Science.gov

Sample records for accommodate thermal contraction

  1. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  2. Thermal Accommodation Coefficients Based on Heat-Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael A.; Trott, Wayne M.; Torczynski, John R.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2006-11-01

    A new method to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient of gases on solid surfaces based on heat-flux measurements is presented. An experimental chamber and supporting diagnostics have been developed that allow accurate heat-flux measurements between two parallel plates. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates using precision thermistors, where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. The resulting heat flux is used in a recently derived semi-empirical formula to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient. This formula has the advantage of eliminating the ˜8% discrepancy between molecular simulations and the predictions of the more approximate Sherman-Lees formula used in most studies. Nitrogen, argon, and helium on stainless steel with various finishes and on other silicon-based surfaces are examined. The thermal accommodation coefficients thus determined indicate that the Maxwell gas-surface interaction model can adequately represent all of the experimental observations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  4. Student Accommodation Projects: A Guide to PFI Contracts. Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Pinsent

    This guide is intended for higher education institutions in England that are about to embark on student residential accommodation projects. It focuses on procurements under the Private Financial Initiative (PFI), a form of Public Private Partnership in the United Kingdom, but other approaches are considered. The guide draws on good practices from…

  5. Analytical model for thermal boundary conductance and equilibrium thermal accommodation coefficient at solid/gas interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2016-02-28

    We develop an analytical model for the thermal boundary conductance between a solid and a gas. By considering the thermal fluxes in the solid and the gas, we describe the transmission of energy across the solid/gas interface with diffuse mismatch theory. From the predicted thermal boundary conductances across solid/gas interfaces, the equilibrium thermal accommodation coefficient is determined and compared to predictions from molecular dynamics simulations on the model solid-gas systems. We show that our model is applicable for modeling the thermal accommodation of gases on solid surfaces at non-cryogenic temperatures and relatively strong solid-gas interactions (εsf ≳ kBT). PMID:26931716

  6. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    PubMed

    Trott, Wayne M; Castañeda, Jaime N; Torczynski, John R; Gallis, Michael A; Rader, Daniel J

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ∼0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations. PMID:21456801

  7. The force of contraction of the human ciliary muscle during accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    1. Apparatus has been designed to alter the shape of the human lens by tensile forces applied to the zonular fibres indirectly through the ciliary body. The changes in dioptric power of the lens for monochromatic sodium light were measured at the same time. Simultaneous serial photography, and direct measurement enabled one to relate a change in shape of the lens to the change in dioptric power. Subsequently, the same lens was isolated and spun around its antero-posterior polar axis and high speed photography recorded its changing profile. 2. By comparing the changes in lens profile due to zonular tension and centrifugal force respectively, the force developed in the zonule for a given change in the shape of the lens could be calculated. Changes in dioptric power associated with those of shape can thus be related directly to the force of contraction of the ciliary muscle necessary to reduce the initial tension of the zonule in the unaccommodated state. 3. The force of contraction of the ciliary muscle as measured by radial force exerted through the zonule and the change in dioptric power of the lens were not linearly related. The relationship is more exactly expressed by the equation [Formula: see text] where D = amplitude of accommodation in dioptres (m-1), FCB = force of contraction of the ciliary muscle as measured by changes in tension of the zonule (N), Kdf = dioptric force coefficient and is constant for a given age (m-1N-½ × 102·5). This coefficient is 0·41 at 15 yr and 0·07 at 45 yr of age. 4. In youth for maximum accommodation (10-12 D) the force is approximately 1·0 × 10-2 N while to produce sufficient accommodation for near vision (3·5 D) the force is less than 0·05 × 10-2 N. 5. After the age of 30 yr the force of contraction of the ciliary muscle necessary to produce maximum accommodation rises steadily to about 50 yr of age and thereafter probably falls slightly. At about 50 yr of age the ciliary muscle is some 50% more powerful than in youth

  8. Double Ridges on Europa Accommodate Some of the Missing Surface Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culha, C.; Hayes, A. G.; Manga, M.; Thomas, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-cutting relationships of tectonic lineaments on Europa record history of surface displacements. We mapped the displacement and orientation of older features cross-cut by two types of lineaments, bands and double ridges. These measurements allow us to determine both the normal and strike-slip displacement along investigated features. Double ridges record both ridge normal contraction and expansion, with a mean of 0.16×0.06 km of contraction based on 16 double ridges. Most models for double ridge formation are not consistent with contraction. Bands record expansion, with a mean of 3.33×0.27 km for the 6 bands analyzed, but with magnitude less than their apparent morphologic widths of 3-24 km. The models that satisfy these conditions for bands are slow 'spreading models', cryovolcanism, and folding. The implied global strain for double ridges and bands is 2.22×0.76% and 7.60×3.7% respectively. This result shows that double ridges compensate for part of the missing surface contraction. Our findings provide observational and quantitative constraints for models of band and double ridge formation as well as the thermal structure of Europa's ice-shell.

  9. Determination of thermal accommodation coefficients from heat transfer measurements between parallel plates.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2010-10-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been derived for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates at unequal temperature separated by a gas-filled gap. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates in a configuration where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. Temperature-controlled shrouds provide for environmental isolation of the opposing test plates. Since the measured temperature differences in these experiments are very small (typically 0.3 C or less over the entire pressure range), high-precision thermistors are used to acquire the requisite temperature data. High-precision components have also been utilized on the other control and measurement subsystems in this apparatus, including system pressure, gas flow rate, plate alignment, and plate positions. The apparatus also includes the capability for in situ plasma cleaning of the installed test plates. Measured heat-flux results are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code calculations to determine the thermal accommodation coefficients. Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for three different gases (argon, nitrogen, helium) in contact with various surfaces. Materials include metals and alloys such as aluminum, gold, platinum, and 304 stainless steel. A number of materials important to fabrication of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices have also been examined. For most surfaces, coefficient values are near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Only slight differences in accommodation as a function of surface roughness have been seen. Surface contamination appears to have a more significant effect: argon plasma treatment has been observed to reduce thermal accommodation by as much as 0.10 for helium. Mixtures of argon and

  10. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J. )

    1993-01-15

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  11. Mass and thermal accommodation during gas-liquid condensation of water.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Paul M; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Kulmala, Markku; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Vesala, Timo

    2004-08-13

    In this Letter we report, for the first time, direct and simultaneous determinations of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients for water vapor condensation in air, based on the observation of droplet growth kinetics in an expansion cloud chamber. Our experiments exclude values below 0.85 for the thermal and below 0.4 for the mass accommodation coefficients at temperatures ranging from 250 to 290 K. Both coefficients are likely to be 1 for all studied conditions. Previously available experimental data on the mass accommodation coefficient for water span about 3 orders of magnitude. Our results provide new and firm insight to cloud microphysics and consequently to the global radiative balance. PMID:15324249

  12. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy P; Whitman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS) and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. PMID:27354757

  13. An extended soft-cube model for the thermal accommodation of gas atoms on solid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical soft cube model was developed for calculating thermal accommodation coefficients alpha and trapping fractions f sub t for the interaction of gases incident upon solid surfaces. A semiempirical correction factor c which allows the calculation of alpha and f sub t when the collision times are long compared to the surface oscillator period were introduced. The processes of trapping, evaporation, and detailed balancing were discussed. The numerical method was designed to treat economically and with moderate (+ or - 20 percent) accuracy the dependence of alpha and f sub t on finite and different surface and gas temperatures for a large number of gas/surface combinations. Comparison was made with experiments of rare gases on tungsten and on alkalis, as well as one astrophysical case of H2 on graphite. The dependence of alpha on the soft cube dimensionless parameters is presented graphically.

  14. Point defect weakened thermal contraction in monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Lin, Zijing

    2014-08-14

    We investigate the thermal expansion behaviors of monolayer graphene and three configurations of graphene with point defects, namely the replacement of one carbon atom with a boron or nitrogen atom, or of two neighboring carbon atoms by boron-nitrogen atoms, based on calculations using first-principles density functional theory. It is found that the thermal contraction of monolayer graphene is significantly decreased by point defects. Moreover, the corresponding temperature for negative linear thermal expansion coefficient with the maximum absolute value is reduced. The cause is determined to be point defects that enhance the mechanical strength of graphene and then reduce the amplitude and phonon frequency of the out-of-plane acoustic vibration mode. Such defect weakening of graphene thermal contraction will be useful in nanotechnology to diminish the mismatching or strain between the graphene and its substrate.

  15. Quaternary Expression of Northern Great Valley Faults and Folds: Accommodating North-South Contraction between the Sierran Microplate and Oregon Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angster, S.; Sawyer, T. L.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern California Shear Zone accommodates North American intraplate right-lateral transpressional shear driven by the relative motion of the northwest translating Sierran microplate. Within this zone, between the latitudes of 400 and 420, 1 - 4 mm/yr of north-south geodetic contraction is observed and for the most part remains geologically unaccounted for. We are investigating the Quaternary expression of transpressional shear localized at the northern end of the Sierra Nevada and Great Valley to evaluate both the recency and rates of deformation across structures that may be accommodating the contractional deformation suggested in geodetic studies. The northeast trending Inks Creek fold belt north of Red Bluff, CA consists of anticline-syncline pairs and dome structures that appear optimally oriented to accommodate northwest crustal shortening. The folds plunge to the southwest where they are incised and deflect the course of the Sacramento River. We will present preliminary geomorphic maps of fluvial terraces and drainage patterns associated with the folds constructed with standard field mapping techniques and aided by airborne LiDAR. It is anticipated that dating of deformed terrace strandlines with radiocarbon and OSL techniques holds the potential to quantify the lateral and vertical propagation rates of fold growth, as well as, constrain rates of regional contractional deformation.

  16. Solar thermal energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The federal government has conducted the national Solar Thermal Technology Program since 1975. Its purpose is to provide focus, direction, and funding for the development of solar thermal technology as an energy option for the United States. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a list of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory projects are listed alphabetically by project area and then by subcontractor name. Amount of funding milestones are listed.

  17. Seal accommodating thermal expansion between adjacent casings in gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A casing around a turbine and a casing around discharge nozzles have a concentrically arranged shell portion. The seal contains internal pressure while accommodating eccentric, expansion and axial travel. Arcuate seal segments have one leg sealing against a radial surface extending from the inner shell and the other leg against the outer shell. A linkage guides travel of the segments.

  18. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  19. A model of tissue contraction during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Sub; Hall, Sheldon K; Liu, Cong; Payne, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    A model of a globular protein is used to describe the contraction of tissue exposed to elevated temperatures. This will be useful in predicting the contraction of tissue that is observed during thermal ablation of tumours, which is a problem when trying to determine the ablation zone in post-operative images. The transitions between the states of the protein can be related to a change in the length of the molecule, which can be directly observed as a change in the length of the tissue. A three state model of a globular protein is used to describe the contraction of tissue exposed to elevated temperatures. A nonlinear fitting algorithm is considered here to fit available experimental data and thus to obtain the values of the model parameters. A sensitivity analysis of the proposed mathematical model is performed to determine the most important parameters in the model. The model parameters were obtained from experimental data of isothermal free shrinkage experiments. The predictions of the complete model show similar agreement with the data, well within the experimental error of 10%. The overall activation energy and frequency factor were found to be 201 kJ mol(-1) and [Formula: see text] s(-1) respectively. The results show that the experimental data were well described by the three state model considered here. Furthermore, it was possible to determine the most sensitive parameters in the model. The model presented here will allow predictions of thermal ablation to be corrected for tissue shrinkage, thus improving mathematical simulations for treatment planning, although clinical translation will require adapting the model from experimentally obtained tendon data to soft tissue data. PMID:27510949

  20. Contracts

    Science.gov Websites

    05, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 04, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 03, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 02, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 01, 2016 Search Contracts Search Recent Oldest Title Title - ...

  1. Contracts

    Science.gov Websites

    2016 Contracts For March 04, 2016 Contracts For March 03, 2016 Contracts For March 02, 2016 Contracts For March 01, 2016 Search Contracts Search Recent Oldest Title Title - ...

  2. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  3. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  4. Cellular Membrane Accommodation to Thermal Oscillations in the Coral Seriatopora caliendrum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chuan-Ho; Fang, Lee-Shing; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Lin, Ching-Yu; Lee, Shu-Hui; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the membrane lipid composition of corals from a region with tidally induced upwelling was investigated. The coral community is subject to strong temperature oscillations yet flourishes as a result of adaptation. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the dominant pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was performed using a validated method. The coral inhabiting the upwelling region shows a definite shift in the ratio of lipid molecular species, covering several subclasses. Mainly, the coral possesses a higher percentage of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. Higher levels of lyso–plasmanylcholines containing saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid chains were also revealed in coral tissue at the distal portion of the branch. Based on the physicochemical properties of these lipids, we proposed mechanisms for handling cellular membrane perturbations, such as tension, induced by thermal oscillation to determine how coral cells are able to spontaneously maintain their physiological functions, in both molecular and physical terms. Interestingly, the biochemical and biophysical properties of these lipids also have beneficial effects on the resistance, maintenance, and growth of the corals. The results of this study suggest that lipid metabolic adjustment is a major factor in the adaption of S. caliendrum in upwelling regions. PMID:25140803

  5. Thermal evolution of Mercury: implication for despinning and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robuchon, G.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Mocquet, A.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury's surface exhibits specific compressive features, called lobate scarps, that suggest that Mercury has experienced a change of shape during its history. These compressive features indicate global contraction and their apparent N-S preferred orientation suggests a possible effect of tidal despinning. The analysis of the terrains associated to the lobate scarps provide evidence for a formation after the end of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Another particularity is the presence of an intrinsic magnetic field intrinsic. This can be a proof for a liquid layer in the core. By adapting a model initially developed for Iapetus, we propose to evaluate the thermal evolution of Mercury and the associated despinning, contraction and core evolution. We perform 3D numerical simulations for a wide range of plausible initial conditions to evaluate: (1) the evolution of the temperature structure, (2) the resulting despinning rate, (3) the change of Mercury's shape, (4) the associated lithospheric stress field, (5) the onset of the core crystallization, and (6) the possibility of a liquid layer in the core at the present day. Thermal convection equations are solved for a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity in a spherical geometry using the numerical tool OEDIPUS. Cooling and crystallization of the core are also taken into account. Different values for the activation energy, initial mantle temperature, mantle density, core radius and sulfur content are tested. The horizontally averaged temperature profiles and the radius of inner core obtained from the 3D internal model as a function of time can be used to compute the evolution of Mercury's rotation and shape. We use a visco-anelastic transient rheological model initially developed for the Earth’s uppermost mantle. We consider different values of eccentricity (taken constant during the evolution), initial rotation period and grain size. A coupling between mantle and core is also investigated. Four different

  6. Simulating muscular thin films using thermal contraction capabilities in finite element analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Webster, Victoria A; Nieto, Santiago G; Grosberg, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Chiel, Hillel J; Quinn, Roger D

    2016-10-01

    In this study, new techniques for approximating the contractile properties of cells in biohybrid devices using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) have been investigated. Many current techniques for modeling biohybrid devices use individual cell forces to simulate the cellular contraction. However, such techniques result in long simulation runtimes. In this study we investigated the effect of the use of thermal contraction on simulation runtime. The thermal contraction model was significantly faster than models using individual cell forces, making it beneficial for rapidly designing or optimizing devices. Three techniques, Stoney׳s Approximation, a Modified Stoney׳s Approximation, and a Thermostat Model, were explored for calibrating thermal expansion/contraction parameters (TECPs) needed to simulate cellular contraction using thermal contraction. The TECP values were calibrated by using published data on the deflections of muscular thin films (MTFs). Using these techniques, TECP values that suitably approximate experimental deflections can be determined by using experimental data obtained from cardiomyocyte MTFs. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to investigate the contribution of individual variables, such as elastic modulus and layer thickness, to the final calibrated TECP for each calibration technique. Additionally, the TECP values are applicable to other types of biohybrid devices. Two non-MTF models were simulated based on devices reported in the existing literature. PMID:27450035

  7. Magnitude of global contraction on Mars from analysis of surface faults: Implications for martian thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Amanda L.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Faults provide a record of a planet's crustal stress state and interior dynamics, including volumetric changes related to long-term cooling. Previous work has suggested that Mars experienced a pulse of large-scale global contraction during Hesperian time. Here we evaluate the evidence for martian global contraction using a recent compilation of thrust faults. Fault-related strains were calculated for wrinkle ridges and lobate scarps to provide lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the magnitude of global contraction from contractional structures observed on the surface of Mars. During the hypothesized pulse of global contraction, contractional strain of -0.007% to -0.13% is indicated by the structures, corresponding to decreases in planetary radius of 112 m to 2.24 km, respectively. By contrast, consideration of all recognized thrust faults regardless of age produces a globally averaged contractional strain of -0.011% to -0.22%, corresponding to a radius decrease of 188 m to 3.77 km since the Early Noachian. The amount of global contraction predicted by thermal models is larger than what is recorded by the faults at the surface, paralleling similar studies for Mercury and the Moon, which suggests that observations of fault populations at the surface may provide tighter bounds on planetary thermal evolution than models alone.

