Science.gov

Sample records for accommodated fraction waf

  1. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface. PMID:25534626

  2. Toxicity of fuel oil water accommodated fractions on two marine microalgae, Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min; Shen, Xinqiang; Lun, Fengxia; Shen, Anglv; Yuan, Qi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, the acute toxicity of four fuel oils including F120, F180, F380 and No.-20 was evaluated by exposing the marine microalgae Chlorela spp. (Chlorophyta) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta) in the fuel oil water accommodated fractions (WAF). The bioassay showed that F180 WAF was the most toxic to both microalgae. The 96 h EC(50) value of F180 WAF for Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. was 9.41 and 13.63 mg/L expressed in concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons, respectively. WAFs of F120, F180 and F380 were more toxic to Skeletonema costatum than to Chlorela spp. In contrast, No.-20 WAF did not show significant toxicity for both Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. PMID:22349279

  3. Adverse Effects, Expression of the Bk-CYP3045C1 Gene, and Activation of the ERK Signaling Pathway in the Water Accommodated Fraction-Exposed Rotifer.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Kang, Hye-Min; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Young Hwan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-06-01

    To examine the deleterious effects of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil, the growth curve, fecundity, and lifespan of the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus) were measured for 24 h in response to three different doses (0.2×, 0.4×, and 0.8×) of WAFs. A higher dose of WAFs significantly reduced the fecundity and lifespan. A rotifer 32K microarray chip showed that the Bk-CYP3045C1 gene had the highest expression. Of the 25 entire CYP genes, the Bk-CYP3045C1 gene showed a significant expression for different doses and times in response to WAFs and chemical components of WAFs (naphthalene and phenanthrene); also, glutathione S-transferase genes, ABC transporter, and other genes showed dose responses upon exposure to 80% WAF over time. Different doses of WAFs increased the oxidative stress with an induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a depletion of glutathione (GSH). Exposure to WAFs did not show toxic effects on survivability in B. koreanus; however, toxicity to WAFs was shown when piperonyl butoxide, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, was added. This toxicity was dose-dependent. After WAFs exposure, p-ERK was activated over time in response to WAFs, which suggests that WAFs can be activated by the p-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27135705

  4. Transcriptomic response to water accommodated fraction of crude oil exposure in the gill of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Qu, Keming; Xia, Bin; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Bijuan

    2016-05-15

    Illumina-based RNA-seq was used to determine the short-term transcriptomic responses of Paralichthys olivaceus gill to an environmentally relevant level of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil. 213,979 transcripts and 128,482 unigenes were obtained. Differential expression analysis revealed that 1641 and 2142 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated. Enrichment analysis identified a set of GO terms and putative pathways involved in the response of P. olivaceus to WAF exposure. Analysis of the transcripts revealed the effective protective mechanisms of P. olivaceus to reduce the toxic effects of WAF. Moreover, WAF exposure induced the metabolism of energy substrates, and downstream pathway genes were modified to provide protection against toxic damage. Transcripts analysis demonstrated that the genes involved in circadian rhythm signaling were regulated in gills of P. olivaceus exposed to WAF. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of WAF-induced toxicity in fishes and into the WAF-sensitive biomarkers in P. olivaceus. PMID:27001715

  5. Evaluation of genotoxic responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons as biomarker of exposure.

    PubMed

    Desai, S R; Deasi, S R; Verlecar, X N; Ansari, Z A; Jagtap, T G; Sarkar, A; Vashistha, Deepti; Dalal, S G

    2010-04-01

    Genotoxic responses towards chronic exposure of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons (WAF-P) were evaluated as biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution. The DNA damage caused by water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons was assessed in terms of the DNA integrity measured by alkaline unwinding assay. The comparative study of the growth pattern of C. tenuissimus with respect to DNA integrity and the DNA strand breaks in different concentrations of WAF-P showed sufficient tolerance. However, its toxicity increased proportionately with exposure to elevated levels of WAF-P. Although DNA damage in S. costatum was similar to C. tenuissimus, its tolerance level to WAF-P was at least 5 times lower than that of C. tenuissimus indicating its high sensitivity to petroleum hydrocarbons. Active growth was exhibited by C. tenuissimus between 10 and 20% WAF-P (ranging from 0.59 to 1.18mg/L petroleum hydrocarbons) which can be related to the polluted regions only, suggesting the tolerant nature of this organism. Considering the degree of sensitivity to petroleum products and good growth under laboratory conditions, these two diatoms could be recommended as model species for evaluating ecogenotoxic effects of wide range of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using alkaline unwinding assays. PMID:20096916

  6. Sensitivity and Antioxidant Response of Chlorella sp. MM3 to Used Engine Oil and Its Water Accommodated Fraction.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    We exposed the microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. MM3, to unused or used engine oil, or their water accommodated fractions (WAFs) to determine growth inhibition and response of antioxidant enzymes. Oil type and oil concentration greatly affected the microalgal growth. Used oil at 0.04 % (0.4 g L(-1)) resulted in 50 % inhibition in algal growth, measured in terms of chlorophyll-a, while the corresponding concentration of unused oil was nontoxic. Similarly, used oil WAF showed significant toxicity to the algal growth at 10 % level, whereas WAF from unused oil was nontoxic even at 100 % concentration. Peroxidase enzyme in the microalga significantly increased with used oil at concentrations above 0.04 g L(-1) whereas the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase was apparent only at 0.06 g L(-1). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly when the microalga was exposed to 75 and 100 % WAF obtained from used oil. The used oil toxicity on microalga could be due to the presence of toxic soluble mono- and polyaromatic compounds, heavy metals, and other compounds attained by the oil during its use in the motor engines. PMID:27174464

  7. Photochemical changes in water accommodated fractions of MC252 and surrogate oil created during solar exposure as determined by FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Pamela P; Wilson, Tashiema; Kamerman, Rebecca; Hagy, Melissa E; McKenna, Amy; Chen, Huan; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2016-03-15

    To determine effects of photochemical weathering of petroleum, surrogate and Macondo (MC252) crude oils were exposed to solar radiation during the formation of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) in sterile seawater. Samples were incubated in either unfiltered sunlight, with ultraviolet radiation blocked (Photosynthetically Active Radiation [PAR] only), or in darkness. WAFs were collected at two time points over the course of a week. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses of water soluble species formed during exposure to sunlight were compared for the different treatments. Photochemical alterations resulted in differences in compound class distributions. In general, surrogate oil was photo-oxidized across a wider carbon number range compared to MC252. While photochemical differences were observed between MC252 and surrogate oils, microbial production in seawater responded similarly to both WAFs from both types of oils with the majority of the inhibition resulting from oil exposure to visible light. PMID:26774346

  8. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Sohn, Ju Hae; Ha, Sung Yong; Kang, Habyeong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Jung, Dawoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-06-01

    A crude oil and the coastal sediments that were affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (HSOS) of Taean, Korea were investigated for thyroid hormone disruption potentials. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian Heavy crude oil, the major oil type of HSOS, and the porewater or leachate of sediment samples collected along the coast line of Taean were tested for thyroid disruption using developing zebrafish and/or rat pituitary GH3 cells. Major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms were also measured from the test samples. In zebrafish larvae, significant decreases in whole-body thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, along with transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes, were observed following 5 day exposure to WAFs. In GH3 cells, transcriptions of thyroid regulating genes were influenced following the exposure to the sediment samples, but the pattern of the regulatory change was different from those observed from the WAFs. Composition of PAHs and their alkylated homologues in the WAFs could partly explain this difference. Our results clearly demonstrate that WAFs of crude oil can disrupt thyroid function of larval zebrafish. Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation. PMID:27144452

  9. Biochemical biomarkers and hydrocarbons concentrations in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea brasiliana following exposure to diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction.

    PubMed

    Lüchmann, Karim H; Mattos, Jacó J; Siebert, Marília N; Granucci, Ninna; Dorrington, Tarquin S; Bícego, Márcia C; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio T; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the toxic mechanisms by which organisms cope to environmental stressful conditions is a fundamental question for ecotoxicology. In this study, we evaluated biochemical responses and hydrocarbons bioaccumulation of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed for 96 h to four sublethal concentrations of diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (WAF). For that purpose, enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, G6PDH, GST and GGT), HSP60 and HSP90 immunocontent and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were determined in the gill and digestive gland of oysters and related to the hydrocarbons accumulated in the whole soft tissues. The results of this study revealed clear biochemical responses to diesel fuel WAF exposure in both tissues of the oyster. The capacity of C. brasiliana to bioaccumulate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in a dose-dependent manner is a strong indication of its suitability as a model in biomonitoring programs along the Brazilian coast, which was also validated by the response of the antioxidant defenses, phase II biotransformation and chaperones. HSP60 levels and GGT activity were the most promising biomarkers in the gill, while GST and GR activities stood out as suitable biomarkers for the detection of diesel toxicity in the digestive gland. The decrease of SOD activity and HSP90 levels may also reflect a negative effect of diesel exposure regardless the tissue. The present results provide a sound preliminary report on the biochemical responses of C. brasiliana challenged with a petroleum by-product and should be carefully considered for use in the monitoring of oil and gas activities in Brazil. PMID:21963596

  10. Toxicity assessment of water-accommodated fractions from two different oils using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larval bioassay with a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Perrichon, Prescilla; Le Menach, Karyn; Akcha, Farida; Cachot, Jérôme; Budzinski, Hélène; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-10-15

    Petroleum compounds from chronic discharges and oil spills represent an important source of environmental pollution. To better understand the deleterious effects of these compounds, the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from two different oils (brut Arabian Light and Erika heavy fuel oils) were used in this study. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed during 96h at three WAF concentrations (1, 10 and 100% for Arabian Light and 10, 50 and 100% for Erika) in order to cover a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, representative of the levels found after environmental oil spills. Several endpoints were recorded at different levels of biological organization, including lethal endpoints, morphological abnormalities, photomotor behavioral responses, cardiac activity, DNA damage and exposure level measurements (EROD activity, cyp1a and PAH metabolites). Neither morphological nor behavioral or physiological alterations were observed after exposure to Arabian Light fractions. In contrast, the Erika fractions led a high degree of toxicity in early life stages of zebrafish. Despite of defense mechanisms induced by oil, acute toxic effects have been recorded including mortality, delayed hatching, high rates of developmental abnormalities, disrupted locomotor activity and cardiac failures at the highest PAH concentrations (∑TPAHs=257,029±47,231ng·L(-1)). Such differences in toxicity are likely related to the oil composition. The use of developing zebrafish is a good tool to identify wide range of detrimental effects and elucidate their underlying foundations. Our work highlights once more, the cardiotoxic action (and potentially neurotoxic) of petroleum-related PAHs. PMID:27312275

  11. Effects of water accommodated fractions of crude oils and diesel on a suite of biomarkers in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Holth, T F; Eidsvoll, D P; Farmen, E; Sanders, M B; Martínez-Gómez, C; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Guilhermino, L; Hylland, K

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize concentration- and time-dependent responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) following exposure for one and three weeks to the water-soluble fraction (WAF) of three weathered oils: Arabian Light crude oil (ALC), North Sea crude oil (NSC) and ship-diesel. The sum of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water was highest after one week of exposure and within environmentally relevant concentrations. PAH metabolites in bile confirmed exposure to and uptake of PAHs. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) gene expression (mRNA quantification) increased dramatically following exposure to all three oil types (fold-change up to 165) and there was a time lag between gene and protein expression. Hepatic CYP1A protein concentration and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were more variable among individuals and treatments than gene expression. EROD activity in liver and gills increased in fish exposed to WAF from the two crude oils, but not in fish exposed to WAF from diesel. Exposure to diesel appeared to induce oxidative stress to a greater extent than exposure to crude oils. Other biomarkers (glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholine esterase, vitellogenin) did not appear to respond to the exposure and hence did not discriminate among oils. Biomarker responses in cod after exposure to weathered crude oils and diesel suggested that the CYP1A system and oxidative stress markers have the highest potential for discriminating among different oil types and to monitor the environmental consequences of spills. PMID:24929352

  12. Effects of corexit oil dispersants and the WAF of dispersed oil on DNA damage and repair in cultured human bronchial airway cells, BEAS-2B

    PubMed Central

    Major, Danielle; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Wang, He; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of dispersants were used as a method to disperse the roughly 210 million gallons of spilled crude oil that consumed the Gulf of Mexico. Little is known if the oil-dispersant and oil-dispersant mixtures on human airway BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Here we present the cytotoxic and genotoxic in vitro effects on the human lung cells BEAS-2B following exposure to and oil-dispersant mixtures on human airway BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Here we present the cytotoxic and genotoxic in vitro effects on the human lung cells BEAS-2B following exposure to Corexit dispersants EC9500 and EC9527, Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) -crude, WAF-9500 + Oil, and WAF-9527 + Oil. Cellular cytotoxicity to WAF-dispersed oil samples was observed at concentrations greater than 1000 ppm with over 70% of observed cellular death. At low concentration exposures (100 and 300 ppm) DNA damage was evidenced by the detection of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by alkaline and neutral comet assay analyses. Immunoblot analyses of the phosphorylated histone H2A.X (ɣ-H2A.X) and tumor suppressor p53 protein confirmed activation of the DNA damage response due to the exposure-induced DNA breaks. Although, many xenobiotics interfere with DNA repair pathways, in vitro evaluation of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and DSB repair pathways appear to be unaffected by the oil-dispersant mixtures tested. Overall, this study supports that oil-dispersant mixtures induce genotoxic effects in culture.

  13. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  14. Tissue PAH, blood cell and tissue changes following exposure to water accommodated fractions of crude oil in alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula.

