Science.gov

Sample records for accommodate thermal contraction

  1. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  2. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  3. Student Accommodation Projects: A Guide to PFI Contracts. Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Pinsent

    This guide is intended for higher education institutions in England that are about to embark on student residential accommodation projects. It focuses on procurements under the Private Financial Initiative (PFI), a form of Public Private Partnership in the United Kingdom, but other approaches are considered. The guide draws on good practices from…

  4. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John R.; Gallis, Michael A.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ˜0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations.

  5. Investigation on heat transfer between two coaxial cylinders for measurement of thermal accommodation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Yu; Niimi, Tomohide; Polikarpov, Alexey; Graur, Irina

    2012-06-01

    The heat flux between two coaxial cylinders was measured in the range from the free molecular to the early transitional flow regimes for extraction of the thermal accommodation coefficient using an approximate relation on the pressure dependence of the heat flux. The experimental coaxial cylinders' geometry has been traditionally implemented for the measurement of the thermal accommodation coefficient using the low-pressure method; however, the actual experimental setup was characterized by large temperature difference and large cylinders' radius ratio. Compared to the original low-pressure method, much higher pressure range was applied. In order to verify assumptions in the accommodation coefficient extraction, the heat flux under measurement conditions was simulated numerically by the nonlinear S-model kinetic equation. Very good agreement was found between the measured and the simulated heat flux. The proposed procedure of the thermal accommodation coefficient extraction was discussed in detail and verified. The temperature dependence of the thermal accommodation coefficient was also found.

  6. Optical method for measuring thermal accommodation coefficients using a whispering-gallery microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganta, D.; Dale, E. B.; Rezac, J. P.; Rosenberger, A. T.

    2011-08-01

    A novel optical method has been developed for the measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients in the temperature-jump regime. The temperature dependence of the resonant frequency of a fused-silica microresonator's whispering-gallery mode is used to measure the rate at which the microresonator comes into thermal equilibrium with the ambient gas. The thermal relaxation time is related to the thermal conductivity of the gas under some simplifying assumptions and measuring this time as a function of gas pressure determines the thermal accommodation coefficient. Using a low-power tunable diode laser of wavelength around 1570 nm to probe a microsphere's whispering-gallery mode through tapered-fiber coupling, we have measured the accommodation coefficients of air, helium, and nitrogen on fused silica at room temperature. In addition, by applying thin-film coatings to the microsphere's surface, we have demonstrated that accommodation coefficients can be measured for various gases on a wide range of modified surfaces using this method.

  7. Thermal accommodation coefficient of helium and argon on an amorphous SiO/sub 2/ surface

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, A.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal accommodation coefficient was determined for the interaction of two inert gases, helium and argon, on a surface composed of thermally grown amorphous silicon dioxide. The surface was processed as an integrated circuit chip and utilized components capable of generating heat and measuring temperature. The accommodation coefficient of helium on clean SiO/sub 2/ was found to be 0.198, while that for argon was 0.421. Both one-dimensional and three-dimensional continuum theory models of the accommodation coefficient were used for comparison with the experimental data. Correlation for helium is good when the well depth and range parameter of the Morse interacting gas potential are chosen to be: a = 1.67 A/sup -1/ and D = 550 cal/mole. The Debye temperature was computed from elastic constants to be 498/sup 0/K.

  8. Experimental study of shock-wave reflection from a thermally accommodating wall.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    Shock-tube experiments have been conducted to study the nonequilibrium gas-surface interaction which occurs when a thick shock wave in argon reflects from a coplanar, heat-conducting wall. Fast-response instrumentation was used to monitor variations in temperature and normal stress on the surface of the shock-tube end wall during and immediately following reflection of the incident shock wave. The laboratory observations are compared with computer predictions obtained by Deiwert using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method, and excellent agreement is obtained when a suitable average thermal accommodation coefficient is chosen for the wall surface.

  9. The gas-grain interaction in the interstellar medium - Thermal accommodation and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1983-02-01

    The paper develops a numerical model for calculating thermal accommodation coefficients alphaT and trapping functions ft for gases incident on solid surfaces. The method is especially designed for astrophysical applications in that it treats economically and with moderate accuracy (+ or - 20%) the dependences of alphaT and ft on finite and different surface and gas temperatures for a large number of gas-surface combinations. In particular, the method is applied to the astrophysical combinations of hydrogen and helium gases incident on graphite, silicon, and ice surfaces. Graphs are presented of the dependence of alphaT and ft on interstellar gas temperatures in the range of 10 to 10,000 K and grain temperatures in the range 10 to 1000 K, assuming the current estimates of the gas-surface physical parameters such as the composition and the Debye temperature of the grain material, the repulsive range of the surface potential, and the gas-grain adsorption energy.

  10. An extended soft-cube model for the thermal accommodation of gas atoms on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical soft cube model was developed for calculating thermal accommodation coefficients alpha and trapping fractions f sub t for the interaction of gases incident upon solid surfaces. A semiempirical correction factor c which allows the calculation of alpha and f sub t when the collision times are long compared to the surface oscillator period were introduced. The processes of trapping, evaporation, and detailed balancing were discussed. The numerical method was designed to treat economically and with moderate (+ or - 20 percent) accuracy the dependence of alpha and f sub t on finite and different surface and gas temperatures for a large number of gas/surface combinations. Comparison was made with experiments of rare gases on tungsten and on alkalis, as well as one astrophysical case of H2 on graphite. The dependence of alpha on the soft cube dimensionless parameters is presented graphically.

  11. Point defect weakened thermal contraction in monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Lin, Zijing

    2014-08-14

    We investigate the thermal expansion behaviors of monolayer graphene and three configurations of graphene with point defects, namely the replacement of one carbon atom with a boron or nitrogen atom, or of two neighboring carbon atoms by boron-nitrogen atoms, based on calculations using first-principles density functional theory. It is found that the thermal contraction of monolayer graphene is significantly decreased by point defects. Moreover, the corresponding temperature for negative linear thermal expansion coefficient with the maximum absolute value is reduced. The cause is determined to be point defects that enhance the mechanical strength of graphene and then reduce the amplitude and phonon frequency of the out-of-plane acoustic vibration mode. Such defect weakening of graphene thermal contraction will be useful in nanotechnology to diminish the mismatching or strain between the graphene and its substrate.

  12. The role of thermal energy accommodation and atomic recombination probabilities in low pressure oxygen plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Andrew Robert; Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Chabert, Pascal; Gans, Timo; Kushner, Mark J.; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-01

    Surface interaction probabilities are critical parameters that determine the behaviour of low pressure plasmas and so are crucial input parameters for plasma simulations that play a key role in determining their accuracy. However, these parameters are difficult to estimate without in situ measurements. In this work, the role of two prominent surface interaction probabilities, the atomic oxygen recombination coefficient γ O and the thermal energy accommodation coefficient α E in determining the plasma properties of low pressure inductively coupled oxygen plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional fluid-kinetic simulations. These plasmas are the type used for semiconductor processing. It was found that α E plays a crucial role in determining the neutral gas temperature and neutral gas density. Through this dependency, the value of α E also determines a range of other plasma properties such as the atomic oxygen density, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, and ion bombardment energy and neutral-to-ion flux ratio at the wafer holder. The main role of γ O is in determining the atomic oxygen density and flux to the wafer holder along with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. It was found that the plasma properties are most sensitive to each coefficient when the value of the coefficient is small causing the losses of atomic oxygen and thermal energy to be surface interaction limited rather than transport limited.

  13. Condensation of water vapor: Experimental determination of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. M.; Vrtala, A.; Rudolf, R.; Wagner, P. E.; Riipinen, I.; Vesala, T.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Viisanen, Y.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-10-01

    Experimental determinations of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients αm and αt for condensation of water vapor in air have been conducted covering a temperature range from about 250 to 290 K. For the first time, both coefficients have been determined directly and simultaneously. To this end, growth of water droplets in air has been observed at different total gas pressures ranging from about 1000 down to 100 hPa. Monodispersed seed particles have been used as condensation nuclei. After addition of water vapor with well-defined partial vapor pressure, supersaturation was achieved by adiabatic expansion in an expansion chamber. Most experiments reported in the present paper were performed at vapor saturation ratios ranging from 1.30 to 1.50. Monodispersed Ag particles with a diameter of 9 nm have been used as condensation nuclei, and for humidification a diffusion humidifier was applied. One experiment was performed at the saturation ratio of 1.02, which resembles conditions observed in the Earth's lower atmosphere. In this experiment, monodispersed DEHS particles with a diameter of 80 nm were used as condensation nuclei, and water vapor was generated by quantitative evaporation of a liquid jet. Droplet growth was monitored using the CAMS method. For determination of the accommodation coefficients, experimental droplet growth curves were compared to corresponding theoretical curves. Quantitative comparison was performed by varying the respective accommodation coefficient and the starting time of droplet growth in a two-parameter best fit procedure. Considering the uncertainty with respect to the starting time of droplet growth and the uncertainties of the experimental water vapor supersaturation, corresponding maximum errors have been determined. From the results obtained it can be stated that αt is larger than 0.85 over the whole considered temperature range. For 250-270 K, values of αm below 0.8 are excluded, and for higher temperatures up to 290 K we can

  14. Adjusting Local Molecular Environment for Giant Ambient Thermal Contraction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xingyuan; Connolly, Timothy; Huang, Yuhui; Colvin, Michael; Wang, Changchun; Lu, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    A low-energy triggered switch that can generate mechanoresponse has great technological potential. A submolecular moiety, S-dibenzocyclooctadiene (DBCOD) that is composed of a flexible eight-membered ring connecting to a phenyl ring at each end, undergoes a conformational change from twist-boat to chair under a low-energy stimulus such as near infrared irradiation, resulting in thermal contraction of DBCOD-based polymer. Experimental evidence corroborated by theoretical calculations indicates that introducing molecular asymmetry can reduce crystallinity significantly and consequently facilitate the kinetics of the conformational change. It has been demonstrated that the negative thermal expansion (NTE) coefficient of a DBCOD-based polymer system can be adjusted in a range from -1140 to -2350 ppm K(-1) . -2350 ppm K(-1) is ≈10 times better than the value reported by the second best NTE system.

  15. Cocos plate gravity lineaments due to thermal contraction cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-09-01

    Gravity lineaments, narrow strips of stronger gravity, were first observed on the ocean floor in the south central Pacific several decades ago, but scientists still debate their origin. Because the south central Pacific gravity lineaments align with the tectonic plate motion, some scientists have suggested that they were created through small-scale convection cells below the lithosphere that become elongated as the plate moved. Other proposed explanations have included flow of low-viscosity material along the base of the the lithosphere and cracking of the lithosphere due to thermal contraction. Newly recognized gravity lineaments on the Cocos plate, which lies beneath the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America, could help scientists figure out how such lineaments form. Cormier et al. identified the lineaments using satellite altimetry data. They used gravity, bathymetric, and magnetic data to investigate the physical characteristics of the lineaments and how they changed over time. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003573, 2011)

  16. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  17. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  18. Thermal evolution of Mercury: implication for despinning and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robuchon, G.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Mocquet, A.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury's surface exhibits specific compressive features, called lobate scarps, that suggest that Mercury has experienced a change of shape during its history. These compressive features indicate global contraction and their apparent N-S preferred orientation suggests a possible effect of tidal despinning. The analysis of the terrains associated to the lobate scarps provide evidence for a formation after the end of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Another particularity is the presence of an intrinsic magnetic field intrinsic. This can be a proof for a liquid layer in the core. By adapting a model initially developed for Iapetus, we propose to evaluate the thermal evolution of Mercury and the associated despinning, contraction and core evolution. We perform 3D numerical simulations for a wide range of plausible initial conditions to evaluate: (1) the evolution of the temperature structure, (2) the resulting despinning rate, (3) the change of Mercury's shape, (4) the associated lithospheric stress field, (5) the onset of the core crystallization, and (6) the possibility of a liquid layer in the core at the present day. Thermal convection equations are solved for a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity in a spherical geometry using the numerical tool OEDIPUS. Cooling and crystallization of the core are also taken into account. Different values for the activation energy, initial mantle temperature, mantle density, core radius and sulfur content are tested. The horizontally averaged temperature profiles and the radius of inner core obtained from the 3D internal model as a function of time can be used to compute the evolution of Mercury's rotation and shape. We use a visco-anelastic transient rheological model initially developed for the Earth’s uppermost mantle. We consider different values of eccentricity (taken constant during the evolution), initial rotation period and grain size. A coupling between mantle and core is also investigated. Four different

  19. Cellular Membrane Accommodation to Thermal Oscillations in the Coral Seriatopora caliendrum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chuan-Ho; Fang, Lee-Shing; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Lin, Ching-Yu; Lee, Shu-Hui; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the membrane lipid composition of corals from a region with tidally induced upwelling was investigated. The coral community is subject to strong temperature oscillations yet flourishes as a result of adaptation. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the dominant pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was performed using a validated method. The coral inhabiting the upwelling region shows a definite shift in the ratio of lipid molecular species, covering several subclasses. Mainly, the coral possesses a higher percentage of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. Higher levels of lyso–plasmanylcholines containing saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid chains were also revealed in coral tissue at the distal portion of the branch. Based on the physicochemical properties of these lipids, we proposed mechanisms for handling cellular membrane perturbations, such as tension, induced by thermal oscillation to determine how coral cells are able to spontaneously maintain their physiological functions, in both molecular and physical terms. Interestingly, the biochemical and biophysical properties of these lipids also have beneficial effects on the resistance, maintenance, and growth of the corals. The results of this study suggest that lipid metabolic adjustment is a major factor in the adaption of S. caliendrum in upwelling regions. PMID:25140803

  20. Lubrication forces in air and accommodation coefficient measured by a thermal damping method using an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, Christopher D. F.; Sader, John E.; Mulvaney, Paul; Ducker, William A.

    2010-05-01

    By analysis of the thermally driven oscillation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever, we have measured both the damping and static forces acting on a sphere near a flat plate immersed in gas. By varying the proximity of the sphere to the plate, we can continuously vary the Knudsen number (Kn) at constant pressure, thereby accessing the slip flow, transition, and molecular regimes at a single pressure. We use measurements in the slip-flow regime to determine the combined slip length (on both sphere and plate) and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient, σ . For ambient air at 1 atm between two methylated glass solids, the inverse damping is linear with separation and the combined slip length on both surfaces is 250nm±100nm , which corresponds to σ=0.77±0.24 . At small separations (Kn>0.4) the measured inverse damping is no longer linear with separation, and is observed to exhibit reasonable agreement with the Vinogradova formula.

  1. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  2. Anisotropy of thermal contraction controls deep hydrothermal circulation at oceanic ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F.; Nicolas, A.; Mainprice, D.; Baronnet, A.

