preparation. In situ Raman spectra of cells during charge and discharge, either during cyclic voltammetry or under constant current conditions were collected. With the structure-preparation knowledge and the in situ Raman tool, it will be possible to define the structure-property-preparation relations in more detail. This instrumentation has application to a variety of electrode systems.

  14. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell. III - Results of an accelerated test and failure analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen different designs of nickel electrodes were tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells in an accelerated low earth orbit cycle regime to the end of their life. The failure analyses of these cells showed that the major performance changes due to the cycling was a severe reduction of their high rate discharge capability rather than an absolute capacity reduction. Many physical changes of the nickel electrodes were observed after the cycling test. These changes include dimensional expansion, sinter rupture, loose black powdering of the active material, morphology changes, active material migration, increase of pore volume, change of pore distribution, and increase of surface area. All of these were caused by active material expansion with cycling. Among these changes, the morphology change which involves migration of active material away from the current collecting nickel sinter appears to be that most responsible for the reduction of the rate capability.

  15. Low resistance metal contacts to MoS2 devices with nickel-etched-graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wei Sun; Luo, Xin; Li, Yida; Khoo, Khoong Hong; Quek, Su Ying; Thong, John T L

    2015-01-27

    We report an approach to achieve low-resistance contacts to MoS2 transistors with the intrinsic performance of the MoS2 channel preserved. Through a dry transfer technique and a metal-catalyzed graphene treatment process, nickel-etched-graphene electrodes were fabricated on MoS2 that yield contact resistance as low as 200 Ω · μm. The substantial contact enhancement (∼ 2 orders of magnitude), as compared to pure nickel electrodes, is attributed to the much smaller work function of nickel-graphene electrodes, together with the fact that presence of zigzag edges in the treated graphene surface enhances tunneling between nickel and graphene. To this end, the successful fabrication of a clean graphene-MoS2 interface and a low resistance nickel-graphene interface is critical for the experimentally measured low contact resistance. The potential of using graphene as an electrode interlayer demonstrated in this work paves the way toward achieving high performance next-generation transistors. PMID:25517793

  16. Properties of Y5V Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors with Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuno, Hisamitsu; Kusumi, Shinya; Saito, Hiroshi; Kishi, Hiroshi

    1993-09-01

    In order to realize nickel electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors with high capacitance per volume, the holmium-doped (Ba, Ca, Mg)(Ti, Zr)O3 system was studied. In the case of maintaining an oxidizing atmosphere at the cooling stage, the resistivities of the dielectric materials were easily recovered by doping with Ho. The newly developed dielectric material exhibited high dielectric constant (18,000) and high resistivity (>10-12 Ω cm). Using the dielectrics, nickel electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors with high specific capacitance (Y5V 4.7 μF in EIA 1206 size) were developed. They showed highly reliable characteristics.

  17. Effect of sinter fracture and ohmic resistance on capacity retention in the nickel oxide electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Oscar; Landau, Uziel

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of batteries which utilize the nickel oxide electrode is often limited because this electrode loses a significant portion of its capacity as it is cycled. It is asserted that this capacity loss may often be attributed to cracking or separation of the conductive nickel sinter in the electrode, which forces electronic current to pass through the poorly conducting hydrated oxide and thus imposes a significant ohmic resistance. The model indicates that the oxide develops a nearly insulating layer which prevents complete discharge in the cycled electrode at usable rates. The capacity retention can be improved by reducing the cyclic stresses or strengthening the current collecting structure, redistributing it to provide a shorter current path through the solid phase, or by increasing the conductivity of the oxide to delay the formation of an insulating layer.

  18. Calcium metaborate as a cathode additive to improve the high-temperature properties of nickel hydroxide electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Dan; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel additive, calcium metaborate (CMB), is proposed to improve the high-temperature characteristics of the nickel electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries. As a soluble calcium salt, CMB can easily and uniformly be dispersed in the nickel electrodes. The effects of CMB on the nickel electrode are investigated via a combination of cyclability, capacity retention, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Compared with conventional nickel electrodes, the electrode containing 0.5 wt.% CMB exhibits superior electrode properties including enhanced discharge capacity, improved high-rate discharge ability and excellent cycle stability at an elevated temperature (70 °C). The improved cell performance of the nickel electrode containing CMB additives can be attributable to the increased oxygen evolution overvoltage and slower oxygen evolution rate. Compared with insoluble calcium salts, such as Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, and CaF2, CMB is more effective as a cathode additive to improve the high-temperature performance of Ni-MH batteries.

  19. Polyaniline-based nickel electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors-Influence of Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girija, T. C.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

    The influence of Triton X-100 in enhancing the capacitance of polyaniline-based nickel electrodes is reported. Cyclic voltammetric experiments, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and impedance analysis were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as an electrochemical supercapacitor. A qualitative interpretation of the enhancement is provided. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed for characterization of the electrode.

  20. Improvement of the process for electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comtat, M.; Lafage, B.; Leonardi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 11g/dsqm hydroxide, with capacities of 3.6 to 3.8 Ah/dsqm were prepared at 353 K by electrochemical impregnation. The reproducibility of the results is obtained by readjusting the pH before each preparation. The control of each electrode is done during two cycles of charge and discharge following the manufacture by a potential relaxation method.

  1. Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel, and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. |; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc, and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrate ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and a nickel anode is an efficient means of removing nitrate from strongly alkaline solutions. Electrode pretreatment and solution conditions were chosen to correspond to those that might be encountered in practical applications, for example, the cleanup of radioactive waste solutions.

  2. Initial capacity conditioning on electrochemical nickel hydroxide electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Conditioning is the initial cycling where cell capacity is usually unstable. The causes of the initial capacity build were examined. Gridless electrodes were fabricated to ensure mechanical homogeneity, so that a strain measured in one direction would be typical of a strain measured in the other directions. Plate hardness was also determined. These two parameters stabilize together.

  3. Reliability of multilayer ceramic capacitors with nickel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamatsu, J.; Kawano, N.; Arashi, T.; Sato, A.; Nakano, Y.; Nomura, T.

    The reliability of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with Ni internal electrodes has been studied trom the viewpoint of partial oxygen pressure ( PO2) during firing. It is shown that the load-life time of the insulation resistance (1R) was prolonged by firing under low Po 2 annealing after firing, and the addition of dopants. It is also shown that the generation of oxygen vacancies led to the degradation of IR. Annealing treatment for the oxidation of the dielectric body accelerates the dielectric aging of MLCCs. It is found that the appropriate control of the PO2 during firing can improve the reliability of MLCCs with Ni electrodes to a level as high as that of MLCCs with precious metal electrodes. Thus, we have developed an MLCC with Ni electrodes that features high reliability and a large capacitance of 10 μF for the Y5V characteristic and 4.7 μF for the X7R characteristic, both in the case of the C3216 (3.2 mm × 1.6 mm × 1.4 mm) form.

  4. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  5. Modelling of nickel-cadmium batteries using porous electrode theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Glueck, Peter R.; Perrone, David E.

    1991-01-01

    A porous electrode modeling technique is discussed which is considered a viable means for quantitatively predicting Ni-Cd cell performance. The authors describe the integration of the cell model into a battery model useful in the design and operation of aerospace applications. Test data from a sealed boilerplate cell are presented for constant current charge and discharge conditions. Performance predictions for similar cases have been performed, and a comparison to the boilerplate data is made. Areas for further development are also noted.

  6. Screenable all-metal solar cell electrodes of nickel and copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    Screenable thick film solar cell electrodes are made using the all-metal electrode system, which eliminates the commonly used glass frit and substitutes an oxide scavenger such as silver fluoride. The low temperature firing copper metal systems give good results on solar cells obtaining cell efficiencies of 13% AM1, and adhering sintered structures are demonstrated with nickel systems. The potential effect of copper upon cell performance at elevated temperatures over long periods of time is determined, and it is found that the formation of a copper-silicon eutectic at 550 C produces needle-like structures with broad bases on the silicon, extending into and occasionally through the metallization layer.

  7. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  8. X7R Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors with Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Chazono, Hirokazu; Kishi, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobutatsu

    1991-09-01

    Electrical properties and microstructures of a holmium-doped (Ba1.01Mg0.01)O1.02(Ti0.98Zr0.02)O2 system were studied. Additions of Ho2O3 had little effect in preventing the dielectrics from reducing at high temperature, but the resistivity at low temperature increased with increasing amount of Ho2O3 when treated in oxidizing atmosphere at the cooling stage. From transmission electron micrograph (TEM) observation, it was noted that the microstructure exhibited a grain core-grain shell structure. Newly developed X7R multilayer ceramic capacitors with Ni electrodes revealed highly reliable electrical properties.

  9. A study of the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxide electrodes with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Ke, Jia-Jun; Yu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Deng-Jun

    Nickel composite electrodes (NCE) with various additives are prepared by a chemical impregnation method from nitrate solutions on sintered porous plaques. The electrochemical properties, such as utilization of active material, swelling and the discharge potential of the nickel oxide electrode (NOE) are determined mainly through the composition of the active material and the characteristics of nickel plaques. Most additives (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Co, Li and Al hydroxide) exert effects on the discharge potential and swelling of the NOE. Chemical co-precipitation with the addition of calcium, zinc, magnesium and barium hydroxide increases the discharge potential by more than 20 mV, but that with zinc hydroxide results in an obvious decrease of active-material utilization and that with calcium and magnesium hydroxide produces a larger increase of electrode thickness. The effects of anion additives are also examined. Less than 1% mol of NiS in the active material increases the discharge potential. Cadmium, cobalt and zinc hydroxide are excellent additives for preventing swelling of the NCE. Slow voltammetry (0.2 mV s -1) in 6 M KOH is applied to characterize the oxygen-evolving potential of the NCE. The difference between the oxygen-evolution potential and the potential of the oxidation peak for the NCE with additives of calcium, lithium, barium and aluminium hydroxide is at least + 60 mV.

  10. Nickel-zinc accordion-fold batteries with microfibrous electrodes using a papermaking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Flanzer, Mark E.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    Thin microfibrous substrates were built using a low cost, high speed, wet lay papermaking process with nickel and copper microfibers. High quality microfiber sheets with designed thickness and void volumes were fabricated at the Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing at Auburn University. Products include thin microfibrous nickel and copper substrates with or without suitable expanded metal meshes, either sandwiched inside or on the backside. An improved method for fabrication of zinc electrodes was accomplished by electro-depositing active zinc material on 6 and/or 9 μm diameter microfibrous copper substrates. These zinc electrodes with various additives were examined for shape change and tested for performance. A new structure of electrode design was employed using an accordion-fold cell. By using five individual segments sintered onto an expanded metal mesh, an accordion-fold cell (670 mAh rated capacity) was assembled and had 98.0% coulomb efficiency, 88.6% energy efficiency at 72% depth-of-discharge (DOD) and 73.2% state-of-recharge (SOR) in the 79th cycle. A Ni-Zn cell consisting of one thick nickel and one thick zinc electrode was tested for rate performance in comparison with the 670 mAh accordion-fold cell. The accordion-fold cell (1279 mAh rated capacity) was scaled-up and tested for 835 cycles at 38% DOD at a 0.3 C charge and discharge rates, and continuously operated at 38% DOD until the 1050th cycle was finished at 0.16 C charge/discharge rates. A 7115 mAh accordion-fold demonstration cell was tested at 0.28 C charge and discharge rates for 608 cycles and still had a 4.7 Ah capacity at a 0.08 C discharge rate.

  11. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency. PMID:22519122

  12. Nickel foam-based manganese dioxide-carbon nanotube composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 2-4 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of slurries of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into porous nickel foam current collectors. In the composite electrodes, MWCNT formed a secondary conductivity network within the nickel foam cells. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 0-20 wt.% MWCNT with total mass loading of 40 mg cm -2, showed a capacitive behavior in the 0.1-0.5 M Na 2SO 4 solutions. The highest specific capacitance (SC) of 155 F g -1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s -1 in the 0.5 M Na 2SO 4 solutions. The SC increased with increasing MWCNT content in the composite materials and increasing Na 2SO 4 concentration in the solutions and decreased with increasing scan rate.

  13. Reactively sputtered nickel nitride as electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo Kang, Jin; Park, Min-Ah; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ha Park, Sun; Young Chung, Dong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin; Park, Jongwoo; Choi, Jung-Woo; Jae Lee, Kyung; Jeong, Juwon; Jae Ko, Min; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-01

    Nickel nitride electrodes were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel under a N2 atmosphere at room temperature for application in mesoscopic dye- or quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. This facile and reliable method led to the formation of a Ni2N film with a cauliflower-like nanostructure and tetrahedral crystal lattice. The prepared nickel nitride electrodes exhibited an excellent chemical stability toward both iodide and polysulfide redox electrolytes. Compared to conventional Pt electrodes, the nickel nitride electrodes showed an inferior electrocatalytic activity for the iodide redox electrolyte; however, it displayed a considerably superior electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox electrolyte. As a result, compared to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with a conversion efficiency (η) = 7.62%, and CdSe-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, η = 2.01%) employing Pt counter electrodes (CEs), the nickel nitride CEs exhibited a lower conversion efficiency (η = 3.75%) when applied to DSCs, but an enhanced conversion efficiency (η = 2.80%) when applied to CdSe-based QDSCs.

  14. Electrochemical properties of monolithic nickel sulfide electrodes for use in sodium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Dae-Yeon; Park, Jinsoo; Noh, Pan-Jin; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Nam, Tae-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Ki-Won

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We succeeded in preparing monolithic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} integrated electrode through the sulfuration. • The sulfuration is a facile and useful method to synthesize metal sulfides with nanostructure. • As-prepared monolithic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes showed very stable and cycle performance over charge/discharge cycling. - Abstract: Monolithic nickel sulfide electrodes were prepared using a facile synthesis method, sulfuration and annealing. As-prepared Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal stability was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Electrochemical properties were measured by galvanostatic charge and discharge cycling for Na-ion batteries. Three kinds of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} electrodes were prepared by varying the sulfuration time (5, 15 and 25 min). The electrochemical results indicated that the capacities increased with an increase in sulfuration time and the cycle performance was stable as a result of monolithic integration of nanostructured Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} on Ni plates, leading to low interfacial resistance.

  15. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  16. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g−1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  17. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g‑1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  18. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  19. Transparent nickel selenide alloy counter electrodes for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Li, Ru; Yu, Liangmin

    2014-10-01

    In the current work, we report a series of bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that provide power conversion efficiencies of more than 10% from bifacial irradiation. The device comprises an N719-sensitized TiO2 anode, a transparent nickel selenide (Ni-Se) alloy counter electrode (CE), and liquid electrolyte containing I-/I3- redox couples. Because of the high optical transparency, electron conduction ability, electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Se CEs, as well as dye illumination, electron excitation and power conversion efficiency have been remarkably enhanced. Results indicate that incident light from a transparent CE has a compensation effect to the light from the anode. The impressive efficiency along with simple preparation of the cost-effective Ni-Se alloy CEs highlights the potential application of bifacial illumination technique in robust DSSCs.In the current work, we report a series of bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that provide power conversion efficiencies of more than 10% from bifacial irradiation. The device comprises an N719-sensitized TiO2 anode, a transparent nickel selenide (Ni-Se) alloy counter electrode (CE), and liquid electrolyte containing I-/I3- redox couples. Because of the high optical transparency, electron conduction ability, electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Se CEs, as well as dye illumination, electron excitation and power conversion efficiency have been remarkably enhanced. Results indicate that incident light from a transparent CE has a compensation effect to the light from the anode. The impressive efficiency along with simple preparation of the cost-effective Ni-Se alloy CEs highlights the potential application of bifacial illumination technique in robust DSSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic diagram, repeated J-V curves, CV curves of Ni0.85Se electrode at various scan rates, relationship between peak current density and square root of scan rates. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03900a

  20. Evaluations of solid electrodes for use in voltammetric monitoring of heavy metals in samples from metallurgical nickel industry.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Øyvind; Skogvold, Silje Marie; Schrøder, Knut H; Gjerde, Magne Ivar; Aarhaug, Thor Anders

    2003-09-01

    Evaluation of different solid electrode systems for detection of zinc, lead, cobalt, and nickel in process water from metallurgical nickel industry with use of differential pulse stripping voltammetry has been performed. Zinc was detected by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) on a dental amalgam electrode as intermetallic Ni-Zn compound after dilution in ammonium buffer solution. The intermetallic compound was observed at -375 mV, and a linear response was found in the range 0.2-1.2 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.98) for 60 s deposition time. Simultaneous detection of nickel and cobalt in the low microg L(-1) range was successfully performed by use of adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) of dimethylglyoxime complexes on a silver-bismuth alloy electrode, and a good correlation was found with corresponding AAS results (r(2)=0.999 for nickel and 0.965 for cobalt). Analyses of lead in the microg L(-1) range in nickel-plating solution were performed with good sensitivity and stability by DPASV, using a working electrode of silver together with a glassy carbon counter electrode in samples diluted 1:3 with distilled water and acidified with H(2)SO(4) to pH 2. A new commercial automatic at-line system was tested, and the results were found to be in agreement with an older mercury drop system. The stability of the solid electrode systems was found to be from one to several days without any maintenance needed. PMID:12898113

  1. Nickel Nanofoam/Different Phases of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrodes for Superior Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsuk; Song, Haeni; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Choi, Soo Hyung; Jang, Jong Hyun; Char, Kookheon; Son, Jeong Gon

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have received considerable attention due to their high power density and potential for obtaining improved energy density in comparison to the lithium ion battery. Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising candidate for use as an EDLC electrode because it has a high specific surface area (SSA), providing a wider charge storage space and size-controllable mesopore structure with a long-range order, suppling high accessibility to the electrolyte ions. However, OMCs fabricated using conventional methods have several drawbacks including low electronic conductivity and long ionic diffusion paths in mesopores. We used nickel nanofoam, which has a relatively small pore (sub-100 nm to subμm) network structure, as a current collector. This provides a significantly shortened electronic/ionic current paths and plentiful surface area, enabling stable and close attachment of OMCs without the use of binders. Thus, we present hierarchical binder-free electrode structures based on OMC/Ni nanofoams. These structures give rise to enhanced specific capacitance and a superior rate capability. We also investigated the mesopore structural effect of OMCs on electrolyte transport by comparing the capacitive performances of collapsed lamellar, cylindrical, and spherical mesopore electrodes. The highly ordered and straightly aligned cylindrical OMCs exhibited the highest specific capacitance and the best rate capability. PMID:27490161

  2. Nickel-Tin Electrode Materials for Nonaqueous Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Grant M.; Durand, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Experimental materials made from mixtures of nickel and tin powders have shown promise for use as the negative electrodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical power cells. During charging (or discharging) of a lithium-ion cell, lithium ions are absorbed into (or desorbed from, respectively) the negative electrode, typically through an intercalation or alloying process. The negative electrodes (for this purpose, designated as anodes) in state-of-the-art Li-ion cells are made of graphite, in which intercalation occurs. Alternatively, the anodes can be made from metals, in which alloying can occur. For reasons having to do with the electrochemical potential of intercalated lithium, metallic anode materials (especially materials containing tin) are regarded as safer than graphite ones; in addition, such metallic anode materials have been investigated in the hope of obtaining reversible charge/discharge capacities greater than those of graphite anodes. However, until now, each of the tin-containing metallic anode formulations tested has been found to be inadequate in some respect.