    PubMed

    Omar-Ali, Ahmad; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Rodriguez, Jose; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Alligator gar Atractosteus spatula acclimated to brackish water (9 ppt) were exposed to water accommodated fraction oil loadings (surrogate to Macondo Deepwater Horizon, northern Gulf of Mexico) of 0.5 and 4.0 gm oil/L tank water for 48 h. The surrogate oil was approximately 98% alkanes and alkynes and 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. The 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons were predominately naphthalene. After 48 h, naphthalene levels in fish liver exposed to 0.5 or 4 gm oil/L were 547.79 and 910.68 ppb, while muscle levels were 214.11 and 253.84 ppb. There was a significant decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers and a significant reduction of granulocytes in the kidney marrow of the same fish. Tissue changes included hepatocellular vacuolization and necrosis, necrotizing pancreatitis, renal eosinophilia, and splenic congestion. After 7 days recovery, liver naphthalene levels decreased to 43.59 and 43.20 ppb, while muscle levels decreased to 9.74, and 16.78 ppb for oil exposures of 0, 0.5 or 4 g/L. In peripheral blood and kidney marrow, blood cell counts returned to normal. The severity of liver and kidney lesions lessened after 7 days recovery in non-oiled water, but splenic congestion remained in all gar. PMID:25956543

  15. Autonomous berthing/unberthing of a Work Attachment Mechanism/Work Attachment Fixture (WAM/WAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is the autonomous berthing of a Work Attachment Mechanism/Work Attachment Fixture (WAM/WAF) developed by NASA for berthing and docking applications in space. The WAM/WAF system enables fast and reliable berthing (unberthing) of space hardware. A successful operation of the WAM/WAF requires that the WAM motor velocity be precisely controlled. The operating principle and the design of the WAM/WAF is described as well as the development of a control system used to regulate the WAM motor velocity. The results of an experiment in which the WAM/WAF is used to handle an orbital replacement unit are given.

  16. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  17. [Prognosis value of the immunohystochemical expresion of the p21WAF1 in the larynx cancer].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Caro García, M; Abril García, A; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of protein p21WAF1 (EA10) expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain). In the cases with lymph node metastasis we also studied p21WAF1 expression at this level. Furthermore we have analysed the value of protein p21WAF1 expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we evaluate the relationship between p21WAF1 expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters. PMID:15803916

  18. MDM2 promotes p21waf1/cip1 proteasomal turnover independently of ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yetao; Lee, Hunjoo; Zeng, Shelya X; Dai, Mu-Shui; Lu, Hua

    2003-12-01

    The CDK inhibitor p21waf1/cip1 is degraded by a ubiquitin-independent proteolytic pathway. Here, we show that MDM2 mediates this degradation process. Overexpression of wild-type or ring finger-deleted, but not nuclear localization signal (NLS)-deleted, MDM2 decreased p21waf1/cip1 levels without ubiquitylating this protein and affecting its mRNA level in p53(-/-) cells. This decrease was reversed by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin, by p19(arf), and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MDM2. p21waf1/cip1 bound to MDM2 in vitro and in cells. The p21waf1/cip1-binding-defective mutant of MDM2 was unable to degrade p21waf1/cip1. MDM2 shortened the half-life of both exogenous and endogenous p21waf1/cip1 by 50% and led to the degradation of its lysine-free mutant. Consequently, MDM2 suppressed p21waf1/cip1-induced cell growth arrest of human p53(-/-) and p53(-/-)/Rb(-/-)cells. These results demonstrate that MDM2 directly inhibits p21waf1/cip1 function by reducing p21waf1/cip1 stability in a ubiquitin-independent fashion. PMID:14633995

  19. Drug 9AA reactivates p21/Waf1 and Inhibits HIV-1 progeny formation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weilin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Pedati, Caitlin; Zweier, Lynnsey; Castro, Iris; Klase, Zachary; Dowd, Cynthia S; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Bukrinsky, Michael; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the p53 pathway plays an important role in HIV-1 infection. Previous work from our lab has established a model demonstrating how p53 could become inactivated in HIV-1 infected cells through binding to Tat. Subsequently, p53 was inactivated and lost its ability to transactivate its downstream target gene p21/waf1. P21/waf1 is a well-known cdk inhibitor (CKI) that can lead to cell cycle arrest upon DNA damage. Most recently, the p21/waf1 function was further investigated as a molecular barrier for HIV-1 infection of stem cells. Therefore, we reason that the restoration of the p53 and p21/waf1 pathways could be a possible theraputical arsenal for combating HIV-1 infection. In this current study, we show that a small chemical molecule, 9-aminoacridine (9AA) at low concentrations, could efficiently reactivate p53 pathway and thereby restoring the p21/waf1 function. Further, we show that the 9AA could significantly inhibit virus replication in activated PBMCs, likely through a mechanism of inhibiting the viral replication machinery. A mechanism study reveals that the phosphorylated p53ser15 may be dissociated from binding to HIV-1 Tat protein, thereby activating the p21/waf1 gene. Finally, we also show that the 9AA-activated p21/waf1 is recruited to HIV-1 preintegration complex, through a mechanism yet to be elucidated. PMID:18348731

  20. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  1. G1 checkpoint is compromised in mouse ESCs due to functional uncoupling of p53-p21Waf1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Suvorova, Irina I; Grigorash, Bogdan B; Chuykin, Ilya A; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lack of G1 checkpoint despite that irradiation (IR) activates ATM/ATR-mediated DDR signaling pathway. The IR-induced p53 localizes in the nuclei and up-regulates p21/Waf1 transcription but that does not lead to accumulation of p21/Waf1 protein. The negative control of the p21Waf1 expression appears to occur at 2 levels of regulation. First, both p21/Waf1 gene transcription and the p21/Waf1 protein content increase in mESCs treated with histone-deacetylase inhibitors, implying its epigenetic regulation. Second, proteasome inhibitors cause the p21/Waf1 accumulation, indicating that the protein is a subject of proteasome-dependent degradation in ESСs. Then, the dynamics of IR-induced p21Waf1 protein show its accumulation at long-term time points (3 and 5 days) that coincides with an increase in the proportion of G1-phase cells, down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog pluripotent gene transcription and activation of endoderm-specific genes sox17 and afp. In addition, nutlin-dependent stabilization of p53 in mESC was also accompanied by the accumulation of p21/Waf1 as well as restoration of G1 checkpoint and an onset of differentiation. Thus, the lack of functional p21/Waf1 is indispensable for maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency of mESCs. PMID:26636245

  2. Armoring CRAds with p21/Waf-1 shRNAs: the next generation of oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Höti, N; Chowdhury, WH; Mustafa, S; Ribas, J; Castanares, M; Johnson, T; Liu, M; Lupold, SE; Rodriguez, R

    2011-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a promising modality for the treatment of neoplastic diseases, including Prostate Cancer. Selectively replicating viruses can be generated by placing a tissue or cancer-specific promoter upstream of one or more of the viral genes required for replication (for example, E1A, E1B). We have previously reported multiple cellular processes that can attenuate viral replication, which in turn compromises viral oncolysis and tumor kill. In this study, we investigated the importance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf-1, on viral replication and tumor growth. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the importance of p21/Waf-1shRNA on the induction of an androgen responsive element (ARE) based promoter driving the E1A gene. As a proof of concept, the study emphasizes the use of RNA interference technology to overcome promoter weaknesses for tissue-specific oncolytic viruses, as well as the cellular inhibitor pathways on viral life cycle. Using RNA interference against p21/Waf-1, we were able to show an increase in viral replication and viral oncolysis of prostate cancer cells. Similarly, CRAd viruses that carry p21/Waf-1 shRNA (Ad5-RV004.21) were able to prevent tumor outgrowth that resulted in a marked increase in the mean survival time of tumor-bearing mice compared with CRAd without p21/Waf-1 shRNA (Ad5-RV004). In studies combining Ad5-RV004.21 with Adriamycin, a suprar-additive effect was observed only in CRAds that harbor shRNA against p21/Waf-1. Taken together, these findings of enhanced viral replication in prostate cancer cells by using RNA interference against the cdk inhibitor p21/Waf-1 have significant implications in the development of prostate-specific CRAd therapies. PMID:20448671

  3. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  4. Student Perspectives on Academic Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diana; Scanlon, David

    2016-01-01

    The active involvement of secondary school students with high-incidence disabilities (HI) in instructional accommodations is essential to both enacting the accommodations and to the accommodations effectiveness. Very little is known about students with HI's knowledge about instructional accommodations, experiences with them, or opinions on…

  5. Fixation by active accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavan, Kourosh; Uhlin, Tomas; Eklundh, Jan-Olof

    1992-11-01

    The field of computer vision has long been interested in disparity as the cue for the correspondence between stereo images. The other cue to correspondence, blur, and the fact that vergence is a combination of the two processes, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence, have not been equally appreciated. Following the methodology of active vision that allows the observer to control all his visual parameters, it is quite natural to take advantage of the powerful combination of these two processes. In this article, we try to elucidate such an integration and briefly analyze the cooperation and competition between accommodative vergence and disparity vergence on one hand and disparity and blur stimuli on the other hand. The human fixation mechanism is used as a guide-line and some virtues of this mechanism are used to implement a model for vergence in isolation. Finally, some experimental results are reported.

  6. Differential modulation of paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis by p21Waf1 and p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Lu, Y; Liu, B; Fang, M; Mendelsohn, J; Fan, Z

    2000-05-11

    The impact of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Waf1 and p27Kip1 on paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity was investigated in RKO human colon adenocarcinoma cells with the ecdysone-inducible expression of p21Waf1 or p27Kip1. Ectopic expression of p27Kip1 arrested cells at G1 phase, whereas p21Waf1 expression arrested cells at G1 and G2. Expression of p21Waf1 after paclitaxel treatment produced much greater resistance to paclitaxel than did expression of p27Kip1. We attributed this difference to the additional block at G2 induced by p21Waf1, which prevented cells from entering M phase and becoming paclitaxel susceptible. Expression of p21Waf1 inhibited p34cdc2 activity and markedly reduced paclitaxel-mediated mitotic arrest, from 87.5 to 23%. In contrast, p27Kip1 expression also inhibited p34cdc2 but reduced mitotic arrest only slightly, from 87. 4 to 74.5%. We concluded that the G2 block produced by p21Waf1, but not by p27Kip1, contributed to their unequal modulation of sensitivity to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in RKO cells, and there is no causal relationship between paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity and elevation of p34cdc2 activity. PMID:10828884

  7. Accommodation and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Gianello, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Accommodation refers to the condition in which an organ transplant functions normally by acquiring resistance to immune-mediated injury (especially), despite the presence of anti-transplant antibodies in the recipient. This status is associated with several modifications in the recipient as well as in the graft, such as previous depletion of anti-graft antibodies and their slow return once the graft is placed; expression of several protective genes in the graft; a Th2 immune response in the recipient; and inhibition of the membrane attack complex of complement. PMID:18973811

  8. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  9. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  10. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  11. Suppression of cancer cell growth by adenovirus expressing p21(WAF1/CIP1) deficient in PCNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, N S; Blagosklonny, M V; Zeng, Y X; Wu, G S; Waldman, T; El-Deiry, W S

    1996-07-01

    p53 tumor suppression is deficient in the majority of human cancers. Efforts to understand this pathway have identified cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors and suggested a potential for their replacement in human cancer. In the present studies, expression of a C-terminal deletion mutant of the human p21(WAF1/CIP1) CDK inhibitor completely suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells, whereas full-length p21 only partially suppressed growth. We prepared a replication-deficient adenoviral recombinant which expresses the p21 C-terminal mutant (Ad-WAF1-341) and compared its tumor suppressive abilities with Ad-p53 and Ad-LacZ. Ad-WAF1-341- and Ad-p53-infected cancer cells, but not Ad-LacZ-infected cancer cells, expressed a nuclear protein recognized by anti-p21 antibody and were deficient in cell cycle progression. The exogenous p21 mutant interacted with CDK2 but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen following infection of p21-/- cancer cells. Ad-WAF1-341 was more potent than Ad-p53 in inhibiting DNA synthesis in human papillomavirus 16 E6-expressing cancer cells. Most importantly, the Ad-WAF1-341-infected E6-expressing cells died, whereas most of the Ad-p53-infected cells continued to proliferate. Endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA was observed in Ad-WAF1-341-infected cancer cells. These observations suggest that Ad-WAF1-341 should be evaluated in the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia and other neoplasias resistant to p53. PMID:9816291

  12. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  13. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  14. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho; Williams, Stuart; Chen, Qin M.