  8. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  9. The competition between thermal contraction and differentiation in the stress history of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Stevenson, David J.

    1989-09-01

    The stress history of the moon is discussed, taking into consideration the effects of thermal contraction and differentiation. The amount of expansion caused by extracting basalt from undifferentiated lunar material is estimated taking account of the uncertainty in the knowledge of the appropriate compositions, and the resulting estimate of the expansion is used to compare the relative importance of the thermal and differentiation effects in the moon's volumetric history. The results of calculations show that differentiation is likely to be of major importance and, thus, thermal expansion is not the sole possible contributor to evolutionary changes in the lunar radius.

  10. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE). A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for non-thermal tissue

  11. Thermal Contraction Crack Polygons on Earth and Mars: Morphological Analysis and Climate Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The generation of thermal contraction crack polygons on Earth and Mars is a complex process, governed by the interplay between climate or microclimate conditions and the physical properties of the cracking medium. The morphological evolution of thermal contraction crack polygons is controlled in large part by local climatic and geological conditions: principally, the presence or absence of a seasonally wet active layer; the abundance of windblown, crack-filling material (snow or sediment); and the temperature and humidity conditions controlling the transport of water vapor between the ice-rich substrate and the atmosphere. Thermal contraction cracking of ice- rich soils is expected under present Mars conditions for latitudes polewards of 30 degrees, and a correlation between polygon size and latitude is predicted: larger stresses generated polewards will produce finer polygon networks. Observations confirm this general prediction, and a latitude dependence of polygon morphological type is observed, suggesting that the latitudinal range of current climate conditions is partially responsible for the difference in morphology. In particular, some hypothesize that localized melting and freeze-thaw processing are a significant source of the variety in polygon morphologies observed. A suite of thermal contraction crack polygon morphologies has been documented in the Upland Stable Zone (USZ) and Intermediate Mixed Zone (IMZ) of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, forming under known microclimate and subsurface rheological conditions, informing a comparison with polygonally patterned ground observed on Mars. We address the questions. What do current climate conditions suggest about the equilibrium conditions under which polygons are evolving on the martian surface? Is the decreasing spacing of thermal contract crack polygon networks polewards entirely a climate signal, or is there also a substrate rheology signal? What polygon features require freeze-thaw processing, and what

  12. Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Jin, Changqing; Frantti, Johannes; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Materials with zero/near zero thermal expansion coefficients are technologically important for applications in thermal management and engineering. To date, this class of materials can only be produced by chemical routes, either by changing chemical compositions or by composting materials with positive and negative thermal expansion. Here, we report for the first time a physical route to achieve near zero thermal expansion through application of pressure. In the stability field of tetragonal PbTiO3 we observed pressure-induced reversals between thermal contraction and expansion between ambient pressure and 0.9 GPa. This hybrid behavior leads to a mathematically infinite number of crossover points in the pressure-volume-temperature space and near-zero thermal expansion coefficients comparable to or even smaller than those attained by chemical routes. The observed pressures for this unusual phenomenon are within a small range of 0.1-0.9 GPa, potentially feasible for designing stress-engineered materials, such as thin films and nano-crystals, for thermal management applications.

  13. Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C; Jin, Changqing; Frantti, Johannes; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Materials with zero/near zero thermal expansion coefficients are technologically important for applications in thermal management and engineering. To date, this class of materials can only be produced by chemical routes, either by changing chemical compositions or by composting materials with positive and negative thermal expansion. Here, we report for the first time a physical route to achieve near zero thermal expansion through application of pressure. In the stability field of tetragonal PbTiO3 we observed pressure-induced reversals between thermal contraction and expansion between ambient pressure and 0.9 GPa. This hybrid behavior leads to a mathematically infinite number of crossover points in the pressure-volume-temperature space and near-zero thermal expansion coefficients comparable to or even smaller than those attained by chemical routes. The observed pressures for this unusual phenomenon are within a small range of 0.1-0.9 GPa, potentially feasible for designing stress-engineered materials, such as thin films and nano-crystals, for thermal management applications. PMID:24424396

  14. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  15. Thermal contraction of aqueous glycerol and ethylene glycol solutions for optimized protein-crystal cryoprotection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Julius, Ethan F; Tyree, Timothy J; Moreau, David W; Atakisi, Hakan; Thorne, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    The thermal contraction of aqueous cryoprotectant solutions on cooling to cryogenic temperatures is of practical importance in protein cryocrystallography and in biological cryopreservation. In the former case, differential contraction on cooling of protein molecules and their lattice relative to that of the internal and surrounding solvent may lead to crystal damage and the degradation of crystal diffraction properties. Here, the amorphous phase densities of aqueous solutions of glycerol and ethylene glycol at T = 77 K have been determined. Densities with accuracies of <0.5% to concentrations as low as 30%(w/v) were determined by rapidly cooling drops with volumes as small as 70 pl, assessing their optical clarity and measuring their buoyancy in liquid nitrogen-argon solutions. The use of these densities in contraction matching of internal solvent to the available solvent spaces is complicated by several factors, most notably the exclusion of cryoprotectants from protein hydration shells and the expected deviation of the contraction behavior of hydration water from bulk water. The present methods and results will assist in developing rational approaches to cryoprotection and an understanding of solvent behavior in protein crystals. PMID:27303794

  16. The competition between thermal contraction and differentiation in the stress history of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.

    1989-01-01

    The scarcity of both extension and compression features on the Moon strongly constrains the history of the lunar radius9d\\to variations of thermal contraction of the near-surface and expansion of a substantial cold interior region. Recent theories of lunar origin (eg, giant impact), in contrast, favor a "hot' initial state. We propose that a reconciliation may be possible by taking account of the volume change ??V/V|d due to differentiation. -from Authors

  17. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Thermal Contraction Analysis for the D0 Solenoid Chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-09-30

    This engineering note documents the thermal contraction analysis that was done for the D-Zero solenoid chimney. The analysis was done as support of the 'Design Report of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab DO Detector upgrade.' The cryogenic LHE and LN2 lines were analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight. The tubing was stress analyzed per ASME code for Pressure Piping, standard ANSI AS:ME B31.3, for eight combinations ofthermal loading. A commercial pipe stress analysis and design system by Algor{reg_sign} was used for the analysis. Stresses calculated were well below allowables. Based on the analysis, the cryogenic lines will be installed at an offset from the vacuum jacket centerline so that during steady state cold operation, the cryogenic lines will be in a proper location.

  18. Buckling Behavior of Long Anisotropic Plates Subjected to Elastically Restrained Thermal Expansion and Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing buckling results for thin balanced and unbalanced symmetric laminates that are subjected to uniform heating or cooling and elastically restrained against thermal expansion or contraction is presented. This approach uses a nondimensional analysis for infinitely long, flexural anisotropic plates that are subjected to combined mechanical loads. In addition, stiffness-weighted laminate thermal-expansion parameters and compliance coefficients are derived that are used to determine critical temperatures in terms of physically intuitive mechanical-buckling coefficients. Many results are presented for some common laminates that are intended to facilitate a structural designer s transition to the use of the generic buckling design curves. Several curves that illustrate the fundamental parameters used in the analysis are presented, for nine contemporary material systems, that provide physical insight into the buckling response in addition to providing useful design data. Examples are presented that demonstrate the use of the generic design curves.

  19. Influence of framework design, contraction mismatch, and thermal history on porcelain checking in fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Gray, A E

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relative influence of contraction mismatch, framework design, furnace type, cooling rate, and multiple firings on immediate or delayed checking in fixed partial dentures. Frameworks for 60 anterior bridges (three-unit fixed partial dentures) were cast from a low-expansion Au-Pd alloy (O) and a high-expansion Pd-Ag alloy (J). A high-expansion porcelain (B) was applied to each of three framework designs. Firing was performed at heating rates of 56 degrees C/min and 180 degrees C/min. Specimens were cooled at two rates after each of five glazing cycles. For O-B specimens which exhibited a negative thermal contraction mismatch between 600 degrees C and 25 degrees C, 60% of the bridge specimens failed when they were subjected to slow cooling preceded by either fast or slow heating. When J-B specimens (which exhibited a smaller negative contraction mismatch) were heated and cooled rapidly, no failures occurred through all of the firing cycles. However, cracks were observed in 13.3% of the J-B bridges which were slowly heated and rapidly cooled. Delayed cracks (after the fifth glaze cycle) developed over periods of up to two years only in bridges which were slowly cooled in the furnace chamber. The results of this study suggest that checking in conventional feldspathic porcelains can be promoted by slow cooling rates and an excessive number of firing cycles. PMID:2691298

  20. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  1. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization.

    PubMed

    Salim, Michael A; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-28

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  2. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  3. Effects of exchangeable cation composition on the thermal expansion/contraction of clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1984-12-31

    To understand and predict the effects of a thermal pulse induced by a radioactive waste repository on clinoptilolite-bearing rocks, the lattice parameters of 6 natural and 3 cation-exchanged (Ca, K, Na) clinoptilolites were studied as a function of temperature. The samples were examined at room temperature, under vacuum, and at 50{sup 0}C increments to 300{sup 0}C using a high-temperature x-ray powder diffractometer. The unit cell of all samples decreased in volume between 20 and 300{sup 0}C; Na-saturated clinoptilolite underwent the greatest volume decrease (8.4%) and K-saturated clinoptilolite the smallest (1.6%), of the clinoptilolites studied. The volume decrease for the Ca-saturated clinoptilolite was 3.6%. The highest percentage decrease for each sample was along the b axis, generally 80 to 90% of the total volume decrease. The change in the a axis was the smallest and was usually <5%, although 26.5% of the contraction of the Na-exchanged clinoptilolite was along a. The bulk of the volume contraction of many samples occurred on evacuation at room temperature, demonstrating that the observed changes were due to water loss and not to temperature-induced structural changes. Low-angle scattering was significantly reduced upon evacuation for every sample, and the 110 reflection of clinoptilolite at 7.35{sup 0}2 {theta} became obvious, whereas it was not in the untreated samples. These data show that the effects of heating on the unit-cell volume of clinoptilolite depend strongly on the exchangeable cation content. Significant reductions in the unit-cell volumes of natural, mixed Na-K-Ca clinoptilolites could take place in rocks in a repository environment, particularly if the clinoptilolites occurred in unsaturated, dehydrated rock. The unit-cell volumes of clinoptilolites in partially saturated rocks at temperatures below 100{sup 0}C, however, should not decrease significantly.

  4. Thermal contraction crack polygons on Mars: A synthesis from HiRISE, Phoenix, and terrestrial analog studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Marchant, David R.; Head, James W.

    2010-03-01

    Thermal contraction crack polygons are complex landforms that have begun to be deciphered on Earth and Mars by the combined investigative efforts of geomorphology, environmental monitoring, physical models, paleoclimate reconstruction, and geochemistry. Thermal contraction crack polygons are excellent indicators of the current or past presence of ground ice, ranging in ice content from weakly cemented soils to debris-covered massive ice. Relative to larger topographic features, polygons may form rapidly, and reflect climate conditions at the time of formation—preserving climate information as relict landforms in the geological record. Polygon morphology and internal textural characteristics can be used to distinguish surfaces modified by the seasonal presence of a wet active layer or dry active layer, and to delimit subsurface ice conditions. Analysis of martian polygon morphology and distribution indicates that geologically-recent thermal contraction crack polygons on Mars form predominantly in an ice-rich latitude-dependent mantle, more likely composed of massive ice deposited by precipitation than by cyclical vapor diffusion into regolith. Regional and local heterogeneities in polygon morphology can be used to distinguish variations in ice content, deposition and modification history, and to assess microclimate variation on timescales of ka to Ma. Analyses of martian polygon morphology, guided by investigations of terrestrial analog thermal contraction crack polygons, strongly suggest the importance of excess ice in the formation and development of many martian thermal contraction crack polygons—implying the presence of an ice-rich substrate that was fractured during and subsequent to obliquity-driven depositional periods and continually modified by ongoing vapor equilibration processes.

  5. Systematic High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Investigation of Martian South Polar Landforms: Thermal Contraction Polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hao, Jingyan

    2015-04-01

    The Martian poles are geomorphologically highly diverse as orbital high-resolution imaging data have shown since the early 2000s [1]. Apart from an initially unexpected diversity and an abundance of different and exotic landform types, image and topography data presented evidence for seasonal changes, not only with respect to the seasonal extent of the polar-caps but also with respect to individual landforms that have later been addressed as cryptic material [2]. Most of these features are - though not exclusively - located within the seasonal CO2 cap and their changes imply not only seasonal but also potentially long-term climatic changes [3]. Today, plausible formation processes for some of these landforms have been proposed [7-9; 11-13] and modelled but despite a wealth of new data, systematic surveys are relatively rare [10]. For more than 13,500 images taken by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC-NA) over the south-polar area (75'90°S) systematic mapping and classification of thermal contraction polygons have been conducted in previous work by the author and others [4-5], but seasonal changes were identified for few locations only due to limitations of image coverage. Reconstruction of thermal-contraction crack development suggests a complex interplay between seasonal H2O and CO2 ices [6] but image coverage was too sparse at that time to build a representative distribution model and to confirm formation models. Due to the small size of thermal contraction polygons (few tens of meters in diameter), data obtained by MEx/HRSC and MO/THEMIS could only marginally help to identify features and feature distributions. With the arrival of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Context Camera (CTX) provided new detailed insight into the seasonal behaviour of the south polar area of Mars and its landforms at geometric resolutions comparable to those of MOC. Four Martian years have been covered by now which allows us to reconstruct formation and analyse distribution of featured

  6. On the effect of thermal agents in the response of the brachial biceps at different contraction levels.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Larissa Martins; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa; Simieli, Camila; Boratino, Alessandra Vairo Peres; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess electromyographic features of the brachial biceps muscle after the application of cryotherapy and short-wave diathermy. Sixty healthy volunteers participated in the study and were equally divided into three groups: cryotherapy - application of ice packs for 30 min; short-wave diathermy for 20 min; and control. The thermal agents were applied to the anterior and posterior regions of the non-dominant arm. The electromyographic (EMG) signal from the brachial biceps was recorded before and after the application of thermal agents during flexion of the elbow joint at 25%, 50%, 75% of a maximum voluntary isometric contraction defined at least two days before the actual experiments (MVICbl). The volunteers also were asked to execute a free MVIC before and after the application of the thermal agents (MVIC free). A linear regression model with mixed effects (random and fixed) was used. Intra-group analysis showed a reduction in root mean square (RMS) at MVIC free, with no change in the median frequency of the EMG signal at any contraction level for the short-wave diathermy group. An increase on RMS values and a decrease on median frequencies were found after the application of cryotherapy for all contraction levels. The results imply that cryotherapy plays an important role on changing neuromuscular responses at various levels of muscle contraction. Therapists should be aware of that and carefully consider its use prior to activities in which neuromuscular precision is required. PMID:25148950

  7. 41 CFR 60-50.3 - Accommodations to religious observance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Accommodations to religious observance and practice. 60-50.3 Section 60-50.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...-50.3 Accommodations to religious observance and practice. An employer must accommodate to...