  3. Transparent nickel selenide alloy counter electrodes for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Li, Ru; Yu, Liangmin

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, we report a series of bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that provide power conversion efficiencies of more than 10% from bifacial irradiation. The device comprises an N719-sensitized TiO2 anode, a transparent nickel selenide (Ni-Se) alloy counter electrode (CE), and liquid electrolyte containing I(-)/I3(-) redox couples. Because of the high optical transparency, electron conduction ability, electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Se CEs, as well as dye illumination, electron excitation and power conversion efficiency have been remarkably enhanced. Results indicate that incident light from a transparent CE has a compensation effect to the light from the anode. The impressive efficiency along with simple preparation of the cost-effective Ni-Se alloy CEs highlights the potential application of bifacial illumination technique in robust DSSCs. PMID:25185939

  4. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth. PMID:26192558

  5. A nonstoichiometric structural model to characterize changes in the nickel hydroxide electrode during cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Venkat; Bahne, C. Cornilsen; Weidner, John W.

    2003-09-15

    Experimental capacities and mass changes are recorded using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance during the first 9 charge and discharge cycles of nickel hydroxide thin films cycled in 3.0 weight percent (wt%) potassium hydroxide electrolyte. For the first time, the film capacities have been corrected for the oxygen evolution side reaction, and the data used as input into the point defect-containing structural model to track the changes that occur during short-term cycling. Variations in capacity and mass during formation and charge/discharge cycling are related to changes in the point defect parameters, thus providing a structural origin for the unique experimental variations observed here and often reported in the literature, but previously unexplained. Proton-, potassium-, and water-content vary in the active material during charge/discharge cycling. The observed capacity loss, or ''capacity fade'', is explained by incomplete incorporation of potassium ions in (or near) the nickel vacancy during charge, as additional protons are then allowed to occupy the vacant lattice site. The increase in water content during reduction parallels the expansion of the electrode that is well known during cycling. This result confirms the origin of the swelling phenomenon as being caused by water incorporation. The model and methodology developed in this paper can be used to correlate electrochemical signatures with material chemical structure.

  6. Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle electrodes for aqueous sodium and potassium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wessells, Colin D; Peddada, Sandeep V; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology. (1, 2) Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid. PMID:22043814

  7. Nickel hydroxide deposited indium tin oxide electrodes as electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of carbohydrates in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Farzana, S.; Berchmans, Sheela

    In this work, the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates using nickel hydroxide modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in alkaline medium is demonstrated; suggesting the feasibility of using carbohydrates as a novel fuel in alkaline fuel cells applications. The chosen monosaccharides are namely glucose and fructose; disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose; and sugar acid like ascorbic acid for this study. ITO electrodes are chemically modified using a hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase template electrodeposition of nickel. Structural morphology, growth, orientation and electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposits are characterized using SEM, XRD, XPS and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Further electrochemical potential cycling process in alkaline medium is employed to convert these Ni deposits into corresponding nickel hydroxide modified electrodes. These electrodes are used as novel platform to perform the electrocatalytic oxidation of various carbohydrates in alkaline medium. It was found that bare and Ni coated ITO electrodes are inactive towards carbohydrates oxidation. The heterogeneous rate constant values are determined and calculated to be two orders of magnitude higher in the case of template method when compared to non-template technique. The observed effect is attributed to the synergistic effect of higher surface area of these deposits and catalytic ability of Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple.

  8. Migration of Co in nickel oxide/hydroxide of a nickel electrode in a Ni/H2 cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Doty, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Cobalt redistribution in nickel active material has been reported. This redistribution was suspected to be related to capacity fading. The objective of this work is to establish a relationship between cobalt redistribution and capacity fading. Microscopic cobalt distribution in nickel active material was studied using three EDX techniques: line scan, point-by-point analysis, and dot maps. Results from this study are presented.

  9. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh; Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-01

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  10. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  11. 3D Scaffolded Nickel-Tin Li-Ion Anodes with Enhanced Cyclability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huigang; Shi, Tan; Wetzel, David J; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Braun, Paul V

    2016-01-27

    A 3D mechanically stable scaffold is shown to accommodate the volume change of a high-specific-capacity nickel-tin nanocomposite during operation as a Li-ion battery anode. The nickel-tin anode is supported by an electrochemically inactive conductive scaffold with an engineered free volume and controlled characteristic dimensions, which engender the electrode with significantly improved cyclability. PMID:26618617

  12. Electrodeposition of hierarchically structured three-dimensional nickel-iron electrodes for efficient oxygen evolution at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale industrial application of electrolytic splitting of water has called for the development of oxygen evolution electrodes that are inexpensive, robust and can deliver large current density (>500 mA cm-2) at low applied potentials. Here we show that an efficient oxygen electrode can be developed by electrodepositing amorphous mesoporous nickel-iron composite nanosheets directly onto macroporous nickel foam substrates. The as-prepared oxygen electrode exhibits high catalytic activity towards water oxidation in alkaline solutions, which only requires an overpotential of 200 mV to initiate the reaction, and is capable of delivering current densities of 500 and 1,000 mA cm-2 at overpotentials of 240 and 270 mV, respectively. The electrode also shows prolonged stability against bulk water electrolysis at large current. Collectively, the as-prepared three-dimensional structured electrode is the most efficient oxygen evolution electrode in alkaline electrolytes reported to the best of our knowledge, and can potentially be applied for industrial scale water electrolysis.

  13. Electrodeposition of hierarchically structured three-dimensional nickel-iron electrodes for efficient oxygen evolution at high current densities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale industrial application of electrolytic splitting of water has called for the development of oxygen evolution electrodes that are inexpensive, robust and can deliver large current density (>500 mA cm(-2)) at low applied potentials. Here we show that an efficient oxygen electrode can be developed by electrodepositing amorphous mesoporous nickel-iron composite nanosheets directly onto macroporous nickel foam substrates. The as-prepared oxygen electrode exhibits high catalytic activity towards water oxidation in alkaline solutions, which only requires an overpotential of 200 mV to initiate the reaction, and is capable of delivering current densities of 500 and 1,000 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 240 and 270 mV, respectively. The electrode also shows prolonged stability against bulk water electrolysis at large current. Collectively, the as-prepared three-dimensional structured electrode is the most efficient oxygen evolution electrode in alkaline electrolytes reported to the best of our knowledge, and can potentially be applied for industrial scale water electrolysis. PMID:25776015

  14. Flower-like nickel cobalt sulfide microspheres modified with nickel sulfide as Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jinghao; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Tu, Yongguang; Lan, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    The nickel cobalt sulfide/nickel sulfide (NiCo2S4/NiS) microspheres which exhibit flower-like morphologies are synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method. Then the NiCo2S4/NiS microspheres are deposited on a fluorine doped SnO2 substrate by spin-casting the isopropyl alcohol solution of as-prepared microspheres. The cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel tests are employed to measure the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4/NiS counter electrode. The NiCo2S4 and NiS all are used to improve the conductivity and electrocatalytic ability of the films, and the NiS can also increase the specific surface area of microspheres. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the NiCo2S4/NiS counter electrode exhibite a power conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which is higher than that of DSSC with Pt counter electrode (8.1%) under the light intensity of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5 G).

  15. Nickel hydroxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrodes: crystallinity dependent performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhai, Shengli; Wei, Li; Yuan, Yang; Yu, Dingshan; Wang, Liang; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) is a promising pseudocapacitive material to increase the energy storage capacity of supercapacitors. Ni(OH)2 has three common crystalline structures: amorphous (amor-), α-, and β-Ni(OH)2. There is a lack of good understanding on their pros and cons as supercapacitor electrodes. In this work, we synthesized three nanocomposites with thin layers (10-15 nm) of amor-, α-, and β-Ni(OH)2 deposited on conductive multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The mass loading of Ni(OH)2 is analogous in these nanocomposites, ranging from 49.1-52.2 wt% with a comparable narrow-pore size distribution centered around 4-5 nm. They were fabricated into supercapacitor electrodes at a mass loading of 6 mg cm-2 with a thickness of ˜250 μm, similar to the electrodes used in commercial supercapacitors. Our results show that MWCNT/amor-Ni(OH)2 has the highest specific capacitance (1495 or 2984 F g-1, based on the mass of total active materials or Ni(OH)2 only at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte). It also has the best rate capability among the three nanocomposites. Better performances can be attributed to its disordered structure, which increases its effective surface area and reduces diffusion resistance for redox reactions. However, superior performances gradually deteriorate to the same level as that of MWCNT/β-Ni(OH)2 over 3000 charge/discharge cycles, because amor- and α-Ni(OH)2 transform slowly to more ordered β-Ni(OH)2. Our results highlight that the electrochemical performances of MWCNT/Ni(OH)2 nanocomposites depend on the crystallinity of Ni(OH)2, and the performances of electrodes change upon the crystalline structure transformation of Ni(OH)2 under repeated redox reactions. Future research should focus on improving the structure stability of amor-Ni(OH)2.

  16. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M. João; Silva, Teresa M.; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  17. Electrodeposition of palladium and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites on foam-nickel electrode for electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Lan; Shan, Jun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-06-15

    A high-performance palladium (Pd) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite electrode was prepared on foam-nickel (foam-Ni) via two-step electrodeposition processes. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that the obtained Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode displayed a uniform and compact morphology. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirmed the successful deposition of Pd and RGO on nickel substrate. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements indicated that the presence of RGO greatly enhanced the active surface area of Pd particles deposited on foam-Ni. The as-deposited Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was applied to electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination (ECH) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). Various factors influencing the dechlorination of 4-CP such as dechlorination current, initial concentration of 4-CP, Na2SO4 concentration and initial pH were systematically investigated. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the dechlorination reaction of 4-CP at different temperatures followed the first-order kinetics and the activation energy for 4-CP dechlorination on Pd/RGO/foam-Ni electrode was calculated to be 51.96 kJ mol(-1). Under the optimum conditions, the dechlorination efficiency of 4-CP could reach 100% after 60-min ECH treatment. Moreover, the prepared Pd/RGO/foam-Ni composite electrode showed good stability for recycling utilization in ECH of 4-CP. PMID:25731146

  18. Nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  19. Characterization of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell as a power generator based on a nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Mardanpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) using nickel as a novel alternative for conventional electrodes and a non-phatogenic strain of Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The feasibility of a microfluidic MFC as an efficient power generator for production of bioelectricity from glucose and urea as organic substrates in human blood and urine for implantable medical devices (IMDs) was investigated. A maximum open circuit potential of 459 mV was achieved for the batch-fed microfluidic MFC. During continuous mode operation, a maximum power density of 104 Wm(-3) was obtained with nutrient broth. For the glucose-fed microfluidic MFC, the maximum power density of 5.2 μW cm(-2) obtained in this study is significantly greater than the power densities reported previously for microsized MFCs and glucose fuel cells. The maximum power density of 14 Wm(-3) obtained using urea indicates the successful performance of a microfluidic MFC using human excreta. It features high power density, self-regeneration, waste management and a low production cost (<$1), which suggest it as a promising alternative to conventional power supplies for IMDs. The performance of the microfluidic MFC as a power supply was characterized based on polarization behavior and cell potential in different substrates, operational modes, and concentrations. PMID:26720922

  20. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  1. Functional porous carbon/nickel oxide nanocomposites as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2015-05-26

    High-surface-area, guava-leaf-derived, heteroatom-containing activated carbon (GHAC) materials were synthesized by means of a facile chemical activation method with KOH as activating agent and exploited as catalyst supports to disperse nickel oxide (NiO) nanocrystals (average size (2.0±0.1) nm) through a hydrothermal process. The textural and structural properties of these GHAC/NiO nanocomposites were characterized by various physicochemical techniques, namely, field-emission SEM, high-resolution TEM, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized GHAC/NiO nanocomposites were employed as binder-free electrodes, which exhibited high specific capacitance (up to 461 F g(-1) at a current density of 2.3 A g(-1)) and remarkable cycling stability, which may be attributed to the unique properties of GHAC and excellent electrochemical activity of the highly dispersed NiO nanocrystals. PMID:25882793

  2. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability. PMID:26720271

  3. Impedance studies of nickel/cadmium and nickel/hydrogen cells using the cell case as a reference electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    Impedance measurements have been made on several Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 flight-weight cells using the case as a reference electrode. For these measurements, the voltage of the case with respect to the anode or cathode is unimportant provided that it remains stable during the measurement of the impedance. In the cells measured so far, the voltage of the cell cases with respect to the individual electrodes differ from cell to cell, even at the same overall cell voltage, but they remain stable with time. The measurements can thus be used to separate the cell impedance into the contributions of each electrode, allowing improved diagnosis of cell problems.

  4. Effects on the positive electrode of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, P.

    1998-02-01

    Effects of corrosion of MmNi{sub 4.3{minus}x}Mn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4}Co{sub x} alloys (where Mm = Ce 50%, La 30%, Nd 15%, Pr 5%) are evaluated in nickel-metal-hydride (Ni-MH) cells. Particularly, it is shown how Al released by the corroded alloys pollutes the positive electrode, which endures a loss of charging efficiency, due to the formation of a hydrotalcite-like phase stabilized with Al. Furthermore, since Al is eluted from the hydride electrode and is completely trapped in the positive active material, the titration of this element in the positive electrode is a powerful technique for quantification of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in Ni-MH cells.

  5. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-01-01

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0-1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0-10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor. PMID:26690438

  6. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-01-01

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0–1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0–10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor. PMID:26690438

  7. Design of a neutral three-dimensional electro-Fenton system with foam nickel as particle electrodes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel three-dimensional electro-Fenton system (3D-E-Fenton) for wastewater treatment with foam nickel, activated carbon fiber and Ti/RuO(2)-IrO(2) as the particle electrodes, the cathode, and the anode respectively. This 3D-E-Fenton system could exhibit much higher rhodamine B removal efficiency (99%) than the counterpart three-dimensional electrochemical system (33%) and E-Fenton system (19%) at neutral pH in 30 min. The degradation efficiency enhancement was attributed to much more hydroxyl radicals generated in the 3D-E-Fenton system because foam nickel particle electrodes could activate molecular oxygen to produce O(2)(-) via a single-electron transfer pathway to subsequently generate more H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radicals. This is the first observation of molecular oxygen activation over the particle electrodes in the three-dimensional electrochemical system. These interesting findings could provide some new insight on the development of high efficient E-Fenton system for wastewater treatment at neutral pH. PMID:23141376

  8. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  9. Fabrication and characterization of protonic-ceramic fuel cells and electrolysis cells utilizing infiltrated lanthanum nickelate electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiniec, Sean M.

    High-temperature protonic ceramics (HTPCs) have gained interest as fuel cell and electrolysis cell electrolytes, as well as hydrogen separation membranes. The transport of hydrogen as opposed to oxygen results in several benefits and applications, including higher fuel efficiency, dehydrogenation of fuel streams, and hydrogen-based chemical synthesis. However, limited work has been done in the development of air/steam electrodes for these devices. This work presents the characterization of lanthanum nickelate, La 2NiO4+delta (LN), as a potential air/steam electrode material for use with BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3-delta (BCZY27) HTPC electrolytes fabricated by the solid-state reactive sintering technique. Two types of devices were made; a symmetric cell used for electrode characterization, and a full fuel cell/electrolysis cell used for device performance characterization. The symmetric cell consists of a 1 mm thick BCZY27 substrate with identical air/steam electrodes on both sides. Air/steam electrodes were made by infiltrating ˜ 50 nm lanthanum nickelate nanoparticles into a BCZY27 porous backbone. The fuel cell/electrolysis cell consists of a 1mm thick Ni/BCZY27 anode support, a 25 mum thick BCZY27 electrolyte, and a 50 mum thick porous BCZY27 backbone infiltrated with lanthanum nickelate. Through symmetric cell testing, it was found that the electrode polarization resistance decreases with increasing oxygen content, indicating good oxygen reduction reaction characteristics. A minimum polarization resistance was found as 2.58 Ohm-cm2 in 3% humidied oxygen at 700 °C. Full cell testing revealed a peak power density of 27 mW-cm-2 at 700 °C. Hydrogen flux measurements were also taken in the both galvanic/post-galvanic and electrolytic operation. Galvanic/post-galvanic fluxes exhibit a very high faradaic efficiency. However, electrolytic hydrogen fluxes were much lower than the calculated hydrogen faradaic flux, indicating a different charge carrier other than protons is

  10. Kinetics of accumulation of the intermetallic compound of nickel and cadmium during storage of charged cadmium electrodes in alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Reshetov, V.A.; Grachev, D.K.; Pen'kova, L.I.; L'vova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.; Logvinets, N.P.

    1983-05-20

    When charged cadmium electrodes containing nickelous hydroxide (NHO) are stored in alkali an intermetallic compound (IMC) of the composition Ni/sub 5/Cd/sub 21/ is formed. The appearance of a step corresponding to oxidation of the IMC at a potential more positive by 0.12-0.18 V than the potential of the principal discharge process leads to appreciable lowering of the electrode capacity after storage. A systematic study was carried out of the kinetics of accumulation of the IMC at various temperatures and with additions of various amounts of NHO in order to elucidate the mechanism of formation of the intermetallic compound and to examine the possibility of predicting the loss of capacity of cadmium electrodes during storage. A kinetic equation, which can be used for predicting capacity losses of charged cadmium electrodes because of formation of the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 5/Cd/sub 21/ in them during storage, is proposed. The two-step form of the kinetic curves indicates that the IMC can be formed in cadmium electrodes during storage by two parallel mechanisms, involving both Ni/sup 0/ and Ni/sup 2 +/.

  11. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited nickel sulphide film and its application as a potential counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jaymin; Patel, Mitesh; Ghediya, Prashant; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2016-07-01

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) film has emerged as a counter electrode in many applications, such as thin film batteries, dye sensitized solar cells, and supercapacitors. In this regard, we report the direct liquid coating of pure hexagonal NiS films on glass using a precursor solution of nickel–thiourea complex. A uniform and void free film is observed using scanning electron microscopy. The room temperature electrical conductivity of ∼5 × 103 S cm‑1 and the positive thermoelectric power (+6 μV K‑1) specify p-type conduction. The temperature variation conductivity in the range 77–300 K depicts the transition of NiS films from conducting to semi-conducting behaviour at certain transition temperatures. Preliminary results from a cyclic voltammetry study shows the feasibility of NiS films as counter electrodes.