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  15. Loss of Notch1-dependent p21Waf1/Cip1 expression influences the Notch1 outcome in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cialfi, Samantha; Palermo, Rocco; Manca, Sonia; De Blasio, Carlo; Vargas Romero, Paula; Checquolo, Saula; Bellavia, Diana; Uccelletti, Daniela; Saliola, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Talora, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a complex role in carcinogenesis, and its signaling pathway has both tumor-suppressor and oncogenic components. In this study we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Notch1 signaling outcome in keratinocyte biology. We demonstrate that Notch1 function contributes to the arsenic-induced keratinocyte transformation. We found that acute exposure to arsenite increases oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation of keratinocyte cells by upregulation of p21waf1/Cip1. The necessity of p21waf1/Cip1 for arsenite-induced cell death was demonstrated by targeted downregulation of p21waf1/Cip1 by using RNA interference. We further demonstrated that on acute exposure to arsenite, p21waf1/Cip1 is upregulated and Notch1 downmodulated, whereas on chronic exposure to arsenite, malignant progression of arsenite-treated keratinocytes cells was accompanied by regained expression and activity of Notch1. Notch1 activity in arsenite-transformed keratinocytes inhibits arsenite-induced upregulation of p21waf1/Cip1 by sustaining c-myc expression. We further demonstrated that c-myc collaborates with Nrf2, a key regulator for the maintenance of redox homeostasis, to promote metabolic activities that support cell proliferation and cytoprotection. Therefore, Notch1-mediated repression of p21waf1/Cip1 expression results in the inhibition of cell death and keratinocytes transformation. Our results not only demonstrate that sustained Notch1 expression is at least one key event implicated in the arsenite human skin carcinogenic effect, but also may provide mechanistic insights into the molecular aspects that determine whether Notch signaling will be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive. PMID:24801890

  16. Loss of p21WAF1 compartmentalisation in sebaceous carcinoma compared with sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous adenoma

    PubMed Central

    McBride, S R; Leonard, N; Reynolds, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Regulation of cell cycle progression is a fundamental control process, linked to cellular differentiation and apoptosis in normal tissues. p21WAF1 is a nuclear protein that regulates cell cycle progression. p21WAF1 can be transcriptionally upregulated by p53, but may be activated independently of p53—for example, during terminal differentiation. Loss of topological control of p21WAF1 expression is an early feature of malignancy in the colorectal system. Similar to the colonic mucosa, sebaceous glands contain cells that are constantly going through a process of cell division, differentiation, and cell death. This study investigated the expression of p53, p21WAF1, and the proliferation marker Ki67 in normal sebaceous glands, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, and sebaceous carcinoma. Methods: Serial sections were stained with monoclonal antibodies to p21WAF1, p53, and Ki67 (MIB1) using standard immunohistochemical techniques. Results: In normal sebaceous glands, p21WAF1 positive cells were only seen within the differentiating compartment, which was spatially distinct from the cycling peripheral Ki67 positive cells. In sebaceous adenoma and sebaceoma, topological control was maintained, with the distribution of markers being similar to that seen in normal sebaceous glands. Loss of topological control of markers of cellular control was seen in sebaceous carcinoma only. This contrasts with colonic tumours, in which loss of p21 compartmentalisation is seen in adenomas at an early stage of tumour progression. Conclusion: This work confirms the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle progression is an important process in the development of malignancy within sebaceous glands, although loss of topological control was seen only in sebaceous carcinoma. PMID:12354803

  17. Differential roles of p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1) in modulating chemosensitivity and their possible application in drug discovery studies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Lu, Y; Parant, J M; Lozano, G; Bacher, G; Beckers, T; Fan, Z

    2001-11-01

    In this study, the differential role of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1) in cell cycle regulation was proposed for use in screening natural or synthetic compounds for cell cycle-dependent (particularly M phase-dependent) antineoplastic activity. p21(Waf1) or p27(Kip1) was ectopically expressed with an ecdysone-inducible mammalian expression system in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Induction of p21(Waf1) or p27(Kip1) expression inhibited the activities of CDK2 and completely arrested cells at G(1) phase of the cell cycle by p27(Kip1) and at G(1) and G(2) phases by p21(Waf1). We examined the sensitivity of these cells to several antineoplastic agents known to be cell cycle-dependent or -independent. Substantially increased resistance to cell cycle-dependent antineoplastic agents was found in the cells when the expression of p21(Waf1) or p27(Kip1) was induced. In contrast, only a desensitization to cell cycle-independent antineoplastic agents was found in the cells arrested by p21(Waf1) or p27(Kip1). Because p21(Waf1) induces an additional block at G(2) phase that inhibits cell entry into M phase, we further examined the difference between p21(Waf1)- and p27(Kip1)-induced cells in their sensitivity to D-24851, a novel M phase-dependent compound. We found that induction of p21(Waf1) after exposure of the cells to D-24851 conferred stronger resistance than did induction of p27(Kip1). Taken together, our results suggest that the differential effect of p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1) on cell cycle regulation may be advantageous for screening chemical libraries for novel antineoplastic candidates that are cell cycle-dependent, and M phase-dependent in particular. PMID:11641417

  18. Cyclin kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in malignant melanoma: reduced expression in metastatic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Maelandsmo, G. M.; Holm, R.; Fodstad, O.; Kerbel, R. S.; Flørenes, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in a panel of primary and metastatic human melanocytic tumors was performed. It was found that, independent of the p53 status, approximately 30% of the primary melanomas and 40% of the metastases completely lacked expression of this cell cycle inhibitor. Some tumors were also analyzed by Northern blotting, and in most of the cases a consistant correlation between mRNA and protein expression was observed. In four benign nevi studied, WAF1/CIP1 mRNA was expressed whereas the protein was not detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation of the inhibitor in these cases. In superficial spreading melanomas, a significant correlation between protein expression and tumor thickness was found, with thin lesions showing low protein levels. Interestingly, by comparing primary and metastatic specimens obtained from the same patient, a reduction in p21WAF1/CIP1 antibody staining was observed in the latter, probably reflecting a more aggressive phenotype of the metastases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the complexity in the relationship between p21WAF1/CIP1 expression and tumor phenotype and furthermore suggest that aberrant expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor may be of importance in the development and progression of sporadic malignant melanoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8952518

  19. Cristacarpin promotes ER stress-mediated ROS generation leading to premature senescence by activation of p21(waf-1).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Souneek; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Kumar, Sunil; Nayak, Debasis; Rah, Bilal; Katoch, Archana; Amin, Hina; Ali, Asif; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-06-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is quite similar to replicative senescence that is committed by cells exposed to various stress conditions viz. ultraviolet radiation (DNA damage), hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic threat), etc. Here, we report that cristacarpin, a natural product obtained from the stem bark of Erythrina suberosa, promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to sub-lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and which eventually terminates by triggering senescence in pancreatic and breast cancer cells through blocking the cell cycle in the G1 phase. The majority of cristacarpin-treated cells responded to conventional SA-β-gal stains; showed characteristic p21(waf1) upregulation along with enlarged and flattened morphology; and increased volume, granularity, and formation of heterochromatin foci-all of these features are the hallmarks of senescence. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the expression of p21(waf1), confirming that the modulation in p21(waf1) by anti-proliferative cristacarpin was ROS dependent. Further, the elevation in p21(waf1) expression in PANC-1 and MCF-7 cells was consistent with the decrease in the expression of Cdk-2 and cyclinD1. Here, we provide evidence that cristacarpin promotes senescence in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, cristacarpin treatment induced p38MAPK, indicating the ROS-dependent activation of the MAP kinase pathway, and thus abrogates the tumor growth in mouse allograft tumor model. PMID:27246693

  20. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori

    2002-10-01

    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  1. p21{sup WAF1} modulates NF-{kappa}B signaling and induces anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in Tax-expressing rat fibroblast

    SciTech Connect

    Akita, Kazumasa; Kawata, Sanae; Shimotohno, Kunitada . E-mail: kshimoto@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-02-05

    Of the cell cycle-associated genes regulated by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21{sup WAF1} is upregulated in HTLV-1-infected cells. Previously, we reported that p21{sup WAF1} stimulated Tax-dependent NF-{kappa}B activation which influences a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In HTLV-1-infected cells, Tax is primarily involved in the constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling. Here, we demonstrate that p21{sup WAF1} affects Tax-dependent NF-{kappa}B signaling by inducing p100/52, an NF-{kappa}B-related protein. W4, a Tax-transformed rat fibroblast cell line, exhibits the constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling, potentially mediated by overexpression of RelB. Ectopic expression of p21{sup WAF1} in W4 cells, which lack endogenous expression due to methylation of the p21{sup WAF1} promoter, induces the expression of p100/52. Bcl-2 expression was also upregulated by ectopic p21{sup WAF1} in this cell line, suggesting that p21{sup WAF1} plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis by modulating NF-{kappa}B signaling in Tax-expressing rat fibroblasts. We also address the expression of NF-{kappa}B-related proteins in HTLV-1-infected cells.

  2. FOXO target gene CTDSP2 regulates cell cycle progression through Ras and p21Cip1/Waf1

    PubMed Central

    Kloet, David E.A.; Polderman, Paulien E.; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Smits, Lydia M.; vanTriest, Miranda H.; vandenBerg, Maaike C.W.; Koerkamp, Marian J. Groot; vanLeenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Holstege, Frank C.; Burgering, Boudewijn M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Activity of FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factors is inhibited by growth factor–PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)–PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt signalling to control a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle progression. Through comparative analysis of a number of microarray datasets we identified a set of genes commonly regulated by FOXO proteins and PI3K–PKB/Akt, which includes CTDSP2 (C-terminal domain small phosphatase 2). We validated CTDSP2 as a genuine FOXO target gene and show that ectopic CTDSP2 can induce cell cycle arrest. We analysed transcriptional regulation after CTDSP2 expression and identified extensive regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression, which depends on the phosphatase activity of CTDSP2. The most notably regulated gene is the CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor p21Cip1/Waf1 and in the present study we show that p21Cip1/Waf1 is partially responsible for the cell cycle arrest through decreasing cyclin–CDK activity. Our data suggest that CTDSP2 induces p21Cip1/Waf1 through increasing the activity of Ras. As has been described previously, Ras induces p21Cip1/Waf1 through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways and indeed both p53 and MEK inhibition can mitigate the CTDSP2-induced p21Cip1/Waf1 mRNA up-regulation. In support of Ras activation by CTDSP2, depletion of endogenous CTDSP2 results in reduced Ras activity and thus CTDSP2 seems to be part of a larger set of genes regulated by FOXO proteins, which increase growth factor signalling upon FOXO activation. PMID:25990325

  3. Expression of p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and eIF4E in the adjacent tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma: establishing the molecular boundary and a cancer progression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Han, Bo; Xia, Hui; Chen, Qian-Ming; Li, Long-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the expression of key molecules and the status of DNA in both oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and adjacent tissues to establish a molecular surgical boundary and provide a cancer progression model. Biopsy samples from 50 OSCC patients were divided into T (cancer), P1 (0-0.5 cm), P2 (0.5-1 cm), P3 (1-1.5 cm) and P4 (1.5-2 cm) groups based on the distances from the visible boundary of the primary focus. Twenty samples of normal mucosa were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry to evaluate p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1), eIF4E and Ki-67 expression and to determine DNA status, respectively. Sub-mucosal invasion was present in the P1 and P2 groups as determined by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Mutant p53 expression decreased gradually from cancerous to normal mucosae, whereas p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression displayed an opposite trend. eIF4E expression decreased from cancerous to normal mucosae. Ki-67 expression, the heteroploidy ratio, S-phase fraction and proliferative index decreased gradually with the distance from the tumour centre. Based on these results, we suggest that the resection boundary in OSCC surgery should be beyond 2 cm from the tumour. Additionally, the adjacent tissues of the primary focus could be used as a model for assessing cancer progression. PMID:25835715

  4. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  5. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  6. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  7. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  8. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  9. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  10. Coupled dam-break flow and bed load modelling using HLLC-WAF scheme.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh-Tabrizi, Alireza; Ghaeini-Hessaroeyeh, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model predicting flow over a mobile bed has been developed. Governing equations consist of the shallow water equations and the Exner equation. The finite volume method on an unstructured triangular grid was deployed to discretize the governing equations. The local Riemann problem is solved by the Harten, Lax and van Leer-contact (HLLC) method in the interface of the cells and the equations are solved using a fully coupled method. Then the flux modelling has been deployed by the total variation diminishing (TVD) version of the weighted average flux (WAF) scheme. The model was verified by comparison of the results and available experimental data for dam-break flow, in a laboratory test, via a channel with sudden enlargement and erodible bed conditions. Comparison of these two sets of results shows that increasing the accuracy of flux modelling caused the model results to have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26398031

  11. Prognostic implications of p21 (Waf1/Cip1) immunolocalization in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shinobu; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Isemura, Mamoru

    2005-06-01

    Protein p21 (Waf1/Cip1) plays a critical role in controlling the cell cycle especially as a check point of G1 and is intimately associated with important cellular activities including differentiation, senescence, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the expression of p21 in multiple myeloma (MM) cells for prognostic evaluation. The immunocytochemical localization of p21 could be categorized into nuclear and cytoplasmic types. The nuclear-type p21 localization was correlated with the severity of MM and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53. Patients with the nuclear-type p21 localization survived significantly shorter than those with the cytoplasmic-type localization. Thus, the present study suggests that p21-immunolocalization can be a useful prognostic marker of MM. PMID:16011301

  12. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  13. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  14. Frequency-Accommodating Manchester Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Mario J.

    1988-01-01

    No adjustment necessary to cover a 10:1 frequency range. Decoding circuit converts biphase-level pulse-code modulation to nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-level pulse-code modulation plus clock signal. Circuit accommodates input data rate of 50 to 500 kb/s. Tracks gradual changes in rate automatically, eliminating need for extra circuits and manual switching to adjust to different rates.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, G; Martinez, J C; Palombini, L; De Rosa, G; Mugica, C; Rodriguez, J A; Zeppa, P; Di Vizio, D; Lucariello, A; Piris, M A

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences. Images PMID:10023338

  16. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/Optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 msec before training and 100 msec after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. PMID:22480879

  17. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Sohn, Jeongwon; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  18. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type... operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical assistance center that facilitates...

  19. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... applicant if the basis for denial is the need to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or...

  20. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  1. WP-2 attached payload accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheib, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of the current SSFP attached payload accommodations on the U.S. truss. The overview includes discussions on the four attach sites, the power architecture, thermal control, DMS provisions, and the mechanical attach mechanism. The presentation concludes with a description of a McDonnell Douglas concept for an attached payload pallet designed to take advantage of the four sites and existing SSF hardware. This presentation should provide the payload community with a basic understanding of the SSF attached payload utility ports and aid in attached payload concept development.

  2. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  3. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  4. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  5. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  6. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  7. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  8. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  9. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.810 Section 177.810... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.810 Overnight accommodations. (a) A.... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and...