  8. Anomalous thermal contraction of the first coordination shell in metallic alloy liquids.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, A K; Blodgett, M E; Johnson, M L; McKnight, J; Wessels, V; Vogt, A J; Mauro, N A; Bendert, J C; Soklaski, R; Yang, L; Kelton, K F

    2014-01-28

    Except for a few anomalous solids and liquids, materials expand upon heating. For liquids, this should be reflected as a shift in the peak positions in the pair correlation function, g(r), to higher r. Here, we present the results of a detailed study of the volume thermal expansion coefficients and the temperature dependences of g(r) for a large number of binary, ternary, and quaternary liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled (metastable liquid below the liquidus temperature) states. The data were obtained from x-ray scattering and volume measurements on levitated liquids using the electrostatic levitation technique. Although the volumes of all liquids expand with increasing temperature, the peak positions in g(r) for the first coordination shells contract for the majority of alloy liquids studied. The second and third peaks in g(r) expand, but at rates different from those expected from the volume expansion. This behavior is explained qualitatively in terms of changes in the coordination numbers and bond-lengths as clusters in liquids break up with increasing temperature. PMID:25669553

  9. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  10. Plane Poiseuille flow and thermal transpiration of a highly rarefied gas between the two walls of Maxwell-type boundaries with different accommodation coefficients: effect of a weak external force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Toshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    Plane Poiseuille flow and the thermal transpiration of a highly rarefied gas between the two walls of Maxwell-type boundaries with different accommodation coefficients are studied based on kinetic theory when the gas is subject to a weak external force perpendicular to the walls. The flow behavior is studied numerically based on the spatially one-dimensional Boltzmann equation for a hard-sphere gas derived by the asymptotic analysis for a slow variation in the longitudinal direction. Due to the effect of a weak external force, there is an appreciable difference in the mass-flow rate between the flows in which the two walls are interchanged when the mean free path is sufficiently large. If both of the accommodation coefficients are close to unity, the mass-flow rate is reduced due to the effect of the external force. In contrast, if the accommodation coefficient of one wall is considerably smaller than unity, the mass-flow rate of the gas can be enhanced when this wall is placed on the side to which the external force points.

  11. WP-2 attached payload accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheib, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of the current SSFP attached payload accommodations on the U.S. truss. The overview includes discussions on the four attach sites, the power architecture, thermal control, DMS provisions, and the mechanical attach mechanism. The presentation concludes with a description of a McDonnell Douglas concept for an attached payload pallet designed to take advantage of the four sites and existing SSF hardware. This presentation should provide the payload community with a basic understanding of the SSF attached payload utility ports and aid in attached payload concept development.

  12. Thermal Contraction Crack Polygon Classification and Distribution: Morphological Variations in Northern Hemisphere Patterned Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Head, J.; Marchant, D.

    2008-09-01

    Polygonally patterned ground has been identified on Mars since the Viking era [1], and has long been interpreted as a signal of the presence of subsurface ice deposits [2-4]. The origin of ice in the shallow martian subsurface, whether by cyclical vapour diffusion or primary deposition, remains an area of active inquiry [5- 9]. Recent modelling suggests that high-latitude terrains on Mars may support buried ice sheets and glaciers, produced by direct atmospheric deposition within the past 5 My [5], overlain by a sublimation lag deposit ranging in thickness from 10s to 100s of cm [8]. These results are consistent with coarse-resolution (100s of km per pixel) neutron-spectrometer results correlating highlatitude patterned ground with subsurface water [4, 10, 11], as well as a suite of geomorphological observations linking young terrains to recently deposited, ice-rich units [5-7]. Polygon classification in terrestrial polar environments is based on morphology, structure, and origin processes. On Earth, thermal contraction crack polygons can be divided into three types: ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation polygons; each of which forms under a unique set of climate and substrate-composition conditions [12-14]. Although the thermal contraction cracking process under martian conditions is well understood [15], classification systems for polygonally patterned ground on Mars have until now relied primarily on imaging data at resolutions comparable to the scale of the polygons of interest [3]. We build on the identification of sublimation polygons in the NASA Phoenix landing area [16], and preliminary classification of polygons into morphological species (groups distinguishable by characteristic surface morphologies) [17] across the northern hemisphere of Mars. We present an integrated assessment of martian polygon morphological variation as a function of latitude, and suggest links between polygon morphology, origin timing, and global climate conditions. This analysis

  13. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  14. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  15. Student Perspectives on Academic Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diana; Scanlon, David

    2016-01-01

    The active involvement of secondary school students with high-incidence disabilities (HI) in instructional accommodations is essential to both enacting the accommodations and to the accommodations effectiveness. Very little is known about students with HI's knowledge about instructional accommodations, experiences with them, or opinions on…

  16. 41 CFR 101-8.306 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 101-8.306 Section 101-8.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS...

  17. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Thermal Contraction Analysis of the Solenoid and VLPC Cryogenic Transfer Lines for the D0 Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, Todd M.; /Fermilab

    1995-06-06

    The stresses developed in the solenoid and VLPC transfer lines have been investigated with the PipePlus v4.5 software package from Algor. 4 cases were considered for each transfer line and the following results were obtained. Pipe deflections have also been kept to a minimum by carefully considering the location of spider guides. Their placement should be as close as possible to the locations shown in Figures 4-7. With regard to chosen pipe sizes, the 2.5-inch OD Cu radiation shield in the solenoid transfer line should be replaced with a 3.5-inch OD tube. The vacuum jackets should also be replaced with 5-inch or larger pipe. These changes should safely accommodate the maximum displacements caused by thermal loading. This engineering note investigates the ability of the solenoid and VLPC cryogenic transfer lines to accommodate thermal stresses. The solenoid and VLPC transfer lines are similar in their construction in that they consist of an outer vacuum jacket, liquid nitrogen supply and return lines, a copper thermal radiation shield, and liquid helium supply and return lines. See Figure 1 for details on their specific construction. Line drawings for the solenoid and VLPC transfer lines are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The transfer line system, as a whole, does not lend itself to simple analysis such as the 'Simplified Method for Flexibility Analysis' or the chart method. These methods demand that the piping system be rigidly anchored at two ends with no intermediate branches. Therefore, a major part of the analysis was performed on the PipePlus v4.5 software package by Algor. Considerations have been given to dead weight, pressure, and thermal loads, boundary conditions such as end displacements, and restraints caused by intermediate supports. The Appendices contain selected information from the PipePlus analysis. Only the pipe geometry, boundary conditions, loading, node displacements and stresses have been reported. The electronic version of the Pipe

  18. Fixation by active accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavan, Kourosh; Uhlin, Tomas; Eklundh, Jan-Olof

    1992-11-01

    The field of computer vision has long been interested in disparity as the cue for the correspondence between stereo images. The other cue to correspondence, blur, and the fact that vergence is a combination of the two processes, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence, have not been equally appreciated. Following the methodology of active vision that allows the observer to control all his visual parameters, it is quite natural to take advantage of the powerful combination of these two processes. In this article, we try to elucidate such an integration and briefly analyze the cooperation and competition between accommodative vergence and disparity vergence on one hand and disparity and blur stimuli on the other hand. The human fixation mechanism is used as a guide-line and some virtues of this mechanism are used to implement a model for vergence in isolation. Finally, some experimental results are reported.

  19. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  20. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  2. Accommodation and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Gianello, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Accommodation refers to the condition in which an organ transplant functions normally by acquiring resistance to immune-mediated injury (especially), despite the presence of anti-transplant antibodies in the recipient. This status is associated with several modifications in the recipient as well as in the graft, such as previous depletion of anti-graft antibodies and their slow return once the graft is placed; expression of several protective genes in the graft; a Th2 immune response in the recipient; and inhibition of the membrane attack complex of complement. PMID:18973811

  3. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  4. Accommodation of COTS LCDs in military displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James B.; Henz, James M.; Dodd, Sonia R.

    1998-09-01

    Commercial off the shelf (COTS) liquid crystal displays are attractive as an alternative to LCDs that are custom designed and manufactured for the military environment. Commercial displays require significant modification to accommodate their use. This paper describes specific modifications that create a thermal cocoon around a nominal 3.6 X 4.6-inch commercial industrial/automotive display. The thermal design techniques allow the display to function in the particularly challenging F-16 thermal environment without exceeding the display's operating specification. The work is extended to examine what additional design extensions are required for still larger displays.

  5. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  6. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  7. Optimization of ITER Nb3Sn CICCs for coupling loss, transverse electromagnetic load and axial thermal contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhuis, A.; van Lanen, E. P. A.; Rolando, G.

    2012-01-01

    The ITER cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) are built up from sub-cable bundles, wound in different stages, which are twisted to counter coupling loss caused by time-changing external magnet fields. The selection of the twist pitch lengths has major implications for the performance of the cable in the case of strain-sensitive superconductors, i.e. Nb3Sn, as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. At present, this is a great challenge for the ITER central solenoid (CS) CICCs and the solution presented here could be a breakthrough for not only the ITER CS but also for CICC applications in general. After proposing longer twist pitches in 2006 and successful confirmation by short sample tests later on, the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor cable pattern was improved accordingly. As the restrictions for coupling loss are more demanding for the CS conductors than for the TF conductors, it was believed that longer pitches would not be applicable for the conductors in the CS coils. In this paper we explain how, with the use of the TEMLOP model and the newly developed models JackPot-ACDC and CORD, the design of a CICC can be improved appreciably, particularly for the CS conductor layout. For the first time a large improvement is predicted not only providing very low sensitivity to electromagnetic load and thermal axial cable stress variations but at the same time much lower AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up-cool-down degradation can be reached by applying longer twist pitches in a particular sequence for the sub-stages, offering a large cable transverse stiffness, adequate axial flexibility and maximum allowed lateral strand support. Analysis of short sample (TF conductor) data reveals that increasing the twist pitch can lead to a gain of the effective axial compressive strain of more than 0.3% with practically no degradation from bending. This is probably explained by

  8. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  9. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  10. Strain studies on superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn tape using differential thermal contraction and other methods

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.; Grey, D.; Mantone, A.

    1997-06-01

    Nb{sub 3}Sn tape, manufactured by the General Electric Company for cryocooled, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets, was examined to determine the influence of strain on critical current, I{sub c}, over a wide range of magnetic fields and temperatures. Copper stabilized Nb{sub 3}Sn tapes were strained by differential thermal contraction by waxing or epoxying the samples to 4.7 cm diameter short sample test bobbins made of brass, stainless steel, Inconel, nickel, niobium and molybdenum. These samples were measured for I{sub c} in transverse fields ranging from 0 to 7 Tesla (T) and over a temperature range of 4.2 to 16 Kelvin (K). Additionally, Nb{sub 3}Sn tape, subjected to bend, twist and pressure stresses, was measured for I{sub c} degradation to determine handling limits during manufacture and insulation of the tape, as well as magnet winding. Finally, unstabilized, reacted Nb{sub 3}Sn foil subjected to various tensile loads was tested for I{sub c} degradation. Surface metallography was used to relate cracking of the Nb{sub 3}Sn layer to I{sub c} degradation.

  11. Thermal behavior of natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    Thermal behavior of natural zeolites impacts their application and identification and varies significantly from zeolite to zeolite. Zeolites evolve H{sub 2}0 upon heating, but recent data show that distinct ``types`` of water (e.g., loosely bound or tightly bound zeolitic water) do not exist. Rather water is bound primarily to extra-framework cations with a continuum of energies, giving rise to pseudocontinuous loss of water accompanied by a dynamic interaction between remaining H{sub 2}0 molecules and extra-framework cations. These interactions in the channels of zeolites give rise to dehydration dependent on the extra-framework cation, in addition to temperature and water vapor pressure. The dehydration reaction and the extra-framework cation also affect the thermal expansion/contraction. Most zeolites undergo dehydration-induced contractions that may be anisotropic, although minor thermal expansion can be seen with some zeolites. Such contractions can be partially or completely irreversible if they involve modifications of the tetrahedral framework and/or if rehydration is sluggish. Thermally induced structural modifications are also driven initially by dehydration and the concomitant contraction and migration of extra-framework cations. Contraction is accommodated by rotations of structural units and tetrahedral cation-oxygen linkages may break. Thermal reactions that involve breaking of tetrahedral cation-oxygen bonds markedly irreversible and may be kinetically limited, producing large differences between short- and long-term heating.

  12. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  13. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are available? Accommodations on ships vary according to deck levels. (a) Other than lowest...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of train...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Train § 301-10.160 What classes of train accommodations are... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What classes of train...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Train § 301-10.160 What classes of train accommodations are... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What classes of train...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Train § 301-10.160 What classes of train accommodations are... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What classes of train...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Train § 301-10.160 What classes of train accommodations are... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What classes of train...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Train § 301-10.160 What classes of train accommodations are... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.183 - What class of ship accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What class of ship... Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.183 What class of ship accommodations must I use? You must use the lowest first-class accommodations when traveling by ship, except when your agency...

  3. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori

    2002-10-01

    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  4. Teaching Contracts with Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misner, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The teaching of contracts law is an area that lends itself easily to introducing students to realistic factual situations. An exercise is described in which students were assigned to separate "firms" with volunteers from the later law school classes as clients. Each firm was responsible for submitting a signed contract and an accompanying paper.…

  5. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  6. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  7. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  8. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  9. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  10. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  11. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye's accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45-50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  12. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  13. Post-emplacement cooling and contraction of lava flows: InSAR observations and thermal model for lava fields at Hekla volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Werner; Dumont, Stephanie; Lavallee, Yan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2016-04-01

    Gradual post-emplacement subsidence of lava flows has been observed at various volcanoes, e.g. Okmok volcano in Alaska, Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and Etna volcano on Sicily. In Iceland, this effect has been observed at Krafla volcano and Hekla volcano. The latter was chosen as a case study for investigating subsidence mechanisms, specifically thermal contraction. Effects like gravitational loading, clast repacking or creeping of a hot and liquid core can contribute to subsidence of emplaced lava flows, but thermal contraction is considered being a crucial effect. The extent to which it contributes to lava flow subsidence is investigated by mapping the relative movement of emplaced lava flows and flow substrate, and modeling the observed signal. The slow vegetation in Iceland is advantageous for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and offers great coherence over long periods after lava emplacement, expanding beyond the outlines of lava flows. Due to this reason, InSAR observations over volcanoes in Iceland have taken place for more than 20 years. By combining InSAR tracks from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites we gain six time series with a total of 99 interferograms. Making use of the high spatial resolution, a temporal trend of vertical lava movements was investigated over a course of over 23 years over the 1991 lava flow of Hekla volcano, Iceland. From these time series, temporal trends of accumulated subsidence and subsidence velocities were determined in line of sight of the satellites. However, the deformation signal of lava fields after emplacement is vertically dominated. Subsidence on this lava field is still ongoing and subsidence rates vary from 14.8 mm/year in 1995 to about 1.0 mm/year in 2014. Fitting a simple exponential function suggests a exponential decay constant of 5.95 years. Additionally, a one-dimensional, semi-analytical model was fitted to these data. While subsidence due to phase change is calculated analytically

  14. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  15. Frequency-Accommodating Manchester Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Mario J.

    1988-01-01

    No adjustment necessary to cover a 10:1 frequency range. Decoding circuit converts biphase-level pulse-code modulation to nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-level pulse-code modulation plus clock signal. Circuit accommodates input data rate of 50 to 500 kb/s. Tracks gradual changes in rate automatically, eliminating need for extra circuits and manual switching to adjust to different rates.

  16. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/Optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 msec before training and 100 msec after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. PMID:22480879

  17. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type... operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical assistance center that facilitates...

  18. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... applicant if the basis for denial is the need to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or...

  19. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  20. Premature Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Apr 6,2016 Premature contraction = early beat ... chambers of the heart (atria). Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) start in the lower chambers of the heart ( ...

  1. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  2. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  3. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  4. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  5. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  6. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  7. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  8. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.810 Section 177.810... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.810 Overnight accommodations. (a) A.... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and...

  9. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  10. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  11. Manual for the thermal and hdyraulic design of direct contract spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, H. R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for use in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included.

  12. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonnière, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities. PMID:9357652

  13. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  14. 48 CFR 52.236-8 - Other Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may undertake or award other contracts for additional work at or near the site of the work under this contract. The Contractor shall fully cooperate with the other contractors and with Government employees and shall carefully adapt scheduling and performing the work under this contract to accommodate...

  15. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  16. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  17. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2013-11-15

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  18. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-01-01

    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina. PMID:26842859

  19. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  20. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  1. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 15b.13 Section 15b.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.13 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make...