  12. Highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zongxu; Gao, Wenyu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Qing; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun; Wu, Songmei; Yu, Yu; Ding, Kejian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a fast and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor is reported utilizing a glassy carbon electrode modified by synthesizing nanocomposites of nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide (Ni NPs/ATP/RGO). A facile one-step electrochemical co-deposition approach is adopted to synthesize Ni NPs-ATP-RGO nanocomposites via electrochemical reduction of mixed precursor solution containing graphene oxide (GO), attapulgite (ATP) and nickel cations (Ni(2+)) at the cathode potentials. This strategy results in simultaneous depositions of ATP, cathodic reduction of Ni(2+) into nickel nanoparticles under acidic conditions, and in situ reduction of GO. The as-prepared NiNPs/ATP/RGO-based glucose sensor exhibits outstanding performance for enzymeless glucose sensing with sensitivity (1414.4 μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), linear range (1-710μM) and detection limit (0.37μM). What is more, the sensor has excellent stability and selectivity against common interferences in real sample. PMID:27474298

  13. The effect of stacking faults on the electrochemical performance of nickel hydroxide electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, T.N. Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2008-11-03

    The crystal structure of nickel hydroxide comprises of a repetitive stacking of charge neutral layers AbC AbC AbC. A and C denotes the hydroxyl ions which are hexagonally close packed, while b denotes the divalent nickel ions occupying octahedral interstitial sites. The random incorporation of other layers, such as AcB, BaC, CbA, etc., within AbC AbC AbC ... stacking sequence can lead to the formation of stacking faults. DIFFaX simulations show that each kind of stacking fault produces a characteristic pattern of non-uniform broadening of the peaks corresponding to the (h 0 l) reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of nickel hydroxide. The electrochemical property of each two types of stacking faulted nickel hydroxide is investigated. 2H{sub 2} type of stacking faulted nickel hydroxide delivers better electrochemical activity compared to 3R{sub 2} type stacking faulted nickel hydroxide.

  14. Real time charge efficiency monitoring for nickel electrodes in NICD and NIH2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The charge efficiency of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells is critical in spacecraft applications for determining the amount of time required for a battery to reach a full state of charge. As the nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries approach about 90 percent state of charge, the charge efficiency begins to drop towards zero, making estimation of the total amount of stored charge uncertain. Charge efficiency estimates are typically based on prior history of available capacity following standardized conditions for charge and discharge. These methods work well as long as performance does not change significantly. A relatively simple method for determining charge efficiencies during real time operation for these battery cells would be a tremendous advantage. Such a method was explored and appears to be quite well suited for application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells. The charge efficiency is monitored in real time, using only voltage measurements as inputs. With further evaluation such a method may provide a means to better manage charge control of batteries, particularly in systems where a high degree of autonomy or system intelligence is required.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of bis nitrato[4-hydroxyacetophenonesemicarbazone) nickel(II) complex as ionophore for thiocyanate-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Hooda, Sunita; Tomar, Praveen Kumar; Malik, Amrita; Kumar, Ankit; Malik, Sakshi; Gautam, Seema

    2016-05-01

    The PVC based-ion selective electrode viz., bis nitrato[4-hydroxyacetophenone semicarbazone] nickel(II) as an ionophore was prepared for the determination of thiocyanate ion. The ionophore was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD, magnetic moment and elemental analysis (CHN). On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 31% PVC, 63% 2-nitrophenyl octylether, 4.0% ionophore and 2.0% trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride. The electrode exhibited an excellent Nernstian response to SCN(-) ion ranging from 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-1)M with a detection limit of 8.6 × 10(-8)M and a slope of -59.4 ± 0.2 mV/decade over a wide pH range (1.8-10.7) with a fast response time (6s) at 25 °C. The proposed electrode showed high selectivity for thiocyanate ion over a number of common inorganic and organic anions. It was successfully applied to direct determination of thiocyanate in biological (urine and saliva) samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers, environmental samples and as an indicator electrode for titration of thiocyanate ions with AgNO3 solution. PMID:26952393

  16. Hydrothermal deposition of manganese dioxide nanosheets on electrodeposited graphene covered nickel foam as a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Ying; Yang, Sainan; Zhang, Dongming; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Jinling; Wang, Guiling; Xu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the graphene oxide nanosheets are simultaneously reduced and deposited on nickel foam (denoted as Ni-foam@GNS) by one step electrodeposition method. The interconnected crumpled graphene nanosheets grown on Ni foam serve as a three-dimensional (3D) conductive skeleton for hydrothermal deposition of MnO2 nanosheets by in-situ redox reaction. The MnO2 nanosheets anchored on the graphene covered nickel foam (denoted as Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2) show unique 3D porous interconnected networks. The samples are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The capacitive performances are researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 462 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and excellent capacitance retention of 93.1% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 electrode delivers a high energy density of 26.1 Wh kg-1 even at a high power density of 3981 W kg-1. These results demonstrate that the Ni-foam@GNS@MnO2 composite offers great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications.

  17. Ternary Platinum-Copper-Nickel Nanoparticles Anchored to Hierarchical Carbon Supports as Free-Standing Hydrogen Evolution Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lua, Aik Chong; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping

    2016-02-10

    Developing cost-effective and efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts for hydrogen production is of paramount importance to attain a sustainable energy future. Reported herein is a novel three-dimensional hierarchical architectured electrocatalyst, consisting of platinum-copper-nickel nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofiber arrays, which are conformally assembled on carbon felt fabrics (PtCuNi/CNF@CF) by an ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition coupled with a spontaneous galvanic replacement reaction. The free-standing PtCuNi/CNF@CF monolith exhibits high porosities, a well-defined geometry shape, outstanding electron conductivity, and a unique characteristic of localizing platinum-copper-nickel nanoparticles in the tips of carbon nanofibers. Such features render PtCuNi/CNF@CF as an ideal binder-free HER electrode for hydrogen production. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PtCuNi/CNF@CF possesses superior intrinsic activity as well as mass-specific activity in comparison with the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts, both in acidic and alkaline solutions. With well-tuned composition of active nanoparticles, Pt42Cu57Ni1/CNF@CF showed excellent durability. The synthesis strategy reported in this work is likely to pave a new route for fabricating free-standing hierarchical electrodes for electrochemical devices. PMID:26784023

  18. An Ultralong, Highly Oriented Nickel-Nanowire-Array Electrode Scaffold for High-Performance Compressible Pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Ziheng; Yang, Cheng; Zou, Peichao; Xie, Binghe; Lin, Ziyin; Zhang, Zhexu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Ultralong, highly oriented Ni nanowire arrays are used as the electrode scaffold to support metal-oxide- and conductive-polymer-based electrode materials with a high mass loading; the as-obtained asymmetric supercapacitor can be compressed by fourfold and exhibits superior energy and power densities with ultrahigh cycle stability. PMID:27062285

  19. Characteristics of the high-rate discharge capability of a nickel/metal hydride battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, M.; Han, J.; Feng, F.; Northwood, D.O.

    1999-10-01

    The high rate discharge capability of the negative electrode in a Ni/MH battery is mainly determined by the charge transfer process at the interface between the metal hydride (MH) alloy powder and the electrolyte, and the mass transfer process in the bulk MH alloy powder. In this study, the anodic polarization curves of a MH electrode were measured and analyzed. An alloy of nominal composition Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} was used as the negative electrode material. With increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the MH alloy powders microcrack into particles several micrometers in diameter. The decrease in the MH alloy particle size results in an increase in both the activation surface area and the exchange current density of the MH alloy electrode. The electrode overpotentials of the MH electrode decreases with increasing number of cycles at a large value of anodic polarization current. The decrease in electrode overpotential leads to an increase in the high rate discharge capability of the MH electrode. By using the limiting current, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the MH alloy was estimated to be 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}11}cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1} assuming an average particle radius of 5 {micro}m.

  20. Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  1. Facile synthesis of nickel network supported three-dimensional graphene gel as a lightweight and binder-free electrode for high rate performance supercapacitor application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haifu; Xu, Lianqiang; Tang, Yanmei; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2014-02-21

    Here we report a simple strategy to prepare three-dimensional graphene gel coated on nickel foam for supercapacitor applications by a simple 'dipping and drying' process. The supercapacitors based on three-dimensional graphene gel (G-gel@NF-1) exhibited high rate capability of 152 F g(-1) at 0.36 A g(-1) and 107 F g(-1) at 90.9 A g(-1), good cycle stability with capacitance retention of 89% after 2000 cycles and low internal resistance (0.58 Ω). Furthermore, a flexible electrode (G-gel@NF-2) was obtained by etching most of the nickel foam but maintains the conductive backbone of the nickel foam, which greatly reduces the total mass of the electrode (can be reduced from 30 mg cm(-2) to less than 5 mg cm(-2)), and can be compressed from a thickness of 1 mm to ∼30 μm. With the aid of a conductive network composed of a small amount of nickel, G-gel@NF-2 still has good performance in high rate capability and displays excellent flexible properties. The specific capacitance when the mass density of the electrode was only 5.4 mg cm(-2) still reached ∼115 F g(-1). This strategy can improve the rate capability performance, greatly reduce the mass of the electrode, and lower the fabrication cost of supercapacitors. PMID:24441914

  2. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material. PMID:25924377

  3. Vanadium nanobelts coated nickel foam 3D bifunctional electrode with excellent catalytic activity and stability for water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Gao, Wenyu; Shen, Zongxu; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Shuliang; Song, Weiguo; Ding, Kejian

    2016-05-19

    Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm(-2) with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27152646

  4. Vanadium nanobelts coated nickel foam 3D bifunctional electrode with excellent catalytic activity and stability for water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Gao, Wenyu; Shen, Zongxu; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Shuliang; Song, Weiguo; Ding, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity.Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More SEM, TEM images, XRD patterns, LSV curves, XPS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02395a

  5. The effect of different alkali metal hydroxides on nickel electrode life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.; Clement, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    An accelerated cycle-life test (100-percent depth of discharge) of a sintered-type Ni electrode has been carried out in a flooded cell containing different alkali metal hydroxide electrolytes such as LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, and CsOH. Decrease in Ni electrode capacity with cycling was reduced as the radius of the alkali metal ions, with possible exception of CsOH.

  6. Impedances of electrochemically impregnated nickel electrodes as functions of potential, KOH concentration, and impregnation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Impedances of fifteen electrodes form each of the four U.S. manufactures were measured at 0.200 V vs. the Hg/HgO reference electrode. This corresponds to a voltage of 1.145 for a Ni/H2 cell. Measurements were also made of a representative sample of these at 0.44 V. At the higher voltage, the impedances were small and very similar, but at the lower voltage there were major differences between manufacturers. Electrodes from the same manufacturers showed only small differences. The impedances of electrodes from two manufacturers were considerably different in 26 percent KOH from those in 31 percent KOH. These preliminary results seen to correlate with the limited data from earlier life testing of cells from these manufacturers. The impedances of cells being tested for Space Station Freedom are being followed, and more impendance measurements of electrodes are being performed as functions of manufacturer, voltage, electrolyte concentration, and cycle history in hopes of finding better correlations of impedance with life.

  7. NiO nanoarrays of a few atoms thickness on 3D nickel network for enhanced pseudocapacitive electrode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Kadumudi, Firoz Babu; Ho, Nhu Thuy; Kim, Ji-Woong; Park, Sungkyun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Choi, Won Mook; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The present work focuses on the development of template-free mesoporous NiO nanoarrays with large surface area grown on 3D nickel foam networks by a seed mediated aqueous chemical growth technique and subsequent annealing process. The resultant binder-free, well-aligned and vertically grown NiO nanoarrays exhibits a micron-sized planar structure as well as an ultrathin thickness (˜7 nm). The unique surface and electronic structure facilitates surface-dependent electrochemical reaction processes with no dead volume. They deliver a high capacitance of 2065 F g-1 at a current density of 16 A g-1 as a three electrode system. A specific capacitance of 1247 F g-1 is maintained at a higher current rate of 70 A g-1 with 88.9% retention after 5000 cycles. Finally, in a solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor configuration using NiO//activated carbon, the device delivers an enhanced supercapacitive performance, with an energy density of 43.5 Wh kg-1 and power density of 2.1 kW kg-1. Thus, the current research paves the way for the use of NiO nanoarrays as an electrode material for practical supercapacitor devices with higher cycling retention and rate capacity.

  8. Efficient Nickel Sulfide and Graphene Counter Electrodes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Gentian; Li, Fumin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-05-01

    We reported a facile two-step electrochemical-chemical approach for in situ growth of nickel sulfide and graphene counter electrode (CE) decorated with silver nanoparticles (signed NiS/Gr-Ag) and served in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Under optimum conditions, the DSSC achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.36 % assembled with the NiS/Gr-Ag CE, much higher than that based on the Pt CE (7.76 %). The surface morphology of NiS/Gr-Ag CE exhibited a smooth surface with cross-growth of NiS, graphene, and Ag nanoparticles, which was beneficial to the fast mass transport of electrolytes; increased the contact area of electrolytes and active materials; and enabled to speed up the reduction of triiodide to iodide. The research on the electrochemical properties also showed that the NiS/Gr-Ag CE possessed lower charge transfer resistance and more excellent electrocatalytic activity in iodide/triiodide electrolyte compared to the Pt electrode.

  9. Efficient Nickel Sulfide and Graphene Counter Electrodes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Gentian; Li, Fumin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-12-01

    We reported a facile two-step electrochemical-chemical approach for in situ growth of nickel sulfide and graphene counter electrode (CE) decorated with silver nanoparticles (signed NiS/Gr-Ag) and served in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Under optimum conditions, the DSSC achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.36 % assembled with the NiS/Gr-Ag CE, much higher than that based on the Pt CE (7.76 %). The surface morphology of NiS/Gr-Ag CE exhibited a smooth surface with cross-growth of NiS, graphene, and Ag nanoparticles, which was beneficial to the fast mass transport of electrolytes; increased the contact area of electrolytes and active materials; and enabled to speed up the reduction of triiodide to iodide. The research on the electrochemical properties also showed that the NiS/Gr-Ag CE possessed lower charge transfer resistance and more excellent electrocatalytic activity in iodide/triiodide electrolyte compared to the Pt electrode. PMID:27142877

  10. FeS/nickel foam as stable and efficient counter electrode material for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Huifang; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Quan, Linlin; Xi, Fanxing; Su, Xunwen

    2015-05-01

    A stable and efficient FeS/nickel foam (NF) counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is first fabricated by electrochemistry deposition and characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), current voltage and impedance spectroscopy. The QDSC based on FeS/NF CE achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.39% attributing to the high fill factor (FF) of 0.58, and the PCE is much higher than that of based on FeS/FTO CE (2.76%) and other reported FeS CEs (1.76% and 3.34%). The phenomenon that the electrode can transform between FeS/NF (in the polysulfide electrolyte) and Fe2O3/NF (in the air) spontaneously is first reported. And the excellent stability in photoelectric performance of the CE is also demonstrated in the present work. Therefore, the FeS/NF is very promising as a stable and efficient CE for QDSCs.

  11. Non-enzymatic detection of glucose using poly(azure A)-nickel modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Luo, Yiqun; Zhu, Jiaming; Kong, Liyan; Wang, Wen; Tan, Liang

    2016-08-15

    A simple, sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor was constructed in this paper. The poly(azure A)-nickel modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully fabricated by the electropolymerization of azure A and the adsorption of Ni(2+). The Ni modified electrode, which was characterized by scanning electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, respectively, displayed well-defined current responses of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple and showed a good activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. Under the optimized conditions, the developed sensor exhibited a broad linear calibration range of 5 μM-12mM for quantification of glucose and a low detection limit of 0.64μM (3σ). The excellent analytical performance including simple structure, fast response time, good anti-interference ability, satisfying stability and reliable reproducibility were also found from the proposed amperometric sensor. The results were satisfactory for the determination of glucose in human serum samples as comparison to those from a local hospital. PMID:27260445

  12. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-24

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  13. Application of Gold Electrodes for the Study of Nickel Based Homogeneous Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Liu, Fei; Roberts, John A.; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-08-12

    Gold and glassy carbon working electrode materials are compared as suitable substrates for the hydrogen oxidation reaction with Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2(BF4)2 used as a catalyst. Voltammetric responses showing electrocatalytic hydrogen oxidation mediated by the homogeneous electrocatalyst Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2(BF4)2 are identical at glassy carbon and gold electrodes, which shows that gold electrode can be used for hydrogen oxidation reaction. This work is supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under FWP 56073.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Chromium-Free Nickel Alloy Electrode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraj, J. R.; Krishna, M.; Murthy, H. N. Narasimha; Prasad, C. S.; Bhanukiran, V. T.; Sharma, S. C.

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of two Cr-free nickel-based alloys designated as 1S with 6.5 pct Mn and 2H without Mn of compositions varying between 40 to 43.5Ni, 20Mo, 22 to 25Fe, 10Cu, 6.5 to 0Mn, 1Ti, and 0.5Al (wt pct) as filler materials for TIG welding application was performed. New filler materials were developed to reduce carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) fumes generated during the welding of 300 series austenitic stainless steel. The Cr-free nickel alloys were characterized for microstructure and mechanical properties. The developed alloys showed good microstructure stability in as-cast and solution-treated conditions. A material properties simulation software JMatPro predicted that 2H alloy has 2 wt pct more γ (solid solution) phase than in 1S but has 2.2 wt pct less γ' (strengthening precipitates) phase than in 1S alloy. The tensile strength of 1S alloy was about 2.2 pct more than 2H. The solution treatment of both alloys decreased the hardness, tensile and yield strengths by about 21 pct but ductility improved by about 17 pct. Fracture studies of both alloys showed the ductile mode of failure.

  15. End-of-life nickel-cadmium accumulators: characterization of electrode materials and industrial Black Mass.

    PubMed

    Hazotte, Claire; Leclerc, Nathalie; Diliberto, Sébastien; Meux, Eric; Lapicque, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of spent NiCd batteries and the characterization of an industrial Black Mass obtained after crushing spent NiCd batteries and physical separation in a treatment plant. The characterization was first performed with five cylindrical NiCd batteries which were manually dismantled. Their characterization includes mass balance of the components, active powders elemental analysis and phase identification by X-ray powder diffraction. Chemical speciation of the two metals was also investigated. For cadmium, speciation was previously developed on solid synthetic samples. In a spent battery, the active powders correspond to about 43% of the battery weight. The other components are the separator and polymeric pieces (5%), the support plates (25%) and the carbon steel external case (27%). The sequential procedure shows that the nickel in the positive powders from the dismantled Ni-Cd batteries is distributed between Ni0 (39.7%), Ni(OH)2 (58.5%) and NiOOH (1.8%). Cadmium in the negative powder is about 99.9% as the Cd(OH)2 form with 0.1% of metal cadmium. In the industrial Black Mass, the distribution of cadmium is the same, whereas the distribution of nickel is Ni0 (46.9%), Ni(OH)2 (43.2%) and NiOOH (9.9%). This material contains also 1.8% cobalt and approx. 1% iron. PMID:25192032

  16. Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications. PMID:24661431

  17. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  18. High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1, and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial discharge capacitance after 7,000 cycles. The fabricated binder-free hierarchical composite electrode with superior electrochemical performance is a promising candidate for high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:25258611

  19. Effect of silver or copper middle layer on the performance of palladium modified nickel foam electrodes in the 2-chlorobiphenyl dechlorination.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiqiao; Sun, Junjun; Wei, Jie; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Chengxiang; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2013-04-15

    To enhance the activity of chemi-deposited palladium/nickel foam (Pd/Ni) electrodes used for an electrochemical dechlorination process, silver or copper was deposited electrochemically onto the nickel foam substrate (to give Ag/Ni or Cu/Ni) before the chemical deposition of palladium. The physicochemical properties of the resulting materials (Pd/Ni, Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electrochemical catalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the electrochemical dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) in strongly alkaline methanol/water solution. The results show that the Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes had consistently higher electrocatalytic activities and current efficiencies (CEs) compared with the untreated Pd/Ni electrode. The Pd/Ag/Ni electrode exhibited the highest activity. The dechlorination was also studied as a function of Pd loading, the Ag or Cu interlayer loadings, and the current density. The Pd loading and the interlayer loadings both had positive effects on the dechlorination reaction. Increasing the current density increased the reaction rate but reduced the CE. The improvement of the electrocatalytic activities of the Pd/Ni electrode by applying the interlayer of Ag or Cu resulted from the enlargement of the effective surface area of the electrode and the adjustment of the metal-H bond energy to the appropriate value, as well as the effective adsorption of 2-CB on Ag. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the Pd/Ag/Ni electrode was maintained after six successive cyclic experiments, whereas Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes deactivate severely under the same conditions. PMID:23454456

  20. The definition of the process of electrochemical impregnation of nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical impregnation was studied during a series of experiments designed to define the optimal conditions for the fabrication of dimensionally stable cell anodes of Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd systems. The influence of various parameters, such as current and duration of electrolysis, temperature and acidity of the chemical bath, the concentrations of Ni and Co as well as the use of ethanol was determined. Results show that the electrochemical impregnation process as defined is industrially feasible and it is suggested that Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd type electrodes be produced in sufficient quantity to further evaluate their performance characteristics.