  10. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  11. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  12. p21WAF1/CIP1 Expression is Differentially Regulated by Metformin and Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Zoltan; Millward, Ann B.; Tse, Wai; Demaine, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy and other age-related diseases. One of the features of DN is the elevated expression of p21WAF1/CIP1. However, the importance of the mTOR signalling pathway in p21 regulation is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of metformin and rapamycin on mTOR-related phenotypes in cell lines of epithelial origin. This study reports that metformin inhibits high glucose-induced p21 expression. High glucose opposed metformin in regulating cell size, proliferation, and protein synthesis. These effects were associated with reduced AMPK activation, affecting downstream mTOR signalling. However, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin did not have a negative effect on p21 expression, suggesting that metformin regulates p21 upstream of mTOR. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that AMPK activation may regulate p21 expression, which may have implications for diabetic nephropathy and other age-related pathologies. PMID:26464852

  13. Novel cis-trans interactions are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A variety of pathways target CDKI p21WAF1/CIP1 expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as translational levels. We previously found that cell growth suppressing retinoid CD437 enhanced expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and DNA damage inducible GADD45 proteins in part by elevating their mRNA stability. Results Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms of CD437-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression. By utilizing MDA-MB-468 HBC cells expressing chimeric rabbit β-globin-p21WAF1/CIP1 transcripts we mapped multiple CD437-responsive sequences located within positions 1195 to 1795 of the 3'-untranslated region of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA. Several cytoplasmic proteins present in MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 HBC as well as HL-60R leukemia cells bound specifically, in vitro, with these CD437-responsive sequences. CD437 treatment of cells resulted in elevated binding of ~85 kD and ~55 kD cytoplasmic proteins with putative CD437-responsive sequences. A 12 nt RNA sequence (5'-UGUGGUGGCACA-3') present within CD437-responsive region of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA displayed specific and elevated binding with the above noted proteins. Treatment of cells with ActD or CHX prior to CD437 exposure did not abrogate RNA-protein interactions. However, treatment of cytoplasmic protein extracts with proteinase K or alkaline phosphatase resulted in loss of RNA-protein interactions. Conclusions CD437 regulates cell growth in part by regulating stability of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA that involves specific RNA-protein interactions that are phosphorylation-dependent, while not requiring nascent transcription or protein synthesis. PMID:20704727

  14. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  15. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonnière, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities. PMID:9357652

  16. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 inhibits p21{sup WAF1} transcription independently of p53 by inactivating p150{sup Sal2}

    SciTech Connect

    Parroche, Peggy; Touka, Majid; Mansour, Mariam; Bouvard, Veronique; Thepot, Amelie; Accardi, Rosita; Carreira, Christine; Roblot, Guillaume G.; Sylla, Bakary S.; Hasan, Uzma; Tommasino, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    HPV16 E6 deregulates G1/S cell cycle progression through p53 degradation preventing transcription of the CDK inhibitor p21{sup WAF1}. However, additional mechanisms independent of p53 inactivation appear to exist. Here, we report that HPV16 E6 targets the cellular factor p150{sup Sal2}, which positively regulates p21{sup WAF1} transcription. HPV16 E6 associates with p150{sup Sal2}, inducing its functional inhibition by preventing its binding to cis elements on the p21{sup WAF1} promoter. A HPV16 E6 mutant, L110Q, which was unable to bind p150{sup Sal2}, did not affect the ability of the cellular protein to bind p21{sup WAF1} promoter, underlining the linkage between these events. These data describe a novel mechanism by which HPV16 E6 induces cell cycle deregulation with a p53-independent pathway. The viral oncoprotein targets p150{sup Sal2}, a positive transcription regulator of p21{sup WAF1} gene, preventing G1/S arrest and allowing cellular proliferation and efficient viral DNA replication.

  17. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun . E-mail: ycsuo@nenu.edu.cn; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-06

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15{sup INK4b}, but not that of p21{sup WAF1/cip1}, implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis.

  18. miR-299-5p promotes cell growth and regulates G1/S transition by targeting p21Cip1/Waf1 in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    WU, SHUN-QUAN; ZHANG, LANG-HUI; HUANG, HAO-BO; LI, YA-PING; NIU, WEN-YAN; ZHAN, RONG

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are often located in genomic breakpoint regions and are hypothesized to be important regulators involved in the regulation of critical cell processes, including cell apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. miR-299 has been reported to be upregulated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the function and mechanistic role of miR-299 in APL remains unknown. The present study demonstrated mir-299 significantly induced cell growth and cell cycle progression at the G1/S transition in APL cells. Notably, the present study revealed that miR-299-5p induces these effects, whereas miR-299-3p does not. Additional studies demonstrated that in APL cells the tumor suppressor p21Cip1/Waf1 is a downstream target of miR-299; miR-299 binds directly to the 3′ untranslated region of p21Cip1/Waf1, and reduces protein, but not mRNA, levels of p21Cip1/Waf1. The present findings demonstrate that miR-299 exerts growth-promoting effects in APL cells through the suppression of p21Cip1/Waf1. Overall, the present study demonstrates that p21Cip1/Waf1 is a direct functional target of miR-299 in APL. PMID:27347210

  19. Arsenic trioxide phosphorylates c-Fos to transactivate p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zimiao; Huang, H.-S.

    2008-12-01

    An infamous poison, arsenic also has been used as a drug for nearly 2400 years; in recently years, arsenic has been effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Increasing evidence suggests that opposite effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on tumors depend on its concentrations. For this reason, the mechanisms of action of the drug should be elucidated, and it should be used therapeutically only with extreme caution. Previously, we demonstrated the opposing effects of ERK1/2 and JNK on p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) expression in response to ATO in A431 cells. In addition, JNK phosphorylates c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) to recruit TGIF/HDAC1 to suppress p21 gene expression. Presently, we demonstrated that a high concentration of ATO sustains ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increases c-Fos biosynthesis and stability, which enhances p21 gene expression. Using site-directed mutagenesis, a DNA affinity precipitation assay, and functional assays, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of the C-terminus of c-Fos (Thr{sup 232}, Thr{sup 325}, Thr{sup 331}, and Ser{sup 374}) plays an important role in its binding to the p21 promoter, and in conjunction with N-terminus phosphorylation of c-Fos (Ser{sup 70}) to transactivate p21 promoter expression. In conclusion, a high concentration of ATO can sustain ERK1/2 activation to enhance c-Fos expression, then dimerize with dephosphorylated c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) and recruit p300/CBP to the Sp1 sites (- 84/- 64) to activate p21 gene expression in A431 cells.

  20. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  1. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-01-01

    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina. PMID:26842859

  2. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  3. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  4. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 15b.13 Section 15b.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.13 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make...

  6. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  7. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  8. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  9. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  10. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 84.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a)...

  11. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  12. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  13. Validity of Accommodation for English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    The focus of this study was on the validity and feasibility of test accommodation strategies on a small-scale level. Both limited English proficiency (LEP) students and non-LEP students were tested under accommodated and nonaccommodated conditions and their performance was compared. The study was conducted in two public school districts and at…

  14. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  15. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or near... which provides an adequate flow of water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be...

  16. Test Accommodations for LEP Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Rivera, Charlene

    This digest presents an overview of accommodations for students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and an overview of inclusion practices on statewide assessments, with emphasis on the accommodation known as linguistic simplification. The inclusion of LEP students in statewide testing programs over the last decade has been uneven. In the…

  17. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  18. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  19. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  20. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  1. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  2. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  3. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  4. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. PMID:24954685

  5. Programmed cell death protein 4 suppresses CDK1/cdc2 via induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1).

    PubMed

    Göke, R; Barth, P; Schmidt, A; Samans, B; Lankat-Buttgereit, B

    2004-12-01

    We show that the recently discovered tumor suppressor pdcd4 represses the transcription of the mitosis-promoting factor cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1/cdc2 via upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1). p21(Waf1/Cip1) inhibits CDK4/6 and CDK2. Decrease of CDK4/6 and CDK2 enhances the binding of pRb to E2F/DP, which in turn together bind to and repress the cdc2 promoter. Upregulation of CDK1/cdc2 accompanied by a malignant change was previously reported in colon cancer. We show that expression of pdcd4 as an indirect suppressor of CDK1/cdc2 is lost in progressed carcinomas of lung, breast, colon, and prostate. Furthermore, it seems that localization and expression of pdcd4 directly correlate with tumor progression. Finally, the CDK1/cdc2 inhibitor roscovitine reduces the proliferation of several tumor cell lines, suggesting that inhibition of CDK1/cdc2 may be a useful strategy against malignant transformation. Therefore, pdcd4 might serve as a novel target for antineoplastic therapies. PMID:15317660

  6. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  7. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  8. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  9. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  10. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  11. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  12. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  13. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  14. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  15. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  16. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. PMID:21157661

  17. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  18. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  19. [The deterioration of refractive accommodative esotropia].

    PubMed

    Yan, J; Yang, S; Wang, Y

    1995-09-01

    137 patients with refractive accommodative esotropia who were followed for at least 5 years were investigated. The results showed that in 23 of the 137 patients (16.8%) occurred the deterioration of esotropia that means esotropia can no longer be controlled by wearing a pair of complete corrective spectacles. The deterioration develops most likely in patients with delay of anti-accommodative therapy or with malfunction of binocular vision. The age of onset, refractive status and the visual acuity difference between bilateral eyes are not etiologic factors in the process of deterioration. We consider that early diagnosis of accommodative esotropia, timely prescription of optical correction and maintenance of normal binocular vision play important roles in preventing the deterioration. PMID:8706583

  20. Viking B complex gets new accommodations platform

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that a new accommodation platform in the Viking gas field, operated by Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. in the southern North SEa, was commissioned January 10. The new facility is equipped with the first freefall lifeboats to enter service in the U.K. offshore oil and gas industry, the Conoco. The platform is linked to the other three Viking B platforms by a 65 m bridge. The other platforms are where drilling, production, and compression activities occur. As well as accommodating up to 56 people on the new platform, it also contains a monitoring and control station, plant and switchgear rooms, fire pumps, and a loading bay. The project cost {Brit pounds}18 million and required 14 months from design to commissioning. It included building and installing a new jacket and deck and moving existing accommodation module and helideck from their previous location on the Viking BD to the new BA.

  1. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  2. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  3. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  4. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  5. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 18.412 Section 18.412 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  6. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  8. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 4.123 Section 4.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  9. 15 CFR 8b.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8b.12 Section 8b.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Employment Practices § 8b.12 Reasonable...

  10. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  11. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  12. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 42.511 Section 42.511 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  14. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended Employment Practices § 1040.67...

  17. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  18. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  19. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  20. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  1. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  2. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  3. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  4. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  5. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  6. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  7. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  8. Testing Accommodations and Inclusive Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebling, Bradley C.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2005-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale assessments, typically by using testing accommodations, for statewide accountability systems became a legal reality with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, and the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. These legal mandates and best…

  9. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  10. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  11. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  12. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  13. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... public and common use areas. (b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  16. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  17. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  18. Mentoring for Success: Accommodation Strategies for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jill; Abbott, Marilyn; Rossiter, Marian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a seven-week action research mentoring project would help two junior high school science teachers to feel more confident and successful in their abilities to use accommodation strategies to support the English language learners (ELLs) in their classes, and consequently to increase their ability to assess more…

  19. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  20. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  1. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  2. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... provided according to the following formula: Persons of same sex Toilet bowls required 1 to 15, inclusive...

  3. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  4. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  5. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  6. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  7. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  8. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  9. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  10. Identifying Appropriate Test Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Capizzi, Andrea M.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of identification of appropriate testing accommodations for students with learning disabilities (LD). First it defines the concept of testing accommodations and review research on test accommodations commonly used with students with LD. Next it examines the validity and fairness in accommodations, as well as the…

  11. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  12. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  13. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  14. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  15. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  16. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  17. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  19. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  20. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  1. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  2. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  3. Combination treatment with proteasome inhibitors and antiestrogens has a synergistic effect mediated by p21WAF1 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maynadier, Marie; Basile, Ilaria; Gallud, Audrey; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Garcia, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    Although antiestrogens significantly improve the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, therapeutic resistance remains a major limitation. The combinatorial use of antiestrogen with other therapies was proposed to increase their efficiency and more importantly, to prevent or delay the resistance phenomenon. In the present study, we addressed their combined effects with proteasome inhibitors (PIs). The effects of antiestrogens (hydroxyl-tamoxifen, raloxifen and fulvestrant) currently used in endocrine therapy were tested in combination with PIs, bortezomib or MG132, on the growth of three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines and in two cellular models of acquired antiestrogen resistance. When compared to single treatments, these combined treatments were significantly more effective in preventing the growth of the cell lines. The regulation of key cell cycle proteins, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21WAF1 and p27KIP1, were also studied. Bortezomib and MG132 drastically increased p21WAF1 expression through elevation of its mRNA concentration. Notably, p27KIP1 regulation was quite different from that of p21WAF1. Furthermore, the effect of bortezomib in combination with antiestrogen was evaluated on antiestrogen-resistant cell lines. The growth of two antiestrogen-resistant cell lines appeared responsive to proteasome inhibition and was strongly decreased by a combined therapy with an antiestrogen. Collectively, these findings provide new perspectives for the use of PIs in combination with endocrine therapies for breast cancer and possibly to overcome acquired hormonal resistance. PMID:27373750

  4. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  5. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  6. Doxorubicin Activates Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Elevation of p21 (Waf1/Cip1) and C/EBPα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fang; Chong, Chin-Liew; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Hong, Ming-Hsiang; Hu, Cheng-po; Chen, Mong-Liang; Chou, Yu-Chi; Chang, Chungming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus reactivation is an important medical issue in cancer patients who undergo systemic chemotherapy. Up to half of CHB carriers receiving chemotherapy develop hepatitis and among these cases a notable proportion are associated with HBV reactivation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) through which various chemotherapeutic agents induce HBV reactivation is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the cell cycle regulator p21 (Waf1/Cip1) in the modulation of HBV replication when a common chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, is present. We showed that p21 expression was increased by doxorubicin treatment. This elevation in p21 expression enhanced the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα); such an increase is likely to promote the binding of C/EBPα to the HBV promoter, which will contribute to the activation of HBV replication. Our current study thus reveals the mechanism underlying doxorubicin modulation of HBV replication and provides an increased understanding of HBV reactivation in CHB patients who are receiving systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26121644

  7. Visual-Accommodation Trainer/Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ophthalmic instrument tests and helps develop focusing ability. Movable stage on a fixed base permits adjustment of effective target position as perceived by subject. Various apertures used to perform tests and training procedures. Ophthalmic instrument provides four functions: it measures visual near and far points; provides focus stimulus in vision research; measures visual-accommodation resting position; can be used to train for volitional control of person's focus response.