    2003-04-01

    A deep and high-T (up to 1000^oC) hydrothermal contamination of the oceanic crust at the ridge axis has been documented in the Oman ophiolite. In the deep and hot gabbros, the main water channels are submillimetric microcracks with a dominantly vertical attitude (Nicolas et al, in press). Sr and O isotopic investigations point to seawater as the most likely hydrothermal contaminant (Bosch et al. submitted). We propose that the mechanism allowing seawater ingression at temperatures above 700^oC is anisotropy of thermal contraction, opening microcracks that are controlled by fabric. The exceptionally large anisotropy of thermal contraction of single crystal of calcic plagioclase, when introduced in the strong lattice fabrics in the lower gabbros results in finding the maximum thermal contraction direction parallel to maximum crystals elongation L1. This direction in the oceanic ridge referential is horizontal and perpendicular to microcracks dominant orientation. This high-T hydrothermal alteration in gabbros reaches the Moho. In the underlying peridotites, preliminary Sr isotopic data on clinopyroxene from wehrlites suggest that seawater was able to ingress at crystallization temperature for clinopyroxene. Interestingly, in these peridotites with horizontal foliation, thermal contraction, calculated as above from fabrics and thermal expansion coefficients in olivine, is vertical, being responsible for subhorizontal cracking, as deduced from serpentine dominant veining. Thus, during off-axis drifting of newly accreted lithosphere, thermal contraction opens vertical cracks, favoring seawater ingression down to the Moho. Below, in peridotites, the horizontal microcrack system would favor closing of hydrothermal circuit at Moho level.

  3. Numerical simulation of microwave ablation incorporating tissue contraction based on thermal dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Brace, Christopher L.

    2017-03-01

    Tissue contraction plays an important role during high temperature tumor ablation, particularly during device characterization, treatment planning and imaging follow up. We measured such contraction in 18 ex vivo bovine liver samples during microwave ablation by tracking fiducial motion on CT imaging. Contraction was then described using a thermal dose dependent model and a negative thermal expansion coefficient based on the empirical data. FEM simulations with integrated electromagnetic wave propagation, heat transfer, and structural mechanics were evaluated using temperature-dependent dielectric properties and the negative thermal expansion models. Simulated temperature and displacement curves were then compared with the ex vivo experimental results on different continuous output powers. The optimized thermal dose model indicated over 50% volumetric contraction occurred at the temperature over 102.1 °C. The numerical simulation results on temperature and contraction-induced displacement showed a good agreement with experimental results. At microwave powers of 55 W, the mean errors on temperature between simulation and experimental results were 8.25%, 2.19% and 5.67% at 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm radially from the antenna, respectively. The simulated displacements had mean errors of 16.60%, 14.08% and 23.45% at the same radial locations. Compared to the experimental results, the simulations at the other microwave powers had larger errors with 10–40% mean errors at 40 W, and 10–30% mean errors at 25 W. The proposed model is able to predict temperature elevation and simulate tissue deformation during microwave ablation, and therefore may be incorporated into treatment planning and clinical translation from numerical simulations.

  4. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE). A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for non-thermal tissue

  5. [Spasm of accommodation].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  6. Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Jin, Changqing; Frantti, Johannes; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Materials with zero/near zero thermal expansion coefficients are technologically important for applications in thermal management and engineering. To date, this class of materials can only be produced by chemical routes, either by changing chemical compositions or by composting materials with positive and negative thermal expansion. Here, we report for the first time a physical route to achieve near zero thermal expansion through application of pressure. In the stability field of tetragonal PbTiO3 we observed pressure-induced reversals between thermal contraction and expansion between ambient pressure and 0.9 GPa. This hybrid behavior leads to a mathematically infinite number of crossover points in the pressure-volume-temperature space and near-zero thermal expansion coefficients comparable to or even smaller than those attained by chemical routes. The observed pressures for this unusual phenomenon are within a small range of 0.1-0.9 GPa, potentially feasible for designing stress-engineered materials, such as thin films and nano-crystals, for thermal management applications.

  7. Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C; Jin, Changqing; Frantti, Johannes; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-15

    Materials with zero/near zero thermal expansion coefficients are technologically important for applications in thermal management and engineering. To date, this class of materials can only be produced by chemical routes, either by changing chemical compositions or by composting materials with positive and negative thermal expansion. Here, we report for the first time a physical route to achieve near zero thermal expansion through application of pressure. In the stability field of tetragonal PbTiO3 we observed pressure-induced reversals between thermal contraction and expansion between ambient pressure and 0.9 GPa. This hybrid behavior leads to a mathematically infinite number of crossover points in the pressure-volume-temperature space and near-zero thermal expansion coefficients comparable to or even smaller than those attained by chemical routes. The observed pressures for this unusual phenomenon are within a small range of 0.1-0.9 GPa, potentially feasible for designing stress-engineered materials, such as thin films and nano-crystals, for thermal management applications.

  8. Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Jin, Changqing; Frantti, Johannes; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Materials with zero/near zero thermal expansion coefficients are technologically important for applications in thermal management and engineering. To date, this class of materials can only be produced by chemical routes, either by changing chemical compositions or by composting materials with positive and negative thermal expansion. Here, we report for the first time a physical route to achieve near zero thermal expansion through application of pressure. In the stability field of tetragonal PbTiO3 we observed pressure-induced reversals between thermal contraction and expansion between ambient pressure and 0.9 GPa. This hybrid behavior leads to a mathematically infinite number of crossover points in the pressure-volume-temperature space and near-zero thermal expansion coefficients comparable to or even smaller than those attained by chemical routes. The observed pressures for this unusual phenomenon are within a small range of 0.1–0.9 GPa, potentially feasible for designing stress-engineered materials, such as thin films and nano-crystals, for thermal management applications. PMID:24424396

  9. Thermal contraction of aqueous glycerol and ethylene glycol solutions for optimized protein-crystal cryoprotection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Julius, Ethan F; Tyree, Timothy J; Moreau, David W; Atakisi, Hakan; Thorne, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    The thermal contraction of aqueous cryoprotectant solutions on cooling to cryogenic temperatures is of practical importance in protein cryocrystallography and in biological cryopreservation. In the former case, differential contraction on cooling of protein molecules and their lattice relative to that of the internal and surrounding solvent may lead to crystal damage and the degradation of crystal diffraction properties. Here, the amorphous phase densities of aqueous solutions of glycerol and ethylene glycol at T = 77 K have been determined. Densities with accuracies of <0.5% to concentrations as low as 30%(w/v) were determined by rapidly cooling drops with volumes as small as 70 pl, assessing their optical clarity and measuring their buoyancy in liquid nitrogen-argon solutions. The use of these densities in contraction matching of internal solvent to the available solvent spaces is complicated by several factors, most notably the exclusion of cryoprotectants from protein hydration shells and the expected deviation of the contraction behavior of hydration water from bulk water. The present methods and results will assist in developing rational approaches to cryoprotection and an understanding of solvent behavior in protein crystals.

  10. The competition between thermal contraction and differentiation in the stress history of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.

    1989-01-01

    The scarcity of both extension and compression features on the Moon strongly constrains the history of the lunar radius9d\\to variations of thermal contraction of the near-surface and expansion of a substantial cold interior region. Recent theories of lunar origin (eg, giant impact), in contrast, favor a "hot' initial state. We propose that a reconciliation may be possible by taking account of the volume change ??V/V|d due to differentiation. -from Authors

  11. Buckling Behavior of Long Anisotropic Plates Subjected to Elastically Restrained Thermal Expansion and Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing buckling results for thin balanced and unbalanced symmetric laminates that are subjected to uniform heating or cooling and elastically restrained against thermal expansion or contraction is presented. This approach uses a nondimensional analysis for infinitely long, flexural anisotropic plates that are subjected to combined mechanical loads. In addition, stiffness-weighted laminate thermal-expansion parameters and compliance coefficients are derived that are used to determine critical temperatures in terms of physically intuitive mechanical-buckling coefficients. Many results are presented for some common laminates that are intended to facilitate a structural designer s transition to the use of the generic buckling design curves. Several curves that illustrate the fundamental parameters used in the analysis are presented, for nine contemporary material systems, that provide physical insight into the buckling response in addition to providing useful design data. Examples are presented that demonstrate the use of the generic design curves.

  12. Modelling of thermal contraction of emplaced lava flows at Hekla volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Werner; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.

    2014-05-01

    During and after the emplacement of magma the flow cools down and undergoes thermal contraction. This latter process leads to subsidence of the emplaced lava relative to its surrounding area, and thus masking the overall current crustal movement due to magma pressure changes in the volcanic system. Other effects such as void space compaction and the bending of the underlying elastic crust due to the weight of the lava accompany the emplacement and lead to further complications regarding the studies of thermal contraction. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides good possibilities for the detection and resolution of vertical movements around a volcano because of high spatial resolution and good accuracy during favorable conditions. Comparisons of the interferograms with the outline of lava flows at e.g. Hekla volcano or Mount Etna agree well with areas of higher subsidence or minor uplift, respectively, being taken as an eclipsing of the above-mentioned effects. Interferograms from 1993 to 2012 give evidence that the lava fields of the Hekla eruptions in 1991 and 2000 are continuously subsiding. Even there are several publications dealing with such observations, models taking into account a physical basis for thermal contraction are currently spare. Nevertheless, several theoretical approaches state the time-dependent temperature distribution within a lava flow taking into account heat-flow processes. On the basis of these calculations, we have developed a one-dimensional numerical model that shows the subsidence and subsidence rate after a certain time after emplacement. The model takes into account the conduction of heat away from the fluid magma towards the magma-air interface and the magma-rock interface. Furthermore, contraction at the transition boundary between the liquid phase of magma and the solidified gabbro are considered to be in the range of volume change of 9% according to density measurements. After full solidification the

  13. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  14. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  15. Onsager heat of transport for water vapour at the surface of water and ice: thermal accommodation coefficients for water vapour on a stainless-steel surface.

    PubMed

    Pursell, Christopher J; Phillips, Leon F

    2006-10-28

    The Onsager heat of transport Q* has been measured for water vapour at the surface of water, supercooled water, and ice, over the temperature range -8 to +10 degrees C. For liquid water, Q* is constant at -24.7 +/- 3.6 kJ mol(-1) (two standard deviations) over the pressure range 4-9.5 Torr. Provided the ice is suitably aged, the |Q*| values are very similar for water and ice, a result which is consistent with the presence of a liquid-like layer at the surface of ice. The values are slightly larger for ice, in proportion to the ratio of the heat of sublimation of ice to the heat of vaporization of the liquid. Departures from linearity of plots of P against DeltaT are attributed to temperature jumps at the surface of the dry upper plate. Hence jump coefficients and thermal accommodation coefficients have been derived as a function of temperature for collisions of water molecules with type-304 stainless steel.

  16. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  17. Systematic High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Investigation of Martian South Polar Landforms: Thermal Contraction Polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hao, Jingyan

    2015-04-01

    The Martian poles are geomorphologically highly diverse as orbital high-resolution imaging data have shown since the early 2000s [1]. Apart from an initially unexpected diversity and an abundance of different and exotic landform types, image and topography data presented evidence for seasonal changes, not only with respect to the seasonal extent of the polar-caps but also with respect to individual landforms that have later been addressed as cryptic material [2]. Most of these features are - though not exclusively - located within the seasonal CO2 cap and their changes imply not only seasonal but also potentially long-term climatic changes [3]. Today, plausible formation processes for some of these landforms have been proposed [7-9; 11-13] and modelled but despite a wealth of new data, systematic surveys are relatively rare [10]. For more than 13,500 images taken by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC-NA) over the south-polar area (75'90°S) systematic mapping and classification of thermal contraction polygons have been conducted in previous work by the author and others [4-5], but seasonal changes were identified for few locations only due to limitations of image coverage. Reconstruction of thermal-contraction crack development suggests a complex interplay between seasonal H2O and CO2 ices [6] but image coverage was too sparse at that time to build a representative distribution model and to confirm formation models. Due to the small size of thermal contraction polygons (few tens of meters in diameter), data obtained by MEx/HRSC and MO/THEMIS could only marginally help to identify features and feature distributions. With the arrival of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Context Camera (CTX) provided new detailed insight into the seasonal behaviour of the south polar area of Mars and its landforms at geometric resolutions comparable to those of MOC. Four Martian years have been covered by now which allows us to reconstruct formation and analyse distribution of featured

  18. Visualization study on distortion of a metal frame by polymerization shrinkage and thermal contraction of resin.

    PubMed

    Kakino, Ken; Endo, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masanori; Furuta, Kunihiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Three types of metal specimens (ring-shaped, plate-shaped, and a simulated anterior arch) for distortion observations were made from Au-Ag-Pd-Cu alloy. Distortion due to polymerization shrinkage and thermal contraction of a heat-curing acrylic resin containing 4-META (4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride, 4-META resin) could be visualized for the ring-shaped specimen, which showed increasing distortion of the metal frame upon adhesion of the resin to the outer metal surface. Distortion of the plateshaped specimen adhering to 4-META resin decreased with increasing thickness of the cured resin. The distortion of the metal frame simulating an anterior arch of a six-unit bridge with a facing composite resin showed that the curvature of the metal frame was larger after curing of the facing composite resin. However, it recovered most of its original curvature with an associated increase in the number of cracks between the crowns after trimming the resin to a tooth profile.

  19. Handbook of Reasonable Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Sandra M.; And Others

    The booklet discusses a basic concept in affirmative action and nondiscrimination for the handicapped, which requires federal agencies to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of a qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the agency. Reasonable…

  20. Analyzing Disability Accommodation Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, L.; Lan, W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the willingness of faculty members to accommodate students with disabilities differs according to academic discipline and instructor gender. The authors examined the attitudes of faculty members toward students with disabilities as reflected in course syllabi to discern instructor willingness to accommodate these…

  1. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  2. Thermal Contraction Crack Polygon Classification and Distribution: Morphological Variations in Northern Hemisphere Patterned Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Head, J.; Marchant, D.