  1. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. I - New advances in cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschka, Friedrich; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Anderman, Menahem

    Prismatic sealed Ni/Cd cells of fiber structured electrodes offer the potential to fully recharge a battery in a uniquely short time. It was demonstrated that the cells show excellent cycle life. The design is not restricted to 20 Ah rated capacity. Cells of 50 Ah have been built and tested in an electric hybrid vehicle. A specially designed ultra high-power cell of 45 Ah rated capacity for APU cranking in commerical aircraft supplies 50 percent more peak power than vented Ni/Cd sintered plate aircraft cells. The fiber structured sealed FNC-RECOM cell will not require any maintenance.

  2. Cobalt, nickel/iron, and titanium oxide electrodes for water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selloni, Annabella

    2014-03-01

    Water splitting on metal oxide surfaces has attracted enormous interest for more than forty years. While a great deal of work has focused on titanium dioxide (TiO2) , recently cobalt and mixed Ni-Fe oxides have also emerged as promising electrocatalysts for water oxidation due to their low cost and high activity. In this talk I shall discuss various aspects of water oxidation on cobalt (hydro-)oxides, pure and mixed nickel and iron (hydro-)oxides, and TiO2\\ surfaces. Using DFT +U calculations, I shall examine the composition and structure of cobalt and Ni-Fe oxides under electrochemical conditions, and present studies of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on the relevant stable compounds. I shall also present hybrid functional calculations of the first proton-coupled-electron transfer at the water/TiO2 interface in the presence of a photoexcited hole. Our results provide evidence that the proton and electron transfers are not concerted but rather represent two sequential processes. They also suggest that the OER is faster at higher pH, as indeed observed experimentally. This work was supported by DoE-BES, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences under Award DE-FG02-12ER16286.

  3. Ultrafast Dynamics of Hole Injection and Recombination in Organometal Halide Perovskite Using Nickel Oxide as p-Type Contact Electrode.

    PubMed

    Corani, Alice; Li, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; El Nahhas, Amal; Zheng, Kaibo; Yartsev, Arkady; Sundström, Villy; Ponseca, Carlito S

    2016-04-01

    There is a mounting effort to use nickel oxide (NiO) as p-type selective electrode for organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells. Recently, an overall power conversion efficiency using this hole acceptor has reached 18%. However, ultrafast spectroscopic investigations on the mechanism of charge injection as well as recombination dynamics have yet to be studied and understood. Using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, we show that hole transfer is complete on the subpicosecond time scale, driven by the favorable band alignment between the valence bands of perovskite and NiO nanoparticles (NiO(np)). Recombination time between holes injected into NiO(np) and mobile electrons in the perovskite material is shown to be hundreds of picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Because of the low conductivity of NiO(np), holes are pinned at the interface, and it is electrons that determine the recombination rate. This recombination competes with charge collection and therefore must be minimized. Doping NiO to promote higher mobility of holes is desirable in order to prevent back recombination. PMID:26942559

  4. A photoelectrochemical sensor based on nickel hydroxyl-oxide modified n-silicon electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection in an alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaixiang; Hao, Wenlong; Hu, Jinchao; Wu, Hongyan

    2013-09-15

    A novel photoelectrochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was constructed with platinum (Pt) and nickel hydroxyl-oxide (NiOOH) double layers modified n-silicon electrode (NiOOH/Pt/n-n(+)-Si). About 40nm Pt layer and about 100nm Ni layer were successively coated on the front surface of n-n(+)-Si (111) wafers by vacuum evaporating. A stable layer of NiOOH was formed through oxidation of the Ni layer on the coated silicon wafer by the electrochemical method. The surface of modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The NiOOH/Pt/n-n(+)-Si electrode has been used for determination of H2O2 with a two-electrode cell in the absence of reference electrode by photocurrent measurement at a zero bias. The photoelectrochemical sensor showed a good linear response to H2O2 concentrations in a range from 1.0×10(-5) to 6×10(-5)M with a determination limit (S/N=3) of 2.2μM. The NiOOH/Pt/n-n(+)-Si electrode exhibited excellent reproducibility and stability. Particularly, the facile measurement requirements made this novel modified electrode promising for the development of outdoor H2O2 sensors. PMID:23584227

  5. High-performance hybrid supercapacitor with 3D hierarchical porous flower-like layered double hydroxide grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luojiang; Hui, Kwun Nam; San Hui, Kwan; Lee, Haiwon

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as electroactive material has been well reported; however, fabricating an LDH electrode with excellent electrochemical performance at high current density remains a challenge. In this paper, we report a 3D hierarchical porous flower-like NiAl-LDH grown on nickel foam (NF) through a liquid-phase deposition method as a high-performance binder-free electrode for energy storage. With large ion-accessible surface area as well as efficient electron and ion transport pathways, the prepared LDH-NF electrode achieves high specific capacity (1250 C g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 401 C g-1 at 50 A g-1) after 5000 cycles of activation at 20 A g-1 and high cycling stability (76.7% retention after another 5000 cycles at 50 A g-1), which is higher than those of most previously reported NiAl-LDH-based materials. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor with LDH-NF as the positive electrode and porous graphene nanosheet coated on NF (GNS-NF) as the negative electrode, delivers high energy density (30.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1) and long cycle life, which outperforms the other devices reported in the literature. This study shows that the prepared LDH-NF electrode offers great potential in energy storage device applications.

  6. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  7. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  8. Complete dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhirong; Wei, Xuefeng; Han, Yanbo; Tong, Shan; Hu, Xiang

    2013-01-15

    The electrochemically reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel electrode (Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode) was investigated in this paper. Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The influences of some experimental factors such as the dechlorination current, dechlorination time and the initial pH on the removal efficiency and the current efficiency of 2,4-DCP dechlorination on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were studied. Complete removal of 2,4-DCP was achieved and the current efficiency of 47.4% could be obtained under the conditions of the initial pH of 2.2, the dechlorination current of 5 mA and the dechlorination time of 50 min when the initial 2,4-DCP concentration was 100 mg L(-1). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that the intermediate products were 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The final products were mainly phenol. Its further reduction product cyclohexanone was also detected. The electrocatalytic dechlorination pathways of 2,4-DCP on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were discussed. The stability of the electrode was favorable that it could keep dechlorination efficiency at 100% after having been reused 10 times. Results revealed that the stable prepared Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode presented a good application prospect in dechlorination process with high effectiveness and low cost. PMID:23270952

  9. Electrodeposition of nickel sulfide on graphene-covered make-up cotton as a flexible electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling

    2015-01-01

    In this report, graphene nanosheets (GNS)/nickel sulfide (NiS) based material for high-performance supercapacitor is prepared by "dip and dry" and electrodeposition methods. Commercial flexible make-up cottons (MCs) are chose as skeletons to construct homogeneous three-dimensional (3D) interconnected graphene-wrapped macro-networks, which can support structures for high loading of active electrode materials and facilitate the access of electrolytes to active electrode materials. The hybrid GNS/NiS based MCs (denoted as MCs@GNS@NiS) electrode yields relatively high specific capacitance of 775 F g-1 at a charge/discharge specific current of 0.5 A g-1 and good capacitance retention of 88.1% after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the MCs@GNS@NiS electrode delivers a high energy density of 11.2 Wh kg-1 at even a high power density of 1008 W kg-1. Therefore, such low-cost and high-performance energy MCs based on GNS/NiS hierarchical nanostructures offer great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications.

  10. Mesoporous composite nickel cobalt oxide/graphene oxide synthesized via a template-assistant co-precipitation route as electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjie; Wang, Lincai; Cao, Peiqi; Cai, Chuanlin; Fu, Yanbao; Ma, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    A simple co-precipitation method utilizing SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as template and ammonia as precipitant is successfully employed to synthesize nickel cobalt oxide/graphene oxide (NiCo2O4/GO) composite. The as-prepared composite (NCG-10) exhibits a high capacitance of 1211.25 F g-1, 687 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, 10 A g-1 and good cycling ability which renders NCG-10 as promising electrode material for supercapacitors. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) (full button cell) has been constructed with NCG-10 as positive electrode and lab-made reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as negative electrode. The fabricated NCG-10//rGO with an extended stable operational voltage of 1.6 V can deliver a high specific capacitance of 144.45 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The as-prepared NCG-10//rGO demonstrates remarkable energy density (51.36 W h kg-1 at 1 A g-1), high power density (50 kW kg-1 at 20 A g-1). The retention of capacitance is 88.6% at the current density of 8 A g-1 after 2000 cycles. The enhanced capacitive performance can be attributed to the improved specific surface area and 3D open area of NCG-10 generated by the pores and channels with the substantial function of SDS.

  11. Sealed nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, H. F.; Menard, C. J.; Murray Jr., R. C.; Putt, R. A.; Valentine, T. W.

    1985-11-12

    A sealed, rechargeable nickel-zinc cell includes a zinc electrode active mass essentially free of zinc metal when at full discharge, a carboxylated styrene-butadiene binder retaining the zinc electrode mixture in a coherent structure, a predetermined amount of cadmium being included in the zinc electrode mixture, a separator preferably comprising at least two layers of material free of any adhesive binding the layers together and a wicking layer positioned between the nickel positive electrode and the separator.

  12. Lightweight Cathodes For Nickel Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight cathodes for rechargeable nickel-based electrochemical cells undergoing development. In cathodes, mats of nickel fibers are substrates providing structural support of, and electrical contact with, active cathode material. Offers specific energies greater than sintered nickel plaque cathodes. Electrodes used in rechargeable batteries for applications in which weight major concern, including laptop computers, cellular phones, flashlights, soldiers' backpacks, and electric vehicles.

  13. Nickel nanoparticle-chitosan-reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed electrodes for enzyme-free glucose sensing in portable microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang; Yu, Ji-Hyuk; Rudi Strickler, J; Chang, Woo-Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2013-09-15

    A facile one-step strategy is reported to synthesize nanocomposites of chitosan-reduced graphene oxide-nickel nanoparticles (CS-RGO-NiNPs) onto a screen-printed electrode (SPE). The synthesis is initiated by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and formation of self-assembled nanocomposite precursors of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) and positively charged CS and nickel cations (Ni(2+)). The intrinsic mechanism of co-depositions from the nanocomposite precursor solution under cathodic potentials is based on simultaneous depositions of CS at high localized pH and in situ reduced hydrophobic RGO from GO as well as cathodically reduced metal precursors into nanoparticles. There is no need for any pre- or post-reduction of GO due to the in situ electrochemical reduction and the removal of oxygenated functionalities, which lead to an increase in hydrophobicity of RGO and successive deposition on the electrode surface. The as-prepared CS-RGO-NiNPs-modified SPE sensor exhibited outstanding performance for enzymeless glucose (Glc) sensing in alkaline media with high sensitivity (318.4µAmM(-1)cm(-2)), wide linear range (up to 9mM), low detection limit (4.1µM), acceptable selectivity against common interferents in physiological fluids, and excellent stability. A microfluidic device was fabricated incorporating the SPE sensor for real-time Glc detection in human urine samples; the results obtained were comparable to those obtained using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrochemical detector. The excellent sensing performance, operational characteristics, ease of fabrication, and low cost bode well for this electrochemical microfluidic device to be developed as a point-of-care healthcare monitoring unit. PMID:23644058

  14. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  15. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  16. NiSe Nanowire Film Supported on Nickel Foam: An Efficient and Stable 3D Bifunctional Electrode for Full Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Cheng, Ningyan; Pu, Zonghua; Xing, Wei; Sun, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    Active and stable electrocatalysts made from earth-abundant elements are key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis. The growth of NiSe nanowire film on nickel foam (NiSe/NF) in situ by hydrothermal treatment of NF using NaHSe as Se source is presented. When used as a 3D oxygen evolution electrode, the NiSe/NF exhibits high activity with an overpotential of 270 mV required to achieve 20 mA cm(-2) and strong durability in 1.0 M KOH, and the NiOOH species formed at the NiSe surface serves as the actual catalytic site. The system is also highly efficient for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction in basic media. This bifunctional electrode enables a high-performance alkaline water electrolyzer with 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 1.63 V. PMID:26136347

  17. Carbon deposition on patterned nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia electrodes for solid oxide fuel cell/solid oxide electrolysis cell modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenying; Shi, Yixiang; Luo, Yu; Wang, Yuqing; Cai, Ningsheng

    2015-02-01

    Carbon deposition on patterned nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrode of solid oxide cells operating in CO2/CO mixture gas at 750 °C with different discharging voltages was studied. Patterned Ni electrode is a useful and effective tool for in-situ observation of the carbon distribution and structural features. The elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectrometer observed that the electricity significantly promoted the carbon deposition on Ni stripes for SOEC, but weakened the deposition for SOFC. Besides, the carbon content near TPB was obviously higher than that in the middle of Ni stripes for SOEC, but lower than that in the middle for SOFC. It is speculated that the deposited carbon could directly participate in the electrochemical reaction C(Ni) + O2-(YSZ) ↔ CO(Ni) + (YSZ) + 2e- at TPB. The in-situ Raman spectra represented that the deposited carbon, produced or consumed by the carbon electrochemical reaction, was mainly in crystal graphitic carbon structure.

  18. Electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid biosensor based on electrodeposited graphene and nickel oxide nanoparticle modified electrode for the detection of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Yongxi; Gong, Shixing; Qi, Xiaowei; Lei, Bingxin; Sun, Zhenfan; Li, Guangjiu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was prepared by using graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. GR and NiO nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the CILE surface step-by-step to get the nanocomposite. Due to the strong affinity of NiO with phosphate groups of ssDNA, oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group could be attached on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE, which could further hybridize with the target ssDNA sequence. Methylene blue (MB) was used as the electrochemical indicator for monitoring the hybridization reaction. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current of MB was proportional to the concentration of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) with a detection limit as 3.12×10(-14)molL(-1). This electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good discrimination ability to one-base and three-base mismatched ssDNA sequences, and the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of salmonella enteritidis gene sequences were further detected with satisfactory results. PMID:25686924

  19. One-Step Fabrication of a Multifunctional Magnetic Nickel Ferrite/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid-Modified Electrode for the Determination of Benomyl in Food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Yang, Jichun; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2015-05-20

    Benomyl, as one kind of agricultural pesticide, has adverse impact on human health and the environment. It is urgent to develop effective and rapid methods for quantitative determination of benomyl. A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method for determination of benomyl using a magnetic nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanohybrid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was presented. The electrocatalytic properties and electroanalysis of benomyl on the modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) of pH 6.0, this constructed biosensor exhibited two linear relationships with the benomyl concentration range from 1.00 × 10(-7) to 5.00 × 10(-7) mol/L and from 5.00 × 10(-7) to 1.00 × 10(-5) mol/L, respectively. The detection limit was 2.51 × 10(-8) mol/L (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine benomyl in real samples with satisfactory results. The NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/GCE showed good reproducibility and stability, excellent catalytic activity, and anti-interference. PMID:25947038

  20. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit. PMID:27430868

  1. Layered manganese oxides-decorated and nickel foam-supported carbon nanotubes as advanced binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming; Mi, Rui; Liu, Hao; Li, Fei; Zhao, Xiao Li; Zhang, Wei; He, Shi Xuan; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures grown on Ni foam for binder-free capacitor electrodes have been fabricated by a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition process and a facile hydrothermal approach. Ultrathin layered MnO2 nanosheets are uniformly coated on the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), directly grown on Ni foam. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (325.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.3 A g-1), good rate capability (70.7% retention), and excellent cycling stability (90.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles), due to the high conductivity of the close contact between CNTs and Ni foam, as well as the moderate specific surface area of the CNTs@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures. The developed synthetic strategy may provide design guidelines for constructing advanced binder-free supercapacitors electrode.

  2. High-performance electrode materials of hierarchical mesoporous nickel oxide ultrathin nanosheets derived from self-assembled scroll-like α-nickel hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingming; Hu, Zhonghua; Xu, Zijie; Liu, Yafei; Liu, Peipei; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A two-step approach is proposed to prepare high-performance NiO electrode material. First, the scroll-like α-Ni(OH)2 is prepared by hydrothermal reaction via a self-assembly growth process using guanidine hydrochloride as precipitant. Second, the precursor Ni(OH)2 is converted to NiO by calcination. The resultants of hierarchical mesoporous NiO ultrathin nanosheets are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and N2 adsorption and desorption. The electrochemical properties of the samples are evaluated though cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 6.0 M KOH electrolytic solution. The results show that the typical hierarchical mesoporous NiO ultrathin nanosheets exhibits a very large specific capacitance of 1060 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, an outstanding cyclic stability with a capacitance retention of 91% after 5000 cycles of charge-discharge and a low resistance.

  3. Investigation on the Microstructure and Ductility-Dip Cracking Susceptibility of the Butt Weld Welded with ENiCrFe-7 Nickel-Base Alloy-Covered Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Renyao; Wang, Huang; He, Guo

    2015-03-01

    The weld metal of the ENiCrFe-7 nickel-based alloy-covered electrodes was investigated in terms of the microstructure, the grain boundary precipitation, and the ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Besides the dendritic gamma-Ni(Cr,Fe) phase, several types of precipitates dispersed on the austenitic matrix were observed, which were determined to be the Nb-rich MC-type carbides with "Chinese script" morphology and size of approximately 3 to 10 µm, the Mn-rich MO-type oxides with size of approximately 1 to 2 µm, and the spherical Al/Ti-rich oxides with size of less than 1 µm. The discontinuous Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides predominantly precipitate on the grain boundaries, which tend to coarsen during reheating but begin to dissolve above approximately 1273 K (1000 °C). The threshold strain for DDC at each temperature tested shows a certain degree of correlation with the grain boundary carbides. The DDC susceptibility increases sharply as the carbides coarsen in the temperature range of 973 K to 1223 K (700 °C to 950 °C). The growth and dissolution of the carbides during the welding heat cycles deteriorate the grain boundaries and increase the DDC susceptibility. The weld metal exhibits the minimum threshold strain of approximately 2.0 pct at 1323 K (1050 °C) and the DTR less than 873 K (600 °C), suggesting that the ENiCrFe-7—covered electrode has less DDC susceptibility than the ERNiCrFe-7 bare electrode but is comparable with the ERNiCrFe-7A.