  8. Transcriptional inhibition of p21WAF1/CIP1 gene (CDKN1) expression by survivin is at least partially p53-dependent: evidence for survivin acting as a transcription factor or co-factor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Ling, Xiang; Liu, Wensheng; Das, Gokul M; Li, Fengzhi

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the antiapoptotic protein survivin in promotion of cancer cell G1/S transition and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Further, although upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) by p53 plays an important role in p53-mediated cell G1 arrests in response to various distresses, it is unknown whether survivin plays a role in the regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression. Here, we report that exogenous expression of survivin in p53-wild type MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibits the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) protein, mRNA and promoter activity, while the survivin C84A mutant and antisense failed to do so. Cotransfection experiments in the p53 mutant H1650 lung cancer cell line showed that survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression and promoter activity. Importantly, genetically silencing of endogenous survivin using lentiviral survivin shRNA also enhances endogenous p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells, suggesting the physiological relevance of the fining. We further demonstrated that both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter (-2313 to -2212; -1452 to -1310), and survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Together, we propose that survivin may act as a transcription factor or cofactor to interact with p53 on the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter leading to the inhibition of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression at least in part by neutralizing p53-mediated transcriptional activation of the p21 gene. PMID:22503977

  9. Accommodation of COTS LCDs in military displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James B.; Henz, James M.; Dodd, Sonia R.

    1998-09-01

    Commercial off the shelf (COTS) liquid crystal displays are attractive as an alternative to LCDs that are custom designed and manufactured for the military environment. Commercial displays require significant modification to accommodate their use. This paper describes specific modifications that create a thermal cocoon around a nominal 3.6 X 4.6-inch commercial industrial/automotive display. The thermal design techniques allow the display to function in the particularly challenging F-16 thermal environment without exceeding the display's operating specification. The work is extended to examine what additional design extensions are required for still larger displays.

  10. Strain accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of strain accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic strain in the presence of a shear strain promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic strain is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.

  11. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree; Kim, Minjee; Jeong, Seon-Young; Yun, Jeanho

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.

  12. Loss of p21WAF1/Cip1 in Gadd45-deficient keratinocytes restores DNA repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoko; Espino, Robin A; Chomey, Eugene G; Luong, Le; Bano, Ather; Meakins, Diana; Tron, Victor A

    2005-10-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV)-induced DNA damage is repaired primarily by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Gadd45 is a multifunctional protein that regulates NER. Gadd45-deficient keratinocytes fail to repair UV-induced DNA damage, but the mechanism by which Gadd45 stimulates repair of UV-induced DNA damage is unknown. p21WAF1/Cip1 (p21) is a well-characterized downstream target of p53 that binds to Gadd45 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The role of p21 in NER is somewhat controversial, however, recent studies appear to suggest that it inhibits DNA repair by inhibiting PCNA activity. Since a physical interplay exists between p21, Gadd45 and PCNA, we hypothesized that Gadd45 promoted DNA repair via p21. Initially, we examined p21 protein expression in Gadd45-deficient and proficient mice and found a higher base level of p21 protein in Gadd45-deficient keratinocytes and in most other tissues. With these results, we next speculated on the role played by p21 in Gadd45 regulated NER, by exposing keratinocytes from wild-type, single and double knockout (Gadd45 and p21) mice to UV, and measuring the responses. We confirmed that Gadd45-deficient keratinocytes were defective in UV-induced NER, but interestingly Gadd45/p21-null keratinocytes had normal NER in response to UV. Furthermore, Gadd45/p21-null keratinocytes were more resistant to UV-induced cell death than Gadd45-deficient keratinocytes. These results support the hypothesis that Gadd45 enhances NER by negatively regulating basal p21 expression in keratinocytes. PMID:15917306

  13. p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) limits senescence and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia formation during pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Hehl, Adrian B; Seleznik, Gitta M; Saponara, Enrica; Schlesinger, Kathryn; Zuellig, Richard A; Dittmann, Anja; Bain, Martha; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells into ductal-like lesions, a process defined as acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), is observed in the course of organ regeneration following pancreatitis. In addition, ADM is found in association with pre-malignant PanIN lesions and correlates with an increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Human PDAC samples show down-regulation of p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) , a key regulator of cell cycle and cell differentiation. Here we investigated whether p21 down-regulation is implicated in controlling the early events of acinar cell trans-differentiation and ADM formation. p21-mediated regulation of ADM formation and regression was analysed in vivo during the course of cerulein-induced pancreatitis, using wild-type (WT) and p21-deficient (p21(-/-) ) mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate disease progression over 2 weeks of the disease and during a recovery phase. We found that p21 was strongly up-regulated in WT acinar cells during pancreatitis, while it was absent in ADM areas, suggesting that p21 down-regulation is associated with ADM formation. In support of this hypothesis, p21(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in number and size of metaplasia. In addition, p21 over-expression in acinar cells reduced ADM formation in vitro, suggesting that the protein regulates the metaplastic transition in a cell-autonomous manner. p21(-/-) mice displayed increased expression and relocalization of β-catenin both during pancreatitis and in the subsequent recovery phase. Finally, loss of p21 was accompanied by increased DNA damage and development of senescence. Our findings are consistent with a gate-keeper role of p21 in acinar cells to limit senescence activation and ADM formation during pancreatic regeneration. PMID:25212177

  14. Fractional oscillator.

    PubMed

    Stanislavsky, A A

    2004-11-01

    We consider a fractional oscillator which is a generalization of the conventional linear oscillator in the framework of fractional calculus. It is interpreted as an ensemble average of ordinary harmonic oscillators governed by a stochastic time arrow. The intrinsic absorption of the fractional oscillator results from the full contribution of the harmonic oscillator ensemble: these oscillators differ a little from each other in frequency so that each response is compensated by an antiphase response of another harmonic oscillator. This allows one to draw a parallel in the dispersion analysis for media described by a fractional oscillator and an ensemble of ordinary harmonic oscillators with damping. The features of this analysis are discussed. PMID:15600586

  15. Student Perceptions of the Accommodation Process in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Noelle; Mellard, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    One cause of the underrepresentation of students with disabilities in postsecondary education may be a lack of appropriate and effective accommodations (e.g., West et al., 1993). This study hypothesized that ineffective and inappropriate accommodations result from an accommodation selection process that focuses on disability type rather than…

  16. Extended Time Testing Accommodations: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Extended time is among the most common testing accommodations given to students with a wide range of disabilities. However, although school psychologists are often involved in accommodation decisions, many are unaware of research from the past decade that has changed their understanding of extended time. Used properly, testing accommodations let…

  17. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  18. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  19. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  20. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  1. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  2. Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny C.; Rivera, Nichole M.; Chang, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Testing accommodations have been widely utilized as a way of increasing the validity of content assessments for English language learner (ELL) students. However, concerns have also arisen regarding the appropriateness of accommodation use, including the accessibility and fairness of accommodations. While many states have…

  3. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1... SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages... compartment suitably separated from other spaces for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have...

  4. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  5. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  6. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  7. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  8. State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations, 2001. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thompson, Sandra; Robey, Jennifer

    This report presents findings of an analysis of state policies on student participation in assessments and accommodations for 2001. Major findings include: (1) participation options beyond the usual three (participation without accommodations, participation with accommodations, alternate assessment) have become more evident and include partial…

  9. Job Accommodation System: Project TIE (Technology in Employment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary; Zimbrich, Karen; Butterworth, John; Hart, Debra

    This manual presents a comprehensive evaluation tool that can be used by employees with disabilities, by rehabilitation practitioners, and by consultants to develop job accommodations in a variety of employment settings. The Job Accommodation System is designed to help in identifying, selecting, and implementing job accommodations and consists of…

  10. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must...

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with...

  12. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  13. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  14. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  15. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages of more than 3 days' duration between...

  16. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  17. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes...

  18. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  19. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  20. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  1. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  2. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  3. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  4. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  5. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  6. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  7. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  8. Optimal integral controller with sensor failure accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, T.; Houlihan, T.

    1989-01-01

    An Optimal Integral Controller that readily accommodates Sensor Failure - without resorting to (Kalman) filter or observer generation - has been designed. The system is based on Navy-sponsored research for the control of high performance aircraft. In conjunction with a NASA developed Numerical Optimization Code, the Integral Feedback Controller will provide optimal system response even in the case of incomplete state feedback. Hence, the need for costly replication of plant sensors is avoided since failure accommodation is effected by system software reconfiguration. The control design has been applied to a particularly ill-behaved, third-order system. Dominant-root design in the classical sense produced an almost 100 percent overshoot for the third-order system response. An application of the newly-developed Optimal Integral Controller - assuming all state information available - produces a response with no overshoot. A further application of the controller design - assuming a one-third sensor failure scenario - produced a slight overshoot response that still preserved the steady state time-point of the full-state feedback response. The control design should have wide application in space systems.

  9. Analysis of human crystalline lens accommodation.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chang-Hai M; Huang, Tseng; Schachar, Ronald A

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of the human crystalline lens during accommodation is analytically studied. The lens is modeled as a closed axisymmetrical membrane shell of varying thickness enclosing an incompressible liquid. To simulate zonular tension associated with lenticular accommodation, an axisymmetrical radial force or displacement is imposed around the shell equator. Two second-order, simultaneous, nonlinear governing differential equations are derived. Numerical results, obtained from the investigation of human lens profiles of three independently published MRI images and a drawing of a microphotograph, demonstrate that when zonular traction within the physiological force range of the ciliary muscle is exerted, both central lens thickness and central optical power increase. Qualitatively, these increases are independent of lens shape. However, the magnitude of these changes is dependent on the initial profile of the lens and is enhanced by the "natural" variation in capsular thickness. Only when a pulling force significantly exceeds the force capacity of the ciliary muscle does the lens flatten and its central thickness and optical power decrease. PMID:16023655

  10. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  11. Defect accommodation in nanostructured soft crystals.

    PubMed

    Exner, Alexander; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Fischer, Steffen; Lindner, Peter; Förster, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the structure of lyotropic micellar FCC soft crystals was performed by scanning small-angle neutron scattering. Soft crystals have a large number of structural defects, leading to characteristic features in the scattering patterns such as secondary Bragg peaks, diffuse scattering lines, and paracrystalline distortions. We find that the presence of a large number of defects locally breaks the three-dimensional symmetry of the crystal, leading to weakly correlated assemblies of stacked {111} layers. Positional correlations of micelles in different layers are very short ranged, with correlation lengths corresponding to only a few layers. Within the layers, in-plane positional correlations are somewhat longer ranged, but still corresponding to only a few unit cells. Depending on the polydispersity, soft crystals accommodate defects to form mesocrystals of iso-oriented mosaic domains, or paracrystals. The soft layer structures already show characteristic features of two-dimensional systems, exhibiting short-range positional order and longer-ranged orientational order, with similarities to hexatic and recently observed soft quasicrystalline structures. The study shows that defects can be differently accommodated in soft crystals, thereby strongly affecting local and macroscopic positional and orientational order. PMID:24336833

  12. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  13. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  14. Saccades reduce latency and increase velocity of ocular accommodation.

    PubMed

    Schor, C M; Lott, L A; Pope, D; Graham, A D

    1999-11-01

    Horizontal vergence can be stimulated binocularly with disparity (disparity vergence) or monocularly with accommodation (accommodative vergence). The latter results from a neural cross-coupling that causes both horizontal vergence and accommodation to respond when either one is stimulated [Alpern, M., & Ellen, P. (1956). American Journal of Ophthalmology, 42, 289-303]. The velocity of disparity and accommodative vergence is enhanced when accompanied by saccades [Enright, J. T. (1984). Journal of Physiology (London) 350, 9-31; Enright, J. T. (1986). Journal of Physiology (London) 371, 69-89]. Based upon the coupling between accommodation and vergence, we predicted that accommodation should also be facilitated by saccades. An SRI Dual Purkinje Eyetracker was used to measure left and right eye position, and the accommodation of the left eye, in response to stimulation. Horizontal saccades were stimulated by targets separated by 2-6 degrees and accommodation was stimulated monocularly over a range of +/- 2 diopters (D). When saccades occurred within 0-400 ms following a monocular step stimulus to accommodation, latency of accommodation decreased and the associated accommodative-vergence response was synchronized with the saccade. Saccades also enhanced the velocity of accommodation and accommodative-vergence, and this facilitation increased with saccade amplitude. Transient vergence responses that are normally associated with saccades [Erkelens, C. J., Steinman, R. M., & Collewijn, H. (1989). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences, 236, 441-465; Maxwell, J. S., & King, W. M. (1992). Journal of Neurophysiology, 68 (4), 1248-1260] did not affect accommodation when it was not stimulated by defocus. Because saccades and accommodation utilize separate plants and final common pathways, the synchronization of saccades and accommodation and the enhanced velocity of accommodation and accommodative-vergence must occur at more central sites

  15. Knocking down p53 with siRNA does not affect the overexpression of p21WAF-1 after exposure of IMR-90 hTERT fibroblasts to a sublethal concentration of H2O2 leading to premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Zdanov, Stephanie; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Toussaint, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    Premature senescence of IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) expressing telomerase was induced by exposure to sublethal concentration of H(2)O(2), with appearance of several biomarkers of cellular senescence like enlarged cell shape, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ss-gal) activity, and cell cycle arrest. The induction of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was associated with a transient increase in DNA-binding activity of p53 and an increased expression of p21(WAF-1). p53 small interferent RNA (siRNA) affected the basal level of p21(WAF-1) mRNA but did not affect the overexpression of p21(WAF-1) after stress. This siRNA approach confirms previous results obtained with other methods. PMID:17460194

  16. Accommodation Hell, or, To Hell with Accommodation: The ADA and the Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William L.