    2008-09-01

    Polygonally patterned ground has been identified on Mars since the Viking era [1], and has long been interpreted as a signal of the presence of subsurface ice deposits [2-4]. The origin of ice in the shallow martian subsurface, whether by cyclical vapour diffusion or primary deposition, remains an area of active inquiry [5- 9]. Recent modelling suggests that high-latitude terrains on Mars may support buried ice sheets and glaciers, produced by direct atmospheric deposition within the past 5 My [5], overlain by a sublimation lag deposit ranging in thickness from 10s to 100s of cm [8]. These results are consistent with coarse-resolution (100s of km per pixel) neutron-spectrometer results correlating highlatitude patterned ground with subsurface water [4, 10, 11], as well as a suite of geomorphological observations linking young terrains to recently deposited, ice-rich units [5-7]. Polygon classification in terrestrial polar environments is based on morphology, structure, and origin processes. On Earth, thermal contraction crack polygons can be divided into three types: ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation polygons; each of which forms under a unique set of climate and substrate-composition conditions [12-14]. Although the thermal contraction cracking process under martian conditions is well understood [15], classification systems for polygonally patterned ground on Mars have until now relied primarily on imaging data at resolutions comparable to the scale of the polygons of interest [3]. We build on the identification of sublimation polygons in the NASA Phoenix landing area [16], and preliminary classification of polygons into morphological species (groups distinguishable by characteristic surface morphologies) [17] across the northern hemisphere of Mars. We present an integrated assessment of martian polygon morphological variation as a function of latitude, and suggest links between polygon morphology, origin timing, and global climate conditions. This analysis

  3. International Space Station payload accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  4. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  5. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  6. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  7. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  8. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  9. Studies in Binocular Accommodation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Barry

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A study of the binocular accommodation response is presented for normal and amblyopic observers to selected stimulus conditions using a binocular infra-red optometer and a commercially-available autorefractor. The work reviews the neural control of the near triad and discusses the historical development of models of mutual interaction between accommodation and convergence, presenting experimental evidence to support or refute each proposition. The basic characteristics of the accommodation response are reviewed along with the influencing factors. A central feature of this work is the evaluation of the correlation present between the eyes for both step -wise changes in target vergence and steady-state viewing. Reaction times for visually normal subjects were found to be similar to those found by previous workers and were independent of both size and direction of the step change. Response times for a mean step size of approximately 2.5D exhibited a marked degree of intersubject variability, particularly for the decreasing response and were step -size dependent. Eye dominancy was not found to be a significant factor in the overall response time. The binocular accommodation responses were found to have a high level of correlation to step-wise changes in target vergence. Assessment of the microfluctuations was necessary. A high degree of correlation between amblyopic eyes and their fellow normal eyes is reported for both reaction and response times. Steady-state viewing shows the microfluctuations to have a high level of coherence. As target luminance decreased, rms values and low frequency drifts increased. Amblyopic eyes show an increase in the magnitude of the low frequency components of the microfluctuations for moderate to high stimulus vergences. The presence of different behaviour to that observed in normals supports a role for the microfluctuations. The response of amblyopic eyes to

  10. Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation–contraction coupling in bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (Δ[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

  11. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  12. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  13. Thermal expansion and contraction of an elastomer stamp causes position-dependent polymer patterns in capillary force lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Youn Sang; Jeong, Unyong

    2011-12-01

    It is often observed that polymer patterns fabricated by capillary force lithography (CFL) are not identical, position-dependent even in one sample. The drawback has not been successfully explained so far. This paper reveals that the position-dependent pattern is mainly caused by the volume expansion and contraction of the elastomer stamp during heating and cooling in the CFL process. The stamp expands on a polymer liquid on heating, accumulating the polymer at one side-wall of each pattern of the stamp. And the stamp shrinks back to the initial position, accumulating the polymer at the opposite wall of the stamp pattern. For crystalline polymers, the morphology was mainly determined by the annealing temperature, that is, the degree of expansion. The position-dependence of the morphology was enhanced as the annealing temperature was increased. For amorphous polymers, the morphology was sensitive to cooling rate. Fast cooling led to a frozen morphology generated at the hot annealing temperature, while slow cooling produced an opposite morphology from the one at the annealing. The experimental results were theoretically explained by analyzing thermal expansion of the stamp and the shear stress exerted in the polymer layer. In the conclusion, we added our suggestions to avoid the nonuniformity in the polymer pattern by CFL process.

  14. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  15. ISS truss attached payload accommodations overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Janella S.; Olson, Michael F.; Foster, Mark A.; Watkins, Barbara S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the defining features of the International Space Station (ISS) is its capacity to accommodate long-term science in the external environment of space. The large truss structure spanning the vehicle is designed to support core system equipment such as solar arrays, thermal radiators, and the pressurized module structures. In addition to supporting core systems, the truss structure also accommodates four attached payload facilities and two logistics carriers. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the ISS in accommodating externally attached science payloads, defines the locations where experiments can be conducted, explains the environment wherein typical experiments will be performed, and identifies the payload interfaces and access to resources such as power and data. The paper will also summarize the robotic accommodations which will support attached payloads and describes typical procedures for installation of the payloads onto the sites. Finally, the paper will provide a summary description of the attach sites on the NASDA Exposed Facility and the potential for use of alternative attach sites on the ISS.

  16. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  17. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  18. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.183 - What class of ship accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accommodations must I use? 301-10.183 Section 301-10.183 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES... use the lowest first-class accommodations when traveling by ship, except when your agency...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  5. Measurement of Gas-Surface Accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, W. M.; Rader, D. J.; Castañeda, J. N.; Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure both the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux and the variation of gas density between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness and surface contamination have been examined with this system, and the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Results are discussed in comparison with previous parallel-plate experimental studies as well as numerical simulations.

  6. Post-emplacement cooling and contraction of lava flows: InSAR observations and thermal model for lava fields at Hekla volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Werner; Dumont, Stephanie; Lavallee, Yan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2016-04-01

    Gradual post-emplacement subsidence of lava flows has been observed at various volcanoes, e.g. Okmok volcano in Alaska, Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and Etna volcano on Sicily. In Iceland, this effect has been observed at Krafla volcano and Hekla volcano. The latter was chosen as a case study for investigating subsidence mechanisms, specifically thermal contraction. Effects like gravitational loading, clast repacking or creeping of a hot and liquid core can contribute to subsidence of emplaced lava flows, but thermal contraction is considered being a crucial effect. The extent to which it contributes to lava flow subsidence is investigated by mapping the relative movement of emplaced lava flows and flow substrate, and modeling the observed signal. The slow vegetation in Iceland is advantageous for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and offers great coherence over long periods after lava emplacement, expanding beyond the outlines of lava flows. Due to this reason, InSAR observations over volcanoes in Iceland have taken place for more than 20 years. By combining InSAR tracks from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites we gain six time series with a total of 99 interferograms. Making use of the high spatial resolution, a temporal trend of vertical lava movements was investigated over a course of over 23 years over the 1991 lava flow of Hekla volcano, Iceland. From these time series, temporal trends of accumulated subsidence and subsidence velocities were determined in line of sight of the satellites. However, the deformation signal of lava fields after emplacement is vertically dominated. Subsidence on this lava field is still ongoing and subsidence rates vary from 14.8 mm/year in 1995 to about 1.0 mm/year in 2014. Fitting a simple exponential function suggests a exponential decay constant of 5.95 years. Additionally, a one-dimensional, semi-analytical model was fitted to these data. While subsidence due to phase change is calculated analytically

  7. Thermally-mediated ultrasound-induced contraction of equine muscular arteries in vitro and an investigation of the associated cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eleanor M; Duck, Francis A; Winlove, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that MHz frequency ultrasound causes contraction of the carotid artery in vitro. We now extend this investigation to equine mesenteric arteries and investigate the cellular mechanisms. In vitro exposure of the large lateral cecal mesenteric artery to 4-min periods of 3.2 MHz continuous wave ultrasound at acoustic powers up to 145 mW induced reversible repeatable contraction. The magnitude of the response was linearly dependent on acoustic power and, at 145 mW, the mean increase in wall stress was 0.020 ± 0.017 mN/mm(2) (n = 34). These results are consistent with our previous study and the effect was hypothesised to be thermally mediated. A 2°C temperature rise produced an increase in intracellular calcium, measured by Fluo-4 fluorescence. Inhibition of the inward-rectifier potassium ion channel with BaCl(2) (4 μM) increased the response to ultrasound by 55% ± 49%, indicating a similar electrophysiologic basis to the response to mild hyperthermia. In small mesenteric arteries (0.5-1.0 mm diameter) mounted in a perfusion myograph, neither ultrasound exposure nor heating produced measureable vasoconstriction or a rise in intracellular calcium and we conclude that temperature-sensitive channels are absent or inactive in these small vessels. It, therefore, appears that response of blood vessels to ultrasound depends not only on the thermal properties of the vessels and surrounding tissues but also on the electrophysiology of the smooth muscle cells.

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline accommodations are available? 301-10.121 Section 301-10.121 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to...

  9. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  10. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  11. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors...

  12. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204... Handicap § 100.204 Reasonable accommodations. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may...

  13. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204... Handicap § 100.204 Reasonable accommodations. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may...

  14. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  15. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  16. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  17. Independent and reciprocal accommodation in anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M.; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accommodation is considered to be a symmetrical response, and to be driven by the least ametropic and nonamblyopic eye in anisometropia. We report a case of a 4-year-old child with anisometropic amblyopia who accommodates asymmetrically, reliably demonstrating normal accommodation in the nonamblyopic eye and anti-accommodation of the amblyopic eye to near targets. The abnormal accommodation of the amblyopic eye remained largely unchanged over seven subsequent testing sessions undertaken over the course of therapy. We suggest that a congenital dysinnervation syndrome may result in relaxation of accommodation in relation to near cues and might be a hitherto-unconsidered additional etiologic factor in anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:20863728

  18. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  19. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed

    Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.

  20. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  1. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  2. Procedural Guide to Accommodating Adults with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl

    This guide is designed to provide a framework and sequence for working jointly with adult learners to confirm their disability, assess their functional needs, select appropriate accommodations, provide instruction for using accommodations, and monitor accommodation effectiveness. In addition to procedural information, the guide contains instructor…

  3. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the program or activity....

  4. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity....

  5. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.13 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  6. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the program or activity....

  7. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity....

  8. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified...

  9. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.22 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  10. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32... Prohibited Employment § 1151.32 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable...

  11. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  12. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  13. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  15. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  16. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  17. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  18. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  19. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  20. Three-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with Thermal Contraction in Direct-Chill Casting of A390 Aluminum Alloy Hollow Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Kesheng; Zhang, Haitao; Qin, Ke; Cui, Jianzhong; Chen, Qingzhang

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model coupled with melt flow, heat transfer, and thermal contraction was developed to simulate the direct-chill (DC) casting process of A390 alloy hollow billet with a cross-section size of Φ164 mm/Φ60 mm. This study considered the effects of contact height and air gap width between the core and the hollow billet, which dominated the heat transfer at the inner wall of the hollow billet. The effects of core taper angle, relative vertical position of core in the mold, and casting speed on the steady-state temperature distribution and formability of hollow billet were investigated. According to the criterion used in this study, the optimal core taper angle is 3 deg for DC casting of A390 alloy hollow billet. With the optimal core taper angle, the A390 alloy hollow billet can be cast successfully regardless of the variation of the relative vertical position of core in the mold and casting speed. The coupled model developed in this study can be applied to optimize the core taper angle and study the effects of casting parameters in various dimensions of hollow billet.

  1. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2013-11-15

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  2. [Current progress of the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, G; Gengenbach, U; Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Fliedner, J; Koker, L; Krug, M; Martin, T; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2014-12-01

    In case of presbyopia or cataract the "artificial accommodation system" represents one future possibility to durably restore the ability to accommodate. The work presented describes recent progress in the development of the artificial accommodation system. Major advances were achieved in the fields of the actuator system for the active optics, the pupil near reflex sensor, the communication system, the power supply system as well as in system integration. Beside the technical advances, first trials were performed to implant the artificial accommodation system into animals. These trials showed that the new lens shaped design and the C-shaped haptics are beneficial for implantation and secure fixation of the implant inside the capsular bag.

  3. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  4. 41 CFR 101-6.2110 - How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 101-6.2110 Section 101-6.2110 Public... Administration Programs and Activities § 101-6.2110 How does the Administrator make efforts to...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making... recipient's programor activity, factors to be considered include: (1) The overall size of the...

  6. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities...) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an... the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include making...

  7. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  8. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  9. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... known physical or mental limitations of a handicapped applicant or employee if such accommodation would... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be...

  10. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  11. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or near... which provides an adequate flow of water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be...

  12. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…

  13. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  14. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  15. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  16. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  17. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  18. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  19. Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This document updates "Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. A Guide for Educators," published by the Florida Department of Education (FDOE) in 2003. This document is written to assist school district personnel and parents when making decisions about the use of accommodations by students with disabilities in instructional…

  20. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facilities for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and hands, shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  1. Magma flow and thermal contraction fabric in tabular intrusions inferred from AMS analysis. A case study in a late-Variscan folded sill of the Albarracín Massif (southeastern Iberian Chain, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Imaz, A.; Pocoví, A.; Lago, M.; Galé, C.; Arranz, E.; Rillo, C.; Guerrero, E.

    2006-04-01

    The effects of different petrological processes on the rock fabric of a folded sill from the Albarracin Massif (southeastern Iberian Chain, Spain) were studied by means of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. The most outstanding feature of the sill at outcrop-scale is a network of joints linked to thermal contraction, which define polygonal columns. The analysis of the magnetic fabric, taking the orientation of sill walls and column axes as a reference and using the 'restored' directional data corresponding to the whole of K3 susceptibility axes, has revealed magnetic fabrics related to two processes: (a) magma flow with a SW-trending flow vector characterized by a curved geometry of the magma foliations and (b) thermal contraction coeval to lava cooling. Early magnetite crystals, grown in a relatively high viscosity calc-alkaline magma, are the main carriers involved in the AMS fabric. Passive rotation of the early magnetic mineralogy within a medium-viscosity magma explains the magnetic fabric linked to both magma flow and near-solidus thermal contraction of the magma. Late-Variscan folding of the sill produced the rigid-body reorientation of the magnetic fabric.

  2. Improving Accommodations Outcomes: Monitoring Instructional and Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Wang, Ting

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a five-step process for schools, districts, and states to use in monitoring accommodations for instruction and assessment. This document was designed to be a companion to the "Council of Chief State School Officers' Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and…

  3. Consequences of Using Testing Accommodations: Student, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions of and Reactions to Testing Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Kumke, Patrick J.; Ray, Corey E.; Cowell, Erin L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined student, parent, and teacher perceptions of the use of testing accommodations and the relationship between student perceptions of testing accommodations and their disability status and grade level. Students with and without disabilities completed math and reading achievement tests with and without accommodations. Students,…

  4. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  5. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  6. Effect of Phenylephrine on the Accommodative System

    PubMed Central

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J.; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; López-Gil, Norberto; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accommodation is controlled by the action of the ciliary muscle and mediated primarily by parasympathetic input through postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. During accommodation the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye and improve retinal image quality. Researchers have traditionally faced the challenge of measuring the accommodative properties of the eye through a small pupil and thus have relied on pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil. Achieving pupil dilation (mydriasis) without affecting the accommodative ability of the eye (cycloplegia) could be useful in many clinical and research contexts. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHCl) is a sympathomimetic agent that is used clinically to dilate the pupil. Nevertheless, first investigations suggested some loss of functional accommodation in the human eye after PHCl instillation. Subsequent studies, based on different measurement procedures, obtained contradictory conclusions, causing therefore an unexpected controversy that has been spread almost to the present days. This manuscript reviews and summarizes the main research studies that have been performed to analyze the effect of PHCl on the accommodative system and provides clear conclusions that could help clinicians know the real effects of PHCl on the accommodative system of the human eye. PMID:28053778

  7. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  8. Accommodating electric propulsion on SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Persson, Staffan; Rathsman, Peter

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the technical challenges that arise when electric propulsion is used on a small spacecraft such as SMART-1. The choice of electric propulsion influences not only the attitude control system and the power system, but also the thermal control as well as the spacecraft structure. A description is given on how the design of the attitude control system uses the possibility to control the alignment of the thrust vector in order to reduce the momentum build-up. An outline is made of the philosophy of power generation and distribution and shows how the thermal interfaces to highly dissipating units have been solved. Areas unique for electric propulsion are the added value of a thrust vector orientation mechanism and the special consideration given to the electromagnetic compatibility. SMART-1 is equipped with a thruster gimbal mechanism providing a 10° cone in which the thrust vector can be pointed. Concerning the electromagnetic compatibility, a discussion on how to evaluate the available test results is given keeping in mind that one of the main objectives of the SMART-1 mission is to assess the impact of electric propulsion on the scientific instruments and on other spacecraft systems. Finally, the assembly, integration and test of the spacecraft is described. Compared to traditional propulsion systems, electric propulsion puts different requirements on the integration sequence and limits the possibilities to verify the correct function of the thruster since it needs high quality vacuum in order to operate. Prime contractor for SMART-1 is the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). The electric propulsion subsystem is procured directly by ESA from SNECMA, France and is delivered to SSC as a customer furnished item. The conclusion of this paper is that electric propulsion is possible on a small spacecraft, which opens up possibilities for a new range of missions for which a large velocity increment is needed. The paper will also present SMART-1 and show

  9. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless... of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used...