  3. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  4. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  5. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  6. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  7. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  8. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  9. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  10. Validity of Accommodation for English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    The focus of this study was on the validity and feasibility of test accommodation strategies on a small-scale level. Both limited English proficiency (LEP) students and non-LEP students were tested under accommodated and nonaccommodated conditions and their performance was compared. The study was conducted in two public school districts and at…

  11. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  12. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or near... which provides an adequate flow of water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be...

  13. Test Accommodations for LEP Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Rivera, Charlene

    This digest presents an overview of accommodations for students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and an overview of inclusion practices on statewide assessments, with emphasis on the accommodation known as linguistic simplification. The inclusion of LEP students in statewide testing programs over the last decade has been uneven. In the…

  14. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  15. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  16. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  17. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  18. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  19. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  20. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are... classes above the lowest first-class, includes but is not limited to a suite. (b) Lowest...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.182 - What classes of ship accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of ship...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Ship § 301-10.182 What classes of ship accommodations are... classes above the lowest first-class, includes but is not limited to a suite. (b) Lowest...

  3. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. PMID:24954685

  4. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  5. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  6. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  7. Flood volcanism on a contracting planet: Insights from Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic and volcanic processes on one-plate planets are closely tied to the thermal evolution of their interiors. Thermal history models for both the Moon and Mercury predict that after an initial heating phase, the interiors of these bodies began to cool. Such an evolution may have been accompanied by an initial period of planetary expansion, but much of the thermal history was marked by sustained global contraction. A global state of expansion generates a stress state characterized by horizontal extension within the brittle portion of the lithosphere, allowing for upward propagation of magma-filled dikes and widespread volcanic flooding. Global contraction, in contrast, imposes a horizontally compressive stress state on the lithosphere, under which magma ascent through vertical conduits is suppressed and widespread thrust faulting is favored. Both the Moon and Mercury host populations of thrust-fault-related landforms that are interpreted to have accommodated shortening induced by global contraction, but each body also shows evidence for widespread flood volcanism. On the Moon, gravitational signatures suggestive of ancient, buried dikes; large expanses of lunar mare deposits of volcanic origin; and a widely distributed population of extensional graben generally predate the formation of thrust-fault-related landforms that accommodated surface strains due to global contraction. For Mercury, geological evidence suggests that the great number of large thrust faults that accommodated the planet's decrease in planetary radius (~5-7 km) began to form prior to the cessation of the last major episode of volcanic flooding. Such a temporal overlap of flood volcanism and large-scale thrust faulting poses a challenge. Magmatism in a lithosphere dominated by global contraction should be limited to sill intrusions near the depth of the brittle-ductile transition, so widespread volcanism should be precluded. Localized volcanic flooding might nonetheless be triggered by large

  8. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  9. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  10. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  11. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  12. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  13. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  14. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  15. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  16. Managing Contraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    The major thesis of this paper on declining resources and enrollment is that the management of decline, or, as the author calls it, "contraction," is not simply an economic and technical problem; it is basically a conceptual and political one. The author first considers the effects of contraction on schools, buildings, and courses, touching on the…

  17. Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tom

    The management team at Minooka (Illinois) School District 201 is actively pursuing school improvement measures by establishing Performance Contracts to increase productivity. The format of the Performance Contract highlights yearly short-term and long-term goals, which are presented in the form of Job Improvement Targets stating the goal itself, a…

  18. Student Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Hal

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the nature of student-teacher contracts pertaining to academic work to be performed by the student and evaluated by the teacher covers a wide range of related issues in this article. The nature of contracts, evaluation procedures, instructional materials, community attitudes, and the individualization of instruction are commented on…

  19. Contracts. Warranties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Gayle

    1988-01-01

    Presents two lesson plans for grades 5-9 which are meant to increase student's legal literacy. The first lesson covers contracts and includes a comic strip which illustrates contract law. The second deals with warranties and why they are important. Included are examples of product warranties. (GEA)

  20. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  1. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. PMID:21157661

  2. Intraocular electro-optic lens with ciliary muscle controlled accommodation.

    PubMed

    Doornaert, Dries; Glorieux, Christ; De Gersem, Herbert; Puers, Robert; Spileers, Werner; Blanckaert, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a concept is proposed of an intraocular lens implant with electro-optic accommodation of a variable-focus hybrid liquid-crystal-based lens. The dioptric strength of the lens is electronically controlled by a signal that is derived from the change of inductance of a sensing coil due to a marker implanted in the nearby contracting or decontracting ciliary muscle. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are reported on the dependency of the frequency of a Colpitts oscillator circuit on the location of a nearby conductive marker. A concept is also reported on the use as an electro-optic lens of a device based on a liquid crystal in planar alignment, which is held between a flat and a curved window coated with optically transparent and electrically conductive layers. PMID:24110406

  3. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  4. [The deterioration of refractive accommodative esotropia].

    PubMed

    Yan, J; Yang, S; Wang, Y

    1995-09-01

    137 patients with refractive accommodative esotropia who were followed for at least 5 years were investigated. The results showed that in 23 of the 137 patients (16.8%) occurred the deterioration of esotropia that means esotropia can no longer be controlled by wearing a pair of complete corrective spectacles. The deterioration develops most likely in patients with delay of anti-accommodative therapy or with malfunction of binocular vision. The age of onset, refractive status and the visual acuity difference between bilateral eyes are not etiologic factors in the process of deterioration. We consider that early diagnosis of accommodative esotropia, timely prescription of optical correction and maintenance of normal binocular vision play important roles in preventing the deterioration. PMID:8706583

  5. Viking B complex gets new accommodations platform

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that a new accommodation platform in the Viking gas field, operated by Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. in the southern North SEa, was commissioned January 10. The new facility is equipped with the first freefall lifeboats to enter service in the U.K. offshore oil and gas industry, the Conoco. The platform is linked to the other three Viking B platforms by a 65 m bridge. The other platforms are where drilling, production, and compression activities occur. As well as accommodating up to 56 people on the new platform, it also contains a monitoring and control station, plant and switchgear rooms, fire pumps, and a loading bay. The project cost {Brit pounds}18 million and required 14 months from design to commissioning. It included building and installing a new jacket and deck and moving existing accommodation module and helideck from their previous location on the Viking BD to the new BA.

  6. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  7. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  8. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  9. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 18.412 Section 18.412 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  10. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  11. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  12. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 4.123 Section 4.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8b.12 Section 8b.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Employment Practices § 8b.12 Reasonable...

  14. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  15. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  16. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 42.511 Section 42.511 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  18. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  19. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  20. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  1. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  2. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  3. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  4. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  5. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  6. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  7. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  8. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  9. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  10. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  11. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  12. Testing Accommodations and Inclusive Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebling, Bradley C.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2005-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale assessments, typically by using testing accommodations, for statewide accountability systems became a legal reality with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, and the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. These legal mandates and best…

  13. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  14. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  16. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  17. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  20. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  1. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  2. Mentoring for Success: Accommodation Strategies for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jill; Abbott, Marilyn; Rossiter, Marian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a seven-week action research mentoring project would help two junior high school science teachers to feel more confident and successful in their abilities to use accommodation strategies to support the English language learners (ELLs) in their classes, and consequently to increase their ability to assess more…

  3. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  4. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  5. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  6. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  7. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  8. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  9. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  10. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  11. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  12. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  13. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  14. Identifying Appropriate Test Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Capizzi, Andrea M.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of identification of appropriate testing accommodations for students with learning disabilities (LD). First it defines the concept of testing accommodations and review research on test accommodations commonly used with students with LD. Next it examines the validity and fairness in accommodations, as well as the…

  15. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  16. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  17. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  18. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  19. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  20. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  3. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  4. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  5. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  6. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  7. Effect of accommodation training by stereoscopic movie presentation on myopic youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, A.; Takada, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyao, M.

    2010-02-01

    The abnormal contraction of ciliary muscles due to the performance of a near visual task for several hours causes various vision problems such as asthenopia and visual loss. However, these problems can be resolved by activating the muscles by alternately repeating negative and positive accommodation. In this study, we have verified the effect of accommodation training that uses the strategy of presenting a stereoscopic movie to myopic youth and measuring the uncorrected distant visual acuity, spherical diopter (SPH), and subjective index of asthenopia obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS). Stereoscopic movies are prepared by using the POWER 3D method (Olympus Visual Communications Co., Ltd.), which reduces the inconsistency between the experienced and the actual senses. Thirty two myopic students aged 20 +/- 1 years (16 males and 16 females) were chosen as the subjects. One group performed the accommodation training for 6 min, and the other group underwent a near visual task during the same period as the control group. We concluded the following from each item of verification: (a) The accommodation training using a stereoscopic movie had temporarily improved visual acuity. (b) This training led to a decrease in asthenopia. (c) The training improved the near-point accommodation function.

  8. Shrinking of the Cocos and Nazca Plates due to Horizontal Thermal Contraction and Implications for Plate Non-rigidity and the Non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca Plate Motion Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Plate rigidity is the central tenet of plate tectonics. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that significant intraplate deformation occurs in oceanic lithosphere due to horizontal thermal contraction, the rate of which decreases as ≈ 1/age [Kumar & Gordon 2009]. Support for this hypothesis comes from the azimuths of submarine transform faults, which are fit significantly better assuming shrinking plates than by assuming rigid plates [Mishra & Gordon 2015]. Previously we estimated the intraplate velocity field of the Pacific plate accounting for horizontal thermal contraction. The ≈2 mm/yr southeastward motion predicted for the northeastern part of the plate relative to the Pacific-Antarctic Rise may contribute to the non-closure of the Pacific-North America plate motion circuit. In a reference frame in which fix the oldest portion of the Pacific plate, some sites on the plate move up to ≈2 mm/yr [Kreemer & Gordon 2014]. Here we present intraplate velocity fields of the Cocos and Nazca plates and discuss their implications for the non-rigidity of plates and the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit, which fails closure by a stunning 14 ±5 mm/yr [DeMets et al. 2010]. If we fix the oldest part of the Cocos plate, intraplate velocities of up to ≈2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring at the northern end of the plate. If we fix the oldest part of the Nazca plate, displacement rates up to 2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring in the northeasternmost portion of the plate. In the velocity fields for both plates, the lithosphere adjacent to transform faults along the East Pacific Rise tends to move to the south, which would skew the azimuths of the transform faults clockwise of the values expected for rigid plates, which is the same as the sense of misfit between observed azimuths of transform faults and the azimuths calculated from the MORVEL global set of relative angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Direct

  9. Excess science accommodation capabilities and excess performance capabilities assessment for Mars Geoscience and Climatology Orbiter: Extended study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K.; Flacco, A.; Kaskiewicz, P.; Lebsock, K.

    1983-01-01

    The excess science accommodation and excess performance capabilities of a candidate spacecraft bus for the Mars Geoscience and Climatology Orbiter MGCO mission are assessed. The appendices are included to support the conclusions obtained during this contract extension. The appendices address the mission analysis, the attitude determination and control, the propulsion subsystem, and the spacecraft configuration.

  10. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  11. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  12. Visual-Accommodation Trainer/Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ophthalmic instrument tests and helps develop focusing ability. Movable stage on a fixed base permits adjustment of effective target position as perceived by subject. Various apertures used to perform tests and training procedures. Ophthalmic instrument provides four functions: it measures visual near and far points; provides focus stimulus in vision research; measures visual-accommodation resting position; can be used to train for volitional control of person's focus response.

  13. Contract sanctity

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Increased competition and the pressure to keep rates low is driving utilities and independent power producers alike to consider more options to keep costs down. While an important strategy for them, the results are creating some conflicts. The April 12, 1995 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decision against New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) attempt to breach contracts with two independent power producers, observers say, is one of the most important decisions on contract disputes between independents and utilities. It reveals the complex issues and compelling arguments on both sides. It opens the question of utilities` ability to pay, and the future direction of independent power. The conflicts create a problem for utilities and independents alike.

  14. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically

  15. Dynamics of muscle function during locomotion: accommodating variable conditions.

    PubMed

    Biewener, A A; Gillis, G B

    1999-12-01

    Much of what we know about animal locomotion is derived from studies examining animals moving within a single, homogeneous environment, at a steady speed and along a flat grade. As a result, the issue of how musculoskeletal function might shift to accommodate variability within the external environment has remained relatively unexplored. One possibility is that locomotor muscles are differentially recruited depending upon the environment in which the animal is moving. A second possibility is that the same muscles are recruited, but that they are activated in a different manner so that their contractile function differs according to environment. Finally, it is also possible that, in some cases, animals may not need to alter their musculoskeletal function to move under different external conditions. In this case, however, the mechanical behavior appropriate for one environmental condition may constrain locomotor performance in another. To begin to explore the means by which animals accommodate variable conditions in their environment, we present three case studies examining how musculoskeletal systems function to allow locomotion under variable conditions: (1) eels undulating through water and across land, (2) turkeys running on level and inclined surfaces, and (3) ducks using their limbs to walk and to paddle. In all three of these examples, the mechanical behavior of some muscle(s) involved in locomotion are altered, although to different degrees and in different ways. In the running turkeys, the mechanical function of a major ankle extensor muscle shifts from contracting isometrically on a flat surface (producing little work and power), to shortening actively during contraction on an uphill gradient (increasing the amount of work and power generated). In the ducks, the major ankle extensor undergoes the same general pattern of activation and shortening in water and on land, except that the absolute levels of muscle stress and strain and work output are greater

  16. Anisotropic thermal expansion of a 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Atsushi Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-15

    A 3D flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) with 1D hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion with relatively large thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub a}=−21×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and α{sub c}=79×10{sup −6} K{sup −1}) between 133 K and 383 K. Temperature change gives deformation of both pores, which expand in diameter and elongate in length on cooling and vice versa. The thermally induced structural change should be derived from a unique framework topology like “lattice fence”. Silica accommodation changes not only the nature of the MOF but also thermal responsiveness of the MOF. Since the hydrophobic pores in the material are selectively blocked by the silica, the MOF with the silica is considered as a hydrophilic microporous material. Furthermore, inclusion of silica resulted in a drastic pore contraction in diameter and anisotropically changed the thermal responsiveness of the MOF. - Graphical abstract: A 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion behavior. The influence of silica filler in the hydrophobic pore was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermally induced structural change of a 3D MOF with a lattice fence topology was investigated. • The structural change was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. • Temperature change induces anisotropic thermal expansion/contraction of the MOF. • Silica inclusion anisotropically changes the thermal responsiveness of the MOF.

  17. Strain accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of strain accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic strain in the presence of a shear strain promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic strain is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.

  18. Student Perceptions of the Accommodation Process in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Noelle; Mellard, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    One cause of the underrepresentation of students with disabilities in postsecondary education may be a lack of appropriate and effective accommodations (e.g., West et al., 1993). This study hypothesized that ineffective and inappropriate accommodations result from an accommodation selection process that focuses on disability type rather than…

  19. Extended Time Testing Accommodations: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Extended time is among the most common testing accommodations given to students with a wide range of disabilities. However, although school psychologists are often involved in accommodation decisions, many are unaware of research from the past decade that has changed their understanding of extended time. Used properly, testing accommodations let…

  20. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  1. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  2. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  3. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  4. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  5. Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny C.; Rivera, Nichole M.; Chang, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Testing accommodations have been widely utilized as a way of increasing the validity of content assessments for English language learner (ELL) students. However, concerns have also arisen regarding the appropriateness of accommodation use, including the accessibility and fairness of accommodations. While many states have…

  6. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1... SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages... compartment suitably separated from other spaces for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have...

  7. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  8. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  9. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  10. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  11. State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations, 2001. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thompson, Sandra; Robey, Jennifer

    This report presents findings of an analysis of state policies on student participation in assessments and accommodations for 2001. Major findings include: (1) participation options beyond the usual three (participation without accommodations, participation with accommodations, alternate assessment) have become more evident and include partial…

  12. Job Accommodation System: Project TIE (Technology in Employment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary; Zimbrich, Karen; Butterworth, John; Hart, Debra

    This manual presents a comprehensive evaluation tool that can be used by employees with disabilities, by rehabilitation practitioners, and by consultants to develop job accommodations in a variety of employment settings. The Job Accommodation System is designed to help in identifying, selecting, and implementing job accommodations and consists of…

  13. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must...