    This material is designed to help faculty understand the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). A brief overview notes three key considerations: the definition of disability, reasonable accommodation, and undue hardship, and then discusses faculty liability and responsibility for discriminatory acts. The balance of the…

  17. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  18. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  19. The interactive processes of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Semmlow, J L; Bérard, P V; Vercher, J L; Putteman, A; Gauthier, G M

    1994-01-01

    A near target generates two different, though related stimuli: image disparity and image blur. Fixation of that near target evokes three motor responses: the so-called oculomotor "near triad". It has long been known that both disparity and blur stimuli are each capable of independently generating all three responses, and a recent theory of near triad control (the Dual Interactive Theory) describes how these stimulus components normally work together in the aid of near vision. However, this theory also indicates that when the system becomes unbalanced, as in high AC/A ratios of some accommodative esotropes, the two components will become antagonistic. In this situation, the interaction between the blur and disparity driven components exaggerates the imbalance created in the vergence motor output. Conversely, there is enhanced restoration when the AC/A ratio is effectively reduced surgically. PMID:7633627

  20. Fault Accommodation in Control of Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Lim, Kyong B.

    1998-01-01

    New synthesis techniques for the design of fault accommodating controllers for flexible systems are developed. Three robust control design strategies, static dissipative, dynamic dissipative and mu-synthesis, are used in the approach. The approach provides techniques for designing controllers that maximize, in some sense, the tolerance of the closed-loop system against faults in actuators and sensors, while guaranteeing performance robustness at a specified performance level, measured in terms of the proximity of the closed-loop poles to the imaginary axis (the degree of stability). For dissipative control designs, nonlinear programming is employed to synthesize the controllers, whereas in mu-synthesis, the traditional D-K iteration is used. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed techniques, they are applied to the control design of a structural model of a flexible laboratory test structure.

  1. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Disability and accommodation in the healthcare workplace.

    PubMed

    Niccolini, Robert R; Basu, Nina

    2009-04-01

    Employers in the healthcare industry face unique challenges regarding compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Healthcare employers must reasonably accommodate employees in complex and often physically challenging positions, while ensuring safe and effective patient care. These challenges have become even more difficult with the recent passage of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), which significantly expands the definition and scope of "disability" under the ADA, and legislatively reverses several key Supreme Court decisions favorable to employers. Although the ultimate impact of the ADAAA remains to be determined, this article will help employers and their counsel understand how federal disability discrimination laws may affect their businesses going forward, with an analysis of the language of the ADAAA, case law under the ADA, and guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). PMID:19485027

  3. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  4. FGFR1 signaling stimulates proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1).

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Christian; Helledie, Torben; Ling, Ling; Grünert, Martin; Canning, Claire A; Jones, C Michael; Hui, James H; Nurcombe, Victor; van Wijnen, Andre J; Cool, Simon M

    2013-12-01

    Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptor one (FGFR1) is a known inducer of proliferation in both embryonic and human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and positively regulates maintenance of stem cell viability. Leveraging the mitogenic potential of FGF2/FGFR1 signaling in stem cells for therapeutic applications necessitates a mechanistic understanding of how this receptor stimulates cell cycle progression. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion, antibody-inhibition, and small molecule inhibition, we establish that FGFR1 activity is rate limiting for self-renewal of hMSCs. We show that FGFR1 promotes stem cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms that unite to antagonize cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. FGFR1 not only stimulates c-Myc to suppress transcription of the CDK inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1), thus promoting cell cycle progression but also increases the activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and the level of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), resulting in the nuclear exclusion and reduction of p21(Waf1). The in vivo importance of FGFR1 signaling for the control of proliferation in mesenchymal progenitor populations is underscored by defects in ventral mesoderm formation during development upon inhibition of its signaling. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that FGFR1 signaling mediates the continuation of MSC growth and establishes a receptor target for enhancing the expansion of mesenchymal progenitors while maintaining their multilineage potential. PMID:23939995

  5. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Wang, Wei-Ming; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  6. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  7. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  8. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  9. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  10. Magnitude and rate of accommodation in diving and nondiving birds.

    PubMed

    Sivak, J G; Hildebrand, T; Lebert, C

    1985-01-01

    Accommodation was measured in a variety of waterfowl by projecting parallel low power helium-neon laser beams through the pupils of excised eyes placed in saline. The posterior globe was removed, allowing the beams, refracted only by the lens, to focus well behind the eye. Electrical stimulation of the ciliary muscle results in accommodative movement of the focal point toward the eye. Study of video recordings show that diving ducks (Mergus cucullatus and Bucephala clangala) can accommodate the 70-80 D needed to focus light on the retina when the eye is in water. Diving and nondiving species are compared in amount and rate of accommodation. PMID:4049742

  11. [Research Progress in Measurement of Human Accommodative Amplitude].

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian

    2015-09-01

    Accommodation is an important function of the human eye, which can change the parameters of ocular refractive system and also has a strong correlation with the development of myopia and presbyopia. Several subjective measurements have been applied in accommodation assessment such as push-up test, push-down test and minus-lens procedures. It can be measured objectively by measuring the change in refraction of the eye with dynamic retinoscopy or autorefractor. This article reviews the application of measurement of accommodative amplitude and research progress in accommodation, providing clinical information for further studies. PMID:26930838

  12. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  13. Transcriptional inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} gene (CDKN1) expression by survivin is at least partially p53-dependent: Evidence for survivin acting as a transcription factor or co-factor

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lei; Ling, Xiang; Liu, Wensheng; Das, Gokul M.; Li, Fengzhi

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin inhibits the expression of p21 protein, mRNA and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21 expression and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genetic silencing of endogenous survivin upregulates p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21 promoter. -- Abstract: Growing evidence suggests a role for the antiapoptotic protein survivin in promotion of cancer cell G1/S transition and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Further, although upregulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} by p53 plays an important role in p53-mediated cell G1 arrests in response to various distresses, it is unknown whether survivin plays a role in the regulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression. Here, we report that exogenous expression of survivin in p53-wild type MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibits the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein, mRNA and promoter activity, while the survivin C84A mutant and antisense failed to do so. Cotransfection experiments in the p53 mutant H1650 lung cancer cell line showed that survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression and promoter activity. Importantly, genetically silencing of endogenous survivin using lentiviral survivin shRNA also enhances endogenous p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells, suggesting the physiological relevance of the fining. We further demonstrated that both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter (-2313 to -2212; -1452 to -1310), and survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Together, we propose that survivin may act as a transcription factor or cofactor to interact with p53 on the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter leading to the inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Down-Regulates p21Waf1/Cip1 and Inhibits Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis through MicroRNA-345 Targeting in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Tzu-Yue; Huang, Shih-Ming; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chu, Heng-Cheng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, but HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs are unknown. The HCV core protein regulates p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. However, the mechanism of HCV core-associated p21Waf1/Cip1 regulation remains to be further clarified. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs play an important role in regulating p21Waf1/Cip1 expression in human hepatoma cells. Methods Cellular microRNA profiling was investigated in core-overexpressing hepatoma cells using TaqMan low density array. Array data were further confirmed by TaqMan real-time qPCR for single microRNA in core-overexpressing and full-length HCV replicon-expressing cells. The target gene of microRNA was examined by reporter assay. The gene expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was examined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. Results HCV core protein up- or down-regulated some cellular microRNAs in Huh7 cells. HCV core-induced microRNA-345 suppressed p21Waf1/Cip1 gene expression through targeting its 3′ untranslated region in human hepatoma cells. Moreover, the core protein inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis through p21Waf1/Cip1-targeting microRNA-345 in Huh7 cells. Conclusion and Significance HCV core protein enhances the expression of microRNA-345 which then down-regulates p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. It is the first time that HCV core protein has ever been shown to suppress p21Waf1/Cip1 gene expression through miR-345 targeting. PMID:23577194

  15. Toxicity of oil and dispersed oil to the eggs and larvae of seven marine fish and invertebrates from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1995-06-01

    The early life stages of seven invertebrate and vertebrate species from the Gulf of Mexico were exposed to two oils, Corexit 9527, and dispersed oil mixtures. Chemical analyses found that hydrocarbon concentrations between exposures were relatively consistent. The hydrocarbon concentrations were initially highest in the dispersed oil mixtures compared to the water accommodated fractions (WAF) of the oils. However, hydrocarbon concentrations in both dispersed oil and WAF exposures were generally similar after 24 hours. The levels of toxicity in the dispersed oil mixtures were not proportionately greater than that in the WAF.

  16. Plant HDAC inhibitor chrysin arrest cell growth and induce p21WAF1 by altering chromatin of STAT response element in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells. Methods Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays. Results Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (−692 to −684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression

  17. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  18. Assessment of the photoenhanced toxicity of a weathered oil to the tidewater silverside

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Cleveland, L.; Calfee, R.; Barron, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the interactive toxicity of a water- accommodated fraction (WAF) of a weathered middle distillate petroleum and solar radiation to an estuarine organism, the tidewater silverside (Menidia beryllina). Juvenile silversides were monitored for survival and growth during a 7-d static renewal exposure to dilutions of WAFs of an environmentally weathered oil collected in the vicinity of an abandoned oil field in California. Ultraviolet (UV) treatments were based on incident sunlight intensity and spectra measured at this site. Exposure to UV alone was not lethal to the fish, and WAF in the absence of UV was toxic at the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration (3.03 mg/L) after 96 h of exposure. Water-accommodated fractions toxicity increased significantly with increasing UV irradiance and duration of exposure. The 7-d LC50 concentrations for the control, low, medium, and high irradiance were 2.84, 1.27, 0.93, and 0.51 mg/L TPH, respectively. Significant mortality occurred among fish previously exposed to WAF in the absence of irradiance, whereas WAF toxicity was unaffected by UV exposure prior to the toxicity test. Thus, the mode of action is a photosensitization of the accumulated petroleum residue rather than a photoactivation of WAF. Chemical analysis indicates that the WAF contains limited amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) known to be photoenhanced, suggesting that other constituents may be responsible for the observed photoenhanced toxicity.

  19. Loss of G1/S Checkpoint in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Cells Is Associated with a Lack of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/Waf1

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Elizabeth; Santiago, Francisco; Deng, Longwen; Chong, Siew yen; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Wang, Lai; Fu, Peng; Stein, Dana; Denny, Thomas; Lanka, Venkata; Mozafari, Fariba; Okamoto, Takashi; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2000-01-01

    Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the transcription of the p53 gene, which may aid in the development of AIDS-related malignancies, and p53 expression inhibited HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. Here, by using a well-defined and -characterized stress signal, gamma irradiation, we find that upon gamma irradiation, HIV-1-infected cells lose their G1/S checkpoints, enter the S phase inappropriately, and eventually apoptose. The loss of the G1/S checkpoint is associated with a loss of p21/Waf1 protein and increased activity of a major G1/S kinase, namely, cyclin E/cdk2. The p21/Waf1 protein, a known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, interacts with the cdk2/cyclin E complex and inhibits progression of cells into S phase. We find that loss of the G1/S checkpoint in HIV-1-infected cells may in part be due to Tat's ability to bind p53 (a known activator of the p21/Waf1 promoter) and sequester its transactivation activity, as seen in both in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. The loss of p21/Waf1 in HIV-1-infected cells was specific to p21/Waf1 and did not occur with other KIP family members, such as p27 (KIP1) and p57 (KIP2). Finally, the advantage of a loss of the G1/S checkpoint for HIV-1 per se may be that it pushes the host cell into the S phase, which may then allow subsequent virus-associated processes, such as RNA splicing, transport, translation, and packaging of virion-specific genes, to occur. PMID:10799578

  20. Loss of G(1)/S checkpoint in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells is associated with a lack of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1.