  10. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used by...

  11. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K

    2015-01-01

    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  12. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  13. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  14. Accommodation dynamics in aging rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Croft, M A; Kaufman, P L; Crawford, K S; Neider, M W; Glasser, A; Bito, L Z

    1998-12-01

    Accommodation, the mechanism by which the eye focuses on near objects, is lost with increasing age in humans and monkeys. This pathophysiology, called presbyopia, is poorly understood. We studied aging-related changes in the dynamics of accommodation in rhesus monkeys aged 4-24 yr after total iridectomy and midbrain implantation of an electrode to permit visualization and stimulation, respectively, of the eye's accommodative apparatus. Real-time video techniques were used to capture and quantify images of the ciliary body and lens. During accommodation in youth, ciliary body movement was biphasic, lens movement was monophasic, and both slowed as the structures approached their new steady-state positions. Disaccommodation occurred more rapidly for both ciliary body and lens, but with longer latent period, and slowed near the end point. With increasing age, the amplitude of lens and ciliary body movement during accommodation declined, as did their velocities. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movements increased, and ciliary body movement became monophasic. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movement during disaccommodation was not significantly correlated with age, but their velocity declined significantly. The age-dependent decline in amplitude and velocity of ciliary body movements during accommodation suggests that ciliary body dysfunction plays a role in presbyopia. The age changes in lens movement could be a consequence of increasing inelasticity or hardening of the lens, or of age changes in ciliary body motility.

  15. Modified method of accommodative facility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw; Pieczyrak, Danuta; Tondel, Grazyna; Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Background: Accommodative facility testing is a common test performed by optometrist to investigate an individuals skill at focusing objects at near and at far. The traditional test however harbors possible confounding variables including individual variance in reaction time, visual acuity, verbal skills and oculomotor function. We have designed a test procedure to control these variables. Methods: Children were evaluated with a traditional accommodative facility test, a test which evaluated reaction time and language skill but without accommodative (plano lenses) and a test which evaluated reaction time, language skill and accommodative facility (+/- 2.00 D lenses). Results: Speed of reaction time was 2.9 sec/cycle for the plano lenses (for dominant eye). Speed of reaction with +/- 2.00 D lenses was 6.6 sec/cycle for dominant eye and the monocular speed of accommodations was calculated to average 3.7 sec/cycle. Normative data reported in the literature was calculated to be 5.5 sec/cycle. Discussion: We found that both our method which controls for confounding variables the traditional method reveal similar findings but that individual subjects would pass one method and fail the other. This is attributed to variation in the reaction time and digit naming skill. Conclusions: Although both methods reap similar results, both methods should be employed to discover, in those who score below the expected finding, to tease out whether or not the fault falls within the reaction time/language area or whether it is a true accommodative facility dysfunction.

  16. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times.

  17. Shrinking of the Cocos and Nazca Plates due to Horizontal Thermal Contraction and Implications for Plate Non-rigidity and the Non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca Plate Motion Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Plate rigidity is the central tenet of plate tectonics. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that significant intraplate deformation occurs in oceanic lithosphere due to horizontal thermal contraction, the rate of which decreases as ≈ 1/age [Kumar & Gordon 2009]. Support for this hypothesis comes from the azimuths of submarine transform faults, which are fit significantly better assuming shrinking plates than by assuming rigid plates [Mishra & Gordon 2015]. Previously we estimated the intraplate velocity field of the Pacific plate accounting for horizontal thermal contraction. The ≈2 mm/yr southeastward motion predicted for the northeastern part of the plate relative to the Pacific-Antarctic Rise may contribute to the non-closure of the Pacific-North America plate motion circuit. In a reference frame in which fix the oldest portion of the Pacific plate, some sites on the plate move up to ≈2 mm/yr [Kreemer & Gordon 2014]. Here we present intraplate velocity fields of the Cocos and Nazca plates and discuss their implications for the non-rigidity of plates and the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit, which fails closure by a stunning 14 ±5 mm/yr [DeMets et al. 2010]. If we fix the oldest part of the Cocos plate, intraplate velocities of up to ≈2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring at the northern end of the plate. If we fix the oldest part of the Nazca plate, displacement rates up to 2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring in the northeasternmost portion of the plate. In the velocity fields for both plates, the lithosphere adjacent to transform faults along the East Pacific Rise tends to move to the south, which would skew the azimuths of the transform faults clockwise of the values expected for rigid plates, which is the same as the sense of misfit between observed azimuths of transform faults and the azimuths calculated from the MORVEL global set of relative angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Direct

  18. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  19. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  20. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  5. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accommodations. 36.310 Section 36.310 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  6. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  7. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  8. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  9. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  10. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  12. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  13. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  14. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  15. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  16. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  17. 15 CFR 8b.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... physical or metal limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making the facilities used by the employees in the area where the program or activity is conducted, including common areas used by...

  18. Payload accommodations: Avionics payload support architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology issues/trade studies; candidate programs; key contacts/facilities: milestones; accomplishments; and major objectives of the payload accommodation are outlined. Topics covered include: avionics payload support architecture; satellite serving; P/L deploy systems and advanced manipulators; advanced telemetry systems; and on-board abort planning. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  19. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  20. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  1. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  2. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  3. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  4. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  5. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  6. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  7. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  8. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  9. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  10. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  11. College Students' Preferences for Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Lambert, Tonya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Sytsma, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    College students with (n = 137) and without disabilities (n = 475) were surveyed about their perceptions of using various types of test accommodations. Results indicated that extended time was perceived as having a positive effect by the most students (>87% of both groups), followed by separate room testing and extra breaks (>60% of both…

  12. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  13. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  14. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  15. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  16. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  17. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  18. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 4.123 Section 4.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... composition and structure of the recipient's workforce; and (3) The nature and cost of the...

  19. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on...

  20. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  1. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  2. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for cleaning utensils and hands shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water and cold water, soap, and towels, shall be provided... water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet room and...

  3. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for cleaning utensils and hands shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water and cold water, soap, and towels, shall be provided... water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet room and...

  4. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  5. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities,"…

  6. 29 CFR 32.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices and Employment Related Training Participation... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant, employee or participant... workforce, and duration and type of training; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (c)...

  7. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  8. Anisotropic thermal expansion of a 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Atsushi Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-15

    A 3D flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) with 1D hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion with relatively large thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub a}=−21×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and α{sub c}=79×10{sup −6} K{sup −1}) between 133 K and 383 K. Temperature change gives deformation of both pores, which expand in diameter and elongate in length on cooling and vice versa. The thermally induced structural change should be derived from a unique framework topology like “lattice fence”. Silica accommodation changes not only the nature of the MOF but also thermal responsiveness of the MOF. Since the hydrophobic pores in the material are selectively blocked by the silica, the MOF with the silica is considered as a hydrophilic microporous material. Furthermore, inclusion of silica resulted in a drastic pore contraction in diameter and anisotropically changed the thermal responsiveness of the MOF. - Graphical abstract: A 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion behavior. The influence of silica filler in the hydrophobic pore was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermally induced structural change of a 3D MOF with a lattice fence topology was investigated. • The structural change was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. • Temperature change induces anisotropic thermal expansion/contraction of the MOF. • Silica inclusion anisotropically changes the thermal responsiveness of the MOF.

  9. 41 CFR 300-70.100 - Who must report use of other than coach-class transportation accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who must report use of... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 70-AGENCY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Requirement To Report Use of Other Than Coach- Class Transportation Accommodations §...

  10. 41 CFR 300-70.100 - Who must report use of other than coach-class transportation accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Who must report use of... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 70-AGENCY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Requirement To Report Use of Other Than Coach- Class Transportation Accommodations §...

  11. 41 CFR 300-70.100 - Who must report use of other than coach-class transportation accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must report use of... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 70-AGENCY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Requirement To Report Use of Other Than Coach-Class Transportation Accommodations § 300-70.100...

  12. 41 CFR 300-70.100 - Who must report use of other than coach-class transportation accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must report use of... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 70-AGENCY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Requirement To Report Use of Other Than Coach- Class Transportation Accommodations §...

  13. 41 CFR 300-70.100 - Who must report use of other than coach-class transportation accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who must report use of... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 70-AGENCY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Requirement To Report Use of Other Than Coach- Class Transportation Accommodations §...

  14. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  15. Convoluted accommodation structures in folded rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodwell, T. J.; Hunt, G. W.

    2012-10-01

    A simplified variational model for the formation of convoluted accommodation structures, as seen in the hinge zones of larger-scale geological folds, is presented. The model encapsulates some important and intriguing nonlinear features, notably: infinite critical loads, formation of plastic hinges, and buckling on different length-scales. An inextensible elastic beam is forced by uniform overburden pressure and axial load into a V-shaped geometry dictated by formation of a plastic hinge. Using variational methods developed by Dodwell et al., upon which this paper leans heavily, energy minimisation leads to representation as a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation with free boundary conditions. Equilibrium solutions are found using numerical shooting techniques. Under the Maxwell stability criterion, it is recognised that global energy minimisers can exist with convoluted physical shapes. For such solutions, parallels can be drawn with some of the accommodation structures seen in exposed escarpments of real geological folds.

  16. Shear accommodation in dirty grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Upmanyu, M.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of solutes (dirt) on the mechanics of crystalline interfaces remains unexplored. Here, we perform atomic-scale simulations to study the effect of carbon segregation on the shear accommodation at select grain boundaries in the classical α-Fe/C system. For shear velocities larger than the solute diffusion rate, we observe a transition from coupled motion to sliding. Below a critical solute excess, the boundaries break away from the solute cloud and exhibit in a coupled motion. At smaller shear velocities, the extrinsic coupled motion is jerky, occurs at relatively small shear stresses, and is aided by fast convective solute diffusion along the boundary. Our studies underscore the combined effect of energetics and kinetics of solutes in modifying the bicrystallography, temperature and rate dependence of shear accommodation at grain boundaries.

  17. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  18. Design principles to accommodate older adults.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-02-29

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age.

  19. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically

  20. Influence of buried hydrogen-bonding groups within monolayer films on gas-surface energy exchange and accommodation.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M K; Lohr, J R; Day, B S; Morris, J R

    2004-02-20

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carbonyl-containing alkanethiols on gold are employed to explore the influence of hydrogen-bonding interactions on gas-surface energy exchange and accommodation. H-bonding, COOH-terminated SAMs are found to produce more impulsive scattering and less thermal accommodation than non-H-bonding, COOCH3-terminated monolayers. For carbamate-functionalized SAMs of the form Au/S(CH2)16OCONH(CH2)(n-1)CH3, impulsive scattering decreases and accommodation increases as the H-bonding group is positioned farther below the terminal CH3.

  1. Thermal ring contraction of dibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl radicals: new routes to pyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lynne A; McNab, Hamish; Mount, Andrew R; Wharton, Stuart I

    2008-09-05

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of N-allyl- or N-benzyldibenz[b,f]azepine at temperatures from 750 to 950 degrees C gives pyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole as the major product. The mechanism of the ring contraction involves dibenzazepin-1-yl radical formation, followed by transannular attack and formation of a 2-(indol-1-yl)phenyl radical which cyclizes. The mechanism is supported by independent generation of 2-(indol-1-yl)phenyl radicals by two different methods, and the use of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)indole as a radical generator gives an optimized synthetic route to pyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole (54% overall yield in two steps from indole). The first substituted pyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles have been synthesized by FVP methods and also by reactions of the parent compound with electrophiles, leading to a range of 4-substituted pyrrolocarbazoles.

  2. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  3. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  4. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  5. Crystalline lens MTF measurement during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Takeuchi, Gaku; Ziebarth, Noel; Acosta, Ana C.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To design and test an optical system to measure the optical quality of post mortem lenses during simulated accommodation. Methods: An optical bench top system was designed to measure the point spread function and calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of monkey and human ex-vivo crystalline lenses. The system consists of a super luminescent diode emitting at 850nm, collimated into a 3mm beam which is focused by the ex-vivo lens under test. The intensity distribution at the focus (point spread function) is re-imaged and magnified onto a beam profiler CCD camera. The optical quality in terms of spatial frequency response (modulation transfer function) is calculated by Fourier transform of the point spread function. The system was used on ex-vivo lenses with attached zonules, ciliary body and sclera. The sclera was glued to 8 separate PMMA segments and stretched radial by 5mm on an accommodation simulating lens stretching device. The point spread function was measured for each lens in the relaxed and stretched state for 5 human (ages 38-86 years) and 5 cynomolgus monkey (ages 53 - 67 months) fresh post mortem crystalline lenses. Results: Stretching induced measurable changes in the MTF. The cutoff frequency increased from 54.4+/-13.6 lp/mm unstretched to 59.5+/-21.4 lp/mm stretched in the post-presbyopic human and from 51.9+/-24.7 lp/mm unstretched to 57.7+/-18.5 lp/mm stretched cynomolgus monkey lenses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the optical quality of ex-vivo human and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation. Additional experiments are underway to quantify changes in optical quality induced by stretching.

  6. Skylab Workshop experience in experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, W. H.; Hassel, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the experiment support facilities available from the Orbital Workshop (OWS) module of the Skylab. Experiments and associated support provisions have been selected and described to illustrate the various accommodations and degree of complexities involved in the integration of these experiments into the Workshop. The interfaces described start with the simple and proceed to the complex. On the basis of the experience gained in integrating the experiments into the Workshop, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made on ways to facilitate future experiment operations and at the same time simplify and reduce the cost of integration efforts.

  7. Strain accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of strain accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic strain in the presence of a shear strain promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic strain is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.

  8. Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2006-02-03

    Polyphenisms are adaptations in which a genome is associated with discrete alternative phenotypes in different environments. Little is known about the mechanism by which polyphenisms originate. We show that a mutation in the juvenile hormone-regulatory pathway in Manduca sexta enables heat stress to reveal a hidden reaction norm of larval coloration. Selection for increased color change in response to heat stress resulted in the evolution of a larval color polyphenism and a corresponding change in hormonal titers through genetic accommodation. Evidently, mechanisms that regulate developmental hormones can mask genetic variation and act as evolutionary capacitors, facilitating the origin of novel adaptive phenotypes.

  9. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  10. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  12. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  13. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  14. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  15. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  16. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  17. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  18. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  19. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  20. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  2. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  3. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  4. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  5. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  6. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess].