  14. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with...

  15. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  16. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  17. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  18. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages of more than 3 days' duration between...

  19. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  20. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  1. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  2. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  3. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  4. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  6. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  7. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  8. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  9. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  10. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  11. Optimal integral controller with sensor failure accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, T.; Houlihan, T.

    1989-01-01

    An Optimal Integral Controller that readily accommodates Sensor Failure - without resorting to (Kalman) filter or observer generation - has been designed. The system is based on Navy-sponsored research for the control of high performance aircraft. In conjunction with a NASA developed Numerical Optimization Code, the Integral Feedback Controller will provide optimal system response even in the case of incomplete state feedback. Hence, the need for costly replication of plant sensors is avoided since failure accommodation is effected by system software reconfiguration. The control design has been applied to a particularly ill-behaved, third-order system. Dominant-root design in the classical sense produced an almost 100 percent overshoot for the third-order system response. An application of the newly-developed Optimal Integral Controller - assuming all state information available - produces a response with no overshoot. A further application of the controller design - assuming a one-third sensor failure scenario - produced a slight overshoot response that still preserved the steady state time-point of the full-state feedback response. The control design should have wide application in space systems.

  12. Analysis of human crystalline lens accommodation.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chang-Hai M; Huang, Tseng; Schachar, Ronald A

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of the human crystalline lens during accommodation is analytically studied. The lens is modeled as a closed axisymmetrical membrane shell of varying thickness enclosing an incompressible liquid. To simulate zonular tension associated with lenticular accommodation, an axisymmetrical radial force or displacement is imposed around the shell equator. Two second-order, simultaneous, nonlinear governing differential equations are derived. Numerical results, obtained from the investigation of human lens profiles of three independently published MRI images and a drawing of a microphotograph, demonstrate that when zonular traction within the physiological force range of the ciliary muscle is exerted, both central lens thickness and central optical power increase. Qualitatively, these increases are independent of lens shape. However, the magnitude of these changes is dependent on the initial profile of the lens and is enhanced by the "natural" variation in capsular thickness. Only when a pulling force significantly exceeds the force capacity of the ciliary muscle does the lens flatten and its central thickness and optical power decrease. PMID:16023655

  13. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  14. Defect accommodation in nanostructured soft crystals.

    PubMed

    Exner, Alexander; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Fischer, Steffen; Lindner, Peter; Förster, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the structure of lyotropic micellar FCC soft crystals was performed by scanning small-angle neutron scattering. Soft crystals have a large number of structural defects, leading to characteristic features in the scattering patterns such as secondary Bragg peaks, diffuse scattering lines, and paracrystalline distortions. We find that the presence of a large number of defects locally breaks the three-dimensional symmetry of the crystal, leading to weakly correlated assemblies of stacked {111} layers. Positional correlations of micelles in different layers are very short ranged, with correlation lengths corresponding to only a few layers. Within the layers, in-plane positional correlations are somewhat longer ranged, but still corresponding to only a few unit cells. Depending on the polydispersity, soft crystals accommodate defects to form mesocrystals of iso-oriented mosaic domains, or paracrystals. The soft layer structures already show characteristic features of two-dimensional systems, exhibiting short-range positional order and longer-ranged orientational order, with similarities to hexatic and recently observed soft quasicrystalline structures. The study shows that defects can be differently accommodated in soft crystals, thereby strongly affecting local and macroscopic positional and orientational order. PMID:24336833

  15. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  16. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  17. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  18. Saccades reduce latency and increase velocity of ocular accommodation.

    PubMed

    Schor, C M; Lott, L A; Pope, D; Graham, A D

    1999-11-01

    Horizontal vergence can be stimulated binocularly with disparity (disparity vergence) or monocularly with accommodation (accommodative vergence). The latter results from a neural cross-coupling that causes both horizontal vergence and accommodation to respond when either one is stimulated [Alpern, M., & Ellen, P. (1956). American Journal of Ophthalmology, 42, 289-303]. The velocity of disparity and accommodative vergence is enhanced when accompanied by saccades [Enright, J. T. (1984). Journal of Physiology (London) 350, 9-31; Enright, J. T. (1986). Journal of Physiology (London) 371, 69-89]. Based upon the coupling between accommodation and vergence, we predicted that accommodation should also be facilitated by saccades. An SRI Dual Purkinje Eyetracker was used to measure left and right eye position, and the accommodation of the left eye, in response to stimulation. Horizontal saccades were stimulated by targets separated by 2-6 degrees and accommodation was stimulated monocularly over a range of +/- 2 diopters (D). When saccades occurred within 0-400 ms following a monocular step stimulus to accommodation, latency of accommodation decreased and the associated accommodative-vergence response was synchronized with the saccade. Saccades also enhanced the velocity of accommodation and accommodative-vergence, and this facilitation increased with saccade amplitude. Transient vergence responses that are normally associated with saccades [Erkelens, C. J., Steinman, R. M., & Collewijn, H. (1989). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences, 236, 441-465; Maxwell, J. S., & King, W. M. (1992). Journal of Neurophysiology, 68 (4), 1248-1260] did not affect accommodation when it was not stimulated by defocus. Because saccades and accommodation utilize separate plants and final common pathways, the synchronization of saccades and accommodation and the enhanced velocity of accommodation and accommodative-vergence must occur at more central sites

  19. Accommodation Hell, or, To Hell with Accommodation: The ADA and the Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William L.

    This material is designed to help faculty understand the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). A brief overview notes three key considerations: the definition of disability, reasonable accommodation, and undue hardship, and then discusses faculty liability and responsibility for discriminatory acts. The balance of the…

  20. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  1. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  2. The interactive processes of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Semmlow, J L; Bérard, P V; Vercher, J L; Putteman, A; Gauthier, G M

    1994-01-01

    A near target generates two different, though related stimuli: image disparity and image blur. Fixation of that near target evokes three motor responses: the so-called oculomotor "near triad". It has long been known that both disparity and blur stimuli are each capable of independently generating all three responses, and a recent theory of near triad control (the Dual Interactive Theory) describes how these stimulus components normally work together in the aid of near vision. However, this theory also indicates that when the system becomes unbalanced, as in high AC/A ratios of some accommodative esotropes, the two components will become antagonistic. In this situation, the interaction between the blur and disparity driven components exaggerates the imbalance created in the vergence motor output. Conversely, there is enhanced restoration when the AC/A ratio is effectively reduced surgically. PMID:7633627

  3. Fault Accommodation in Control of Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Lim, Kyong B.

    1998-01-01

    New synthesis techniques for the design of fault accommodating controllers for flexible systems are developed. Three robust control design strategies, static dissipative, dynamic dissipative and mu-synthesis, are used in the approach. The approach provides techniques for designing controllers that maximize, in some sense, the tolerance of the closed-loop system against faults in actuators and sensors, while guaranteeing performance robustness at a specified performance level, measured in terms of the proximity of the closed-loop poles to the imaginary axis (the degree of stability). For dissipative control designs, nonlinear programming is employed to synthesize the controllers, whereas in mu-synthesis, the traditional D-K iteration is used. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed techniques, they are applied to the control design of a structural model of a flexible laboratory test structure.

  4. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Disability and accommodation in the healthcare workplace.

    PubMed

    Niccolini, Robert R; Basu, Nina

    2009-04-01

    Employers in the healthcare industry face unique challenges regarding compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Healthcare employers must reasonably accommodate employees in complex and often physically challenging positions, while ensuring safe and effective patient care. These challenges have become even more difficult with the recent passage of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), which significantly expands the definition and scope of "disability" under the ADA, and legislatively reverses several key Supreme Court decisions favorable to employers. Although the ultimate impact of the ADAAA remains to be determined, this article will help employers and their counsel understand how federal disability discrimination laws may affect their businesses going forward, with an analysis of the language of the ADAAA, case law under the ADA, and guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). PMID:19485027

  6. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  7. Space science/space station attached payload pointing accommodation study: Technology assessment white paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Richard Y.; Mann, Kenneth E.; Laskin, Robert A.; Sirlin, Samuel W.

    1987-01-01

    Technology assessment is performed for pointing systems that accommodate payloads of large mass and large dimensions. Related technology areas are also examined. These related areas include active thermal lines or power cables across gimbals, new materials for increased passive damping, tethered pointing, and inertially reacting pointing systems. Conclusions, issues and concerns, and recommendations regarding the status and development of large pointing systems for space applications are made based on the performed assessments.

  8. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  9. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  10. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  11. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  12. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  13. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  14. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  15. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  16. Magnitude and rate of accommodation in diving and nondiving birds.

    PubMed

    Sivak, J G; Hildebrand, T; Lebert, C

    1985-01-01

    Accommodation was measured in a variety of waterfowl by projecting parallel low power helium-neon laser beams through the pupils of excised eyes placed in saline. The posterior globe was removed, allowing the beams, refracted only by the lens, to focus well behind the eye. Electrical stimulation of the ciliary muscle results in accommodative movement of the focal point toward the eye. Study of video recordings show that diving ducks (Mergus cucullatus and Bucephala clangala) can accommodate the 70-80 D needed to focus light on the retina when the eye is in water. Diving and nondiving species are compared in amount and rate of accommodation. PMID:4049742

  17. [Research Progress in Measurement of Human Accommodative Amplitude].

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian

    2015-09-01

    Accommodation is an important function of the human eye, which can change the parameters of ocular refractive system and also has a strong correlation with the development of myopia and presbyopia. Several subjective measurements have been applied in accommodation assessment such as push-up test, push-down test and minus-lens procedures. It can be measured objectively by measuring the change in refraction of the eye with dynamic retinoscopy or autorefractor. This article reviews the application of measurement of accommodative amplitude and research progress in accommodation, providing clinical information for further studies. PMID:26930838

  18. The Effects of the Use of Learning Contracts on Student Performance in Technology Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Anthony; Williams, P. John

    1999-01-01

    Describes a process by which technology education students negotiate a contract with the teacher, then develop a plan to fulfill the contract and meet specific criteria for assessment. Concludes that this process provides a mechanism for the individualization of learning, accommodates the development of independence and self-direction, and…

  19. A standardized interface and accommodation methodology for commercially hosted payloads on the StarBus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmanson, Phillip C.; Schueler, Carl; Do, Michael; Lam, Quang

    2008-08-01

    A standardized interface has been developed for the integration and accommodation of secondary payloads on to Orbital Sciences Corporation's StarBus line of GEO-based commercial communications satellites. This standardized interface through hardware adaptations and methodology incorporates all the major subsystems of the spacecraft and will allow for a variety of hosted secondary payloads to be accommodated while not interfering with the "spacecraft product line" manufacturing scheme common on commercial communications satellites. Indeed the low cost and fast schedules, typically two years from contract start to launch, for commercial communications satellites relies upon a high level of design standardization and exacting heritage. The Hosted Payloads interface as developed and exercised on the StarBus makes the hosted payload components look like the usual communications components that are routinely comprise the standard bent-pipe type of communications payload architecture - the kind of payload that the host spacecraft is optimized to carry. Furthermore the hosted payload accommodation methodology has been developed to flow into the timeline of the host spacecraft while still allowing for a small degree of margin. Being able to reconcile the aggressive development process of a commercial communications satellites with the more elongated process seen in a remote sensing payload is one necessary step to secure a viable future of commercially hosted payloads.

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator : Thermal Contraction Analysis of Four Cryogenic Utility Lines for the D0 Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1995-06-23

    The cryogenic lines GHE and LN2 contain two lines each, one for supply and the other for return. The tubing was stress analyzed per ASME code for pressure piping, standard ANSI/ASME B31.3. A commercial pipe stress analysis and design system by ALGOR{reg_sign} was used for the analysis along with the calculated maximum stress, 25,050 psi. They were all analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below this allowable stress limit. There are sections of the transfer lines that will be increased from a 1-1/2-inch vacuum jacket to a 2-inch vacuum jacket. This increase accounts for the maximum displacement, 0.466-inch in troubled areas as seen in subsequent drawings. The greatest displacement allowed for a 1-1/2-inch vacuum jacket is 0.421-inch for a 1/2-inch pipe on the nominal centerline. The greatest displacement allowed for a 2-inch vacuum jacket is 0.658-inch. We will have a clearance of 0.192-inch when using the 2-inch vacuum jacket.

  1. Minimum accommodation for aerobrake assembly, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Haynes, Davy A.; Tutterow, Robin D.; Watson, Judith J.; Russell, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element study was done to assess the practicality of a Space Station Freedom-based aerobrake system for the Space Exploration Initiative. The study was organized into six parts related to structure, aerodynamics, robotics and assembly, thermal protection system, inspection, and verification, all tied together by an integration study. The integration activity managed the broad issues related to meeting mission requirements. This report is a summary of the issues addressed by the integration team.

  2. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  3. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg

    The purpose of this study was to devise an instructional model accommodating students' learning styles in the following areas: sound, light, temperature, design, and mobility. Specifically, this study determined if students in an experimental group with environmental accommodations to their preferred modes of learning differed from students in a…

  4. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  5. High velocity atomic oxygen/surface accommodation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Gauthier, M. J.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the first experimental evaluation of the energy-accommodation coefficients of 8km/s oxygen atoms on selected materials. Preliminary measurements have been provided for three materials at normal incidence. Neglecting chemical energy, the accommodation coefficients for Ni, Au, and reaction-cured glass are approximately 0.6 +/- 50 percent.

  6. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  7. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  8. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  9. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  10. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  11. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  12. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  13. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  14. Project Accommodate: Preparing Master Teachers to Provide Peer Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Stanley F.; And Others

    Project Accommodate, a program designed to improve inservice to regular Nebraska secondary teachers serving handicapped students, is described. The state's needs for inservice training to implement the goal of providing services in the least restrictive environment are discussed as background to Project Accommodate's development. Goals of the…

  15. Testing Accommodations: Theory and Research to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a framework for practitioners in education and psychology to select accommodations based on student profiles and testing demands. A brief history of testing accommodations policy in the US and a definition of terms provide context for the discussion. A review of theory and empirical findings related to testing accommodations…

  16. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable,...

  17. An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Despite expectations for accommodations in inclusive classrooms, little guidance for effective practice is available. Most accommodations policies and evidence-based practices address assessments. High school regular and special educators collaborated in focus groups to articulate a model based on their practices and perceptions of best practice.…

  18. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  19. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  20. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  1. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  2. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo containment..., or control space by a cruciform joint, there must be a cofferdam providing at least 760 mm (30...

  3. Transition to Postsecondary: New Documentation Guidance for Access to Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently developed a conceptual framework that substantially revises its guidance for disability documentation for accommodations in higher education settings. This new document, "Supporting Accommodation Requests: Guidance on Documentation Practices," was written in response to the…

  4. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  5. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  6. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  7. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  8. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  9. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  10. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  11. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  12. The Reasonable Accommodations Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides broad-based protection for disabled persons by imposing far-reaching obligations on private-sector employers, public services and accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. Provides a descriptive overview of the reasonable accommodations provisions of Title I and II of the ADA. (34…

  13. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed. PMID:16368666

  14. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-22

    ACCESS--Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station--was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the 'knee' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control, power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.