    PubMed

    Clark, E; Santiago, F; Deng, L; Chong, S; de La Fuente, C; Wang, L; Fu, P; Stein, D; Denny, T; Lanka, V; Mozafari, F; Okamoto, T; Kashanchi, F

    2000-06-01

    Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the transcription of the p53 gene, which may aid in the development of AIDS-related malignancies, and p53 expression inhibited HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. Here, by using a well-defined and -characterized stress signal, gamma irradiation, we find that upon gamma irradiation, HIV-1-infected cells lose their G(1)/S checkpoints, enter the S phase inappropriately, and eventually apoptose. The loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint is associated with a loss of p21/Waf1 protein and increased activity of a major G(1)/S kinase, namely, cyclin E/cdk2. The p21/Waf1 protein, a known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, interacts with the cdk2/cyclin E complex and inhibits progression of cells into S phase. We find that loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint in HIV-1-infected cells may in part be due to Tat's ability to bind p53 (a known activator of the p21/Waf1 promoter) and sequester its transactivation activity, as seen in both in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. The loss of p21/Waf1 in HIV-1-infected cells was specific to p21/Waf1 and did not occur with other KIP family members, such as p27 (KIP1) and p57 (KIP2). Finally, the advantage of a loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint for HIV-1 per se may be that it pushes the host cell into the S phase, which may then allow subsequent virus-associated processes, such as RNA splicing, transport, translation, and packaging of virion-specific genes, to occur. PMID:10799578

  1. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  2. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg

    The purpose of this study was to devise an instructional model accommodating students' learning styles in the following areas: sound, light, temperature, design, and mobility. Specifically, this study determined if students in an experimental group with environmental accommodations to their preferred modes of learning differed from students in a…

  3. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  4. High velocity atomic oxygen/surface accommodation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Gauthier, M. J.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the first experimental evaluation of the energy-accommodation coefficients of 8km/s oxygen atoms on selected materials. Preliminary measurements have been provided for three materials at normal incidence. Neglecting chemical energy, the accommodation coefficients for Ni, Au, and reaction-cured glass are approximately 0.6 +/- 50 percent.

  5. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  6. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  7. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  8. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  9. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  10. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  11. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  12. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodations and pilothouse. 127.270 Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.270 Location of accommodations and pilothouse. (a) Neither quarters...

  13. Project Accommodate: Preparing Master Teachers to Provide Peer Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Stanley F.; And Others

    Project Accommodate, a program designed to improve inservice to regular Nebraska secondary teachers serving handicapped students, is described. The state's needs for inservice training to implement the goal of providing services in the least restrictive environment are discussed as background to Project Accommodate's development. Goals of the…

  14. Testing Accommodations: Theory and Research to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a framework for practitioners in education and psychology to select accommodations based on student profiles and testing demands. A brief history of testing accommodations policy in the US and a definition of terms provide context for the discussion. A review of theory and empirical findings related to testing accommodations…

  15. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable,...

  16. An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Despite expectations for accommodations in inclusive classrooms, little guidance for effective practice is available. Most accommodations policies and evidence-based practices address assessments. High school regular and special educators collaborated in focus groups to articulate a model based on their practices and perceptions of best practice.…

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  18. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  19. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  20. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  1. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo containment..., or control space by a cruciform joint, there must be a cofferdam providing at least 760 mm (30...

  2. Transition to Postsecondary: New Documentation Guidance for Access to Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently developed a conceptual framework that substantially revises its guidance for disability documentation for accommodations in higher education settings. This new document, "Supporting Accommodation Requests: Guidance on Documentation Practices," was written in response to the…

  3. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  4. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  5. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  6. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  7. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  8. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  9. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  10. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  11. The Reasonable Accommodations Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides broad-based protection for disabled persons by imposing far-reaching obligations on private-sector employers, public services and accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. Provides a descriptive overview of the reasonable accommodations provisions of Title I and II of the ADA. (34…

  12. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed. PMID:16368666

  13. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  14. Varifocal optics for a novel accommodative intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, A. N.; Rombach, M.; Vdovin, G.; Loktev, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of adaptive optics for the human eye to correct aberrations, to restore accommodation after lens extraction due to cataract and to correct age-related presbyopia have interest of academia and industry. We report on optics for a new accommodative intraocular lens which uses a two-element varifocal Alvarez lens. This lens has two refractive elements with cubic surfaces which, in combination, form a varifocal lens when the elements are shifted relatively to each other perpendicular to the optical path. The accommodative function of the lens will be driven by the ocular ciliary muscle. The refractive elements of the dual-optic intraocular lens are designed to provide a near emmetropic on-axis vision with a >4 dioptre accommodation range. The anterior element has a spherical lens to correct for the overall refraction of the eye, aspheric terms to correct the corneal asphericity and a cubic term as accommodative component; the posterior element has a cubic shaped surface only. The modular transfer function shows that the image on the retina reaches a diffraction limited performance for the on-axis vision in combination with the aspheric correction for aberrations of the cornea. We conclude that the varifocal lens is uniquely suitable for application as an intraocular accommodative lens because of its optical quality and ample accommodative power.

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals New Insights into the Accommodation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Farouk, Mahmoud Mohamed; Naito, Takeshi; Shinomiya, Kayo; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Sayed, Khulood Mohammed; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Katome, Takashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the movement of the anterior and posterior lens poles during naturally stimulated accommodation in children using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. This is a prospective, observational, noncomparative case series including 18 eyes of nine children. Analysis of the anterior segment in the accommodated and unaccommodated state (with cycloplegia) was done using anterior segment OCT. The main outcome measures were the position of the anterior and posterior lens poles (in relation to the cornea) and lens thickness (LT). Results. A Statistically significant forward movement of the anterior lens pole and backward movement of the posterior lens pole with an increase in LT were found during accommodation (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the degree of movement of the anterior lens pole and the posterior lens pole during accommodation (P = 0.944). Conclusions. Anterior segment OCT provides a rapid noncontact method for studying accommodation in children. The backward movement of the posterior lens pole during accommodation nearly equals the forward movement of its anterior pole. These data minimize the theoretical hydraulic effect of the vitreous during accommodation, adding more support to the capsular theory of Helmholtz. PMID:26236498

  16. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  17. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  18. The Role of the Iris in Chick Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Peripheral defocus, higher-order aberrations, and accommodation interact with pupil size to influence retinal image quality and possibly eye growth. Iridectomy (ID) provides a fixed, enlarged pupil. Results from in vitro studies suggest that ID may reduce or eliminate accommodation in the chicken. This paper further investigates the effects of ID on chicken accommodation, eye growth, and refractive development. Methods. Refraction, biometry, and corneal curvature were measured, before, and after topical instillation of nicotine in 43 White-Leghorn chickens that had undergone monocular ID. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, and eyes were imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) during accommodation. In vitro preparations were used to examine accommodation responses in a lens-scanning instrument. Results. Iridectomy induced small but significant decreases in anterior and vitreous chamber depths and an increase in lens thickness (LT). IOP was similar in iridectomized and control eyes from 1 week on. In vivo, nicotine induced similar accommodative changes in iridectomized and control eyes. OCT images revealed a forward displacement of the iris during accommodation in control eyes. Iridectomized and control eyes showed similar increases in LT. In vitro, iridectomized eyes showed minimal nicotine-induced accommodation. Conclusions. Refraction and eye growth were minimally affected by ID in chickens, implying that emmetropization was unaffected and supporting the use of ID as a tool in emmetropization and myopia studies. The greatly attenuated accommodative responses in vitro for iridectomized eyes suggest a role of biomechanical factors in the chick. IOP was unaffected by the surgery, implying that the iris musculature is not essential for maintaining aqueous outflow pathways. PMID:21357397

  19. Objective measurement of accommodative biometric changes using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To demonstrate that ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used for objective quantitative measurements of anterior segment accommodative changes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS Anterior segment biometric changes in response to 0 to 6.0 diopters (D) of accommodative stimuli in 1.0 D steps were measured in eyes of human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Imaging was performed in the left eye using a 35 MHz UBM (Vumax) and an A-scan ultrasound (A-5500) while the right eye viewed the accommodative stimuli. An automated Matlab image-analysis program was developed to measure the biometry parameters from the UBM images. RESULTS The UBM-measured accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior lens radius of curvature, posterior lens radius of curvature, and anterior segment length were statistically significantly (P < .0001) linearly correlated with accommodative stimulus amplitudes. Standard deviations of the UBM-measured parameters were independent of the accommodative stimulus demands (ACD 0.0176 mm, lens thickness 0.0294 mm, anterior lens radius of curvature 0.3350 mm, posterior lens radius of curvature 0.1580 mm, and anterior segment length 0.0340 mm). The mean difference between the A-scan and UBM measurements was −0.070 mm for ACD and 0.166 mm for lens thickness. CONCLUSIONS Accommodating phakic eyes imaged using UBM allowed visualization of the accommodative response, and automated image analysis of the UBM images allowed reliable, objective, quantitative measurements of the accommodative intraocular biometric changes. PMID:25804579

  20. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  1. The impact of higher-order aberrations on the strength of directional signals produced by accommodative microfluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Sangeetha; Tong, Jianliang L.; Tahir, Humza J.; Schor, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that the accommodation system could perform contrast discrimination between the two dioptric extremes of accommodative microfluctuations to extract directional signals for reflex accommodation. Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) may have a significant influence on the strength of these contrast signals. Our goal was to compute the effect HOAs may have on contrast signals for stimuli within the upper defocus limit by comparing computed microcontrast fluctuations with psychophysical contrast increment thresholds (Bradley & Ohzawa, 1986). Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects viewed a Maltese spoke stimulus monocularly. Computations were performed for accommodation or disaccommodation stimuli from a 3 Diopter (D) baseline. Microfluctuations were estimated from the standard deviation of the wavefronts over time at baseline. Through-focus Modulation Transfer, optical contrast increments (ΔC), and Weber fractions (ΔC/C) were derived from point spread functions computed from the wavefronts at baseline for 2 and 4 cycles per degree (cpd) components, with and without HOAs. The ΔCs thus computed from the wavefronts were compared with psychophysical contrast increment threshold data. Microfluctuations are potentially useful for extracting directional information for defocus values within 3 D, where contrast increments for the 2 or 4 cpd components exceed psychophysical thresholds. HOAs largely reduce contrast signals produced by microfluctuations, depending on the mean focus error, and their magnitude in individual subjects, and they may shrink the effective stimulus range for reflex accommodation. The upper defocus limit could therefore be constrained by discrimination of microcontrast fluctuations. PMID:25342542

  2. Accommodation and size-constancy of virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Phenany, Moses; Sandin, Daniel; Defanti, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Accommodation has been suspected as a contributor to size illusions in virtual environments (VE) due to the lack of appropriate accommodative stimuli in a VE for the objects displayed. Previous experiments examining size-constancy in VE have shown that monocular cues to depth that accompany the object are a major contributor to correct size perception. When these accompanying cues are removed perceived size varied with the object's distance from the subject, i.e., visual angle. If accommodation were the dominant mechanism contributing to a visual angle response [due to its action to keep physical objects clear] in this condition, an open-loop accommodation viewing condition might restore size-constancy to this condition. Pinhole apertures were used to open-loop accommodation and examine if size-constancy might be restored when few accompanying monocular cues to depth were present. Visual angle performance when viewing a low cue environment was found with and without the use of the pinhole apertures. Thus, these results signify that accommodation does not play a dominate role in the loss of size-constancy in sparse visual environments often used in VE. These results suggest that size-constancy is driven by the inclusion of the remaining monocular cues to depth in VE as it is in the physical world. PMID:18066664

  3. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. PMID:27389459

  4. Correlation Among Six Biologic Factors (p53, p21{sup WAF1}, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2) and Clinical Outcomes After Curative Chemoradiation Therapy in Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Murakami, Naoya; Asari, Takao; Okuma, Kae; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The expressions of six cell-cycle-associated proteins were analyzed in cervical squamous cell carcinomas in correlation in a search for prognostic correlations in tumors treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT). Methods and Materials: The expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, molecular immunology borstel-1 (MIB-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and Bcl-2 were studied using an immunohistochemical method in 57 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with cCRT. Patients received cCRT between 1998 and 2005. The mean patient age was 61 years (range, 27-82 years). The number of patients with Stage II, III, and IVA disease was 18, 29, and 10, respectively. Results: The number of patients with tumors positive for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2 was 26, 24, 49, 26, 13, and 11, respectively; no significant correlation was noted. The 5-year overall survival rates of HER2-positive and -negative patients was 76% vs. 44%, which was of borderline significance (p = 0.0675). No significant correlation was noted between overall survival and expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2. No correlation was observed between local control and expression of any of the proteins. Conclusion: Expression of HER2 protein had a weak impact of borderline significance on overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with cCRT. However, no clinical associations could be established for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2 protein expressions.