    PubMed

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S

    2004-10-01

    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  7. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  8. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  9. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  10. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  11. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  12. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  13. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  14. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  15. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  16. ADAPT: Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching. Teacher Accommodation Planbook [and] Student Planbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    This student workbook and accompanying teacher's guide are designed to help children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). The Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching (ADAPT) teacher planbook guides the teacher in evaluating the students' areas of difficulty. This evaluation is the basis for the design and implementation of classroom…

  17. Accommodating Your Data: The Use and Misuse of Accommodation Theory in Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Miriam

    1998-01-01

    Argues for a more rigorous application of accommodation theory in sociolinguistics, presenting an example of how such rigor might be pursued in an analysis of conversational Bislama, a creole spoken in the Republic of Vanuatu. Focus is on the link between speakers' identities and their linguistic behavior. (MSE)

  18. Accommodation Hell, or, To Hell with Accommodation: The ADA and the Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William L.

    This material is designed to help faculty understand the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). A brief overview notes three key considerations: the definition of disability, reasonable accommodation, and undue hardship, and then discusses faculty liability and responsibility for discriminatory acts. The balance of the…

  19. Magnitude of rift-related burial and orogenic contraction in the Marrakech High Atlas revealed by zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology and thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Mireia; Teixell, Antonio; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2016-11-01

    The Atlas of Morocco is a continental rift developed during the Triassic-Jurassic and moderately inverted during the Cenozoic. The High Atlas south of Marrakech, with exposures of basement and Triassic early synrift deposits, has been viewed as a high during the Mesozoic rifting. First zircon (U-Th)/He ages and thermal models obtained from 42 samples in the Marrakech High Atlas following two NNW-SSE transects across the mountain belt reveal that in contrast to previous models, the Triassic-Jurassic rift was well developed in the Marrakech High Atlas (with more than 4.5-6 km of rift-related deposits). Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous zHe cooling ages obtained indicate that rift-related subsidence in the Marrakech High Atlas finished in the Middle Jurassic and was followed by a period of exhumation where 2-3 km of rock were eroded. Thermal models from zHe data provide the first thermochronologic clue for a Late Cretaceous initiation of the Atlas compression-driven exhumation in the inner parts of the Marrakech High Atlas. The Triassic-Jurassic basin reconstruction assisted by thermochronology highlights a key role of inherited basement anisotropy in rift orientation and evolution, and on its subsequent inversion. Comparison of present-day and restored sections to the rifting stage aided by thermochronology suggests minimum values of total orogenic shortening in the Marrakech High Atlas of 13 to 14 km (21 to 17%), with exhumation of 1 to more than 5 km of rocks. Similar zHe ages on both sides of the Tizi n'Test fault evince minor vertical movements along the fault during the Atlas orogeny.

  20. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  1. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  2. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  3. U.S. Laboratory Module - Its capabilities and accommodations to support user payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Luther E.; Wood, Walter V.; Baugher, Charles R., II

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory Module of the Space Station is discussed, focusing on user accommodations. The configuration and subsystems capabilities of the module are described, including the power, thermal, environmental control, and data management subsystems, the vacuum system, process materials management, and laboratory support equipment. The experimental facilities included in the laboratory are listed. The experiment operations planned for the laboratory are examined and compared with the experimental activities in other manned space laboratories.

  4. Space science/space station attached payload pointing accommodation study: Technology assessment white paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Richard Y.; Mann, Kenneth E.; Laskin, Robert A.; Sirlin, Samuel W.

    1987-01-01

    Technology assessment is performed for pointing systems that accommodate payloads of large mass and large dimensions. Related technology areas are also examined. These related areas include active thermal lines or power cables across gimbals, new materials for increased passive damping, tethered pointing, and inertially reacting pointing systems. Conclusions, issues and concerns, and recommendations regarding the status and development of large pointing systems for space applications are made based on the performed assessments.

  5. The effects of Qi-Qong ocular exercise on accommodation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y F; Lin, L L; Hwang, C Y; Huang, J K; Hung, P T; Hou, P K

    1995-01-01

    Visual-training methods in management of myopia are suggested as possibly leading to normal vision or an improvement in the refractive state. The purpose of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that a Qi-Qong ocular exercise improves visual function by training the accommodation bias. Variations of pupil size, accommodative amplitude, latency and speed of accommodative response and accommodative adaptation were evaluated objectively. The accommodative state was monitored with an objective infrared refractometer (Nidek AA-2000). Subjects were divided into two groups: experimental (n = 9), and control (n = 8). Subjects of the experimental group undertook the Qi-Qong ocular exercise for at least three years, and were able to perform the exercise smoothly and gently. Subjects of the control group had no knowledge of the Qi-Qong ocular exercise, but were given the same testing procedures as the experimental group. Results showed that Qi-Qong ocular exercise can improve the accommodative amplitude and accelerate the accommodative response slightly, but there was no effect on the latency of accommodative response. Furthermore, the level of accommodative adaptation was elevated, and the pupil became slight miotic. Therefore, the mechanism of visual improvement may undergo a great accommodative adaptation and produce a pinhole effect by miosis of the pupil. Methods of visual training can produce a false image of visual improvement from an enhanced parasympathetic response to a task, but this effect may be a factor that induces progression of myopia.

  6. The significance of the shape of the lens and capsular energy changes in accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. F.

    1969-01-01

    1. A method for the estimation of the energy released by the anterior part of the lens capsule during accommodation is described. This includes (i) A determination of the pressure required to distend the capsule by a standard volume. (ii) The calculation from the photographed lens profiles of the degree of capsular contraction which occurs when the lens changes from the unaccommodated to the accommodated form. (iii) Capsular volume changes in vitro are then related to the surface area changes calculated for the lens in vivo. 2. A correlation exists between the stored capsular energy per unit area or surface tension and the accommodation power of different species. The human lens capsule releases 1170 ergs/cm2 while the more spherical lenses of the cat and rabbit release 520 and 485 ergs/cm2 respectively for a 10% change in lens diameter. The amount of energy which can be stored depends on the degree of flatness of the lens and the volume of the anterior segment. The flatter the lens and the smaller the volume of the anterior segment, the greater the capsular surface tension. 3. The anterior surface of the human lens remains ellipsoidal throughout life. The changes of accommodation which occur in presbyopia may therefore be related to the lens profiles at various ages. It is found that a coefficient obtained by dividing the anterior volume of the lens by the 5th power of the equatorial radius of the lens modifies the degree of accommodation for a given change of lens diameter. 4. The loss of accommodation is proportional to the effective capsular surface energy until about the age of 45. The effective capsular surface energy can be defined as the energy which gives the same change in lens dioptric power per erg regardless of the lenticular profile changes which occur with age. It is obtained by multiplying capsular surface tension at a given age by a ratio. This is obtained by dividing the profile coefficient mentioned in paragraph 3 of the given lens, by the

  7. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle and paired with the same conversational partner. Participants completed a "spot-the-difference" task which elicited a considerable amount of contrasting regionally specific sign data in the participant-confederate dyads. Accommodation was observed during the task with younger signers accommodating more than older signers. The results are interpreted with reference to the relationship between language contact and lexical accommodation in BSL, and address how further studies could help us better understand how contact and accommodation contribute to language change more generally.

  8. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  9. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  10. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  11. From foreland rift to forearc basin: Tectono-thermal controls on subsidence and stratigraphic development in the Mesozoic-Recent Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Turner, P. ); Hartley, A. ); Jolley, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salar de Atacama and westerly adjacent Domeyko basins originated as Permian foreland rifts, containing some 2 km of Triassic synrift red beds. Continued extension and volcanic are establishment resulted in deposition of important Jurassic marine source rocks in the Domeyko basin. Rift basin subsidence was controlled by extension, followed by thermal sagging. Middle Cretaceous contraction (opening of the south Atlantic) inverted the Domeyko back-arc basin as a thrustbelt. To the east, the Salar basin subsequently accommodated 4 km of Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene continental detritus. Accommodation space reflected the interplay between limited flexural loading and thermal effects related to a 150 km eastward jump of the Andean volcanic arc to the margin of the arc-related, foreland-style basin. Late Eocene transpression (high rate of oblique convergence between the Farallon and South American plates) inverted the western basin margin, sourcing a 2 km thick Oligocene intra-arc basin-fill component. Accommodation space was controlled by thermal sagging associated with a further 100 km eastward arc jump. The Salar de Atacama basin thus provides a model for the evolution of complex, mixed origin basins associated with a migrating volcanic arc and varying crustal stress regime. The complex interplay between variable tectonic style and thermal processes in controlling subsidence and resultant stratigraphic development is not yet adequately constrained. However, simple, single stage tectono-sedimentary models commonly used in play definition may not be appropriate in complex, arc-related basin settings.

  12. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Martin Ming-Leung; Scheiman, Mitchell; Su, Cuiyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT) with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT) with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D) is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p = 0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D) and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm), respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted. PMID:28097018

  13. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  14. Accommodation to an Unlikely Episodic State

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Mini-discourses like (ia) seem slightly odd compared to their counterparts containing a conjunction (ib). (i) a. Speaker A: John or Bill left. Speaker B: Sam did too. b. Speaker A: John and Bill left. Speaker B: Sam did too. One possibility is that or in Speaker A's utterance in (ia) raises the potential Question Under Discussion (QUD) whether it was John or Bill who left and Speaker B's reply fails to address this QUD. A different possibility is that the epistemic state of the speaker of (ia) is somewhat unlikely or uneven: the speaker knows that someone left, and that it was John or Bill, but doesn't know which one. The results of four acceptability judgment studies confirmed that (ia) is less good or coherent than (ib) (Experiment 1), but not due to failure to address the QUD implicitly introduced by the disjunction because the penalty for disjunction persisted even in the presence of a different overt QUD (Experiment 2) and even when there was no reply to Speaker A (Experiment 3). The hypothesis that accommodating an unusual epistemic state might underlie the lower acceptability of disjunction was supported by the fact that the disjunction penalty is larger in past tense discourses than in future discourses, where partial knowledge of events is the norm (Experiment 4). The results of an eye tracking study revealed a penalty for disjunction relative to conjunction that was significantly smaller when a lead in (I wonder if it was…) explicitly introduced the disjunction. This interaction (connective X lead in) appeared in early measures on the disjunctive phrase itself, suggesting that the input is related to an inferred epistemic state of the speaker in a rapid and ongoing fashion. PMID:26568651

  15. Minimum accommodation for aerobrake assembly, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Haynes, Davy A.; Tutterow, Robin D.; Watson, Judith J.; Russell, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element study was done to assess the practicality of a Space Station Freedom-based aerobrake system for the Space Exploration Initiative. The study was organized into six parts related to structure, aerodynamics, robotics and assembly, thermal protection system, inspection, and verification, all tied together by an integration study. The integration activity managed the broad issues related to meeting mission requirements. This report is a summary of the issues addressed by the integration team.

  16. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  18. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  19. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accommodations for the... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features... Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by the...

  20. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  1. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  2. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  3. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  4. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  5. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  6. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  7. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  8. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325 Section 154.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... system, required by this part to have a secondary barrier, is separated from any accommodation,...

  9. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  10. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... waterline. (d) No hawse pipe or chain pipe may pass through accommodations for crew members or offshore... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from...

  11. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  12. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  13. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  14. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  15. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  16. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  17. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukminatien, Nur

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  18. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  19. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  20. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  1. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg

    The purpose of this study was to devise an instructional model accommodating students' learning styles in the following areas: sound, light, temperature, design, and mobility. Specifically, this study determined if students in an experimental group with environmental accommodations to their preferred modes of learning differed from students in a…

  2. Transition to Postsecondary: New Documentation Guidance for Access to Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently developed a conceptual framework that substantially revises its guidance for disability documentation for accommodations in higher education settings. This new document, "Supporting Accommodation Requests: Guidance on Documentation Practices," was written in response to the…

  3. Impact of Workstation Accommodation on Fatigue and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    this study. The present research focuses on the biodynamic impact of anthropometric accommodation of a dual- monitor computer workstation on an...Biometric Response Cognitive Response Good Anthropometric Accommodation Sustainable & Optimal Muscular...Activity, Low Levels of Subjective Discomfort Sustainable & Optimal Levels of Cerebral Oxygenation & Cognitive Performance Poor Anthropometric

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1510 - Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. 1204.1510 Section 1204.1510 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Programs and Activities § 1204.1510 Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. (a) If a...

  5. An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Despite expectations for accommodations in inclusive classrooms, little guidance for effective practice is available. Most accommodations policies and evidence-based practices address assessments. High school regular and special educators collaborated in focus groups to articulate a model based on their practices and perceptions of best practice.…

  6. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  7. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  8. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  9. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  10. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  11. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  12. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  13. Smoluchowski thermostat: a realistic introduction of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Martijn G

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a simulation technique that can be used to compute the thermal interaction between a gas and a cylindrically shaped wall. The method is computationally simple and is based on the Maxwell-Smoluchowski thermal wall scenario often used for the slit pore geometry. A geometric argument is used to find the corresponding thermalization mechanism for the cylindrical confinement. The algorithm serves as a thermostat, which enables one to perform constant-temperature simulations. By means of simple numerical simulations, Smoluchowski's expression for self-diffusivity D s is then recovered in reduced units. The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient is interpreted as a coupling constant for the thermostat similar to the one used for the ordinary Andersen thermostat but applied locally onto the boundary crossing particles.

  14. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  15. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  16. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  17. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  18. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  19. Analysis Contracts for Cyber-Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    without modification, and freely distributed in written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission is required for any other use...Selected Voltage Cell Interconnects Thermal Runaway Analysis 6 Analysis Contracts Sensor Sampling PID Controller Actuator Controller Sensor...Discharge Charge Battery Sched Te m p Thermal runaway Assumption Guarantee Read/write Read/write R ea d/ w rit e R ea d/ w rit e deadlock Model

  20. The relationship between instructional and assessment accommodations in an inclusive state accountability system.

    PubMed

    Ysseldyke, J; Thurlow, M; Bielinski, J; House, A; Moody, M; Haigh, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the kinds of instructional and assessment accommodations students with disabilities receive, and the extent to which instructional accommodations match assessment accommodations. Most students who had IEPs in specific content areas received instructional accommodations in those areas, and there were no differences by disability type. We provide data on the specific types of accommodations used. Overall, students' assessment accommodations matched their instructional accommodations, though many students received testing accommodations that had not been received in instruction. Implications are discussed for IEP teams who make decisions about instructional and assessment accommodations.

  1. The Feasibility of the Disturbance Accommodating Controller for Precision Antenna Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gresham, L. L.; Lansing, F. L.; Guiar, C. N.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a pointing (position loop) controller for the NASA-JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas using the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) theory. A model that includes state dependent disturbances was developed, and an example demonstrating the noise estimator is presented as an initial phase in the controller design. The goal is to improve pointing accuracy by the removal of the systematic errors caused by the antenna misalignment as well as sensor noise and random wind and thermal disturbances. Preliminary simulation results show that the DAC technique is successful in both cancelling the imposed errors and maintaining an optimal control policy.