  4. Review on advances in porous nanostructured nickel oxides and their composite electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sk, Md Moniruzzaman; Yue, Chee Yoon; Ghosh, Kalyan; Jena, Rajeeb Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Recently, porous nanostructured transition metal oxides with excellent electrochemical performance have become a new class of energy storage materials for supercapacitors. The ever-growing global demand of electrically powered devices makes it imperative to develop renewable, efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. This review article focuses on the Ni based transition metal oxides and their composite electrode materials including carbons, metals and transition metal oxides for supercapacitor applications, providing an overview on the charge mechanisms, methodologies and nanostructures discovered in recent years, and latest research findings. The NiO and their composites possess higher reversible capacity, good structural stability, and have been studied for usage as novel electrode materials for supercapacitors. Their fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for supercapacitor applications as they possess higher accessible electroactive sites, which will provide both high power density and also high energy density. Moreover, synergistic effects can be derived from the constituent materials of the NiO based composite electrodes. The potential problems like device fabrication, measurement techniques, and future prospects of utilizing these materials as supercapacitor electrodes highlighting the fundamental understanding of the relationship between electrochemical and structural performances are also discussed.

  5. Didymium compound improves nickel-cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Nickel electrodes impregnated with an additive solution of didymium hydrate and nitric acid mixed with nickel nitrate increases ampere-hour capacity of cells and does not affect the voltage characteristics.

  6. Nickel sulfide/graphene/carbon nanotube composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in the sea flashing signal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hailong; Li, Ji; Long, Conglai; Wei, Tong; Ning, Guoqing; Yan, Jun; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2014-12-01

    This work presents NiS/graphene/carbon nanotube (NiS/GNS/CNT) composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in sea flashing signal systems. NiS nanosheets were closely anchored on the conductive GNS-CNT networks. As a result, the NiS/GNS/CNT electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 2 377 F·g-1 at 2 mV·s-1 and good cycling stability compared with the pure NiS (1 599 F·g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergetic effect between the conductive carbon and the pseudo-capacitive NiS. The high performance supercapacitor may provide application in the sea flashing signal system.

  7. Discontinuous and Continuous Processing of Low-Solvent Battery Slurries for Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, Henning; Bockholt, Henrike; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2015-11-01

    Different discontinuously and continuously working dispersing devices were investigated to determine their influence on the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes made from commercial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode active material. A laboratory-scale dispersing device was compared with a discontinuously working laboratory kneader and a continuously working extruder, both using 50% less solvent than the dissolver process. Rheological, mechanical, structural, conductive, imaging, and electrochemical analyses (C-rate test, long-term cycling) were carried out. The dispersing method and time were found to have a considerable impact on the structure and electrochemical performance. The continuous extrusion process resulted in good performance with more than 20% higher specific capacity at elevated C-rates compared with the discontinuous process. This can be attributed to better deagglomeration of the carbon black in the slurries, also resulting in 60% higher electrode conductivity. On top of these positive results, the changes in the drying step due to the reduced solvent use led to a 50% decrease in the time required for the constant-drying-rate period. The continuously working extrusion process was found to be most suitable for large-scale, cost-efficient, environmentally friendly production of slurries for lithium-ion battery electrodes.

  8. Hierarchical NiO Nanoflake Arrays on Nickel Foam as a Supercapacitor Electrode with High Capacitance and High Rate Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangwu; He, Bing; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Hulin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating hierarchical NiO nanoflake arrays on nickel foam. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to study the morphology and structure of the as-synthesized NiO materials. Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that the hierarchical NiO nanocomposite displays excellent capacitive behavior between the potential range of -0.1-0.5 V, and a maximum specific capacitance as high as 823 F g-1 can be achieved at a charge/discharge current density of 4 A g-1, and it only decreases by 20% when the current density increases to 12 A g-1. The remarkable electrochemical performance of this hierarchical NiO nanocomposite indicates the areat application potential in supercapacitors. PMID:27451782

  9. Lightweight Fibrous Ni Electrodes For Ni/H2 Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibrous nickel plaque electrode material reduces weight of nickel/hydrogen batteries by 40 percent. Discharge voltage and discharge time of fibrous electrode greater than those of equivalent standard sintered-powder electrode. Expected to lead to improvements in performances, increases in energy densities, and decreases in costs of nickel electrodes.

  10. Metal Nickel Foam as an Efficient and Stable Electrode for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Electrolyte under Reasonable Overpotentials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia; Xiong, Tanli; Zhou, Weijia; Yang, Linjing; Tang, Zhenghua; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Acidic electrolytes are advantageous for water electrolysis in the production of hydrogen as there is a large supply of H(+) ions in the solution. In this study, with the applied overpotential larger than the equilibrium potential of Ni(0)/Ni(2+), Ni foam as HER electrode exhibits excellent and stable HER activity with an onset potential of -84 mV (vs RHE), a high current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at -210 mV (vs RHE), and prominent electrochemical durability (longer than 5 days) in acidic electrolyte. The results presented herein may has potential large-scale application in hydrogen energy production. PMID:26886556

  11. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  12. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2016-01-14

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. PMID:26578259

  13. In situ observation of nickel as an oxidizable electrode material for the solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jun; Wu, Xing; Xu, Feng; Xu, Tao; Sun, Litao; Liu, Qi; Xie, Hongwei; Long, Shibing; Lv, Hangbing; Li, Yingtao; Liu, Ming

    2013-02-04

    In this letter, we dynamically investigate the resistive switching characteristics and physical mechanism of the Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device. The device shows stable bipolar resistive switching behaviors after forming process, which is similar to the Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt devices. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe in real time that several conductive filaments are formed across the ZrO{sub 2} layer between Ni and Pt electrodes after forming. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirm that Ni is the main composition of the conductive filaments. The ON-state resistance increases with increasing temperature, exhibiting the feature of metallic conduction. In addition, the calculated resistance temperature coefficient is equal to that of the 10-30 nm diameter Ni nanowire, further indicating that the nanoscale Ni conductive bridge is the physical origin of the observed conductive filaments. The resistive switching characteristics and the conductive filament's component of Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device are consistent with the characteristics of the typical solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory. Therefore, aside from Cu and Ag, Ni can also be used as an oxidizable electrode material for resistive random access memory applications.

  14. High-rate discharge properties of nickel hydroxide/carbon composite as positive electrode for Ni/MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. K.; Xia, X. H.; Huang, H.; Gan, Y. P.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    A chemical co-precipitation method was attempted to synthesize nickel hydroxide/carbon composite material for high-power Ni/MH batteries. The XRD analysis showed that there were a large amount of defects among the crystal lattice of the Ni(OH) 2/C composite, and the SEM investigation revealed that the as-synthesized spherical particles were composed of hundreds of nanometer crystals with a unique three-dimensional petal shape. Compared with pure Ni(OH) 2, the Ni(OH) 2/C composite showed improved electrochemical properties such as superior cycling stability, higher discharge capacity and higher mean voltage of discharge under high-rate discharge conditions, the discharge capacity and the mean discharge voltage of the Ni(OH) 2/C composite were about 281 mAh g -1 and 0.303 V (vs. Hg/HgO) at 1 C-rate, 273 mAh g -1 and 0.296 V at 5 C-rate, 250 mAh g -1 and 0.292 V at 10 C-rate, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests showed that the Ni(OH) 2/C composite exhibited good electrochemical reversibility and the formation of γ-NiOOH during the charge-discharge processes was prevented. The existence of carbon in the Ni(OH) 2/C composite contributed great effect on the improvement of high-rate discharge performance.

  15. Protein-mediated layer-by-layer synthesis of TiO₂(B)/anatase/carbon coating on nickel foam as negative electrode material for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2013-05-01

    Through an aqueous, protein-mediated layer-by-layer titania deposition process, we have fabricated a protamine/titania composite layer on nickel foam. The coating was composed of amorphous carbon and TiO2(B)/anatase nanoparticles and formed upon organic pyrolysis under a reducing atmosphere (5% H2-Ar mixture). X-ray diffraction analyses, Auger electron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained coatings contained fine monoclinic TiO2(B) and anatase nanocrystals, along with amorphous carbon. Moreover, the coating can be used as a binder-free negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries and exhibits high reversible capacity and fast charge-discharge properties; a reversible capacity of 245 mAh g(-1) was obtained at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), and capacities of 167 and 143 mAh g(-1) were obtained at current densities of 1 and 2 A g(-1), respectively. PMID:23597025

  16. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  18. Nickel-aluminum dry charge reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, W.; Buzzelli, E.S.

    1986-08-12

    A nickel-aluminum reserve battery is described which consists of: (1) a case within which are disposed at least one bipolar plate comprising: (i) an electrode comprising battery material, the battery material consisting essentially of nickel hydroxide, the material containing --OH groups, and (ii) and electrode comprising aluminum, (2) a storage reservoir containing aqueous alkali hydroxide electrolyte near the case, and (3) means to transfer stored electrolyte to the electrodes where the nickel hydroxide containing electrode is connected to a current collector, which current collector is in turn connected to the aluminum electrode of the bipolar plate by means of an electrically conducting bonding medium.

  19. Effect of electrode potential on stress corrosion cracking and crack chemistry of a nickel-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, J.A.; Kelly, R.G.; Gangloff, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    The aqueous environment assisted cracking (EAC) resistance of a superalloy, Alloy 718 (Ni-19Fe-18Cr-5Nb-1Ti-0.6Al), was characterized by a rising displacement fracture mechanics methods. This precipitation-strengthened alloy was susceptible to room-temperature EAC in acidified sodium chloride at cathodic and anodic potentials. The threshold for stable crack growth in chloride (K{sub TH}) was as low as 47 MPa{radical}m, reduced from the laboratory air crack initiation toughness (K{sub ICi}) of 81--85 MPa{radical}m. The fracture morphology changed from ductile microvoids in air to a mixture of voids, transgranular facets, and intergranular facets in acidic chloride. Subcritical crack growth rates were on the order of 5 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s for rising displacement at a stress intensity of 70 MPa{radical}m and were an order of magnitude slower for constant displacement conditions. The degree of reduction in K{sub TH} from K{sub ICi}, the amount and type of fracture surface features, and the crack growth rate depended on the applied electrode potential. Microstructure produced by sub- or super-{delta} solvus heat treatment affected these dependencies. Ion analysis indicated that alloy dissolution occurred at the crack tip even at cathodic polarizations.

  20. Nickel/cobalt oxide-decorated 3D graphene nanocomposite electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhi Sa; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-15

    A NiCo2O4 bimetallic electro-catalyst was synthesized on three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene) for the non-enzymatic detection of urea. The structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4/3D graphene nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The NiCo2O4/3D graphene was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to fabricate a highly sensitive urea sensor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A high sensitivity of 166 μAmM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) was obtained for the NiCo2O4/3D graphene/ITO sensor. The sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.06-0.30 mM (R(2)=0.998) and a fast response time of approximately 1.0 s with a detection limit of 5.0 µM. Additionally, the sensor exhibited high stability with a sensitivity decrease of only 5.5% after four months of storage in ambient conditions. The urea sensor demonstrates feasibility for urea analysis in urine samples. PMID:26433071

  1. Stepwise charging and calcination atmosphere effects for iron and nickel substituted lithium manganese oxide positive electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, Mitsuharu; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Hideka; Doumae, Kyosuke; Yuge, Ryota; Tamura, Noriyuki

    2016-05-01

    Fe- and Ni-substituted Li2MnO3 (Li1+x(FeyNiyMn1-2y)1-xO2, 0 < x < 1/3, y = 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) was prepared using coprecipitation-calcination. Its electrochemical properties were sensitive to the calcining atmosphere or the charging mode. Calcination in N2 atmosphere or selecting stepwise charging mode respectively engender better electrochemical performance than calcination in an air atmosphere or selecting galvanostatic charging mode. In fact, the sample for which y = 0.15 calcined in N2 atmosphere exhibited higher discharge capacity than that for the sample calcined in air atmosphere when stepwise charging mode was selected. By selecting stepwise charging mode instead of galvanostatic charging mode, the initial discharge capacity was increased and cyclability was improved. Among the samples calcined in N2 atmosphere, samples for which y = 0.1 and 0.15 were found to have attractive composition as positive electrode materials by selecting stepwise charging mode.

  2. An electrochemiluminescent biosensor for uric acid based on the electrochemiluminescence of bis-[3,4,6-trichloro-2-(pentyloxycarbonyl)-phenyl] oxalate on an ITO electrode modified by an electropolymerized nickel phthalocyanine film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Zhihuang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jian; Chen, Guonan

    2008-06-01

    Nickel(ii) tetrasulfophthalo-cyanine (NiTSPc) could be electrodeposited onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to form an electropolymerization film of NiTSPc. The electrochemiluminescent (ECL) behavior of bis-[3,4,6-trichloro-2-(pentyloxy-carbonyl)-phenyl] oxalate (BTPPO) on this modified electrode was investigated in detail. The emission of ECL of BTPPO can be greatly enhanced by hydrogen peroxide at this modified electrode. Thus, a new ECL biosensor for uric acid was developed based on the enzymatic reaction of uric acid in the presence of uricase to produce H(2)O(2). The developed sensor has been used to detect uric acid in real serum samples, and the results compared well with those obtained by the routine method. PMID:18493682

  3. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  4. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM-1 cm-2) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for

  5. Design, synthesis and evaluation of three-dimensional Co3O4/Co3(VO4)2 hybrid nanorods on nickel foam as self-supported electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Kong, Ling-Bin; Ma, Xue-Jing; Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long

    2014-12-01

    A novel self-supported electrode of three-dimensional Co3O4/Co3(VO4)2 hybrid nanorods on the conductive substrate of nickel foam have been designed and synthesized by the combination of hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing treatment. Based on the morphology, a possible mechanism is proposed. The unique nanostructure has been served as an "ion reservoir" to infiltrate between the electrode surface area and the electrolyte, which can ensure the ion/electron transfer. And the powerful distribution of electric field on nanorods makes the surface in response the electrode reaction as completely as possible. The electrode manifests satisfying capacitance of 847.2 F g-1, outstanding rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Also, an asymmetric supercapacitor has been assembled, where Co3O4/Co3(VO4)2 and activated carbon acted as the positive and negative electrodes respectively, and the maximum specific capacitance of 105 F g-1 and the specific energy of 38 Wh kg-1 are demonstrated at a cell voltage between 0 and 1.6 V, exhibiting a high energy density and stable power characteristic.

  6. Biomass-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Network: A Facile Template for Decoration of Ultrathin Nickel-Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets as High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Lai, Feili; Miao, Yue-E; Zuo, Lizeng; Lu, Hengyi; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    The development of biomass-based energy storage devices is an emerging trend to reduce the ever-increasing consumption of non-renewable resources. Here, nitrogen-doped carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC-N) nanofibers are obtained by one-step carbonization of polyaniline coated bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers, which not only display excellent capacitive performance as the supercapacitor electrode, but also act as 3D bio-template for further deposition of ultrathin nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanosheets. The as-obtained CBC-N@LDH composite electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1949.5 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) , based on active materials), high capacitance retention of 54.7% even at a high discharge current density of 10 A g(-1) and excellent cycling stability of 74.4% retention after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are constructed using CBC-N@LDH composites as positive electrode materials and CBC-N nanofibers as negative electrode materials. By virtue of the intrinsic pseudocapacitive characteristics of CBC-N@LDH composites and 3D nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber networks, the developed ASC exhibits high energy density of 36.3 Wh kg(-1) at the power density of 800.2 W kg(-1) . Therefore, this work presents a novel protocol for the large-scale production of biomass-derived high-performance electrode materials in practical supercapacitor applications. PMID:27135301

  7. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  8. A dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1992-02-01

    A dual anode cell with decreased polarization effects provides improved performance characteristics, such as voltage characteristics and depth-of-discharge characteristics. A hydrogen electrode is placed on both sides of a nickel electrode. An electrolyte saturated separator is placed between each hydrogen electrode and the nickel electrode. The electrolyte saturated separator can be a layered-type separator consisting of one layer of zirconia knit cloth next to the hydrogen electrode and a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film next to the nickel electrode. These layers of the electrochemical cell are cut in a pineapple-slice configuration. Both hydrogen electrodes are connected in parallel to form a single electrical node. The electrochemical cell is placed in a vessel pressurized with hydrogen and saturated with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte. A gas screen is placed on the outer surface of each of the hydrogen electrodes.

  9. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. The key element is the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, the following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver-sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures.

  10. Fabrication and testing of large size nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and construction of nickel zinc cells, containing sintered nickel electrodes and asbestos coated inorganic separator materials, were outlined. Negative electrodes were prepared by a dry pressing process while various inter-separators were utilized on the positive electrodes, consisting of non-woven nylon, non-woven polypropylene, and asbestos.

  11. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  12. Performance of a dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the voltage performance of a nickel hydrogen cell containing a hydrogen electrode on both sides of the nickel electrode. The dual anode cell was compared with a convenient single anode cell using the same nickel electrode. Higher discharge voltages and lower charge voltages were obtained with the dual anode cell during constant current discharges to 10C, pulse discharges to 8C, and polarization measurements at 50 percent of charge.

  13. Effect of CuO addition on electrochemical properties of AB 3-type alloy electrodes for nickel/metal hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Han, Shumin; Zhu, Xilin; Ding, Huiling

    In order to improve overall electrochemical properties of AB 3-type hydrogen storage alloy electrodes, especially the cycling stability, CuO was added to the electrode. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes with and without additives were studied. Cyclic voltammetry and SEM results show that CuO is reduced to Cu during the charging process and the fine Cu particles deposit at surface of the alloy particles. The as-deposited Cu particles form a protective layer to increase electronic and heat conductivity of the electrodes and thus improve maximum discharge capacity, high rate dischargeability, cycling stability and dischargeability at high temperature of the electrodes. The maximum discharge capacity increases from 314 mAh g -1 (blank electrode) to 341 mAh g -1 (3.0 wt.% CuO) and the capacity retention rate at the 200th cycle increases from 71.6% to 77.2% (2.5 wt.% CuO).

  14. Applications of x ray absorption fine structure to the in situ study of the effect of cobalt in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes for fuel cells and rechargeable batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, Donald A.; Scherson, Daniel A.; Antonio, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic and structural aspects of composite nickel-cobalt hydrous oxides have been examined in alkaline solutions using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained have indicated that cobalt in this material is present as cobaltic ions regardless of the oxidation state of nickel in the lattice. Furthermore, careful analysis of the Co K-edge Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveals that the co-electrodeposition procedure generates a single phase, mixed metal hydrous oxide, in which cobaltic ions occupy nickel sites in the NiO2 sheet-like layers and not two intermixed phases each consisting of a single metal hydrous oxide.