  15. Quantification of Age-Related and per Diopter Accommodative Changes of the Lens and Ciliary Muscle in the Emmetropic Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Richdale, Kathryn; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Wassenaar, Peter A.; Schmalbrock, Petra; Kao, Chiu-Yen; Patz, Samuel; Mutti, Donald O.; Glasser, Adrian; Zadnik, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To calculate age-related and per diopter (D) accommodative changes in crystalline lens and ciliary muscle dimensions in vivo in a single cohort of emmetropic human adults ages 30 to 50 years. Methods. The right eyes of 26 emmetropic adults were examined using ultrasonography, phakometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Accommodation was measured both subjectively and objectively. Results. In agreement with previous research, older age was linearly correlated with a thicker lens, steeper anterior lens curvature, shallower anterior chamber, and lower lens equivalent refractive index (all P < 0.01). Age was not related to ciliary muscle ring diameter (CMRD) or lens equatorial diameter (LED). With accommodation, lens thickness increased (+0.064 mm/D, P < 0.001), LED decreased (−0.075 mm/D, P < 0.001), CMRD decreased (−0.105 mm/D, P < 0.001), and the ciliary muscle thickened anteriorly (+0.013 to +0.026 mm/D, P < 0.001) and thinned posteriorly (−0.011 to −0.015, P < 0.01). The changes per diopter of accommodation in LED, CMRD, and ciliary muscle thickness were not related to subject age. Conclusions. The per diopter ciliary muscle contraction is age independent, even as total accommodative amplitude declines. Quantifying normal biometric dimensions of the accommodative structures and changes with age and accommodative effort will further the development of new IOLs designed to harness ciliary muscle forces. PMID:23287789

  16. Varifocal optics for a novel accommodative intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, A. N.; Rombach, M.; Vdovin, G.; Loktev, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of adaptive optics for the human eye to correct aberrations, to restore accommodation after lens extraction due to cataract and to correct age-related presbyopia have interest of academia and industry. We report on optics for a new accommodative intraocular lens which uses a two-element varifocal Alvarez lens. This lens has two refractive elements with cubic surfaces which, in combination, form a varifocal lens when the elements are shifted relatively to each other perpendicular to the optical path. The accommodative function of the lens will be driven by the ocular ciliary muscle. The refractive elements of the dual-optic intraocular lens are designed to provide a near emmetropic on-axis vision with a >4 dioptre accommodation range. The anterior element has a spherical lens to correct for the overall refraction of the eye, aspheric terms to correct the corneal asphericity and a cubic term as accommodative component; the posterior element has a cubic shaped surface only. The modular transfer function shows that the image on the retina reaches a diffraction limited performance for the on-axis vision in combination with the aspheric correction for aberrations of the cornea. We conclude that the varifocal lens is uniquely suitable for application as an intraocular accommodative lens because of its optical quality and ample accommodative power.

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals New Insights into the Accommodation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Farouk, Mahmoud Mohamed; Naito, Takeshi; Shinomiya, Kayo; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Sayed, Khulood Mohammed; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Katome, Takashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the movement of the anterior and posterior lens poles during naturally stimulated accommodation in children using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. This is a prospective, observational, noncomparative case series including 18 eyes of nine children. Analysis of the anterior segment in the accommodated and unaccommodated state (with cycloplegia) was done using anterior segment OCT. The main outcome measures were the position of the anterior and posterior lens poles (in relation to the cornea) and lens thickness (LT). Results. A Statistically significant forward movement of the anterior lens pole and backward movement of the posterior lens pole with an increase in LT were found during accommodation (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the degree of movement of the anterior lens pole and the posterior lens pole during accommodation (P = 0.944). Conclusions. Anterior segment OCT provides a rapid noncontact method for studying accommodation in children. The backward movement of the posterior lens pole during accommodation nearly equals the forward movement of its anterior pole. These data minimize the theoretical hydraulic effect of the vitreous during accommodation, adding more support to the capsular theory of Helmholtz. PMID:26236498

  18. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  19. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  20. The Role of the Iris in Chick Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Peripheral defocus, higher-order aberrations, and accommodation interact with pupil size to influence retinal image quality and possibly eye growth. Iridectomy (ID) provides a fixed, enlarged pupil. Results from in vitro studies suggest that ID may reduce or eliminate accommodation in the chicken. This paper further investigates the effects of ID on chicken accommodation, eye growth, and refractive development. Methods. Refraction, biometry, and corneal curvature were measured, before, and after topical instillation of nicotine in 43 White-Leghorn chickens that had undergone monocular ID. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, and eyes were imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) during accommodation. In vitro preparations were used to examine accommodation responses in a lens-scanning instrument. Results. Iridectomy induced small but significant decreases in anterior and vitreous chamber depths and an increase in lens thickness (LT). IOP was similar in iridectomized and control eyes from 1 week on. In vivo, nicotine induced similar accommodative changes in iridectomized and control eyes. OCT images revealed a forward displacement of the iris during accommodation in control eyes. Iridectomized and control eyes showed similar increases in LT. In vitro, iridectomized eyes showed minimal nicotine-induced accommodation. Conclusions. Refraction and eye growth were minimally affected by ID in chickens, implying that emmetropization was unaffected and supporting the use of ID as a tool in emmetropization and myopia studies. The greatly attenuated accommodative responses in vitro for iridectomized eyes suggest a role of biomechanical factors in the chick. IOP was unaffected by the surgery, implying that the iris musculature is not essential for maintaining aqueous outflow pathways. PMID:21357397

  1. Objective measurement of accommodative biometric changes using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To demonstrate that ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used for objective quantitative measurements of anterior segment accommodative changes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS Anterior segment biometric changes in response to 0 to 6.0 diopters (D) of accommodative stimuli in 1.0 D steps were measured in eyes of human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Imaging was performed in the left eye using a 35 MHz UBM (Vumax) and an A-scan ultrasound (A-5500) while the right eye viewed the accommodative stimuli. An automated Matlab image-analysis program was developed to measure the biometry parameters from the UBM images. RESULTS The UBM-measured accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior lens radius of curvature, posterior lens radius of curvature, and anterior segment length were statistically significantly (P < .0001) linearly correlated with accommodative stimulus amplitudes. Standard deviations of the UBM-measured parameters were independent of the accommodative stimulus demands (ACD 0.0176 mm, lens thickness 0.0294 mm, anterior lens radius of curvature 0.3350 mm, posterior lens radius of curvature 0.1580 mm, and anterior segment length 0.0340 mm). The mean difference between the A-scan and UBM measurements was −0.070 mm for ACD and 0.166 mm for lens thickness. CONCLUSIONS Accommodating phakic eyes imaged using UBM allowed visualization of the accommodative response, and automated image analysis of the UBM images allowed reliable, objective, quantitative measurements of the accommodative intraocular biometric changes. PMID:25804579

  2. Accommodation of Nuclear Power and Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steven M.; Bolch, Wesley e.; Thomas, J. Kelley

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear systems for propulsion and power are being examined as system options for implementing the lunar and Mars human exploration missions currently being studied by NASA. Systems might include nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles, operating reactors on coorbiting platforms, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and others. The space station, as a transportation node, would have to store, assemble, launch and refurbish elements containing these systems. Care must be taken to safeguard humans from the radiation imposed by these systems, in addition to the naturally occuring background of the space environment. Key issues need to be identified early to enable their proper consideration in planning activities and the baseline space station design. A study was conducted over the past year with Texas A&M University to identify and explore key issues and quantify findings in a way useful to the Space Station Program.

  3. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  4. From foreland rift to forearc basin: Tectono-thermal controls on subsidence and stratigraphic development in the Mesozoic-Recent Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Turner, P. ); Hartley, A. ); Jolley, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salar de Atacama and westerly adjacent Domeyko basins originated as Permian foreland rifts, containing some 2 km of Triassic synrift red beds. Continued extension and volcanic are establishment resulted in deposition of important Jurassic marine source rocks in the Domeyko basin. Rift basin subsidence was controlled by extension, followed by thermal sagging. Middle Cretaceous contraction (opening of the south Atlantic) inverted the Domeyko back-arc basin as a thrustbelt. To the east, the Salar basin subsequently accommodated 4 km of Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene continental detritus. Accommodation space reflected the interplay between limited flexural loading and thermal effects related to a 150 km eastward jump of the Andean volcanic arc to the margin of the arc-related, foreland-style basin. Late Eocene transpression (high rate of oblique convergence between the Farallon and South American plates) inverted the western basin margin, sourcing a 2 km thick Oligocene intra-arc basin-fill component. Accommodation space was controlled by thermal sagging associated with a further 100 km eastward arc jump. The Salar de Atacama basin thus provides a model for the evolution of complex, mixed origin basins associated with a migrating volcanic arc and varying crustal stress regime. The complex interplay between variable tectonic style and thermal processes in controlling subsidence and resultant stratigraphic development is not yet adequately constrained. However, simple, single stage tectono-sedimentary models commonly used in play definition may not be appropriate in complex, arc-related basin settings.

  5. Big sun-power contract signed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Co (SDG and E) plans to buy $600-million worth of solar energy from Luz International Ltd, Los Angeles, Calif, beginning in 1994. Luz will build an 80-MW solar-thermal qualifying facility near Harper Lake in the Mojave Desert. SDG and E officials say the 30-yr contract could represent up to 2.5% of the company's peak-load needs by the mid-1990s. The contract is not expected to be affected by the utility's pending merger with Southern California Edison Co. SDG and E will pay Luz $140/kW annually over the life of the contract.

  6. Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment Biometry During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yilei; Tao, Aizhu; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Zhong, Jianguang; Shen, Meixiao; Lu, Fan; Xu, Zhe; Karp, Carol L.; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the dynamic response of human accommodative elements as a function of age during accommodation using synchronized spectral domain optical coherence tomography devices (SD-OCT). Methods. We enrolled 33 left eyes from 33 healthy subjects (age range, 20–39 years, 17 males and 16 females). Two SD-OCT devices were synchronized to simultaneously image the anterior segment through pupil and the ciliary muscle during 6.00 diopter (D) accommodation for approximately 3.7 seconds in two repeated measurements. The anterior segment parameters included the lens thickness (LT), radius of curvature of the lens anterior surface (LAC), maximum thickness of ciliary muscle (CMTMAX), and anterior length of the ciliary muscle (CMAL). A first-order exponential equation was used to fit the dynamic changes during accommodation. The age-related changes in the dynamic response and their relationship were calculated and compared. Results. The amplitude (r = −0.40 and 0.53 for LT and LAC, respectively) and peak velocity (r = −0.65 and 0.71 for LT and LAC, respectively) of the changes in LT and LAC significantly decreased with age (P < 0.05), whereas the parameters of the ciliary muscle remained unchanged (P > 0.05), except for the peak velocity of the CMAL (r = 0.44, P = 0.01). The difference in the time constant between the lens reshaping (LT and LAC) and CMTMAX increased with age (r = 0.46 and 0.57 for LT and LAC, respectively, P < 0.01). The changes in LT and LAC per millimeter of CMTMAX change decreased with age (r = −0.52 and −0.34, respectively, P < 0.05). The ciliary muscle forward movement correlated with the lens deformation (r = −0.35 and 0.40 for amplitude, while r = 0.36 and 0.58 for time constant, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Age-related changes in the lens reshaping and ciliary muscle forward movement were found. Lens reshaping was much slower than the contraction of the ciliary muscle, especially in aging eyes, and this process

  7. Accommodation and size-constancy of virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Phenany, Moses; Sandin, Daniel; Defanti, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Accommodation has been suspected as a contributor to size illusions in virtual environments (VE) due to the lack of appropriate accommodative stimuli in a VE for the objects displayed. Previous experiments examining size-constancy in VE have shown that monocular cues to depth that accompany the object are a major contributor to correct size perception. When these accompanying cues are removed perceived size varied with the object's distance from the subject, i.e., visual angle. If accommodation were the dominant mechanism contributing to a visual angle response [due to its action to keep physical objects clear] in this condition, an open-loop accommodation viewing condition might restore size-constancy to this condition. Pinhole apertures were used to open-loop accommodation and examine if size-constancy might be restored when few accompanying monocular cues to depth were present. Visual angle performance when viewing a low cue environment was found with and without the use of the pinhole apertures. Thus, these results signify that accommodation does not play a dominate role in the loss of size-constancy in sparse visual environments often used in VE. These results suggest that size-constancy is driven by the inclusion of the remaining monocular cues to depth in VE as it is in the physical world. PMID:18066664

  8. On-orbit operations of the Space Station Freedom attached payloads accommodations equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Jean Folse; Stivaletti, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom which will serve as a base of operations for instruments performing space science is discussed. The Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE) will be a set of equipment designed to provide standard structural, power, data and thermal interfaces between payloads and the space station. The APAE is designed to minimize and simplify the on-orbit operations required for payload installation, replacement, and servicing. In addition, the APAE supplies launch support for small payloads and attitude control for payloads that required it.

  9. The Feasibility of the Disturbance Accommodating Controller for Precision Antenna Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gresham, L. L.; Lansing, F. L.; Guiar, C. N.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a pointing (position loop) controller for the NASA-JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas using the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) theory. A model that includes state dependent disturbances was developed, and an example demonstrating the noise estimator is presented as an initial phase in the controller design. The goal is to improve pointing accuracy by the removal of the systematic errors caused by the antenna misalignment as well as sensor noise and random wind and thermal disturbances. Preliminary simulation results show that the DAC technique is successful in both cancelling the imposed errors and maintaining an optimal control policy.

  10. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  11. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  12. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators.

    PubMed

    Sartori, E; Brescaccin, L; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production-detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion-are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared. PMID:26931910

  13. Russian Teaching Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes two Russian teaching contracts, rhetorically comparing purpose and audience, culture, gender, and the role of the individual versus the state. Uses anecdotal episodes as a framework for examining Russian culture and analyzing university teaching contracts, concluding that the contracts are not only brief and factual but also reflect a…

  14. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  15. The Joy of Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kevin

    This paper is a practical guide that explains and illustrates contracts between libraries and vendors for computerized circulation systems. It describes the elements of a typical contract to include the equipment and services that should be specified in the contract and establishes scheduling and acceptance testing needs. Included in a contract…

  16. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  17. Accommodative and convergence response to computer screen and printed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andreia; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to find out if differences exist in accommodative and convergence response for different computer monitors' and a printed text. It was also tried to relate the horizontal heterophoria value and accommodative response with the symptoms associated with computer use. Two independents experiments were carried out in this study. The first experiment was measuring the accommodative response on 89 subjects using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko Co., Ltd., Japan). The accommodative response was measured using three computer monitors: a 17-inch cathode ray tube (CRT), two liquid crystal displays LCDs, one 17-inch (LCD17) and one 15 inches (LCD15) and a printed text. The text displayed was always the same for all the subjects and tests. A second experiment aimed to measure the value of habitual horizontal heterophoria on 80 subjects using the Von Graefe technique. The measurements were obtained using the same target presented on two different computer monitors, one 19-inch cathode ray tube (CRT) and other 19 inches liquid crystal displays (LCD) and printed on paper. A small survey about the incidence and prevalence of symptoms was performed similarly in both experiments. In the first experiment, the accommodation response was higher in the CRT and LCD's than for paper. There were not found significantly different response for both LCD monitors'. The second experiment showed that, the heterophoria values were similar for all the stimuli. On average, participants presented a small exophoria. In both experiments, asthenopia was the symptom that presented higher incidence. There are different accommodative responses when reading on paper or on computer monitors. This difference is more significant for CRT monitors. On the other hand, there was no difference in the values of convergence for the computer monitors' and paper. The symptoms associated with the use of computers are not related with the increase in accommodation and with the horizontal

  18. Theorizing accommodation in supportive home care for older people.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Christine; Purkis, Mary Ellen; Björnsdóttir, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of what thinking is necessary in order to advance a notion of accommodation in the organization and provision of supportive home care for older people. Accommodation in this context is understood as responsiveness to the singularity of older adults, and we consider how this idea might be used to support opportunities for (independent) living for elders as they age and become frailer. To elaborate the question we draw on examples from our empirical work - ethnographic studies of home care practice undertaken in Canada and Iceland - and consider these examples in light of critical philosophical and social theory, particularly Agamben's (1993) work, The Coming Community. This is a relevant frame through which to consider the potential for the accommodation of the unique needs of older adults in home care because it helps us to problematize the systems through which care is accomplished and the current, dominant terms of relations between individuals and collectives. We argue that giving substance to a notion of accommodation contributes an important dimension to aligned ideas, such as patient-centeredness in care, by working to shift the intentionality of these practices. That is, accommodation, as an orientation to care practices, contests the organizational impulse to carry on in the usual way. PMID:23273554