  2. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    monkeys were awakened, accommodation immediately went to a far distance, followed by accurate accommodation to the - ambient stimuli. Similarly... ambient stimulation is present. Morgan (1957) proposes - two possible conditions in which visual stimuli are reduced to the minimum--in complete darkness...oj Physiology, 1941, 12, 720-733. Otero, J. M. and Duran, Continuacion del estudio de la miopia nocturna. Anales de i y Quimica , 1942, 38, 236-248

  3. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation.

    PubMed

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A

    2017-04-01

    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (P<0.001) at each time point. Consumption of the caffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (P<0.001). Amplitude of accommodation rose from 12.4 (±2.2 D) at baseline to 15.8(±2.6 D) at 90 min. Similarly, pupil size increased from 3.4 (±0.4 mm) at baseline to 4.5 (±0.72 mm) at 90 min. Consumption of vehicle was not associated with increase in amplitude of accommodation or pupil size with time.ConclusionPupil size and accommodation are affected after ingestion of caffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  4. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  5. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators.

    PubMed

    Sartori, E; Brescaccin, L; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production-detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion-are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  6. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Brescaccin, L.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  7. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, E. Serianni, G.; Brescaccin, L.

    2016-02-15

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  8. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2016-06-17

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  10. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  11. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  12. [Effect of thyroidectomy on energetics of isometric muscle contraction in white rats].

    PubMed

    Soboliev, V I; Moskalets', T V

    2007-01-01

    The effect of thyroidactomia on parameters of energetics of isometric contractions of front shin--bone muscle of white rats is studied in in situ experiments. It is shown that experimental atiriosis lengthen considerably the latent period of muscle contractions (+95%) considerably reduce (in 5.5 times) the speed of it contraction in first phase of contraction act and also considerably increase the time (+37%), which necessery for developing maximum strength of contraction. Thyroidactomia with general negative influence on ergothropic characteristics of isometric muscle contraction decrease considerably the expenditure of thermal energy on maximum strength of contraction unit (-17%) or on middle isometric tension unit (-9.3%).

  13. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  14. Issues in physician contracting.

    PubMed

    Fanburg, John D; Leone, Alyson M

    2005-09-01

    Dermatologists will enter into a number of different contracts during their professional careers. It is important that in each agreement they enter, dermatologists reap the benefits that they aspire for and understand the consequences of each provision. This article addresses just a few of the different issues that arise in physician contracting, such as choosing the appropriate form of business entity; the importance of a writing; term and termination of the contract; compensation models; benefits, vacation and other time off included in the contract; malpractice insurance; and restrictive covenants. Each provision should be carefully analyzed to ensure that it will protect the best interests of the dermatologist in that situation.

  15. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  16. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation.

    PubMed

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  17. Tying the Contract Knot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    An informal survey of state superintendent associations and lawyers representing superintendents reveals little change in top executives' contracts over the past decade. Mandatory evaluations and renewable (non-"evergreen") contracts are becoming common; pay-for-performance measures are emerging, yet limited. Contractual and job-leaving…

  18. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  19. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been…

  20. Weighing the Contract Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Contracting for noneducational services is standard operating procedure in many school districts. Private contractors are involved in transportation, food service, maintenance, and even, in rare cases, instruction. Before deciding to contract out, school boards should examine improvement to school-run operations before making a final decision.…

  1. [Difficult Diagnosis of Non-strabismic Binocular and Accommodative Disorders].

    PubMed

    Kříž, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to inform about the current approach to the diagnosis of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders. A large number of studies quote high occurrence of them in both clinical and nonclinical populations. They also point out the presence of a diagnosis deficiency or insufficient diagnosis within the optometric and ophthalmological practice. The representation in population depends not only on race and age, but also on the methodology of diagnostic tests, and the chosen diagnostic criteria in particular. For the purpose of division of binocular and accommodative disorders there are several classification systems. The widespread classification facilitates a better understanding of a great spectrum of symptoms, assignment of the characteristic signs, and decision about appropriateness and choice of treatment types.Key words: heteroforie, binocular disorders, accommodative disorders, fusional vergence, convergence insufficiency, convergence excess.

  2. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  3. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V

    2012-06-15

    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  4. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  5. Cartographic services contract...for everything geographic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Cartographic Services Contract (CSC) is used to award work for photogrammetric and mapping services under the umbrella of Architect-Engineer (A&E) contracting. The A&E contract is broad in scope and can accommodate any activity related to standard, nonstandard, graphic, and digital cartographic products. Services provided may include, but are not limited to, photogrammetric mapping and aerotriangulation; orthophotography; thematic mapping (for example, land characterization); analog and digital imagery applications; geographic information systems development; surveying and control acquisition, including ground-based and airborne Global Positioning System; analog and digital image manipulation, analysis, and interpretation; raster and vector map digitizing; data manipulations (for example, transformations, conversions, generalization, integration, and conflation); primary and ancillary data acquisition (for example, aerial photography, satellite imagery, multispectral, multitemporal, and hyperspectral data); image scanning and processing; metadata production, revision, and creation; and production or revision of standard USGS products defined by formal and informal specification and standards, such as those for digital line graphs, digital elevation models, digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital raster graphics.

  6. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  7. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  8. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  9. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-31

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy.

  10. Managing the Contract Closeout Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    also fulfilled its obligations (Ref. l:p. 267]. The closeout process completes all the individual actions started during earlier segments of the...taught as a segment in the Management of Defense Acquisition Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. There is no separate course for... segment ir the Management of Defense Acquisiticn Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. The National Contract Management Association

  11. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    PubMed

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo

    2017-04-01

    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  12. 48 CFR 3042.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contracting Officer's Technical Representative 3042.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.242-72, Contracting Officer's Technical Representative,...

  13. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  14. Marine Corps Contingency Contracting MCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    unfamiliar, such as, foreign business practices, cultures, and language barriers . The importance of having a trained contingency contracting officer...practices, cultures, and language barriers . D. WHO PERFORMS CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING The individuals who perform contingency contracting within the

  15. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  16. Success in baccalaureate nursing programs: a matter of accommodation?

    PubMed

    Haislett, J; Hughes, R B; Atkinson, G; Williams, C L

    1993-02-01

    This article explores student learning styles as an important variable in four-year baccalaureate nursing programs. Student learning styles were assessed by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-1985 (LSI-1985), which identifies the accommodator, diverger, assimilator, and converger learning styles. The authors examined the relationship between learning style and academic performance as measured by grade-point ratio (GPR) and studied behaviors and attitudes as measured by Brown and Holtzman's (1964) Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Analysis indicated that this sample (N = 100) included mainly assimilators and divergers, making reflective observation the most common mode of learning. Compared to the accommodator/converger group, the assimilator/diverger group earned a significantly higher GPR, significantly better scores on the study habits variable of Work Methods (WM), and moderately better scores on the study attitude variable of Educational Acceptance (EA). Accommodators were identified as the most at-risk learning style group, and specific interventions were suggested to assist accommodators in adapting to the academic rigors of a nursing curriculum.

  17. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Accommodating Students' Sensory Learning Modalities in Online Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.

    2016-01-01

    Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…

  19. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Peshkin, M.

    1999-08-01

    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  20. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  1. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  2. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  3. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  4. Promoting Independence for Wheelchair Users: The Role of Home Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan; Resnik, Linda; Roy, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to investigate whether home accommodations influence the amount of human help provided to a nationally representative sample of adults who use wheelchairs. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the Adult Disability Follow-back Survey (DFS), Phase II, of the Disability Supplement to the 1994-1995…

  5. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines…

  6. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  7. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  8. View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches which manually control the indicating pilot lights on the model board. Not all switches are active, some switches were installed for a planned, but never constructed, system expansion. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  10. Accommodating Students with Disabilities: A Practical Guide for the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist university professors in making decisions on their instructional planning and delivery by expanding and refining their repertoire of accommodations for their students with visual and hearing impairments, physical disabilities, and learning disabilities. Part 1 suggests a five-step procedure for making decisions on…

  11. Accommodating Students with Disabilities: A Guide for School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.; And Others

    This guide is designed as a resource to assist teachers in making decisions on their instructional planning and delivery by expanding and refining their repertoire of ways and means of making accommodations for students with learning disabilities and visual, hearing, and physical impairments. Part 1 presents ways of providing accommodations…

  12. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  13. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity,…

  14. Accommodating the Spectrum of Individual Abilities. Clearinghouse Publication 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The monograph addresses legal issues involving discrimination against handicapped persons and the key legal requirement of reasonable accommodation. Four chapters in Part I examine background issues, including definitions and statistical overviews of handicaps; historical attitudes toward handicapped persons and an analysis of the extent of…

  15. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  16. Analysis and applications of accommodative lenses for vision corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui-Teng; Jiang, Minshan; Chang, Chun-Lin; Hong, Yu-Ling; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and applications of vision correction via accommodating intraocular lens (AIOL) are presented. By Gaussian optics, analytic formulas for the accommodation rate function (M) for two-optics and three-optics systems are derived and compared with the exact numerical results. In a single-optics AIOL, typical value of M is (0.5-1.5) D/mm, for an IOL power of (10-20) diopter. For a given IOL power, higher M is achieved in positive-IOL than negative-IOL. In the dual-optics AIOL, maximum accommodation is predicted when the front positive-optics moves toward the corneal plan and the back negative-optics moves backward. Our analytic formulas predict that greater accommodative rate may be achieved by using a positive-powered front optics, a general feature when either front or back optics is mobile. The M function is used to find the piggy-back IOL power for customized design based on the individual ocular parameters. Many of the new features demonstrated in this study can be easily realized by our analytic formulas, but not by raytracing method.

  17. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  18. Maximising Occupancy. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Julia

    This module on maximizing occupancy is intended to cover the basic framework for analysis of occupancy in accommodations and for identification of ways to improve it on both a long-term and day-to-day basis. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives…

  19. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  20. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  1. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  2. Sequential strategies of accommodation: a new method in courtroom.

    PubMed

    Gnisci, Augusto

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this research is to show the fruitfulness of a sequential analysis approach applied to the study of the dynamic and sequential character of accommodation strategies proposed by communication accommodation theory (CAT). It was applied to the convergence, divergence, maintenance, and control strategies undertaken in the courtroom during 47 hostile examinations from a single criminal case. Each of the 1,850 question-answer exchanges was classified for the content aspects (types of questions and of answers) and for the modalities of turn taking (interrupting, latching, and pausing) by both lawyer and witness. Log-linear analyses were performed. The main results show that the lawyer and the witness used both accommodation and maintenance strategies, even if the latter are used more by the lawyer. Both participants made use of unimodal and bimodal strategies and tended to reciprocate the behaviour of the interlocutor. The conclusions emphasize the advantage of using the sequential analysis approach to the accommodation strategies of CAT: studying multiple behaviours, identifying the direction and the modalities of the strategies even if they act simultaneously, and providing a means to evaluate the weight of the strategies on the whole and in detail.

  3. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  4. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  5. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  6. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  7. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  8. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  9. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  10. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Guide for Accommodating Utilities Within Highway Right-of-Way” and “Roadside Design Guide” to assist in... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  11. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  12. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  13. Speech Accommodation without Priming: The Case of Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijssels, Tom; Casasanto, Laura Staum; Jasmin, Kyle; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    People often accommodate to each other's speech by aligning their linguistic production with their partner's. According to an influential theory, the Interactive Alignment Model, alignment is the result of priming. When people perceive an utterance, the corresponding linguistic representations are primed and become easier to produce. Here we…

  14. Treatment or Accommodation for Adults with Challenging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties some individuals with developmental disabilities have in responding to behavioral treatment and suggests an alternative to traditional behavioral treatment programs. It describes the use of the accommodation approach in which an individual's environment is rearranged to prevent or lower the occurrence of…

  15. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND... cognizant OCMI is satisfied that a natural system, such as opening windows, portholes, or doors,...

  16. Design Criteria for Public School Plants Accommodating the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. School Building Services.

    Criteria are presented for implementation in the design and construction of school buildings and facilities so as to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. Accommodations for the physically handicapped are considered for the following--(1) public walks, (2) parking lots, (3) ramps with gradients and handrails, (4) entrances,…

  17. 14 CFR 380.32 - Specific requirements for operator-participant contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The tour itinerary, if any, including the name and location of the hotels, length of stay at each, and...-departure notification of a major change, the participant may reject the substituted hotel or the changed... the contract, a refund of the portion of his payment allocable to the hotel accommodations or...

  18. Alternatives for joining Si wafers to strain-accommodating Cu for high-power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Nicholas; Messler, Robert W.; Khatri, Subhash

    2001-10-01

    Differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between silicon wafers and underlying copper electrodes have led to the use of purely mechanical dry pressure contacts for primary electrical and thermal connections in high-power solid-state electronic devices. These contacts are limited by their ability to dissipate I2R heat from within the device and by their thermal fatigue life. To increase heat dissipation and effectively deal with the CTE mismatch, metallurgical bonding of the silicon to a specially-structured, strain-accommodating copper electrode has been proposed. This study was intended to seek alternative methods for and demonstrate the feasibility of bonding Si to structured Cu in high-power solid-state devices. Three different but fundamentally related fluxless approaches identified and preliminarily assessed were: (1) conventional Sn-Ag eutectic solder; (2) a new, commercially-available active solder based on the Sn-Ag eutectic; and (3) solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding using the Au-In system. Metallurgical joints were made with varying quality levels (according to nonde-structive ultrasonic C-scan mapping, SEM, and electron microprobe) using each approach. Mechanical shear testing resulted in cohesive failure within the Si or the filler alloys. The best approach, in which eutectic Sn-Ag solder in pre-alloyed foil form was employed on Si and Cu substrates metallized (from the substrate outward) with Ti, Ni and Au, exhibited joint thermal conduction 74% better than dry pressure contacts.

  19. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…

  20. Mechanism for accommodation to cadmium exposure in Escherichia coli B

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    All organisms possess, to varying degrees, the ability to adapt to changes in their environment. The extent of this capability can be the determining factor in whether or not an organism survives. The adaptation of the enteric microorganism, Escherichia coli, to the heavy metal cadmium is not the result of a beneficial mutation, and has been termed accommodation. A protein was found that binds to, and appears to be induced by cadmium. The work presented in this thesis is directed at (1) determining the mechanism of accommodation of E.coli to cadmium, and (2) determining the potential role of a putative cadmium binding-protein in accomplishing this accommodation. The presence of three chemically related cadmium-binding proteins, possessing molecular weights of 150,000, 67,000, and 38,000, respectively, was demonstrated. The cadmium-protein bond in the 150 and 67 kDa proteins was stable when boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate, but was lost in the presence of reducing agents. Evidence was obtained which supported the assertion that the lower molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins were proteolytic or oxidative breakdown products of the larger cadmium-binding proteins. The loss of cadmium-binding activity was time dependent, and appeared to be accelerated by the presence of high salt. To determine if the process of accommodation involved the sequestration of cadmium in the outer cell surface, subcellular fractionation experiments were performed under a variety of post-exposure conditions. The possibility that the cell surface was rendered impermeable to cadmium ions during its recovery was also examined. Neither of these processes was found to be involved in the accommodative response. Indeed, the results of these studies support the concept that E.coli circumvents the presence of internal cadmium by converting it to a form that is no longer toxic to the cell.