  15. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  16. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  17. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been conceived which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  18. The effect of compression on individual pressure vessel nickel/hydrogen components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1988-01-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  19. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel hydrogen cells were conceived which should improve the life cycle at deep depths of discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) the use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  20. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  1. Student Perspectives on Academic Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diana; Scanlon, David

    2016-01-01

    The active involvement of secondary school students with high-incidence disabilities (HI) in instructional accommodations is essential to both enacting the accommodations and to the accommodations effectiveness. Very little is known about students with HI's knowledge about instructional accommodations, experiences with them, or opinions on…

  2. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design, which are not incorporated in state-of-the-art design cells, are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they do not have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test at the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN, under a NASA Lewis Research Center contract. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  3. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  4. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the

  5. Self discharge of nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1977-01-01

    Values for the capacity loss with time, naturally on open circuit stand, and information regarding the minimum amount of circuit charge needed to keep the cell charged can be determined from the self-discharge behavior of nickel hydrogen cells. Furthermore, the rate of reaction between hydrogen and a charged nickel electrode is also open for nickel cadmium batteries. In a nickel hydrogen cell, the hydrogen is stored as pressurized gas and the cell stack with the charge that is oxidized nickel-hydroxide electrode is in direct contact with the hydrogen. Therefore, the rate of reaction can be measured easily and precisely by monitoring the charge, the change in hydrogen pressure with time. Measures made on twelve 15 ampere hour nickel hydrogen cells of different stack configurations built for COMSAT are discussed.

  6. Frequency response measurements in battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of porous zinc, silver, cadmium, and nickel electrodes. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two AgZn cells, one apparently good and the other bad. The impedance data was fit to equivalent circuit models.

  7. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  8. Fixation by active accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavan, Kourosh; Uhlin, Tomas; Eklundh, Jan-Olof

    1992-11-01

    The field of computer vision has long been interested in disparity as the cue for the correspondence between stereo images. The other cue to correspondence, blur, and the fact that vergence is a combination of the two processes, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence, have not been equally appreciated. Following the methodology of active vision that allows the observer to control all his visual parameters, it is quite natural to take advantage of the powerful combination of these two processes. In this article, we try to elucidate such an integration and briefly analyze the cooperation and competition between accommodative vergence and disparity vergence on one hand and disparity and blur stimuli on the other hand. The human fixation mechanism is used as a guide-line and some virtues of this mechanism are used to implement a model for vergence in isolation. Finally, some experimental results are reported.

  9. Virus enabled 3d nano-array electrodes for integrated Lithium/Sodium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihang

    Multilayers of functional materials (carbon/electrode/nickel) were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors for battery applications. The spaces formed between individual rods effectively accommodated the volume expansion and contraction of electrodes during charge/discharge, while surface carbon coating engineered over these nanorods further enhance the electronic conductivity. The microbattery based on self aligned nanoforests with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, can deliver high energy density and stable cycling stability. C/LiFePO4/Ni/TMV nanoforest cathodes for Li-ion batteries and C/Sn/Ni/TMV nanoforest anodes for Na-ion batteries were assembled using physical sputtering deposition. Both 3D nanoforest electrodes show exceptional cycling stability and rate capability.

  10. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  11. Remarkable sensitivity for detection of bisphenol A on a gold electrode modified with nickel tetraamino phthalocyanine containing Ni-O-Ni bridges.

    PubMed

    Chauke, Vongani; Matemadombo, Fungisai; Nyokong, Tebello

    2010-06-15

    This work reports the electrocatalysis of bisphenol A on Ni(II) tetraamino metallophthalocyanine (NiTAPc) polymer modified gold electrode containing Ni-O-Ni bridges (represented as Ni(OH)TAPc). The Ni(II)TAPc films were electro-transformed in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH aqueous solution to form 'O-Ni-O oxo bridges', forming poly-n-Ni(OH)TAPc (where n is the number of polymerising scans). poly-30-Ni(OH)TAPc, poly-50-Ni(OH)TAPc, poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc and poly-90-Ni(OH)TAPc films were investigated. The polymeric films were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the charge transfer resistance (R(CT)) values increased with film thickness. The best catalytic activity for the detection of bisphenol A was on poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc. Electrode resistance to passivation improved with polymer thickness. The electrocatalytic behaviour of bisphenol A was compared to that of p-nitrophenol in terms of electrode passivation and regeneration. The latter was found to passivate the electrode less than the former. The poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc modified electrode could reliably detect bisphenol A in a concentration range of 7x10(-4) to 3x10(-2)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 3.68x10(-9)mol L(-1). The sensitivity was 3.26x10(-4)A mol(-1) L cm(-2). PMID:20122800

  12. Accommodation and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Gianello, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Accommodation refers to the condition in which an organ transplant functions normally by acquiring resistance to immune-mediated injury (especially), despite the presence of anti-transplant antibodies in the recipient. This status is associated with several modifications in the recipient as well as in the graft, such as previous depletion of anti-graft antibodies and their slow return once the graft is placed; expression of several protective genes in the graft; a Th2 immune response in the recipient; and inhibition of the membrane attack complex of complement. PMID:18973811

  13. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  14. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  15. The effect of compression on Individual Pressure Vessel Nickel/Hydrogen components. [for energy storage in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1988-01-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  16. Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

    2013-12-01

    A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport. PMID:24132176

  17. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance tests of Eagle-Picher 12.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    An acceptance test program was conducted on 24 cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program were of high quality by the removal of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The cells were rated at 12.0 ampere-hours and equipped with auxiliary electrodes. Test results were: (1) The capacity of the 24 cells ranged from 14.6 to 16.8 ah. All the cells exceeded the rated capacity on all three capacity checks. (2) One cell failed to recover to 1.150 volts after the cell short test. (3) During the overcharge tests, all cells but one failed the test at the c/10 rate after the first minute. (4) A special resistance test was conducted on the auxiliary electrodes of these cells to establish the resistance value necessary which would provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode. The resistance value established was 10 ohms. (5) No electrolyte leakage was observed.

  18. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  19. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  20. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  1. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  2. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  3. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of a Fume Generated from a Nickel-, Copper-Based Electrode to be Used as a Substitute in Stainless Steel Welding

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, James M; Badding, Melissa A; Meighan, Terence G; Keane, Michael; Leonard, Stephen S; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology has indicated a possible increase in lung cancer among stainless steel welders. Chromium (Cr) is a primary component of stainless steel welding fume. There is an initiative to develop alternative welding consumables [nickel (Ni)- and copper (Cu)-based alloys] that do not contain Cr. No study has been performed to evaluate the toxicity of fumes generated from Ni- and Cu-based consumables. Dose–response and time-course effects on lung toxicity of a Ni- and Cu-based welding fume (Ni–Cu WF) were examined using an in vivo and in vitro bioassay, and compared with two other well-characterized welding fumes. Even though only trace amounts of Cr were present, a persistent increase in lung injury and inflammation was observed for the Ni–Cu WF compared to the other fumes. The difference in response appears to be due to a direct cytotoxic effect by the Ni–Cu WF sample on lung macrophages as opposed to an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25392698

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over 3D cubical Co-KIT-6 and nickel decorated graphene by Hummer's method, its application as counter electrode in dye sensitive solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Sunu; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2016-04-01

    The challenges on carbon nanotubes and graphene are still the subject of many research works due to its unique properties. There are three main methods to synthesis carbon nanotubes in which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method can use for large scale production. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. KIT-6 molecular sieve was used as a support to prepare cobalt catalyst for CVD method using metal impregnation method to produce cobalt loadings of 2, 4 and 6 wt%. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR &TEM. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized on Co-KIT-6 was also characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM & Raman spectra. Graphene was synthesized by Hummers method, which is the most common method for preparing graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was prepared by oxidation of graphite using some oxidizing agents like sulphuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate. This graphene oxide is further treated with hydrazine solution to convert it into chemically converted graphene and also decorated with nickel metal and characterized. Hummer's method is important for large scale production of graphene. Both Graphene and carbon nanotubes are used in different fields due to its unique properties. Both Graphene and carbon nanotubes are fabricated in counter electrode of Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). By cyclic voltammetry study, it confirms that both materials are good and efficient to replace platinum in the DSSC.

  5. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  6. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  7. Direct comparison of the performance of a bio-inspired synthetic nickel catalyst and a [NiFe]-hydrogenase, both covalently attached to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Maciá, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J; Rüdiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we have come in mimicking the enzymatic performance. The catalytic properties of the [Ni(P(Cy) 2 N(Gly) 2 )2 ](2+) complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris immobilized on a functionalized electrode were compared under identical conditions. At pH 7, the enzyme shows higher activity and lower overpotential with better stability, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bio-inspired complexes in fuel cells. PMID:26140506

  8. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance test of Eagle-Picher 100 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a group of 29 cells for the purpose of removing from the life cycle program all cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability to recover open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The test findings include the following: (1) All the cells exceeded the rated capacity of 103.5 to 119.0 ampere-hours on all three capacity checks. (2) All cells recovered above the 1.150 volt requirement after the cell short test. (3) The cells cannot be overcharged at the c/10 rate without exceeding 1.500 volts after approximately 12 to 13 hours of charge. (4) The resistance value necessary to provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode was found to be 10 ohms. (5) One cell revealed a definite leak at the negative terminal.

  9. Use of a ruthenium(III), iron(II), and nickel(II) hexacyanometallate-modified graphite electrode with immobilized oxalate oxidase for the determination of urinary oxalate.

    PubMed

    Milardović, S; Grabarić, Z; Rumenjak, V; Blau, N; Milosević, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a biosensor with an Ru(III), Ni(II), and Fe(II) hexacyanometallate-modified graphite electrode and immobilized oxalate oxidase for the determination of urinary oxalate. The addition of ruthenium enhances the electrochemical reversibility and chemical stability of the electrocrystallized layer and improves the sensitivity of the biosensor. Hydrogen peroxide, produced by the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of oxalate, was measured at -50 mV vs an Hg Hg2CI2 3M KCl electrode in a solution of pH 3.6 succinic buffer, 0.1 M KCl, and 5.4mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The linear concentration range for the determination of oxalate was 0.18-280 microM. The recoveries of added oxalate (10-35 microM) from aqueous solution ranged from 99.5 to 101.7%, whereas from urine samples without oxalate (or with a concentration of oxalate below the detection limit) the recoveries of added oxalate ranged from 91.4 to 106.6%. The oxalate in 24 h urine samples, taken during their daily routine from 35 infants and children, was measured and found to range from 0.6 to 121.7 mg/L. There were no interferences from uric acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and urea in the concentration range investigated, but paracetamol and ascorbic acid did interfere. A good correlation (R2 = 0.9242) was found between values obtained for oxalate in real urine samples by 2 laboratories, with the proposed biosensor and ion chromatography, respectively. PMID:11767164

  10. Jointed Holder For Welding Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Adjustable-angle holder enables use of standard straight electrode with custom-fabricated bent gas cup for welding in difficult-to-reach places. Electrode replaced easily, without removing cup, with aid of tool loosening miniature collet nut on holder. Consumes fewer electrodes for given amount of welding. Angle of holder continuously adjustable to fit angle of gas cup or geometry of part welded. Holder made double-jointed to accommodate gas cup having compound angles.

  11. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  12. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  13. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  14. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  15. Distribution of nickel hydroxide in sintered nickel plaques measured by radiotracer method during electroimpregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, P.K.; Schneider, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered nickel positive electrodes were prepared by electroimpregnating nickel hydroxide inside a porous nickel plaque in a nickel nitrate solution. The distribution of nickel hydroxide inside the plaque was measured using a radio-tracer method with /sup 63/Ni as the radioactivity source. Autoradiography and ..beta.. counting were used to follow qualitative and quantitative distributions, respectively, of the pore filling process. Relatively uniform distribution was observed at low current density, and the precipitation of Ni(OH)/sub 2/ extends to the center of the plaque. At high current density, most of the Ni(OH)/sub 2/ aggregated in the region just underneath the plaque surface, causing a somewhat nonuniform distribution. Nickel hydroxide also precipitates heavily on the surface of the plaque at high current density, reducing the penetration of electrolyte to the inside of the plaque.

  16. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  17. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel Ni-H cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous O and H flow within the cell, while maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack to accommodate Ni electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of Ni electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated; the catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19,000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  18. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  19. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental design, parameters, and testing of a modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. Modifications regarding positive plate loading levels and nickel attack levels, loading levels for the negative plates, interelectrode spacing, and the positive electrode impregnation process are addressed.

  1. Mathematical modeling of a nickel-cadmium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Deyuan; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    Extensions are presented for a mathematical model of an Ni-CD cell (Fan and White, 1991). These extensions consist of intercalation thermodynamics for the nickel electrode and oxygen generation and reduction reactions during charge and overcharge. The simulated results indicate that intercalation may be important in the nickel electrode and that including the oxygen reactions provides a means of predicting the efficiency of the cell on charge and discharge.

  2. Nickel allergy and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Rahilly, G; Price, N

    2003-06-01

    Nickel is the most common metal to cause contact dermatitis in orthodontics. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium and stainless steel, are widely used in orthodontic appliances. Nickel-titanium alloys may have nickel content in excess of 50 per cent and can thus potentially release enough nickel in the oral environment to elicit manifestations of an allergic reaction. Stainless steel has a lower nickel content (8 per cent). However, because the nickel is bound in a crystal lattice it is not available to react. Stainless steel orthodontic components are therefore very unlikely to cause nickel hypersensitivity. This article discusses the diagnosis of nickel allergy in orthodontics and describes alternative products that are nickel free or have a very low nickel content, which would be appropriate to use in patients diagnosed with a nickel allergy. PMID:12835436

  3. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  4. New Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention relates to electrodes for use in secondary electrochemical cells. More particularly, it concerns a method of making a negative electrode composition, the electrode composition made thereby and the secondary electrochemical cell containing the electrode, wherein the negative electrode composition includes a lithium alloy including silicon and nickel.

  5. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori

    2002-10-01

    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  6. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  7. Possible improvements in making carbon electrodes for organic supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bispo-Fonseca, I.; Aggar, J.; Sarrazin, C.; Simon, P.; Fauvarque, J. F.

    Properties of an Electrical Double Layer Capacitor depend both on the technique used to prepare the electrode and on the current collector structure. Capacitors can be built in a similar way to prismatic cells, with several electrodes connected in parallel for each polarity. Our Electrical Double Layer Capacitors included several carbon/carbon electrodes and all the components (electrodes and separators) were wetted with an organic liquid solvent containing a quaternary ammonium salt as electrolyte. In the present work, electrodes were prepared by two different ways: the first one consisted in spraying a liquid suspension of the electrode materials on a nickel foil, and the second one which consisted in filtering and pressing the electrode materials on to nickel collectors. The first technique allowed us to build seven capacitors of 600 F-2.5 V, with time constants of 12 s. Two banks with series connected supercapacitor cells, one as a 12 V-100 F bank and the other one as a 15 V-85 F were tested on cycling. In our experiments to test these banks of supercapacitors, we also coupled the 100 F-12 V bank to a 12 V-7 Ah secondary lead-acid battery in order to demonstrate the contribution of the supercapacitors during power peaks. Comparing the two techniques used to make the electrodes in terms of performances obtained on the supercapacitors prepared, we obtained the best results by using the second method of electrode preparation. Moreover, two kinds of nickel collectors were studied: expanded nickel grids—and various grades of nickel foams, nickel foams giving the best results. The Equivalent Series Resistance of the electrodes prepared with nickel foams depends on nickel foam grade; it is observed to be 1.75 Ω for a capacitance of 1.37 F in our experimental set up, leading to a time constant of 2.4 s. The mechanical properties of the electrodes were improved as well.

  8. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  9. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  10. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  11. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  12. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  13. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  14. Assessment of commercially available and experimental hydrogen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently involved in advanced cell component development for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Long life, high energy density, improved performance and reliability are required for energy storage systems in future space missions. Commercially available as well as experimental hydrogen electrodes were assessed and copared to the state-of-the-art hydrogen electrode that is currently being used in nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and standard electrochemical polarization measurements. Production variables such as Teflon content and platinum catalyst loading were considered in order to assess various hydrogen electrods with regard to the different electrode manufacturing processes.

  15. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  16. Lightweight battery electrode and method of making it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, William A.; Divecha, Amarnath P.

    1993-03-01

    A process for producing a lightweight electrode grid by exposing a heated mat of dense graphite fibers to Ni(CO)4 gas wherein the Ni(CO)4 decomposes upon contact with the graphite fibers depositing nickel metal coating on the graphic fibers is presented. The nickel coated graphite fibers are then sintered to form the grid. Nickel or cadmium electrodes are made by attaching a current collector to the grid and impregnating the grid with the appropriate nickel or cadmium active material.

  17. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  18. Second Plateau Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second plateau. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.

  19. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  20. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  1. Frequency-Accommodating Manchester Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Mario J.

    1988-01-01

    No adjustment necessary to cover a 10:1 frequency range. Decoding circuit converts biphase-level pulse-code modulation to nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-level pulse-code modulation plus clock signal. Circuit accommodates input data rate of 50 to 500 kb/s. Tracks gradual changes in rate automatically, eliminating need for extra circuits and manual switching to adjust to different rates.

  2. Advanced nickel hydrogen cell configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, E.; Perez, F.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the current nickel hydrogen cell design is presented. The IPV, or the Individual Pressure Vessel, is the state of the art right now. The present design, 3 1/2 inch cell, has a current limit of 50 ampere-hours. The nickel hydrogen cell design is the state of the art. Its size is 3 1/2 inches which limits it to 50 hours. The probable limits of that are probably 160 amphere IPV cell remaining in the passive cooling mode. The IPV stacks is a parallel connection of electrodes. Positive electrodes are connected with leads to the top portion of the stack and negative electrodes are connected with leads and pulled down to the bottom. So it is a combination connection of paralleling series electrostacking--parallel inside each individual stack, and series connected from one stack to the next. It offers, in the analysis, improvements in packaging, cost, energy density, and specific energy.

  3. Review of electrochemical impregnation for nickel cadmium cells. [aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method of loading active material within the electrodes of nickel cadmium cells is examined. The basic process of electrochemical impregnation of these electrodes is detailed, citing the principle that when current is applied reactions occur which remove hydrogen ions from solution, making the interior of the plaque less acidic. Electrodes result which are superior in energy density, stability, and life. The technology is reviewed and illustrated with typical performance data. Recommendations are made for additional research and development.

  4. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125-Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures; the catalyzed wall wick cells, however, are performing better.

  5. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell, is to store and deliver energy for long term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures, the catalyzed wall wick cells however, are performing better.

  6. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    A research program to develop and evaluate electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell is described. The concept of the negative limited cell and its implications on electrode structure are discussed. The key element is the development of a cadmium electrode with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes and silver-sinter based Gc electrodes were manufactured and in preliminary experiments their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated. Hydrogen evolution on cadmium was found to occur approximately 100 mV more cathodic than on silver. Both electrode structures exhibit a fairly sharp potential rise at the end of the charging cycle and the advent of gas evolution occurs at potentials between -1.2 and -1.3 V versus a Hg/HgO reference electrode. These results are compared with conventional Ni-sinter based Cd electrodes.

  7. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Warner, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  8. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  9. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/Optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 msec before training and 100 msec after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. PMID:22480879

  10. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type... operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical assistance center that facilitates...

  11. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... applicant if the basis for denial is the need to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or...

  12. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  14. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  15. WP-2 attached payload accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheib, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of the current SSFP attached payload accommodations on the U.S. truss. The overview includes discussions on the four attach sites, the power architecture, thermal control, DMS provisions, and the mechanical attach mechanism. The presentation concludes with a description of a McDonnell Douglas concept for an attached payload pallet designed to take advantage of the four sites and existing SSF hardware. This presentation should provide the payload community with a basic understanding of the SSF attached payload utility ports and aid in attached payload concept development.