  19. Accommodating Autistics and Treating Autism: Can We Have Both?

    PubMed

    Lim, Chong-Ming

    2015-10-01

    One of the central claims of the neurodiversity movement is that society should accommodate the needs of autistics, rather than try to treat autism. People have variously tried to reject this accommodation thesis as applicable to all autistics. One instance is Pier Jaarsma and Stellan Welin, who argue that the thesis should apply to some but not all autistics. They do so via separating autistics into high- and low-functioning, on the basis of IQ and social effectiveness or functionings. I reject their grounds for separating autistics. IQ is an irrelevant basis for separating autistics. Charitably rendering it as referring to more general capacities still leaves us mistaken about the roles they play in supporting the accommodation thesis. The appeal to social effectiveness or functionings relies on standards that are inapplicable to autistics, and which risks being deaf to the point of their claims. I then consider if their remaining argument concerning autistic culture may succeed independently of the line they draw. I argue that construing autistics' claims as beginning from culture mistakes their status, and may even detract from their aims. Via my discussion of Jaarsma and Welin, I hope to point to why the more general strategy of separating autistics, in response to the accommodation thesis, does not fully succeed. Finally, I sketch some directions for future discussions, arguing that we should instead shift our attention to consider another set of questions concerning the costs and extent of change required to accommodate all autistics. PMID:25689416

  20. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the US, anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g. digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the US in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula. PMID:26849430

  1. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality. PMID:23923694

  2. The role of fundamental frequency in phonetic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an unfiltered condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a filtered condition where the same stimuli had been high-pass filtered at 300 Hz, thereby eliminating the fundamental frequency. Acoustic analysis of f0 revealed that participants assigned to the unfiltered condition imitated the pitch of the model talker more than those assigned to the filtered condition. Although accommodation was statistically significant, the effect was small, so we followed with a perception study to examine listeners' abilities to detect differences in accommodation across conditions. Shadowed tokens from participants in the unfiltered condition were indeed judged by listeners to be more similar to the model talker's productions that those from participants in the filtered condition. However, acoustic measurements and listener judgments of accommodation were not significantly correlated, enforcing the intuitive concept that accommodation and listeners' judgments of similarity are holistic and do not hone in on singular features in the acoustic signal. PMID:22783633

  3. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Tasci, Yasemin; Dolen, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl) on accommodation amplitude. METHODS Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25), tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25), and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25) and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25) were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60)y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107) and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148) between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III), but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065). CONCLUSION A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance. PMID:27275433

  4. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil. PMID:25891121

  5. Calculations of accommodation coefficients for diatomic molecular gases.

    PubMed

    Ambaye, Hailemariam; Manson, J R

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical study of energy and momentum accommodation coefficients and reduced force coefficients for molecular gases exchanging energy with surfaces has been carried out. The theoretical model uses classical mechanics for describing translational and rotational motions while internal molecular vibrational modes are treated quantum mechanically. Calculations for diatomic molecular gases are compared with recent measurements using hypersonic beams of N2 incident on SiO2 layers deposited on Kapton substrates. The theory gives good qualitative predictions of the behavior of the various accommodation coefficients as functions of the available experimentally controllable parameters such as incident translational energy, incident beam angle, molecular and surface masses, and surface temperature. Quantitative comparisons with measurements for energy and normal momentum accommodation indicate that these experiments can be used to obtain basic physical information about the molecule-surface interaction such as the physisorption potential well depth and the extent of surface roughness. PMID:16605510

  6. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  7. Contracting guidelines for internists.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Government regulations, the introduction of new health care delivery methods, and the rising number of physicians joining the medical community have combined to increase the importance of the business aspect of medical practice. As a result, many physicians have documented their relationships with various third parties through contracts. As the incidence of contractual relationships between physicians and third parties has increased, so has concern regarding the legal ramifications of the contracting process. This guide is intended to explain the basic characteristics of contracts and to provide the individual physician with information regarding the contracting process. The guide is divided into three sections: key elements of a contract; types of contracts, including hospital/physician contracts, hospital/physician joint ventures, and group practice contracts; and negotiating the contract. Each section offers an explanation of the topic, which is followed by specific questions for the individual physician to investigate. These lists of questions are designed to provide a starting point for physician discussion of the philosophical, personal and practical areas to investigate before entering into a contract. PMID:10268633

  8. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  9. Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate two clinical procedures, MEM and Nott retinoscopy, for detecting accommodative lags 1.00 diopter (D) or greater in children as identified by an open-field autorefractor. Methods 168 children 8 to <12 years old with low myopia, normal visual acuity, and no strabismus participated as part of an ancillary study within the screening process for a randomized trial. Accommodative response to a 3.00 D demand was first assessed by MEM and Nott retinoscopy, viewing binocularly with spherocylindrical refractive error corrected, with testing order randomized and each performed by a different masked examiner. The response was then determined viewing monocularly with spherical equivalent refractive error corrected, using an open-field autorefractor, which was the gold standard used for eligibility for the clinical trial. Sensitivity and specificity for accommodative lags of 1.00 D or more were calculated for each retinoscopy method compared to the autorefractor. Results 116 (69%) of the 168 children had accommodative lag of 1.00 D or more by autorefraction. MEM identified 66 children identified by autorefraction for a sensitivity of 57% (95% CI = 47% to 66%) and a specificity of 63% (95% CI = 49% to 76%). Nott retinoscopy identified 35 children for a sensitivity of 30% (95% CI = 22% to 39%) and a specificity of 81% (95% CI = 67% to 90%). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed for MEM and for Nott retinoscopy failed to reveal alternate cut points that would improve the combination of sensitivity and specificity for identifying accommodative lag ≥ 1.00 D as defined by autorefraction. Conclusions Neither MEM nor Nott retinoscopy provided adequate sensitivity and specificity to identify myopic children with accommodative lag ≥ 1.00 D as determined by autorefraction. A variety of methodological differences between the techniques may contribute to the modest to poor agreement. PMID:19214130

  10. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V

    2012-06-15

    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits. PMID:22580016

  11. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-01

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy. PMID:17201579

  12. Accommodation and vergence infrared measurement using hologram stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, T.; Dušek, J.; Dostálek, M.; Fiala, P.; Škereň, M.

    2011-09-01

    Diagnostics of the visual system disorders belongs to the common examination in infancy. Especially important is diagnostics of refractive and oculomotor disorders that could negatively affect development of the infants' visual system and rapidly decrease quality of life. This work describes application of hologram stimulation and infrared videometrics in measuring of the dynamics of the human accommodation and vergence. Virtual hologram stimulation rapidly decreases diameters of the system and allows its compact construction. Data about dynamic changes of accommodation and vergence were not yet available so far in the clinical practice. This data could be helpful tool for early diagnostics of the visual system disorders as the strabismus.

  13. Accommodation and vergence infrared measurement using hologram stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, T.; Dušek, J.; Dostálek, M.; Fiala, P.; Škereň, M.

    2012-02-01

    Diagnostics of the visual system disorders belongs to the common examination in infancy. Especially important is diagnostics of refractive and oculomotor disorders that could negatively affect development of the infants' visual system and rapidly decrease quality of life. This work describes application of hologram stimulation and infrared videometrics in measuring of the dynamics of the human accommodation and vergence. Virtual hologram stimulation rapidly decreases diameters of the system and allows its compact construction. Data about dynamic changes of accommodation and vergence were not yet available so far in the clinical practice. This data could be helpful tool for early diagnostics of the visual system disorders as the strabismus.

  14. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  15. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  16. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  17. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  18. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  19. Analysis and applications of accommodative lenses for vision corrections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Teng; Jiang, Minshan; Chang, Chun-Lin; Hong, Yu-Ling; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and applications of vision correction via accommodating intraocular lens (AIOL) are presented. By Gaussian optics, analytic formulas for the accommodation rate function (M) for two-optics and three-optics systems are derived and compared with the exact numerical results. In a single-optics AIOL, typical value of M is (0.5-1.5) D∕mm, for an IOL power of (10-20) diopter. For a given IOL power, higher M is achieved in positive-IOL than negative-IOL. In the dual-optics AIOL, maximum accommodation is predicted when the front positive-optics moves toward the corneal plan and the back negative-optics moves backward. Our analytic formulas predict that greater accommodative rate may be achieved by using a positive-powered front optics, a general feature when either front or back optics is mobile. The M function is used to find the piggy-back IOL power for customized design based on the individual ocular parameters. Many of the new features demonstrated in this study can be easily realized by our analytic formulas, but not by raytracing method. PMID:21280927

  20. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  1. Student Perspectives on Using Accommodations during Statewide Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Thompson, Sandra J.; Walz, Lynn; Shin, Hyeonsook

    Ninety-six high school students from school districts across Minnesota who received special education services for learning disabilities or mild cognitive impairments agreed to participate in an interview on their participation and accommodation use on Minnesota's Basic Standards tests, minimum competency tests in Mathematics, Reading, and Writing…

  2. Speech Accommodation without Priming: The Case of Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijssels, Tom; Casasanto, Laura Staum; Jasmin, Kyle; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    People often accommodate to each other's speech by aligning their linguistic production with their partner's. According to an influential theory, the Interactive Alignment Model, alignment is the result of priming. When people perceive an utterance, the corresponding linguistic representations are primed and become easier to produce. Here we…

  3. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  4. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  5. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  6. 7 CFR 1744.30 - Automatic lien accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... make an investment in an affiliated company, approval is hereby given for all investments made in affiliated companies with the proceeds of private lender notes qualifying for an automatic lien accommodation...) The Property Schedule for inclusion as supplemental mortgage Schedule B, containing legally...

  7. Accommodating a Student with a Disability: Suggestions for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer Leigh

    This handbook provides information for University of Victoria faculty that will assist in the process of accommodating students with disabilities in the classroom or the laboratory. The focus of the handbook is on ways that instructors can modify the learning environment to facilitate learning for these groups, and it is divided into sections…

  8. Using the World Wide Web To accommodate Diverse Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan L.; Schulz, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ways to use the World Wide Web in college instruction considers first, logistical issues; second, ways the Web can meet the needs of the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learner; third, ways to accommodate the social learner; and fourth, using the Web with four cognitive learning styles, as measured by the Gregoric Style Delineator.…

  9. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  10. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  11. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  12. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  13. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. College Students' Preferences for Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Lambert, Tonya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Sytsma, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    College students with (n = 137) and without disabilities (n = 475) were surveyed about their perceptions of using various types of test accommodations. Results indicated that extended time was perceived as having a positive effect by the most students (>87% of both groups), followed by separate room testing and extra breaks (>60% of both…

  15. Design Criteria for Public School Plants Accommodating the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. School Building Services.

    Criteria are presented for implementation in the design and construction of school buildings and facilities so as to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. Accommodations for the physically handicapped are considered for the following--(1) public walks, (2) parking lots, (3) ramps with gradients and handrails, (4) entrances,…

  16. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  17. Maximising Occupancy. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Julia

    This module on maximizing occupancy is intended to cover the basic framework for analysis of occupancy in accommodations and for identification of ways to improve it on both a long-term and day-to-day basis. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives…

  18. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  19. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  20. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  1. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  2. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  3. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  4. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325 Section 154.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements §...

  5. The Temperament Trap: Recognizing and Accommodating Children's Personalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Susan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Goodness of fit is the compatibility between a child's temperament and his or her environment. When temperament is recognized, respected, and accommodated by creating complementary classroom environments and situations, healthy social and personality development occurs. Compatibility between the child and the demands and expectations of teachers…

  6. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  7. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Peshkin, M.

    1999-08-01

    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  8. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  9. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  10. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  11. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  12. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  13. Living Accommodation for Young People. Report of An Exploratory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Phyllis G.; Miller, A.

    The Building Research Station has embarked on a series of case-studies on the provision of living accommodations for single young people in the 15 to 24 age group in England who live away from home because of education, training or employment. An exploratory review of the existing literature on the subject was made. Discussed are some of the…

  14. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation designed for students of limited English proficiency (LEP), using data from the Delaware state science assessment program for grades 4 and 6. Findings for 11,306 non-LEP and 109 LEP students show that tests and items can be simplified linguistically without compromising score…

  15. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for the... be of such size that there is at least 2.78 square meters (30 square feet) of deck area and a volume... contained therein for the use of the occupants are not to be deducted from the total volume or from the...

  16. Dictation and Speech Recognition Technology as Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Cavalier, Albert R.

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed the feasibility and validity of dictation using speech recognition software and dictation to a scribe as accommodations for tests involving extended writing. On the issue of feasibility, high school students with and without learning disabilities (LD) learned to use speech recognition software with acceptable accuracy. Total…

  17. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  18. Testing Accommodations. NetNews. Volume 7, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2006

    2006-01-01

    LDA (Learning Disabilities Association) of Minnesota receives many calls and emails regarding testing accommodations for large-scale testing programs. Callers include the test-takers themselves, parents, teachers, counselors, advocates, and an occasional attorney. The standardized tests they ask about include the GED, SAT and ACT (for college…

  19. Simplified Language as an Accommodation on Math Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Monroe, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    As accountability requirements for determining adequate yearly progress increase, states are working to make standards-based assessments accessible for all students. Providing accommodations on assessments is one of the main ways to allow not only students with disabilities but also students who are English Language Learners to be included in…

  20. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity,…

  1. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines the nature…

  2. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests indicated…

  3. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  4. Mass accommodation of aniline, phenol and toluene on aqueous droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, M.R.; Pilling, M.J.; Titcombe, P.E.

    1995-11-15

    This report describes measurements of mass accommodation coefficients at a temperature of 283k for the volatile organic compounds aniline, phenol, and toluene using the droplet train method. Laser induced fluoresecence was used as a detection method for the trace molecules.

  5. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  6. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  7. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  8. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  9. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  10. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  11. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  12. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  13. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  14. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  15. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  16. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  17. An Analysis of State Assessment Policies Addressing the Accommodation of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Carlene; Collum, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews 15 research studies that: (1) examined effects of particular accommodations or groups of accommodations on performance: and (2) employed experimental and quasi-experimental research designs that allowed examination of the effect of the accommodation(s) on English Language Learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs. Studies looked at one or…

  18. Retinal Image Quality during Accommodation in Adult Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Aslakson, Emily; Kornaus, Andrew; Thibos, Larry N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Reduced retinal image contrast produced by accommodative lag is implicated with myopia development. Here, we measure accommodative error and retinal image quality from wavefront aberrations in myopes and emmetropes when they perform visually demanding and naturalistic tasks. Methods Wavefront aberrations were measured in 10 emmetropic and 11 myopic adults at three distances (100, 40, and 20 cm) while performing four tasks (monocular acuity, binocular acuity, reading, and movie watching). For the acuity tasks, measurements of wavefront error were obtained near the end point of the acuity experiment. Refractive state was defined as the target vergence that optimizes image quality using a visual contrast metric (VSMTF) computed from wavefront errors. Results Accommodation was most accurate (and image quality best) during binocular acuity whereas accommodation was least accurate (and image quality worst) while watching a movie. When viewing distance was reduced, accommodative lag increased and image quality (as quantified by VSMTF) declined for all tasks in both refractive groups. For any given viewing distance, computed image quality was consistently worse in myopes than in emmetropes, more so for the acuity than for reading/movie watching. Although myopes showed greater lags and worse image quality for the acuity experiments compared to emmetropes, acuity was not measurably worse in myopes compared to emmetropes. Conclusions Retinal image quality present when performing a visually demanding task (e.g., during clinical examination) is likely to be greater than for less demanding tasks (e.g., reading/movie watching). Although reductions in image quality lead to reductions in acuity, the image quality metric VSMTF is not necessarily an absolute indicator of visual performance because myopes achieved slightly better acuity than emmetropes despite showing greater lags and worse image quality. Reduced visual contrast in myopes compared to emmetropes is consistent

  19. Accommodation, Acuity, and their Relationship to Emmetropization in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Jones, Lisa A.; Friedman, Nina E.; Frane, Sara L.; Lin, Wendy K.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Methods Defocus at distance and near (57cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Results Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R2 = 0.17, p<0.0001) and near (R2 = 0.13, p<0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p-values <0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00D or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68, 0.88)). Conclusions The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that the amount of accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization. PMID

  20. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  1. Beyond Psychometric Evaluation of the Student--Task Determinants of Accommodation: Why Students with Learning Disabilities May Not Need to Be Accommodated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities obtain a wide range of recommended accommodations in secondary school, which they anticipate will continue into postsecondary education. Although the student's specific learning disability (SLD) contributes to the accommodation planning process, it is not the sole determinant of appropriate accommodation.…

  2. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…

  3. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  4. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  5. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  6. Contract Training for Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averill, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes contract training whereby industries arrange with community colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools to prepare employees for specific job assignments. Indicates that industrial training performed under contract with public institutions should be encouraged in favor of expansion of training that industry performs for…

  7. Performance Contracting Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlferd, Gerald H.

    Conclusions reached after three years of performance contracting experience and materials with which to judge the validity of the conclusions are presented in this overview of performance contracting. The conclusions are: (1) commercial firms are no better at teaching children than are public schools; (2) commercial firms expend as much or more…

  8. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  9. Cartographic services contract...for everything geographic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Cartographic Services Contract (CSC) is used to award work for photogrammetric and mapping services under the umbrella of Architect-Engineer (A&E) contracting. The A&E contract is broad in scope and can accommodate any activity related to standard, nonstandard, graphic, and digital cartographic products. Services provided may include, but are not limited to, photogrammetric mapping and aerotriangulation; orthophotography; thematic mapping (for example, land characterization); analog and digital imagery applications; geographic information systems development; surveying and control acquisition, including ground-based and airborne Global Positioning System; analog and digital image manipulation, analysis, and interpretation; raster and vector map digitizing; data manipulations (for example, transformations, conversions, generalization, integration, and conflation); primary and ancillary data acquisition (for example, aerial photography, satellite imagery, multispectral, multitemporal, and hyperspectral data); image scanning and processing; metadata production, revision, and creation; and production or revision of standard USGS products defined by formal and informal specification and standards, such as those for digital line graphs, digital elevation models, digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital raster graphics.