  1. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  2. Drafting the Superintendent's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James F.

    1983-01-01

    A superintendent's contract should be individually designed and negotiated; however, necessary characteristics are suggested in the areas of duration, certification and responsibilities, compensation, vacation and fringe benefits, liability and indemnification, medical examination, evaluation, renewal and nonrenewal, termination, and a…

  3. Negotiating managed care contracts.

    PubMed

    Beckman, P A; Fischer, T J

    1997-08-01

    Physicians currently have a major opportunity to help guide the rapid evolution of managed care in the United States. General principles on how physicians can successfully negotiate a managed care contract are discussed.

  4. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  5. Mechanics of Vorticella Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin. PMID:20550905

  6. Mechanics of Vorticella contraction.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-06-16

    Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin.

  7. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that may be caused by caffeine, tobacco, exercise or anxiety Injury to the heart ... may increase your risk of premature ventricular contractions: Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol Exercise High blood pressure (hypertension) ...

  8. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  9. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  10. Joint Contingency Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Cdr (Head of Contracting Activity - HCA)FISC - Sigonella 5th Fleet AOR NAVSUP FISC Site - Dubai FISC Det-Bahrain Bahrain Seychelles CJOA Afghanistan...Services’ individual approaches for the accession of COs (and contracting specialists) is inconsistent and creates disparities between the breadth...and temperatures ranging from 130 degrees to below freezing. J42 AAdmin Clerk (Navy E-5) J4221 Fuels Ops Officer Navy

  11. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  12. Lightning accommodation systems for wind turbine generator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind turbine safety program identifies the naturally occurring lightning phenomenon as a hazard with the potential to cause loss of program objectives, injure personnel, damage system instrumentation, structure or support equipment and facilities. Several candidate methods of lightning accommodation for each blade were designed, analyzed, and tested by submitting sample blade sections to simulated lightning. Lightning accommodation systems for composite blades were individually developed. Their effectiveness was evaluated by submitting the systems to simulated lightning strikes. The test data were analyzed and system designs were reviewed on the basis of the analysis. This activity is directed at defining design and procedural constraints, requirements for safety devices and warning methods, special procedures, protective equipment and personnel training.

  13. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmuth, M.; Gäggeler, H. W.; von Glasow, R.; Ammann, M.

    2002-06-01

    Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2) and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr) aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  14. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  15. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    PubMed

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  16. The visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmstrom, F. V.; Randle, R. J.; Bendix, J. S.; Weber, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of the human visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity are investigated. Subject focusing responses to targets at distances of 0.0 D, 3.0 D and an indeterminate distance were monitored by means of an optometer during the performance of a backwards counting task and a visual imagery task (thinking near and thinking far). In both experiments a shift in accommodation towards the visual far point is observed particularly for the near target, which increases with the duration of the task. The results can be interpreted in terms of both the capacity model of Kahneman (1973) and the autonomic arousal model of Hess and Polt (1964), and are not inconsistent with the possibility of an intermediate resting position.

  17. Energetics of contraction.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J

    2015-04-01

    Muscles convert energy from ATP into useful work, which can be used to move limbs and to transport ions across membranes. The energy not converted into work appears as heat. At the start of contraction heat is also produced when Ca(2+) binds to troponin-C and to parvalbumin. Muscles use ATP throughout an isometric contraction at a rate that depends on duration of stimulation, muscle type, temperature and muscle length. Between 30% and 40% of the ATP used during isometric contraction fuels the pumping Ca(2+) and Na(+) out of the myoplasm. When shortening, muscles produce less force than in an isometric contraction but use ATP at a higher rate and when lengthening force output is higher than the isometric force but rate of ATP splitting is lower. Efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy provided by ATP that is converted into external work. Each ATP molecule provides 100 zJ of energy that can potentially be converted into work. The mechanics of the myosin cross-bridge are such that at most 50 zJ of work can be done in one ATP consuming cycle; that is, the maximum efficiency of a cross-bridge is ∼50%. Cross-bridges in tortoise muscle approach this limit, producing over 90% of the possible work per cycle. Other muscles are less efficient but contract more rapidly and produce more power.

  18. Visual performance with accommodating and multifocal intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jie; Huang, Yu-Sen; Dai, Yun-Hai; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Jia-Jun; Xie, Li-Xin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the visual functional outcomes with accommodating and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS Our retrospective comparative study included 51 patients (60 eyes) received implantation of an accommodating IOL (Tetraflex; 16 patients, 20 eyes), a refractive multifocal IOL (ReZoom; 18 patients, 20 eyes), or a diffractive multifocal IOL (ZMA00; 17 patients, 20 eyes). Subjective refraction, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), intraocular aberration, and subjective photic phenomena were detected at 3mo after surgery. RESULTS The spherical equivalent in the three groups was -0.38±0.54 D, 0.14±0.56 D, and 0.35±0.41 D, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity and uncorrected intermediate visual acuity among the groups (P=0.39). The ReZoom group had significantly better distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity than the ZMA00 group (P=0.003). The ZMA00 group had significantly better near visual acuity than the other groups (P<0.05). Better contrast sensitivity values were observed in the Tetraflex group under most of the spatial frequencies conditions (P=0.025). The total aberration was lowest in the ZMA00 group (P=0.000), and the spherical aberration was highest in the Tetraflex group (P=0.000). The three groups had similar frequency of ghosting and glare, and the Tetraflex group had a low rate of halos (P=0.01). CONCLUSION Both accommodating and multifocal IOLs can successfully restore distance and uncorrected intermediate visual acuities. Tetraflex accommodating IOLs perform better in CS and with less halos of photic phenomena. ReZoom refractive multifocal IOLs have better performance in distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity than ZMA00 diffractive multifocal IOLs, and the latter achieved better near visual acuity and efficiently decreased the optical aberration. PMID:28251082

  19. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna

    2015-11-23

    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  20. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  1. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  2. Recent Religious Accommodations: Have We Gone Too Far Too Fast?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to

  3. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  4. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  5. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  6. Dead horse graben: A west Texas accommodation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maler, Michael O.

    1990-12-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the Dead Horse graben area underwent two superposed deformations. Laramide (latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary) left-transpression structures are overprinted by a Basin and Range (Miocene to Recent) accommodation zone. During Laramide shortening, two northwest trending sets of monoclines developed: an en echelon set over a left-slip basement fault and a single monocline draped over the uplifted edge of a rotated basement block. Basin and Range extension caused northerly trending half-grabens that have opposing asymmetry: downthrown-to-the-east north of the study area and downthrown-to-the-west south of the area. These half-grabens are separated by an accommodation zone, expressed as a northwest trending, right-lateral pull-apart graben. The normal faults of the pull-apart graben flatten at a shallower depth than those of the half-grabens. This suggests not only that accommodation zones can be mechanically layered but that this layering can occur on a scale different from the adjacent half-grabens. The northwest trend and superposition of both sets of structures implies a tectonic control by the preexisting structural fabric of the Texas Lineament.

  7. Future Contracting for Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz, Vice President and Managing ...Alpert, Analyst, Systecon North America Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz, Vice President and Managing Director, Logistics...êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 18 - Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz—is the Vice President and Managing Director, Logistics

  8. 48 CFR 3416.701 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 3416.701 Contract clause. The contracting... organizations that have fixed indirect cost rates with carryforward adjustments approved by the Government agency responsible for negotiating the organization's indirect cost rates....

  9. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contracts. 3017.204 Section... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  10. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  11. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  12. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  13. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  14. Contracting with Teacher Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaten, Jessica; Kolderie, Ted

    This monograph describes the concept of school district contracts with teacher partnerships for educational services; taking the view of education as an industry, the document analyzes advantages, obstacles, and strategies of such a change. Section 1, "The Challenge," suggests that societal changes make an education industry outside the…

  15. Acting Out Muscle Contraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes a science activity that can be implemented into anatomy and physiology courses that demonstrates the interactions between action and myosin, the roles of sodium and calcium ions in the regulation of contraction, and the functions of the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (YDS)

  16. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  17. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts.

  18. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  19. Accommodation of angular incompatibilities between interfacial facets during precipitate growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, R. C.; Jiao, H.; Zhang, L. C.; Aindow, M.

    2006-03-01

    Precipitate growth in a duplex stainless steel and a titanium aluminide alloy has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Particles with similar crystallography and acicular form arise in both cases, and are bounded by two principal facets. One facet, designated C, is based on a commensurate singular interface structure, and the coherency strains are accommodated by interfacial defects. The other facet, designated I, is based on a singular configuration that is incommensurate in one dimension. The orientation relationship (OR) between the particle and the matrix for the singular C structure is Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S), whereas that for the I facet is Pitsch. The angular incompatibility between these two types of facets must be accommodated to minimize the displacement field as particles grow. The present observations suggest that this is accomplished through the generation of crystal dislocations at facet junctions and their subsequent climb along the facets. The total density of defects needed to accommodate the angular discrepancy is fixed, but the partitioning of these dislocations between C and I facets is not. The actual partitioning determines the observed OR for a particle, and is determined by the kinetics of climb, which is likely to be different in the two facets. In the stainless steel, the observations are consistent with climb occurring in both the C and I facets, but faster in the I facet, leading to a distribution of observed ORs that is skewed away from Pitsch toward K-S. In the titanium aluminide alloy, no climb into the C facets was found, so a unique OR close to K-S arises.

  20. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    authority is the legal authority to enter into binding contracts and obligate funds on behalf of the U.S. Government (USG), while command authority includes...include authority to make binding contracts or modify existing contracts for the USG. It is also important to note that Geographical Combatant...Appointment, which provides the legal authorization to enter into binding contracts and obligate appropriated funds on behalf of the U.S. government

  1. Contract Audit Followup: Its Impact on Defense Contracting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    UNIT NUERS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE WANE AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Postgraduate School...of control " Although many procurement managers and contracting offi- 4 cers have privately expressed their opinions of the contract audit followup...Management/ACO: Pesi qnes a manager of Adainistrative Contract- ing Officers. Managesent /PCO: Manager of Procuring Contracting Officers. Mangement/PA

  2. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C

    2010-11-01

    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted

  3. Early space station user accommodations. [manned free flying orbital platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxton, D. R.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for extended-duration space missions in earth orbit beyond those anticipated for the 7- to 30-day Shuttle Spacelab system have been examined. It has been determined that a continuously manned, free-flying orbital facility provides a realistic and cost-effective space platform for multidiscipline payloads designed to support research, applications, and system implementation programs such as the assembly of large space structures, and on-orbit space manufacturing. A conceptual description of such a manned facility (early Space Station) and the accommodations that it can provide using agencies and organizations is presented in this paper.

  4. Plant and animal accommodation for Space Station Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.

    1986-01-01

    An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.

  5. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  6. Gradiometer accommodation on board a drag-free satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touboul, P.

    1987-01-01

    Accommodation of the GRADIO instrument, composed of eight three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometers located at the corners of a cubic structure on a Geopotential Research Mission spacecraft is discussed. A two-stage DISCOS configuration with a magnetically suspended inner-stage; and a very fine control of the Earth pointed inner-stage taking into account the GRADIO accelerometer measurements in order to limit the variations of the angular accelerations are required. For diagonal tensor components and an averaging time of 4 sec, the overall goal is 0.1 Eotvos at 160 km altitude.

  7. Accommodating and cracking mechanisms in low-cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineau, A.

    1978-01-01

    The three main stages of fatigue life (accommodation, crack initiation and crack growth) are briefly reviewed. The cyclic behavior of annealed or predeformed face-centered cubic metals is described. Moreover, two types of alloys (Al-4-Cu and WASPALOY) are examined regarding the influence of the interactions between the precipitates and the dislocations on the cyclic behavior. Data on the percent of life to crack initiation (for a microcrack smaller than about 100 microns) are also given. Finally, experimental and theoretical results on crack growth rates in lowcycle fatigue are described.

  8. Flight accommodations using a special structure. [space shuttle payloads support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Mcannally, R.

    1982-01-01

    A special payload carrier structure has been developed in order to provide Space Shuttle flight accommodations for an exceptionally heavy instrument package requiring no subsystems support. This Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) will support the OSTA-2 payload for a materials processing mission. The modular design of the MPESS offers a payload support capability at multiple locations within the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The MPESS is also scheduled for use with earth observation instruments to be carried by the OSTA-3 mission in late 1984.

  9. Isotropic Contraction Of Mercury Due To Despinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Bills, B. G.

    2009-09-01

    Mercury's slow rotation period of 59 days is presumably the result of solar tides driving its initial rotational state to the present 3:2 spin-orbit resonance. The observed large gravity coefficients can be explained as due to a remnant rotational bulge recording an initial rotation period of a few days (Matsuyama and Nimmo 2009). Despinning changes the shape of the rotational bulge, generating both compressional and extensional stresses (Melosh 1977). However, Mercury's surface is dominated by compressional tectonic features (Watters et al. 1998), and the inferred global contraction has been explained as due to thermal cooling (Solomon 1976). In addition to non-isotropic changes associated with the rotational flattening, despinning causes isotropic contraction of the entire planet. We consider the effect of the compressional stresses generated by this isotropic contraction on the predicted tectonic pattern. References Matsuyama and Nimmo. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury: Effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation. J. Geophys. Res. (2009) vol. 114 pp. E01010 Melosh. Global tectonics of a despun planet. Icarus (1977) vol. 31 pp. 221-243 Solomon. Some aspects of core formation in Mercury. Icarus (1976) vol. 28 pp. 509-521 Watters et al. Topography of lobate scarps on Mercury: New constraints on the planet's contraction. Geology (1998) vol. 26 pp. 991-994

  10. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... ``public accommodations facility'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES... or spa that is open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility.'' Section 1404(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Act. The Act does not define the term ``public accommodations...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.9 - Discrimination in furnishing public accommodations and transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., inn, lodge, or other facility or accommodation offered to or enjoyed by the general public within the... national origin in furnishing or refusing to furnish such person or persons any accommodation, facility... will be conspicuous to any person seeking accommodations, facilities, services, or privileges:...

  12. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... is ``open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility.'' Section 1404(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Act. The term ``public accommodations facility'' is not defined in the Act. The Commission has received numerous inquiries regarding what constitutes a public accommodations facility...

  13. 36 CFR 5.9 - Discrimination in furnishing public accommodations and transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employees of any hotel, inn, lodge, or other facility or accommodation offered to or enjoyed by the general... vehicle service and its employees, are prohibited from: (1) Publicizing the facilities, accommodations or... origin in furnishing or refusing to furnish such person or persons any accommodation, facility,...

  14. 28 CFR 36.207 - Places of public accommodation located in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.207 Places of public accommodation located in private residences. (a) When a place of public... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Places of public accommodation located...

  15. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  16. 28 CFR 36.207 - Places of public accommodation located in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Places of public accommodation located in... § 36.207 Places of public accommodation located in private residences. (a) When a place of public accommodation is located in a private residence, the portion of the residence used exclusively as a residence...