  16. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-16

    A method of making a negative electrode is described, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell. 7 figs.

  17. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  18. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  19. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  20. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  1. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  2. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  3. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  4. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.810 Section 177.810... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.810 Overnight accommodations. (a) A.... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and...

  5. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  6. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  7. A new composite electrode architecture for energy storage devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    The research objective is to determine how the electrode microstructure (architecture) affect the performance of the nickel hydroxide electrochemical system. It was found that microstructure and additional surface area makes a difference. The best architectures are the FIBREX/nickel and nickel fiber composite electrodes. The conditioning time for full utilization was greatly reduced. The accelerated increase in capacity vs. cycling appears to be a good indicator of the condition of the electrode/active material microstructure and morphology. Conformal deposition of the active material may be indicated and important. Also higher utilizations were obtained; greater than 80 pct. after less than 5 cycles and greater than 300 pct. after more than 5 cycles using nickel fiber composite electrode assuming a 1 electron transfer per equivalent.

  8. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  9. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  10. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  11. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  12. Electrochromism in nickel oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Optical absorption in a thin-film nickel oxide electrode depends on the state of charge of the electrode; the effect has been called electrochromism, and it may have practical applications in low-speed light modulation devices. In this dissertation, the physical and chemical processes which lead to the change in optical properties are investigated. Preparation of NiO film electrodes by reactive sputtering of a Ni target in an Ar + O[sub 2] gas mixture is described, and the electrochromic response is correlated to film growth conditions. Structural, electronic, and electrochemical properties of the NiO films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, infrared absorption, x-ray photoemission, optical absorption, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical measurements. It is proposed that the electrochromism results from the adsorption and desorption of protons at the oxygen-rich surface of a granular and porous NiO film. The surface electronic levels are then modified by the presence or absence of the O-H bonds, and the effect on the film electronic properties is discussed. A general discussion is also given of the current-limiting processes at the NiO film electrodes.

  13. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonnière, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities. PMID:9357652

  14. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  15. Biological monitoring of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Aitio, A.; Morgan, L.G.; Norseth, T.

    1986-07-01

    Measurements of nickel in body fluids, excreta, and tissues from humans with occupational, environmental, and iatrogenic exposures to nickel compounds are comprehensively reviewed. Correlations between levels of human exposures to various classes of nickel compounds via inhalation, oral, or parenteral routes and the corresponding concentrations of nickel in biological samples are critically evaluated. Major conclusions include the following points: Measurements of nickel concentrations in body fluids, especially urine and serum, provide meaningful insights into the extent of nickel exposures, provided these data are interpreted with knowledge of the exposure routes, sources, and durations, the chemical identities and physical-chemical properties of the nickel compounds, and relevant clinical and physiological information, such as renal function. Nickel concentrations in body fluids should not be viewed as indicators of specific health risks, except in persons exposed to nickel carbonyl, for whom urine nickel concentrations provide prognostic guidance on the severity of the poisoning. In persons exposed to soluble nickel compounds (e.g., NiCl/sub 2/, NiSO/sub 4/), nickel concentrations in body fluids are generally proportional to exposure levels; absence of increased values usually indicates non-significant exposure; presence of increased values should be a signal to reduce the exposure. In persons exposed to less soluble nickel compounds (e.g., Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/,NiO), increased concentrations of nickel in body fluids are indicative of significant nickel absorption and should be a signal to reduce the exposures to the lowest levels attainable with available technology; absence of increased values does not necessarily indicate freedom from the health risks (e.g., cancers of lung and nasal cavities) associated with exposures to certain relatively insoluble nickel compounds. 315 references.

  16. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has contracted with Electro Energy, Inc., to develop a bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery design for energy storage on low-Earth-orbit satellites. The objective of the bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery development program is to approach advanced battery development from a systems level while incorporating technology advances from the lightweight nickel electrode field, hydride development, and design developments from nickel-hydrogen systems. This will result in a low-volume, simplified, less-expensive battery system that is ideal for small spacecraft applications. The goals of the program are to develop a 1-kilowatt, 28-volt (V), bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery with a specific energy of 100 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg), an energy density of 250 W-hr/liter and a 5-year life in low Earth orbit at 40-percent depth-of-discharge.

  17. Pulsed electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Schwartz, M.; Nobe, K. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the effects of dc, pulse, and pulse reverse current waveforms on deposition of Fe-Ni alloys studied in unagitated solutions and with a rotating cylindrical electrode. A nickel sulfamate/ferrous chloride electrolyte system at pH 2 less than 2 A/dm{sup 2}. Pulse reverse plating led to a decrease in anomalous deposition at low current densities. Rotating cylindrical electrodes indicated significant mass transfer effects at high current densities. During pulse reverse plating an increase in anodic pulse magnitude decreased anomalous deposition; pulse frequency had its greatest effect in reducing anomalous deposition between 100 and 300 Hz.

  18. Performance of a Dual Anode Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen batteries are presently being used for energy storage on satellites in low Earth orbit and in geosynchronous orbit, and have also been selected for use on the proposed Space Station Freedom. Development continues on the cell technology in order to improve the specific energy and lengthen the cycle life. An experimental study was conducted to compare the voltage performance of a nickel-hydrogen cell containing a dual anode with the standard cell design which uses a single hydrogen electrode. Since the principle voltage loss in a nickel-hydrogen cell is attributed to the mass transport and resistive polarization parameters of the nickel electrode, addition of a hydrogen electrode on the other side of the nickel electrode should reduce the electrochemical polarizations by a factor of two. A 3.5 in. diameter boilerplate cell with a single 30 mils thick nickel electrode was cycled under various current conditions to evaluate its performance with a single anode and then with a double anode. A layered separator consisting of one Zircar cloth separator and one radiation-grafted polyethylene separator were used between the electrodes. The electrolyte was 26% KOH, and the tests were done at room temperature. The discharge voltage characteristics were determined as a function of current and depth-of-discharge. At the 4C discharge rate and 50% DOD, the voltage of the dual anode cell was 100 mV higher than the single anode cell. At 75% DOD the dual anode cell voltage was about 130 mV higher than the standard cell design. Resistances of the two c ell designs obtained from the slope of the mid-discharge voltages plotted against various currents indicated that the dual anode cell resistance was one-half of the state-of-the-art cell.

  19. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  20. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  1. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  2. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  3. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  4. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-01-01

    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina. PMID:26842859

  5. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  6. Graphene hydrogels deposited in nickel foams for high-rate electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Sheng, Kaixuan; Luo, Peihui; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene hydrogel/nickel foam composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical capacitors are produced by reduction of an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide in a nickel foam (upper half of figure). The micropores of the hydrogel are exposed to the electrolyte so that ions can enter and form electrochemical double-layers. The nickel framework shortens the distances of charge transfer. Therefore, the electrochemical capacitor exhibits highrate performance (see plots). PMID:22786775

  7. Fabrication and testing of negative-limited sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Kohl, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of 100,20Ah and 100,3Ah negative-limited sealed cells are reported. The required physical dimensions of the hardware and components necessary to produce 20 and 3 Ah cells were established. The stainless steel cans and covers have been ordered. The covers contain two ceramic seals. The fabrication of electrodes was started. About 55% (879 electrodes) of the required cadmium electrodes has been prepared. About 44% of the porous nickel substrates (plaques) required for the preparation of the nickel oxide electrodes has been completed.

  8. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  9. Liquid Nickel Salts: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Determination, and Electrochemical Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Verguts, Ken; Brooks, Neil R; Schaltin, Stijn; Phan, Thanh Hai; Trung Huynh, Thi Mien; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Feyter, Steven; Seo, Jin Won; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-01-18

    New nickel-containing ionic liquids were synthesized, characterized and their electrochemistry was investigated. In addition, a mechanism for the electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles from these compounds is proposed. In these so-called liquid metal salts, the nickel(II) cation is octahedrally coordinated by six N-alkylimidazole ligands. The different counter anions that were used are bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Tf2 N(-) ), trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf(-) ) and methanesulfonate (OMs(-) ). Several different N-alkylimidazoles were considered, with the alkyl sidechain ranging in length from methyl to dodecyl. The newly synthesized liquid metal salts were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, DSC, TGA and viscosity measurements. An odd-even effect was observed for the melting temperatures and viscosities of the ionic liquids, with the complexes with an even number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the imidazole having a higher melting temperature and a lower viscosity than the complexes with an odd number of carbons. The crystal structures of several of the nickel(II) complexes that are not liquid at room temperature were determined. The electrochemistry of the compounds with the lowest viscosities was investigated. The nickel(II) cation could be reduced but surprisingly no nickel deposits were obtained on the electrode. Instead, nickel nanoparticles were formed at 100 % selectivity, as confirmed by TEM. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles were investigated by SQUID measurements. PMID:26643274

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  11. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 26.5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the TIROS-N and NOAA-A satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    This evaluation test program had the purpose to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are referenced to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics. A requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from test.

  12. The cadmium electrode: Review of the status of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.; Glockling, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations characterizing the negative cadmium electrode used in a nickel cadmium battery cell are summarized with citations to references where more detailed information is available. Emphasis is placed on data pertinent to aerospace applications. An evaluation of some of the published results of cadmium electrode research is included.

  13. Layered method of electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Russell R.

    1991-07-30

    A process for fabricating a fuel electrode comprising: slurry dipping to form layers which are structurally graded from all or mostly all stabilized zirconia at a first layer, to an outer most layer of substantially all metal powder, such an nickel. Higher performaance fuel electrodes may be achieved if sinter active stabilized zirconia doped for electronic conductivity is used.

  14. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  15. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  16. Working Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka

    In electrochemistry an electrode is an electronic conductor in contact with an ionic conductor. The electronic conductor can be a metal, or a semiconductor, or a mixed electronic and ionic conductor. The ionic conductor is usually an electrolyte solution; however, solid electrolytes and ionic melts can be used as well. The term "electrode" is also used in a technical sense, meaning the electronic conductor only. If not specified otherwise, this meaning of the term "electrode" is the subject of the present chapter. In the simplest case the electrode is a metallic conductor immersed in an electrolyte solution. At the surface of the electrode, dissolved electroactive ions change their charges by exchanging one or more electrons with the conductor. In this electrochemical reaction both the reduced and oxidized ions remain in solution, while the conductor is chemically inert and serves only as a source and sink of electrons. The technical term "electrode" usually also includes all mechanical parts supporting the conductor (e.g., a rotating disk electrode or a static mercury drop electrode). Furthermore, it includes all chemical and physical modifications of the conductor, or its surface (e.g., a mercury film electrode, an enzyme electrode, and a carbon paste electrode). However, this term does not cover the electrolyte solution and the ionic part of a double layer at the electrode/solution interface. Ion-selective electrodes, which are used in potentiometry, will not be considered in this chapter. Theoretical and practical aspects of electrodes are covered in various books and reviews [1-9].

  17. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  18. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  19. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 15b.13 Section 15b.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.13 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make...

  1. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  2. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  3. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  4. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  5. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  6. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  7. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  8. Validity of Accommodation for English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    The focus of this study was on the validity and feasibility of test accommodation strategies on a small-scale level. Both limited English proficiency (LEP) students and non-LEP students were tested under accommodated and nonaccommodated conditions and their performance was compared. The study was conducted in two public school districts and at…

  9. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  10. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or near... which provides an adequate flow of water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be...

  11. Test Accommodations for LEP Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Rivera, Charlene

    This digest presents an overview of accommodations for students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and an overview of inclusion practices on statewide assessments, with emphasis on the accommodation known as linguistic simplification. The inclusion of LEP students in statewide testing programs over the last decade has been uneven. In the…

  12. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  13. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  14. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  15. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  16. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  17. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  18. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  19. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. PMID:24954685

  20. Advanced IPV Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Soltis, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Expansion and contraction of electrode stack accommodated to increase cycle life. Three features of advanced designs new and not incorporated but fully compatible in either contemporary cells: use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, serrated-edge separators, and expandable stack. Designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over life of cells and are fully compatible with state-of-the-art designs. Cells improve performance, life, and usable energy leading to lighter storage devices for low Earthorbit applications for commercial or government applications.

  1. Nickel Hydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Nathan A; Guan, Hairong

    2016-08-10

    Nickel hydride complexes, defined herein as any molecules bearing a nickel hydrogen bond, are crucial intermediates in numerous nickel-catalyzed reactions. Some of them are also synthetic models of nickel-containing enzymes such as [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The overall objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of this specific type of hydride complexes, which has been studied extensively in recent years. This review begins with the significance and a very brief history of nickel hydride complexes, followed by various methods and spectroscopic or crystallographic tools used to synthesize and characterize these complexes. Also discussed are stoichiometric reactions involving nickel hydride complexes and how some of these reactions are developed into catalytic processes. PMID:27437790

  2. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  3. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  4. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  5. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  6. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  7. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  8. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  9. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Swarr, Thomas E.; Wnuck, Wayne G.

    1987-12-22

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H.sub.2 gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800.degree. C. is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 weight percent chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  10. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  11. Photoelectrochemical behavior of nanocomposite films of cadmium sulfide, or titanium dioxide, and nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Tacconi, N.R. de; Wenren, H.; Rajeshwar, K.

    1997-09-01

    This paper concerns the photoelectrochemical characterization of nanocrystalline composite (nanocomposite) films of nickel and CdS (hereafter designated as Ni/CdS) in aqueous sulfite electrolyte. Experiments were also conducted on Ni/TiO{sub 2} film electrodes in the same electrolyte to delineate the role of nickel electrochemistry in the photoelectrochemical behavior of the two nanocomposite electrodes. Systematic enhancement of the photocurrent was observed for Ni/CdS on repeated potential cycling in the sulfite electrolyte. Similar behavior was also seen for Ni/TiO{sub 2}, but the enhancement effect was much smaller. The enhancement effect arises from incipient corrosion and subsequent passivation of the nickel matrix, as shown by voltammetry on nickel electrodes in the sulfite medium. The variant behavior seen for Ni/CdS and Ni/TiO{sub 2} in turn is attributable to the different degrees of electrochemical stability of nickel in the two composites. The passivation layer on nickel is shown to be Ni(OH){sub 2} by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Other aspects of the data presented include steeper onset near the bandgap cutoff wavelength in the photoaction spectrum for Ni/CdS (relative to the anodically prepared CdS thin film counterpart), lower background currents in the dark for Ni/TiO{sub 2} (relative to nickel), and stabilization of the nickel matrix against corrosion (in the dark) by the occluded TiO{sub 2} particles.

  12. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  13. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  14. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  15. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  16. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  17. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  18. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  19. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  20. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  1. Significantly improved electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of magnesium nickel hydride modified with nano-nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yunfeng; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Menghuai; Li, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium nickel hydride (Mg2NiH4) used as negative electrode material in nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) secondary battery is modified by nano-nickel via mechanical milling. In this paper, we systematically investigate the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the modified system with different milling durations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses confirm the amorphous transformation of Mg2Ni-based hydride and a novel NiH0.75 nanocrystalline with a diameter of about 5 nm embedding or covering on the surface of the base particle has been observed. Its formation mechanism and positive effects on electrochemical properties of the Mg2NiH4 have also been elaborated. Electrochemical measurements show that the 5 h milled composite possesses markedly increased discharge capacity up to 896 mAh g-1. With prolonging the milling duration from 5 h to 40 h, the discharge capacity at the 10th cycle increases from 99 mAh g-1 to 359 mAh g-1. Besides, the discharging procedure changes from stepwise processes to one single-step process with increasing the milling duration. Tafel polarization test shows that the nano-nickel modified system exhibits a much better anti-corrosion ability during charging/discharging cycles. Meanwhile, both the charge-transfer reaction on the alloy surface and hydrogen diffusion inside the alloy bulk are enhanced with nano-nickel modification.

  2. Ageing of nickel used as sensitive material for early detection of sudomotor dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Hanna; Lair, Virginie; Griveau, Sophie; Galtayries, Anouk; Brunswick, Philippe; Bedioui, Fethi; Cassir, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The surface ageing of nickel electrodes was studied in the frame of the development of non-invasive biomedical devices, dedicated to the detection of sudomotor dysfunction manifested by an alteration of the ionic balance in human sweat. In this kind of technology, low voltage potentials with variable amplitudes are applied to nickel electrodes, placed on skin regions with a high density of sweat glands, and the electrical responses are measured. The trick is that nickel electrodes play alternately the role of anode and cathode, thus the analysis of the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical properties of nickel is of prime importance to ensure the good performance of the device. Electrochemical measurements coupled to surface chemical characterizations (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) were performed on pure Ni samples, immersed in buffered chloride solutions mimicking human sweat. The shapes of voltammograms, recorded in a restricted anodic potential range, show that the nickel surface was gradually passivated as a function of the number of scans. This was confirmed by XPS data, with the formation of a 1 nm thick duplex layer composed by nickel hydroxide (outermost layer) and nickel oxide (inner layer). In a negative extended potential range, though the electrochemical behavior of electrodes was not modified upon cycling the potential, XPS data show that the inner layer was thickening, indicating a surface degradation of the nickel electrode. Below pitting potentials, adsorbed chloride was only hardly detected by XPS, and the surface composition of the nickel samples was similar after treatments in chloride or chloride-free buffered solutions. In a larger potential range enabling to reach the breakdown potential, the highly chemically sensitive ToF-SIMS characterization pointed out that the surface concentration of adsorbed chloride was higher in pits than elsewhere on the surface sample.

  3. The self-discharge of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode constant potential study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Z.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation currents at a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode were measured directly at constant potentials for various hydrogen pressures and states of charge. It was found that the hydrogen oxidation current is linearly proportional to the hydrogen pressure at all electrode potentials and that the logarithm of the anodic current is a linear function of electrode potential. It was also found that hydrogen oxidation on the nickel substrate material was strongly inhibited by the presence of nickel hydroxide on the substrate surface. By comparing the currents for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen evolution on the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode and a nickel substrate, it is suggested that the self-discharge of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode is mainly due to electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen on the active electrode material.

  4. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-11-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  7. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  8. A mathematical model of a sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Deyuan; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model for the charge and discharge of a sealed nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery is presented. The model is used to study the effect of transport properties of the electrolyte and kinetic parameters of the electrode reactions on the cell performance during the charge and discharge period. The model can also be used to demonstrate the changes of cell performance during cycling. Some comparisons between model predictions and experimental results indicate that the model predictions appear to fit the experimental data well. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that the sealed nickel-cadmium battery operates under activation control. It is also shown theoretically that oxygen generated on the positive electrode during charge is reduced electrochemically on the negative electrode.

  9. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  10. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  11. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. PMID:21157661

  12. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  13. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. PMID:26548901

  14. Low Nickel Diet in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav D

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and the commonest cause of metal allergy among the people. Nickel allergy is a chronic, recurring problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient. PMID:23723488

  15. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  16. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  17. Lightweight battery electrode and method of making it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, William A.; Divecha, Amarnath P.