  10. Working Papers on Contract Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; And Others

    Included in this package are: a copy of a learning contract between two students; an abstract fulfilling part of the contract objectives; and six papers on the topic of contract education. The goal of the learning contract was to edit and prepare for publication "Working Papers on Contract Education". The credential awarded for satisfactory…

  11. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and... projects when the objectives of the research are well defined and there is sufficient confidence in...

  12. Thermal analog device reduces machining errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal analog devices predict thermal expansion and contraction of machine structures subjected to various heat inputs. Analog devices correct positioning of machine tools to compensate for distortion of machine frame.

  13. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    PubMed

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges. PMID:23960266

  14. Lightning accommodation systems for wind turbine generator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind turbine safety program identifies the naturally occurring lightning phenomenon as a hazard with the potential to cause loss of program objectives, injure personnel, damage system instrumentation, structure or support equipment and facilities. Several candidate methods of lightning accommodation for each blade were designed, analyzed, and tested by submitting sample blade sections to simulated lightning. Lightning accommodation systems for composite blades were individually developed. Their effectiveness was evaluated by submitting the systems to simulated lightning strikes. The test data were analyzed and system designs were reviewed on the basis of the analysis. This activity is directed at defining design and procedural constraints, requirements for safety devices and warning methods, special procedures, protective equipment and personnel training.

  15. The visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmstrom, F. V.; Randle, R. J.; Bendix, J. S.; Weber, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of the human visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity are investigated. Subject focusing responses to targets at distances of 0.0 D, 3.0 D and an indeterminate distance were monitored by means of an optometer during the performance of a backwards counting task and a visual imagery task (thinking near and thinking far). In both experiments a shift in accommodation towards the visual far point is observed particularly for the near target, which increases with the duration of the task. The results can be interpreted in terms of both the capacity model of Kahneman (1973) and the autonomic arousal model of Hess and Polt (1964), and are not inconsistent with the possibility of an intermediate resting position.

  16. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  17. A dual-mode disturbance-accommodating controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addington, Stewart; Johnson, C. D.

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the Solar Arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted, oscillating disturbance torques on the HST main body, which cause unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: (1) a `total isolation' (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel-out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions, and (2) an `array damping' (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of Disturbance-Accommodating Control (DAC) Theory a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance-accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing-performance such a controller can achieve.

  18. Dual-mode disturbance-accommodating pointing controller for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addington, Stewart I.; Johnson, C. D.

    1995-03-01

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the solar arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: 1) a total isolation (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions and 2) an array damping (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of disturbance accommodation control theory, a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing performance such a controller can achieve.

  19. 14 CFR 380.32 - Specific requirements for operator-participant contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The tour itinerary, if any, including the name and location of the hotels, length of stay at each, and...-departure notification of a major change, the participant may reject the substituted hotel or the changed... the contract, a refund of the portion of his payment allocable to the hotel accommodations or...

  20. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  1. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    PubMed

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T

    2015-12-01

    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. PMID:26540454

  2. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  3. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  4. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-12-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3 (-1)) and oblique trefoil (Z3 (-3)) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  5. A Contract Based System For Large Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, H R; Brugger, E S; Bonnell, K S; Meredith, J S; Miller, M C; Whitlock, B J; Max, N L

    2005-04-12

    VisIt is a richly featured visualization tool that is used to visualize some of the largest simulations ever run. The scale of these simulations requires that optimizations are incorporated into every operation VisIt performs. But the set of applicable optimizations that VisIt can perform is dependent on the types of operations being done. Complicating the issue, VisIt has a plugin capability that allows new, unforeseen components to be added, making it even harder to determine which optimizations can be applied. We introduce the concept of a contract to the standard data flow network design. This contract enables each component of the data flow network to modify the set of optimizations used. In addition, the contract allows for new components to be accommodated gracefully within VisIt's data flow network system.

  6. The Case for Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sutherland; Wilson, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Discussed the State of Colorado's introduction of performance contracting into its relationships with community mental health centers. Describes the nature of the contract and its implementation. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications of the contract for program evaluation. (Author)

  7. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  8. Simplifying the Measurement of Gastric Accommodation using SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Breen, Mary; Burton, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background Noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been validated as a test for postprandial gastric volume accommodation, with volumes measured twice over 30 minutes and averaged. The purpose of this study is to simplify the SPECT measurement of gastric accommodation. Methods The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 postprandial gastric volume measurements with data collected retrospectively from 443 patients and healthy volunteers who had undergone SPECT in the last decade. The differences in the two gastric volumes were compared in the entire group and each subgroup, and the correlation between the 2 measurements and their differences across a wide range of gastric volumes were plotted. Key Results There was a median difference of <2% (p=0.041) between postprandial scan 1 (757 mL) and scan 2 (743 mL), with significant correlation (rs = 0.859, p<0.01) and excellent agreement (S.D. 60 mL) between the 2 scans across the entire range of observed postprandial gastric volumes. Conclusions & Inferences A single postprandial scan can detect gastric accommodation with the same accuracy as averaging 2 postprandial scans. These data support simplifying SPECT measurement of postprandial gastric volume with a scan in the first 15 minutes after a meal. PMID:23413813

  9. Stereoacuity Outcomes Following Treatment of Infantile and Accommodative Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Wang, Jingyun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To review what is known about the normal maturation of stereoacuity, the stereoacuity deficits associated with infantile and accommodative esotropia, the rationale for making improved stereoacuity a goal of treatment, and strategies for improving stereoacuity outcomes. Methods Studies of stereoacuity maturation during normal development, studies of stereoacuity outcomes following treatment for infantile and accommodative esotropia, and studies of primate models of esotropia are reviewed. Results Stereoacuity maturation normally proceeds rapidly during the first year of life. Infantile and accommodative esotropia are associated with profound and permanent disruption of stereopsis. While rehabilitation of stereoacuity following treatment of esotropia remains a challenge, even the achievement of subnormal stereoacuity may have real benefits to the child. Conclusions Some abnormalities in stereoacuity may exist before the onset of esotropia, but others may result directly from abnormal binocular experience. Several strategies for improving stereoacuity outcomes in esotropia are currently under active investigation. Improved stereoacuity outcomes are associated with better long term stability of alignment, reduced risk for and/or severity of amblyopia, improved achievement of sensorimotor developmental milestones, better reading ability, and improved long-term quality of life. PMID:19390468

  10. Mechanics of Vorticella contraction.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-06-16

    Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin. PMID:20550905

  11. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  12. System Accommodation of Propylene Loop Heat Pipes For The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) are used for precise temperature control for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument in a widely varying LEO thermal environment. Two propylene LHPs are utilized to provide separate thermal control for the Nd:YAG Lasers and the remaining avionics/detector components suite. Despite a rigorous engineering development and test plan to demonstrate the performance in the restrictive GLAS design, the flight units failed initial thermal vacuum acceptance testing at GSFC. Subsequent investigation revealed that compromises in the mechanical packaging of these systems resulted in inadequate charge levels for a concentric wick LHP. The redesign effort included larger compensation chambers that provide more fluid to the wick for start-up scenarios and highlighted the need to fully understand the limitations and accommodation requirements of new technologies in a system design application. Once again, seemingly minor departures from heritage configurations and limited resources led to performance and operational issues. This paper provides details into the GLAS LHP engineering development program and acceptance testing of the flight units, including the redesign effort.

  13. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  14. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  15. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  16. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  17. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  18. The role of the Little salmon fault in accommodating deformation associated with the migration of the Mendocino triple junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, T. H.; Oswald, J.; Williams, T.; McPherson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The boundary between the southern terminus of the Cascadia subduction zone (Csz) and the northern termination of the San Andreas transform system presents a unique opportunity to investigate crustal deformation at a migrating triple junction. This boundary is the trench-transform-transform Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the northwesterly migrating intersection of the Pacific, Gorda/Juan De Fuca, and the North American plates. We use recent and published geologic, geomorphic, geodetic, seismic, and other available geophysical data to characterize the on-shore areas north and south of the MTJ and propose a deformation model for the boundary where e-w subduction gives way to NW translation. North of the MTJ and at the southern end of the Csz, the fold and thrust belt associated with the subducting plate interface is manifest on-land as several zones of northeasterly convergent thrust faults. Observations indicate that faults, focal mechanisms and other stress field indicators systematically change strike as you move from north to south within the on-land portion of the fold and thrust belt. Features in the north demonstrate a more north northwesterly strike than the features in the south which tend to strike more northwesterly as they approach the latitude of the MTJ. This is particularly true for the southernmost fault of the fold and thrust belt, the Little salmon fault (Lsf) which changes strike from roughly N30W at its northern exposure to approximately East-west at its southern exposure over a distance of 27 km. Geologic and paleoseismic data suggests the LSF accommodates significantly more horizontal contraction than the other faults of the southern Csz fold and thrust belt. South of the MTJ the northern San Andreas fault system consists of three primary fault splays that accommodate about 80% of the total Pacific-North American plate boundary motion. The primary faults from west to east are the San Andreas, Maacama, and Bartlett Springs fault zones. Fault

  19. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies

    PubMed Central

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects’ symptoms. Methods We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. Results We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. Conclusions There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. PMID:25323640

  20. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts. PMID:25395372

  1. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  2. Accommodating and cracking mechanisms in low-cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineau, A.

    1978-01-01

    The three main stages of fatigue life (accommodation, crack initiation and crack growth) are briefly reviewed. The cyclic behavior of annealed or predeformed face-centered cubic metals is described. Moreover, two types of alloys (Al-4-Cu and WASPALOY) are examined regarding the influence of the interactions between the precipitates and the dislocations on the cyclic behavior. Data on the percent of life to crack initiation (for a microcrack smaller than about 100 microns) are also given. Finally, experimental and theoretical results on crack growth rates in lowcycle fatigue are described.

  3. Cultural Accommodation of Substance Abuse Treatment for Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Martinez, Charles; Hops, Hyman; Wrona, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Collaborating with community stakeholders is an often suggested step when integrating cultural variables into psychological treatments for members of ethnic minority groups. However, there is a dearth of literature describing how to accomplish this process within the context of substance abuse treatment studies. This paper describes a qualitative study conducted through a series of focus groups with stakeholders in the Latino community. Data from focus groups were used by researchers to guide the integration of cultural variables into an empirically-supported substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents currently being evaluated for efficacy. A model for culturally accommodating empirically-supported treatments for ethnic minority participants is also described. PMID:21888499

  4. Functionalised Polysiloxanes as Injectable, In Situ Curable Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L.; Wilkie, John S.; Meijs, Gordon; Clayton, Anthony; Watling, Jason; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G. M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    The aged eye’s ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D4H concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 minutes under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photorheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels were biocompatible with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted optical and

  5. Performance analysis of Ethernet PON system accommodating 64 ONUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiji; Ohara, Kazuho; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Edagawa, Noboru

    2007-05-01

    We report the performance of an IEEE 802.3 standard compliant Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system accommodating 64 optical network units (ONUs). After investigating the optical transmission performance, we successfully demonstrate that a high throughput of more than 900Mbits/s can be achieved in a 64-ONU EPON system using multiple logical link identifiers per ONU within a range of 10km. In addition, we confirm the feasibility of IP-based high-quality triple play services in the EPON system.

  6. Accommodations assessment: Spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An accommodations analysis performed by the MSFC Preliminary Design Office for a spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system is summarized. A dedicated, free-flying spacecraft design concept is described. Mass and beginning-of-life power requirements are estimated at 2260 kg and 6.0 - 8.5 kW respectively, to support a pulsed, CO2, Doppler lidar having a pulse energy of 10 J, pulse rate of 8 Hz, and efficiency of approximately 5%. Under the assumptions of the analysis, such a system would provide wind measurements on a global scale, with accuracies of a few meters per second.

  7. Plant and animal accommodation for Space Station Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.

    1986-01-01

    An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.

  8. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  9. Nested and Dynamic Contract Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, T. Stephen; Felleisen, Matthias

    Previous work on software contracts assumes fixed and statically known boundaries between the parties to a contract. Implementations of contract monitoring systems rely on this assumption to explain the nature of contract violations and to assign blame to violators. In this paper, we explain how to implement arbitrary, nested, and dynamic contract boundaries with two examples. First, we add nestable contract regions to a static, first-order module system. Second, we show that even a dynamic, higher-order, and hierarchical module system can be equipped with software contracts that support precise blame assignment.

  10. Treatment of Accommodative Dysfunction in Children: Results from an Random Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Cotter, Susan; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cooper, Jeffrey; Gallaway, Michael; Hopkins, Kristine B.; Bartuccio, Mary; Chung, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments. Of the enrolled children, 164 (74%) had accommodative dysfunction; 63 (29%) had a decreased amplitude of accommodation with respect to age, 43 (19%) had decreased accommodative facility, and 58 (26%) had both. Analysis of variance models were used to compare mean accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility for each treatment group after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Results After 12 weeks of treatment, the increases in amplitude of accommodation [office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement group (OBVAT) 9.9D, home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy group (HBCVAT+) 6.7D, home-based pencil push-up therapy group (HBPP) 5.8D] were significantly greater than in the office-based placebo therapy group (2.2D) (p-values ≤ 0.010). Significant increases in accommodative facility were found in all groups (OBVAT: 9cpm, HBCVAT+: 7cpm, HBPP: 5cpm, OBPT: 5.5cpm); only the improvement in the OBVAT group was significantly greater than that found in the OBPT group (p = 0.016). One year after completion of therapy, reoccurrence of decreased accommodative amplitude was present in only 12.5% and accommodative facility in only 11%. Conclusions Vision therapy/orthoptics is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-age children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction. PMID:21873922

  11. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  12. Ensuring Accommodations Used in Content Assessments Are Responsive to English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Lynn Shafer; Rivera, Charlene; Acosta, Barbara D.

    2009-01-01

    This column offers an overview of the requirements for including and accommodating English-language learners (ELLs) in content assessments and an explanation of how accommodations for ELLs work. It concludes with recommendations drawn from research and practice to ensure accommodations are assigned and implemented in ways that are likely to…

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  14. Accommodations Quality for Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Stephanie W.; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and…

  15. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  16. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  17. Teachers' Knowledge of Accommodations as a Validity Issue in High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Tindal, Gerald; Almond, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 166 regular and special-education teachers concerning allowable accommodations on statewide assessment tests found only 21% reported that they used allowed accommodations. Teachers' knowledge of allowable accommodations was low and suggests some students are unnecessarily exempted from participation. Results support preservice and…

  18. Work Barriers Experienced and Job Accommodations Used by Persons with Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn H.; Li, Wei; LaValley, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Many people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the types of work barriers they experience and their use of job accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in persons with arthritis at risk for work disability. (Contains 30…

  19. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  20. The Effects of Testing Accommodations on Students' Performances and Reactions to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on students' test performances and reactions to the use of testing accommodations. Participants (N = 170) were fourth- and eighth-grade students, with and without disabilities. All students were administered, with and without accommodations, equivalent forms of widely used math and reading…