  17. 46 CFR 154.330 - Openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces..., Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.330 Openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces... accommodation, service, or control spaces, except as allowed in paragraph (c) of this section, must be: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 153.201 - Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces... and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.201 Openings to accommodation, service or control... exhausts, and other openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces must be located aft of the...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  2. Guidelines for Providing Accommodations Using CASAS Assessment for Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…

  3. The Role of Accommodations in Educational Accountability Systems. Topical Review Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Clapper, Ann T.

    2005-01-01

    Many students with disabilities need to use accommodations to meaningfully access instruction and to be appropriately assessed. During the past decade, the use of assessment accommodations has dramatically increased the participation rates of students with disabilities in statewide testing. Assessment accommodations can be defined as "changes…

  4. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  5. Accommodations Quality for Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Stephanie W.; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and…

  6. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?

    PubMed

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R

    2017-01-01

    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.

  7. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  8. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  9. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  10. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  11. Work Barriers Experienced and Job Accommodations Used by Persons with Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn H.; Li, Wei; LaValley, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Many people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the types of work barriers they experience and their use of job accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in persons with arthritis at risk for work disability. (Contains 30…

  12. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L.; Osborne, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning…

  13. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Test Accommodations on Test Scores of LEP Students & Non-LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, Anne L.

    Using a quasi-experimental analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, this project examined the effects of the use of accommodations with students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and non-LEP students and whether the use of accommodations affected the validity of test score interpretations. Major accommodations examined were extra time, and extra…

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  17. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  18. 48 CFR 3443.107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clause. 3443.107... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS General 3443.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer must... cost-reimbursement contracts in which it will be essential for the contracting officer to be...

  19. 48 CFR 3416.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3416.307... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 3416.307 Contract clauses. (a) If the clause at FAR 52.216-7 (Allowable Cost and Payment) is used in a contract with...

  20. 48 CFR 3016.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3016.406... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 3016.406 Contract clauses. (e)(1)(i) The contracting officer shall insert a clause substantially the...

  1. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  2. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  3. Dupuytren's Contracture: Fibroblast Contraction?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, Giulio; Majno, Guido

    1972-01-01

    In 6 cases of Dupuytren's disease and 1 of Ledderhose's disease, the nodules of the palmar and plantar aponeurosis were examined by light and electron microscopy. The cells composing these nodules, presumably fibroblasts, showed three significant ultrastructural features: (1) a fibrillar system similar to that of smooth muscle cells; (2) nuclear deformations such as are found in contracted cells, the severest being recognizable by light microscopy (cross-banded nuclei); (3) cell-to-cell and cell-to-stroma attachments. Based on these data and on recent information about the biology of the fibroblasts, it is suggested that these cells are fibroblasts that have modulated into contractile cells (myofibroblasts), and that their contraction plays a role in the pathogenesis of the contracture observed clinically. ImagesFig 10Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6 and 7Fig 8Fig 1Fig 2Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5009249

  4. Contracts for dispatchable power

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Geostationary platform study: Advanced ESGP/evolutionary SSF accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The implications on the evolutionary space station of accommodating geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) facilities including unmanned satellites and platforms, manned elements, and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements. The latest existing definitions of typical unmanned GEO facilities and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements are utilized. The physical design, functional design, and operations implications at the space station are determined. Various concepts of the space station from past studies are utilized ranging from the IOC Multifunction Space Station to a branched transportation node space station, and the implications of the accommodation the GEO infrastructure of each type are assessed. Where possible, parametric data are provided to show the implications of variations in sizes and quantities of elements, launch rates, crew sizes, etc. The use of advanced automation, robotics equipment, and an efficient mix of manned/automated support for accomplishing necessary activities at the space station are identified and assessed. The products of this study are configuration sketches, resource requirements, trade studies, and parametric data.

  6. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  7. Validation of a nonrigid registration framework that accommodates tissue resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm, Petter; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William, III

    2010-03-01

    We present a 3D extension and validation of an intra-operative registration framework that accommodates tissue resection. The framework is based on the bijective Demons method, but instead of regularizing with the traditional Gaussian smoother, we apply an anisotropic diffusion filter with the resection modeled as a diffusion sink. The diffusion sink prevents unwanted Demon forces that originates from the resected area from diffusing into the surrounding area. Another attractive property of the diffusion sink is the resulting continuous deformation field across the diffusion sink boundary, which allows us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field. The area of resection is estimated by a level-set method evolving in the space of image intensity disagreements in the intra-operative image domain. A product of using the bijective Demons method is that we can also provide an accurate estimate of the resected tissue in the preoperative image space. Validation of the proposed method was performed on a set of 25 synthetic images. Our experiments show a significant improvement in accommodating resection using the proposed method compared to two other Demons based methods.

  8. Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

  9. Scaling and Accommodation of Jaw Adductor Muscles in Canidae

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Graham J.; Jeffery, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size. Data were collected for a suite of morphological metrics, including body mass, endocranial volume, and muscle masses and we used geometric morphometric shape analysis to reveal associated form changes. We find that all jaw adductor muscles scale isometrically against body mass, regardless of phylogeny or trophic group, but that endocranial volume scales with negative allometry against body mass. These findings suggest that head shape is partly influenced by the need to house isometrically scaling muscles on a neurocranium scaling with negative allometry. Principal component analysis suggests that skull shape changes, such as the relatively wide zygomatic arches and large sagittal crests seen in species with higher body masses, allow the skull to accommodate a relative enlargement of the jaw adductors compared with the endocranium. Anat Rec, 299:951–966, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103346

  10. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  11. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  12. Right Ventricular Anatomy Can Accommodate Multiple Micra Transcatheter Pacemakers

    PubMed Central

    EGGEN, MICHAEL D.; BONNER, MATTHEW D.; IAIZZO, PAUL A.; WIKA, KENT

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of transcatheter pacemaker technology has the potential to significantly reduce if not eliminate a number of complications associated with a traditional leaded pacing system. However, this technology raises new questions regarding how to manage the device at end of service, the number of devices the right ventricle (RV) can accommodate, and what patient age is appropriate for this therapy. In this study, six human cadaver hearts and one reanimated human heart (not deemed viable for transplant) were each implanted with three Micra devices in traditional pacing locations via fluoroscopic imaging. Methods A total of six human cadaver hearts were obtained from the University of Minnesota Anatomy Bequest Program; the seventh heart was a heart not deemed viable for transplant obtained from LifeSource and then reanimated using Visible Heart® methodologies. Each heart was implanted with multiple Micras using imaging and proper delivery tools; in these, the right ventricular volumes were measured and recorded. The hearts were subsequently dissected to view the right ventricular anatomies and the positions and spacing between devices. Results Multiple Micra devices could be placed in each heart in traditional, clinically accepted pacing implant locations within the RV and in each case without physical device interactions. This was true even in a human heart considered to be relatively small. Conclusions Although this technology is new, it was demonstrated here that within the human heart's RV, three Micra devices could be accommodated within traditional pacing locations: with the potential in some, for even more. PMID:26710918

  13. Myopic astigmatism a substitute for accommodation in pseudophakia.

    PubMed

    Huber, C

    1981-12-16

    The power of an intraocular lens can be calculated before surgery to make the eye emmetropic or ametropic. The physiological mechanism of accommodation however, cannot be restored with an inelastic lens. An increased depth of focus in the implanted eye can be predicted through optical principles alone, if the postoperative ametropia of the implanted eye is a simple myopic astigmatism. This increased depth of focus without accommodation was tested in artificial ametropia and found to be used in nature by the seal. To increase the precision of intraocular lens calculation the average change in corneal power induced at surgery is used to predict the postoperative corneal power. By controlled suture release in the postoperative phase, the amount of induced corneal astigmatism is adjusted to obtain a simple myopic astigmatism. Patients with an intraocular lens and a simple myopic astigmatism as a residual ametropia, are spectacle independent most of the time. They need their glasses only for driving or prolonged reading. The methods used to calculate the postoperative cornea, the postoperative anterior chamber depth and the intraocular lens are described with the corresponding calculator programs for the HP 41C calculator. Clinical results and measurements of the depth of focus are shown in a series of 50 successive implant cases.

  14. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    PubMed Central

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged. PMID:24069011

  15. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Research & Engineering) BBP Better Buying Power BOA basic ordering agreement BPA basic purchase agreement CAE Component Acquisition Executive CDSA...Basic Ordering Agreement ( BOA ) c. Government wide acquisition contracts and IDIQ contracts d. BPAs and BPA calls under Federal Supply Schedules...contract actions ( BOAs , BPAs, FSS, and GWAC) contracts that are not required to report the number of competitive offers. The fiscal year 2011 DOD

  16. The Psychological Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    employee commitment • Freedom to sign new contracts • Little learning • Low integration/identification Transitional • Ambiguity/uncertainty • High...turnover • Instability T im ef ra m e Lo ng T er m Balanced • High employee commitment • High integration/identification • Mutual employee...organization support • Dynamic Relational • High employee commitment • High affective commitment • High integration/identification • Stability 14

  17. Army Contigency Contracting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    r I I ;. - L U C A ,. . • - J 01 .1 .1 C.. - 0 . c s U- 101 1. L.J 1 L I.C w - L.. . 4-.- 22...and transportation services as well. The noble intentions of an occupying power would mean r little to a civilian population suffering from basic...PROPOSAL EVALUAT ION NEGOTIATION AWARD CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION * PERFORMANCE A r P C []"O’ PCD GOVERNMENT ACO CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE COR EXPER I

  18. Construction Contract Provisions Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    bidding and contract docuents. These documents appear together in the bid package. After the bid, the IFB (or RFTP, RFP ) is extracted and the remainder...Corps personnel suggest that the original reason for the clause -- to prevent brokering - is anachronistic in the current construction market. However...amount of premiums paid for performance and payment * bonds (including coinsurance and reinsurance agreements, when applicable) after furnishing

  19. The Unwritten Contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Hosted by former STS-1 Astronaut Bob Crippen, this video highlights the Space Shuttle program team's commitment to quality assurance as being the unwritten contract all workers in the shuttle program have with the flight crews: To keep them and the whole Space Transportation System safe. The video is presented by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Safety, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance Office (SRM&QA).

  20. Contracting As A Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer ( PCO )–program manager (PM) relationship in...feedback to unsuccessful offerors reduces or eliminates feelings of inequity, a negotiated agreement is considered inequitable, company perception of...outcomes will be judged (Helson, 1964). Some of the areas to which researchers have applied adaptation- level theory include price perception and the

  1. Contracting as a Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer ( PCO )–program manager (PM) relationship in...feedback to unsuccessful offerors reduces or eliminates feelings of inequity, a negotiated agreement is considered inequitable, company perception of...outcomes will be judged (Helson, 1964). Some of the areas to which researchers have applied adaptation- level theory include price perception and the

  2. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  3. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  4. How Learning Contracts Motivate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Scott C.; McCabe, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how learning contracts can motivate students. "A learning contract is simply a written agreement between teacher and learner in which the learner undertakes to complete mutually agreed upon tasks in a specified amount of time on his or her own initiative" (Greenwood, 2003, p.1). Contracts are designed to…

  5. Health Contract in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2007-01-01

    A health contract is a technique used by health professionals to help clients achieve a health goal. This article describes a course, "Changing Health Behaviors," in which a health contract strategy is taught and practiced with older adults. The health contract can also be included as a smaller educational component within a gerontology course…

  6. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  7. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  8. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  9. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  10. Tunable thermal link

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  11. Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Kruger, Philip B.; Hofer, Heidi; Singer, Ben; Williams, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order monochromatic aberrations in the human eye cause a difference in the appearance of stimuli at distances nearer and farther from best focus that could serve as a signed error signal for accommodation. We explored whether higher-order monochromatic aberrations affect the accommodative response to 0.5 D step changes in vergence in experiments in which these aberrations were either present as they normally are or removed with adaptive optics. Of six subjects, one could not accommodate at all for steps in either condition. One subject clearly required higher-order aberrations to accommodate at all. The remaining four subjects could accommodate in the correct direction even when higher-order aberrations were removed. No subjects improved their accommodation when higher-order aberrations were corrected, indicating that the corresponding decrease in the depth of field of the eye did not improve the accommodative response. These results are consistent with previous findings of large individual differences in the ability to accommodate in impoverished conditions. These results suggest that at least some subjects can use monochromatic higher-order aberrations to guide accommodation. They also show that some subjects can accommodate correctly when higher-order monochromatic aberrations as well as established cues to accommodation are greatly reduced.

  12. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: range, impact, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Parental accommodation--i.e., changes in parents' behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress--has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers-68; NFathers-51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety.

  13. The effects of a convex rear-view mirror on ocular accommodative responses.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tatsuo; Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Tawara, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    Convex mirrors are universally used as rear-view mirrors in automobiles. However, the ocular accommodative responses during the use of these mirrors have not yet been examined. This study investigated the effects of a convex mirror on the ocular accommodative systems. Seven young adults with normal visual functions were ordered to binocularly watch an object in a convex or plane mirror. The accommodative responses were measured with an infrared optometer. The average of the accommodation of all subjects while viewing the object in the convex mirror were significantly nearer than in the plane mirror, although all subjects perceived the position of the object in the convex mirror as being farther away. Moreover, the fluctuations of accommodation were significantly larger for the convex mirror. The convex mirror caused the 'false recognition of distance', which induced the large accommodative fluctuations and blurred vision. Manufactures should consider the ocular accommodative responses as a new indicator for increasing automotive safety.

  14. Sensory outcome with nonsurgical management of esotropia with convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio).

    PubMed

    Pratt-Johnson, J A; Tillson, G

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-seven patients with esotropia and convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation [AC/A] ratio) managed nonsurgically underwent a final standardized evaluation of their sensory and motor status after a follow-up period of at least 8 years. All had a deviation with distance fixation of less than 10 prism dioptres (PD) of esotropia with full optical correction both initially and throughout the follow-up period. The average spherical-equivalent refractive error was +2.3 D. The AC/A ratio had tended to decrease with age, and most patients had fusion, although only a small proportion had central fusion and stereopsis. Approximately half of the patients had been treated with bifocals, but their sensory outcome did not differ from that of the other patients. Miotics had not been used for more than a few months in any patient, as they were ineffective in reducing the deviation with near fixation to less than 10 PD of esotropia. A study, possibly a multicentre one, involving larger numbers of patients should be designed to find out whether bifocal therapy offers an advantage in the final sensory outcome of such patients.

  15. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage

  16. Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

  17. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis.

    PubMed

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David

    2007-01-01

    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  18. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  19. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  20. Communication accommodation and managing musculoskeletal disorders: doctors' and patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Susan C; Gallois, Cindy; Driedger, S Michelle; Santesso, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the ways in which health care providers (general practitioners and specialists) and patients communicate with each other about managing musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, a major cause of long-term pain and physical disability. In managing their illness, patients must interact closely with health care providers, who play a large role in transferring knowledge to them. In-depth interviews with patients, general practitioners, and specialist rheumatologists in Australia and Canada were analyzed using Leximancer (a text-mining tool). Results indicated that, in their communication, doctors subtly emphasized accepting and adjusting to the illness ("new normal"), whereas patients emphasized pain relief and getting "back to normal." These results suggest that doctors and patients should accommodate in their communication across subtle and often unexpressed differences in the priorities of provider and patient, or they are likely to be at cross purposes and thus less effective.