    1994-11-01

    A process is introduced for producing a lightweight electrode grid by exposing a compressed, heated mat of dense graphite fibers to Ni(CO)4 gas wherein the Ni(CO)4 decomposes upon contact with the graphite fibers depositing a nickel metal coating on the graphite fibers which strongly bonds the fibers together to form a compressed mat or grid of nickel metal coated fibers.

  18. Fabrication of nickel-foam-supported layered zinc-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes for high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Liu, Xiaohe; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2014-10-01

    Nickel foam supported Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes were fabricated by a facile solvothermal method. Benefited from the unique structure of Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes on a nickel foam substrate, the as prepared materials exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) and remarkable cycling stability as electrode materials in supercapacitors. PMID:25110896

  19. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-22

    ACCESS--Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station--was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the 'knee' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control, power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.

  20. Pulse plating of nickel deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.; Stevenson, M.F.

    1980-02-01

    Pulse plated and conventional nickel deposits have been compared for differences in morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure. The deposits were obtained from nickel sulfamate, nickel chloride, and Watts nickel plating solutions. No significant differences were found in the direct and pulse current deposits from the sulfamate and chloride solutions; however, significant differences in microstructure, yield strength, and microhardness were observed in deposits from the Watts nickel solution.

  1. [The deterioration of refractive accommodative esotropia].

    PubMed

    Yan, J; Yang, S; Wang, Y

    1995-09-01

    137 patients with refractive accommodative esotropia who were followed for at least 5 years were investigated. The results showed that in 23 of the 137 patients (16.8%) occurred the deterioration of esotropia that means esotropia can no longer be controlled by wearing a pair of complete corrective spectacles. The deterioration develops most likely in patients with delay of anti-accommodative therapy or with malfunction of binocular vision. The age of onset, refractive status and the visual acuity difference between bilateral eyes are not etiologic factors in the process of deterioration. We consider that early diagnosis of accommodative esotropia, timely prescription of optical correction and maintenance of normal binocular vision play important roles in preventing the deterioration. PMID:8706583

  2. Viking B complex gets new accommodations platform

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that a new accommodation platform in the Viking gas field, operated by Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. in the southern North SEa, was commissioned January 10. The new facility is equipped with the first freefall lifeboats to enter service in the U.K. offshore oil and gas industry, the Conoco. The platform is linked to the other three Viking B platforms by a 65 m bridge. The other platforms are where drilling, production, and compression activities occur. As well as accommodating up to 56 people on the new platform, it also contains a monitoring and control station, plant and switchgear rooms, fire pumps, and a loading bay. The project cost {Brit pounds}18 million and required 14 months from design to commissioning. It included building and installing a new jacket and deck and moving existing accommodation module and helideck from their previous location on the Viking BD to the new BA.

  3. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  4. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  5. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  6. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  7. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  8. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  9. Nickel Curie point engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient heat source. A simple but elegant device illustrates this phenomenon beautifully.

  10. Positive electrode processing for Hughes NiH2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleser, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The basic procedures were developed for the manufacture of nickel cadmium batteries. An electrochemical impregnation in an aqueous ethanol solution is used in this process. Several additional controls were instituted for production of flight electrodes, including a Hughes controlled MCD, a solution reserved exclusively for the impregnation of Hughes positive electrodes a system of complete traceability for individual electrodes, an electrical characterization test to provide information on weight and capacity at the plaque level, and a stress test to provide data on capacity, weight, and physical parameters at the electrode level.

  11. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Spengler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  12. Life cycle assessment of gas atomised sponge nickel for use in alkaline hydrogen fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin P.; Lavery, Nicholas P.; Jarvis, David J.; Anttila, Tomi; Rantanen, Jyri; Brown, Stephen G. R.; Adkins, Nicholas J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a cradle-to-grave comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of new gas atomised (GA) sponge nickel catalysts and evaluates their performance against the both cast and crush (CC) sponge nickel and platinum standards currently used in commercial alkaline fuel cells (AFC). The LCA takes into account the energy used and emissions throughout the entire life cycle of sponge nickel catalysts - ranging from the upstream production of materials (mainly aluminium and nickel), to the manufacturing, to the operation and finally to the recycling and disposal. Through this assessment it was found that the energy and emissions during the operational phase associated with a given catalyst considerably outweigh the primary production, manufacturing and recycling. Primary production of the nickel (and to a lesser extent dopant materials) also has a significant environmental impact but this is offset by operational energy savings over the electrode's estimated lifetime and end of life recyclability. From the results it can be concluded that higher activity spongy nickel catalysts produced by gas atomisation could have a significantly lower environmental impact than either CC nickel or platinum. Doped GA sponge nickel in particular showed comparable performance to that of the standard platinum electrode used in AFCs.

  13. Electrochemical characteristics of encapsulated metal-hydride-alloy electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.H.; Zhang, D.J.; Ke, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Metal hydride electrodes with copper-encapsulated alloys and non-coated alloys were fabricated using suitable conductive and binding agents. The charge-discharge characteristics of three kinds of hydride electrodes were comparatively investigated. The encapsulated alloy electrode is remarkably superior to the non-coated LaNi{sub 5}-based one, discharging at a high rate and exhibiting a smaller capacity decay at the stage of cycle tests. The hydride alloy quality of hydride electrodes can be effectively determined by measuring rate capability. The results of vented cell experiments confirm that the capacity decay of non-coated alloy electrodes in sealed cells is not due to the oxidation of oxygen from the nickel hydroxide positive electrodes. The relationship between the equilibrium potential of hydride electrode and the equilibrium hydrogen pressure has been deduced by a succinct thermodynamic method, without consideration of the unknown activity of water and fugacity coefficient of hydrogen.

  14. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  15. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 18.412 Section 18.412 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  16. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  17. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  18. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 4.123 Section 4.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8b.12 Section 8b.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Employment Practices § 8b.12 Reasonable...

  20. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  1. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  2. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 42.511 Section 42.511 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  4. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  5. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  7. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  8. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  10. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  11. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  12. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  13. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  14. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  15. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  16. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  17. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  18. Testing Accommodations and Inclusive Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebling, Bradley C.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2005-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale assessments, typically by using testing accommodations, for statewide accountability systems became a legal reality with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, and the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. These legal mandates and best…

  19. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  20. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  1. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  2. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  3. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  5. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  6. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  8. Mentoring for Success: Accommodation Strategies for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jill; Abbott, Marilyn; Rossiter, Marian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a seven-week action research mentoring project would help two junior high school science teachers to feel more confident and successful in their abilities to use accommodation strategies to support the English language learners (ELLs) in their classes, and consequently to increase their ability to assess more…

  9. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  10. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  11. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  12. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  13. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  14. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  15. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  16. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  17. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  18. Degradation of nickel anodes in alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, M.; Gülzow, E.

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), especially AFCs need neither expensive electrolytes nor expensive noble metal catalysts. For using of AFCs long-term stability of the components is decisive, in particular the stability of the electrodes, because the electrolyte can be easily exchanged. The long-term behavior of AFC anodes was investigated electrochemically by measuring U- i curves. The electrodes consisting of a mixture of a nickel catalyst, which is formed from an aluminium-nickel alloy by dissolving the aluminum, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as organic binder and with added copper powder, rolled onto a metal web. In addition, these electrodes were characterized physically after different operation times by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), porosimetry measurements by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The electrochemical performance decreases with operating time. The decrease of the electrochemical performance can be described by combination of two exponential functions with different time constants. The physical characterization shows that the PTFE in the electrodes partially decomposes and the nickel catalysts disintegrates. The changes of the physical characteristics can be correlated with the electrochemical performance.

  19. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  20. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  1. Identifying Appropriate Test Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Capizzi, Andrea M.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of identification of appropriate testing accommodations for students with learning disabilities (LD). First it defines the concept of testing accommodations and review research on test accommodations commonly used with students with LD. Next it examines the validity and fairness in accommodations, as well as the…

  2. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  3. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  4. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  5. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  8. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  9. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  10. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  11. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  12. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  13. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  14. Soil, nickel and low nickel food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Mimiola, Giancarlo; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Nickel is an ubiquitous trace element and occurs in soil, water, air and in the biosphere. Ni is an essential element for several plants, microorganisms and vertebrates. Human requirement for Ni has not been conclusively demonstrated. Nickel is normally present in human tissues at low concentration and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. Food is the major source of Ni exposure. Nickel is present in many food products, especially vegetables. The amount of Ni present in vegetables is increasing because of environmental contamination and cultural practices. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of a Ni-rich diet can cause an increase of immunological disorders including Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS patients are currently treated with a diet that is closely Ni-free. Therefore, there is a need to produce certified and guaranteed vegetables with a low Ni concentration in the market. The proposed research aims to develop new methods for vegetable production and innovative cultural practices through a suitable choice of agricultural soil, cultivar, amendments and fertilizers as well as good agricultural practices in order to reduce Ni plant uptake and its translocation to the edible plant parts and therefore to produce Ni-free food products for SNAS patients.

  15. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  16. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  17. Comparison of Standard and Heart-pacer Type 3rd Electrodes in Design Variable Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Nine packs of sealed aerospace nickel cadmium cells were put on life test in February 1979. Each 5 cell pack contained one cell with a standard sensor signal electrode and one cell with a new heart pacer sensor signal electrode. Testing was discontinued in May 1983 and the signal electrode performance data was studied. It was found that the heart pacer electrode generally provided a greater voltage swing over a cycle; that both types of electrodes lost significant sensitivity during life, and that both types of electrodes show great signal variation from cell to cell.

  18. Iodobismuthate-selective film electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhman'ko, E.M.

    1986-02-01

    In preparing ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for use in determining bismuth, the authors used the singly charged complex BiI/sub 4/. The authors report on the investigation of the electrochemical properties of an iodobismuthate film ISE and demonstrated the feasibility of using this electrode in the analysis of bismuth-containing solutions. Sulfates of bismuth, nickel, copper, tin, cadmium, and iron, as well as potassium iodide and thiocyanate and lead acetate, sodium hypophosphate, and perchlorate, and sodium tetraphenylborate were used. An ion-selective film electrode was developed, reversible with respect to BiI/sub 4/ ions. Depending on the concentration of the KI background solution, the Bi(III) detection limit is in the range from 3.2.10/sup -7/M. The electrode has been used in determining bismuth by direct potentiometry and by potentiometric titration. It has been shown that bismuth can be determined on a background of a 30-fold quantity of tin without preliminary separation.

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery self-discharge mechanism and methods for its inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visintin, Arnaldo; Anani, Anaba; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.; Lim, Hong S.

    1992-01-01

    A review of our studies on the elucidation of the self-discharge mechanism of the Ni/H2 battery and methods to inhibit this phenomena is presented. The results show that (1) the rate of heat generation from nickel hydroxide powders and from electrodes increases with increase of hydrogen pressure, simultaneously, the open-circuit potential of the nickel hydroxide electrode is shifted in a negative direction more rapidly, indicating the transformation of NiOOH to Ni(OH)2; (2) heat generation rates measured in the microcalorimeter are considerably faster for electrolyte starved electrodes than for electrolyte-flooded electrodes; (3) there is a good correlation between the extent of self-discharge, as determined by heat generation in microcalorimetric measurement and capacity change; and (4) the self-discharge in Ni/H2 battery occurs via direct reduction of the active material by pressurized hydrogen. The addition of cadmium to the electrode reduces the self-discharge.

  20. Electrospinning of Ceria and Nickel Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerasi, Jyothi Swaroop Reddy

    Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine fibers from a liquid. It has very high potential for industrial processing. Electrospinning is cost effective, repeatable and it can produce long, continuous nanofibers. Polymers such as polyalcohol, polyamides, and PLLA can be easily electrospun. The increase in demand for clean energy combined with the research work in progress and the potential advantages of electrospun electrodes over conventionally fabricated SOFCs makes electrospinning a strong candidate. In this thesis, ceramic nanofibers (ceria and nickel oxide) that can potentially be used in SOFCs are fabricated. A three-phase approach is implemented in the fabrication of ceria and nickel oxide nanofibers. The first phase involves the preparation of the composite ceramic-polymer solution to be electrospun. The second phase gives the processing conditions such as voltage applied, feed rate, and gauge of syringe tip used for successfully electrospinning composite ceramic-polymer fibers. The final stage demonstrates the temperature cycles used to burn out the polymer and calcine the ceramic particles in the ceramic-polymer nanofibers leaving behind ceria and nickel oxide nanofibers. Techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to measure the average diameter of the fibers formed and to understand the chemical composition and crystallanity of the nanofibers after calcination. This thesis also discusses the advantages and possibility of fabricating side-by-side nanofibers and oriented nanofiber mats.

  1. Accounting for the Dynamic Oxidative Behavior of Nickel Anodes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rodney D L; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-02-10

    The dynamic behavior of the anodic peak for amorphous nickel oxy/hydroxide (a-NiOx) films in basic media was investigated. Chronocoulometry of films with known nickel concentrations reveals that a total of four electrons per nickel site comprise the signature anodic peak at 1.32 V during the first oxidative scan, and two electrons are passed through the associated cathodic peak on the reverse scan. The anodic and cathodic signals each contain two electrons on the successive scans. Catalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was detected within the anodic peak, which is at a lower potential than is widely assumed. In order to rationalize these experimental results, we propose that the four-electron oxidation event is the conversion of the film from nickel(II) hydroxide ([Ni(II)-OH](-)) to a higher valent nickel peroxide species (e.g., Ni(IV)-OO or Ni(III)-OO·). The subsequent reduction of the nickel peroxide species is confined by a chemical step resulting in the accumulation of [Ni(II)-OOH](-), which is then oxidized by two electrons to form Ni(IV)-OO during the subsequent oxidative scan on the time scale of a cyclic voltammetric experiment. Our proposed mechanism and the experimental determination that each nickel site is oxidized by four electrons helps link the myriad of seemingly disparate literature data related to OER catalysis by nickel electrodes. The faster catalysis that occurs at higher oxidative potentials is derived from a minority species and is not elaborated here. PMID:26829375

  2. Nickel release from nickel particles in artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Pan, Jinshan; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Heim, Katherine; Leygraf, Christofer

    2007-06-01

    Nickel is widely used in a broad range of products, primarily made of alloys, used by humans on a daily basis. Previous assessments have shown that skin contact with some such products may cause nickel allergic contact dermatitis, induced by the release of nickel. However, data on nickel release from small nickel particles in artificial sweat for assessment of potential risks of workers in nickel-producing and nickel-using facilities are not available. The objective of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by determining nickel release from fine nickel powder ( approximately 4 microm diameter) of different loadings varying from 0.1 to 5 mg/cm(2), when immersed in artificial sweat. The amount of nickel released increased with increasing particle loading, whereas the highest release rate per surface area of particles was observed for the medium particle loading, 1 mg/cm(2), at current experimental conditions. All particle loadings showed time-dependent release rates, reaching a relative steady-state level of less than 0.1 microg/cm(2)/hr after 12 hr of immersion, whereby less than 0.5% of the nickel particle loading was released. Nickel release from particles was influenced by the surface composition, the active surface area for corrosion, particle size, and loading. PMID:17577373

  3. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-25

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-01

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  5. Pulse electrodeposited nickel-indium tin oxide nanocomposite as an electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Sivasakthi, P; Ramesh Bapu, G N K; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2016-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-ITO nanocomposite on mild steel substrate were prepared by pulse electrodeposition method from nickel sulphamate electrolyte and were examined as electrocatalysts for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The surface morphology, chemical composition, preferred orientation and oxidation states of the nickel metal ion in the deposits were characterized by SEM, EDAX, XRD and XPS. Electrochemical sensing of glucose was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The modified Ni-ITO nanocomposite electrode showed higher electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium and exhibited a linear range from 0.02 to 3.00 mM with a limit of detection 3.74 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The higher selectivity, longer stability and better reproducibility of this electrode compared to nickel in the sensing of glucose are pointers for exploitation in practical clinical applications. PMID:26478372

  6. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  7. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  8. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  9. Electron emission from nickel-alloy surfaces in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manda, M.; Jacobson, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cesiated electron emission was measured for three candidate electrodes for use as collectors in thermionic converters. Nickel, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy were tested with a 412 K cesium reservoir. Peak emission from the alloys was found to be comparable to that from pure nickel. Both the Inconel and the Hastelloy samples had work functions of 1.64 eV at peak emission. The minimum work functions were estimated to be 1.37 eV at a probe temperature of 750 K for Inconel and 1.40 eV for Hastelloy at 665 K. The bare work function for both alloys is estimated to be approximately the same as for pure nickel, 4.8 eV.

  10. Visual-Accommodation Trainer/Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ophthalmic instrument tests and helps develop focusing ability. Movable stage on a fixed base permits adjustment of effective target position as perceived by subject. Various apertures used to perform tests and training procedures. Ophthalmic instrument provides four functions: it measures visual near and far points; provides focus stimulus in vision research; measures visual-accommodation resting position; can be used to train for volitional control of person's focus response.

  11. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically

  12. Determination of nickel-63

    SciTech Connect

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample.

  13. Nickel requirement of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Diekert, G; Ritter, M

    1982-08-01

    Growth of Acetobacterium woodii on H2 and CO2 rather than on fructose was dependent on nickel. Nickel-deprived cultures growing on fructose did not synthesize acetate from CO2; under these conditions hydrogen formation was used as the electron sink. The data indicate that nickel is involved in CO2 reduction to acetate in A. woodii. PMID:6807954

  14. Nickel requirement of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, G; Ritter, M

    1982-01-01

    Growth of Acetobacterium woodii on H2 and CO2 rather than on fructose was dependent on nickel. Nickel-deprived cultures growing on fructose did not synthesize acetate from CO2; under these conditions hydrogen formation was used as the electron sink. The data indicate that nickel is involved in CO2 reduction to acetate in A. woodii. PMID:6807954

  15. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOEpatents

    Sindorf, John F.

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  16. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  17. Amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres with ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. B.; Yu, M. H.; Wang, F. X.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Wang, C. X.; Tong, Y. X.; Yang, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Among numerous active electrode materials, nickel hydroxide is a promising electrode in electrochemical capacitors. Nickel hydroxide research has thus far focused on the crystalline rather than the amorphous phase, despite the impressive electrochemical properties of the latter, which includes an improved electrochemical efficiency due to disorder. Here we demonstrate high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors prepared from amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres synthesized via simple, green electrochemistry. The amorphous nickel hydroxide electrode exhibits high capacitance (2,188 F g−1), and the asymmetric pseudocapacitors of the amorphous nickel hydroxide exhibit high capacitance (153 F g−1), high energy density (35.7 W h kg−1 at a power density of 490 W kg−1) and super-long cycle life (97% and 81% charge retentions after 5,000 and 10,000 cycles, respectively). The integrated electrochemical performance of the amorphous nickel hydroxide is commensurate with crystalline materials in supercapacitors. These findings promote the application of amorphous nanostructures as advanced electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials. PMID:23695688

  18. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the Electro Energy, Inc.'s bipolar nickel metal hydride battery. The advantages of the design are that each cell is individually sealed, and that there are no external cell terminals, no electrode current collectors, it is compatible with plastic bonded electrodes, adaptable to heat transfer fins, scalable to large area, capacity and high voltage. The design will allow for automated flexible manufacturing, improved energy and power density and lower cost. The development and testing of the battery's component are described. Graphic presentation of the results of many of the tests are included.

  19. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  20. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.