  5. Resveratrol and curcumin synergistically induces apoptosis in cigarette smoke condensate transformed breast epithelial cells through a p21(Waf1/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hh-Gli signaling.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Dipon; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2015-09-01

    Combination therapy using two or more small molecule inhibitors of aberrant signaling cascade in aggressive breast cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy over traditional monotherapeutic approaches. Here, we have studied the synergistic mechanism of resveratrol and curcumin induced apoptosis using in vitro (cigarette smoke condensate mediated transformed breast epithelial cell, MCF-10A-Tr) and in vivo (tumor xenograft mice) model system. Resveratrol exposure increased the intracellular uptake of curcumin in a dose dependent manner and caused apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells. Approximately, ten fold lower IC50 value was noted in cells treated with the combination of resveratrol (3μM) and curcumin (3μM) in comparison to 30μM of resveratrol or curcumin alone. Resveratrol+curcumin combination caused apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, Cytochrome C release, cleaved product of PARP and caspase 3 in cells. Interestingly, this combination unaltered the protein expressions of WNT-TCF and Notch signaling components, β-catenin and cleaved notch-1 val1744, respectively. Furthermore, the combination also significantly decreased the intermediates of Hedgehog-Gli cascade including SMO, SHH, Gli-1, c-MYC, Cyclin-D1, etc. and increased the level of p21(Waf/Cip1) in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction of Gli- promoter activity was noted in combinational drug treated cells in comparison to individual drug treatment. Un-alteration of the expressions of the above proteins and Gli1 promoter activity in p21(Waf/Cip1) knockout cells suggests this combination caused apoptosis through p21(Waf/Cip1). Thus, our findings revealed resveratrol and curcumin synergistically caused apoptosis in cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells through p2(Waf/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli cascade. PMID:26212257

  6. The role of KLF4 in UVB-induced murine skin tumor development and its correlation with cyclin D1, p53, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in epithelial tumors of the human skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jin; Youn, Sung Hwan; Back, Jung Ho; Park, Saebomi; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Park, Hye Rim; Kim, Arianna L; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2011-04-01

    The zinc-finger-type transcriptional factor KLF4 is expressed in a variety of tissues including skin. KLF4 can function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene, depending on the type of tissue in which it is expressed, by modulating the expression of various factors. To understand the role of KLF4 in human skin cancer and also to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1, p53, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in relation to the expression of KLF4, we evaluated the pattern of KLF4 expression during UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice and in human skin cancer. We also determined whether there are correlations between the expression of KLF4, cyclin D1, p53, and p21 and non-melanoma skin tumors. KLF4 expression was found in the basal layer of non-irradiated control murine skin. Chronic UVB irradiation caused a progressive decrease in KLF4 expression, which was substantially decreased in UVB-induced murine skin tumors. In human precancerous lesions, KLF4 expression was maintained in 64.3% of Bowen's disease samples and 90.0% of AK samples. In contrast, KLF4 expression was significantly reduced in human cancer lesions (p = 0.004). A positive correlation was found between the expression of KLF4 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in AK, whereas there was a negative correlation between the expression of cyclin D1 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in Bowen's disease. Thus, our results suggest that KLF4 may function as a tumor suppressor in the skin and that the deregulated expression of KLF4 in the context of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and cyclin D1 expression may be involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:21132436

  7. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  8. Accommodative and convergence response to computer screen and printed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andreia; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to find out if differences exist in accommodative and convergence response for different computer monitors' and a printed text. It was also tried to relate the horizontal heterophoria value and accommodative response with the symptoms associated with computer use. Two independents experiments were carried out in this study. The first experiment was measuring the accommodative response on 89 subjects using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko Co., Ltd., Japan). The accommodative response was measured using three computer monitors: a 17-inch cathode ray tube (CRT), two liquid crystal displays LCDs, one 17-inch (LCD17) and one 15 inches (LCD15) and a printed text. The text displayed was always the same for all the subjects and tests. A second experiment aimed to measure the value of habitual horizontal heterophoria on 80 subjects using the Von Graefe technique. The measurements were obtained using the same target presented on two different computer monitors, one 19-inch cathode ray tube (CRT) and other 19 inches liquid crystal displays (LCD) and printed on paper. A small survey about the incidence and prevalence of symptoms was performed similarly in both experiments. In the first experiment, the accommodation response was higher in the CRT and LCD's than for paper. There were not found significantly different response for both LCD monitors'. The second experiment showed that, the heterophoria values were similar for all the stimuli. On average, participants presented a small exophoria. In both experiments, asthenopia was the symptom that presented higher incidence. There are different accommodative responses when reading on paper or on computer monitors. This difference is more significant for CRT monitors. On the other hand, there was no difference in the values of convergence for the computer monitors' and paper. The symptoms associated with the use of computers are not related with the increase in accommodation and with the horizontal

  9. Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21waf1/cip1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhewei; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Meanwhile, the expression of regulators necessary for G1/S phase transition, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, were remarkably down-regulated; by contrast, the cell cycle inhibitors p21waf/cip1, p27Kip1 and p53 were significantly up-regulated after dihydrofolate reductase knockdown. Furthermore, supplementation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the dihydrofolate reductase knockdown cells could weaken the inhibitory effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on cell proliferation, simultaneously, inducing the expression of p53 and p21waf/cip1 falling back moderately. Our findings suggest that attenuating dihydrofolate reductase may cause imbalanced expression of cell cycle regulators, especially up-regulation of p53-p21waf/cip1 pathway, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cells. PMID:27013776

  10. Theorizing accommodation in supportive home care for older people.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Christine; Purkis, Mary Ellen; Björnsdóttir, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of what thinking is necessary in order to advance a notion of accommodation in the organization and provision of supportive home care for older people. Accommodation in this context is understood as responsiveness to the singularity of older adults, and we consider how this idea might be used to support opportunities for (independent) living for elders as they age and become frailer. To elaborate the question we draw on examples from our empirical work - ethnographic studies of home care practice undertaken in Canada and Iceland - and consider these examples in light of critical philosophical and social theory, particularly Agamben's (1993) work, The Coming Community. This is a relevant frame through which to consider the potential for the accommodation of the unique needs of older adults in home care because it helps us to problematize the systems through which care is accomplished and the current, dominant terms of relations between individuals and collectives. We argue that giving substance to a notion of accommodation contributes an important dimension to aligned ideas, such as patient-centeredness in care, by working to shift the intentionality of these practices. That is, accommodation, as an orientation to care practices, contests the organizational impulse to carry on in the usual way. PMID:23273554

  11. Accommodating Autistics and Treating Autism: Can We Have Both?

    PubMed

    Lim, Chong-Ming

    2015-10-01

    One of the central claims of the neurodiversity movement is that society should accommodate the needs of autistics, rather than try to treat autism. People have variously tried to reject this accommodation thesis as applicable to all autistics. One instance is Pier Jaarsma and Stellan Welin, who argue that the thesis should apply to some but not all autistics. They do so via separating autistics into high- and low-functioning, on the basis of IQ and social effectiveness or functionings. I reject their grounds for separating autistics. IQ is an irrelevant basis for separating autistics. Charitably rendering it as referring to more general capacities still leaves us mistaken about the roles they play in supporting the accommodation thesis. The appeal to social effectiveness or functionings relies on standards that are inapplicable to autistics, and which risks being deaf to the point of their claims. I then consider if their remaining argument concerning autistic culture may succeed independently of the line they draw. I argue that construing autistics' claims as beginning from culture mistakes their status, and may even detract from their aims. Via my discussion of Jaarsma and Welin, I hope to point to why the more general strategy of separating autistics, in response to the accommodation thesis, does not fully succeed. Finally, I sketch some directions for future discussions, arguing that we should instead shift our attention to consider another set of questions concerning the costs and extent of change required to accommodate all autistics. PMID:25689416

  12. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the US, anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g. digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the US in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula. PMID:26849430

  13. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality. PMID:23923694

  14. The role of fundamental frequency in phonetic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an unfiltered condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a filtered condition where the same stimuli had been high-pass filtered at 300 Hz, thereby eliminating the fundamental frequency. Acoustic analysis of f0 revealed that participants assigned to the unfiltered condition imitated the pitch of the model talker more than those assigned to the filtered condition. Although accommodation was statistically significant, the effect was small, so we followed with a perception study to examine listeners' abilities to detect differences in accommodation across conditions. Shadowed tokens from participants in the unfiltered condition were indeed judged by listeners to be more similar to the model talker's productions that those from participants in the filtered condition. However, acoustic measurements and listener judgments of accommodation were not significantly correlated, enforcing the intuitive concept that accommodation and listeners' judgments of similarity are holistic and do not hone in on singular features in the acoustic signal. PMID:22783633

  15. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Tasci, Yasemin; Dolen, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl) on accommodation amplitude. METHODS Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25), tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25), and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25) and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25) were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60)y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107) and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148) between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III), but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065). CONCLUSION A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance. PMID:27275433

  16. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil. PMID:25891121

  17. Calculations of accommodation coefficients for diatomic molecular gases.

    PubMed

    Ambaye, Hailemariam; Manson, J R

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical study of energy and momentum accommodation coefficients and reduced force coefficients for molecular gases exchanging energy with surfaces has been carried out. The theoretical model uses classical mechanics for describing translational and rotational motions while internal molecular vibrational modes are treated quantum mechanically. Calculations for diatomic molecular gases are compared with recent measurements using hypersonic beams of N2 incident on SiO2 layers deposited on Kapton substrates. The theory gives good qualitative predictions of the behavior of the various accommodation coefficients as functions of the available experimentally controllable parameters such as incident translational energy, incident beam angle, molecular and surface masses, and surface temperature. Quantitative comparisons with measurements for energy and normal momentum accommodation indicate that these experiments can be used to obtain basic physical information about the molecule-surface interaction such as the physisorption potential well depth and the extent of surface roughness. PMID:16605510

  18. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  19. Ganglioside GM3 modulates tumor suppressor PTEN-mediated cell cycle progression--transcriptional induction of p21(WAF1) and p27(kip1) by inhibition of PI-3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kang, Sung-Koo; Lee, Young-Choon; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-07-01

    The simple ganglioside GM3 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in several in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Although the exogenous ganglioside GM3 has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell proliferation, the exact mechanism by which it prevents cell proliferation remains unclear. Previous studies showed that MDM2 is an oncoprotein that controls tumorigenesis through both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms, and tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a dual-specificity phosphatase that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/AKT signaling, is capable of blocking MDM2 nuclear translocation and destabilizing the MDM2 protein. Results from our current study show that GM3 treatment dramatically increases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI) p21(WAF1) expression through the accumulation of p53 protein by the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT/MDM2 survival signaling in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, the data herein clearly show that ganglioside GM3 induces p53-dependent transcriptional activity of p21(WAF1), as evidenced by the p21(WAF1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid (full-length p21(WAF1) promoter and a construct lacking the p53-binding sites). Additionally, ganglioside GM3 enhances expression of CKI p27(kip1) through the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT signaling. Furthermore, the down-regulation of the cyclin E and CDK2 was clearly observed in GM3-treated HCT116 cells, but the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 was not. On the contrary, suppression of PTEN levels by RNA interference restores the enhanced expression of p53-dependent p21(WAF1) and p53-independent p27(kip1) through inactivating the effect of PTEN on PI-3K/AKT signaling modulated by ganglioside GM3. These results suggest that ganglioside GM3-stimulated PTEN expression modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins, thus inhibiting cell growth. We conclude that ganglioside GM3 represents a

  20. Promoter-associated endogenous and exogenous small RNAs suppress human bladder cancer cell metastasis by activating p21 (CIP1/WAF1) expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenghe; Ge, Qiangqiang; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Jia; Li, Fan; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating data suggest that micro RNAs (miRNAs) or double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) can activate gene expression by targeting promoters. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CIP1/WAF1) (p21) has also been shown to suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which plays a crucial role in the early stage of tumor metastases and invasiveness. In a previous study, we have reported that miR-370-5p is low-expressed in bladder cancer (BCa) tissues and cell lines. Here, we identified that miR-370-5p and sequence homology dsRNA (dsP21-555) fully complementary to promoter hold the potent abilities to induce p21 expression. Moreover, transfection of miR-370-5p or dsP21-555 into BCa cells remarkably inverts EMT-associated genes (increases epithelial cell makers E-cadherin and β-catenin, and decreases mesenchymal cell markers ZEB1 and Vimentin) expression mainly via regulating p21 expression. Besides, through manipulating p21, both the candidates can retard BCa cell migration and invasion. In summary, our results provide evidence that both endogenous and exogenous small RNAs may function to induce p21 expression by interacting with the similar promoter region and impede BCa metastasis. PMID:26643891

  1. Synergistic effects of dexamethasone and genistein on the expression of Cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in human hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Oh, E J; Choi, Y H; Kang, C D; Kang, H S; Kim, D K; Kang, K I; Yoo, M A

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, can induce a G1 arrest, however, genistein, a natural isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression in various cancer cell lines. A block of cell cycle checkpoint by dexamethasone and genistein correlates with a selective induction of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in a tumor suppressor p53-independent manner and abolishment of Cdk2 phosphorylation. In the present study, the effects of dexamethasone and genistein (both singly and combined) on the expression of p21 in human hepatocellular Hep G2 and colorectal Colo320 HSR carcinoma cells were evaluated. Whereas dexamethasone mildly induced the level of p21 protein, genistein strongly increased the expression of p21 protein in our experimental condition. Both compounds also activated p21 promoter reporter constructs. The combined effects of dexamethasone and genistein on the induction of p21 protein and activation of p21 promoter were synergistic in both cell lines. These findings indicate that dexamethasone and genistein act in a synergistic fashion and have potential for combination chemotherapy for the treatment of liver and colon cancer. PMID:11295047

  2. EVI1 Inhibits Apoptosis Induced by Antileukemic Drugs via Upregulation of CDKN1A/p21/WAF in Human Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rommer, Anna; Steinmetz, Birgit; Herbst, Friederike; Hackl, Hubert; Heffeter, Petra; Heilos, Daniela; Filipits, Martin; Steinleitner, Katarina; Hemmati, Shayda; Herbacek, Irene; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Hartl, Katharina; Rondou, Pieter; Glimm, Hanno; Karakaya, Kadin; Krämer, Alwin; Berger, Walter; Wieser, Rotraud

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with aggressive disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite of its clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism through which EVI1 confers resistance to antileukemic drugs. Here, we show that a human myeloid cell line constitutively overexpressing EVI1 after infection with a retroviral vector (U937_EVI1) was partially resistant to etoposide and daunorubicin as compared to empty vector infected control cells (U937_vec). Similarly, inducible expression of EVI1 in HL-60 cells decreased their sensitivity to daunorubicin. Gene expression microarray analyses of U937_EVI1 and U937_vec cells cultured in the absence or presence of etoposide showed that 77 and 419 genes were regulated by EVI1 and etoposide, respectively. Notably, mRNA levels of 26 of these genes were altered by both stimuli, indicating that EVI1 regulated genes were strongly enriched among etoposide regulated genes and vice versa. One of the genes that were induced by both EVI1 and etoposide was CDKN1A/p21/WAF, which in addition to its function as a cell cycle regulator plays an important role in conferring chemotherapy resistance in various tumor types. Indeed, overexpression of CDKN1A in U937 cells mimicked the phenotype of EVI1 overexpression, similarly conferring partial resistance to antileukemic drugs. PMID:23457546

  3. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  4. Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate two clinical procedures, MEM and Nott retinoscopy, for detecting accommodative lags 1.00 diopter (D) or greater in children as identified by an open-field autorefractor. Methods 168 children 8 to <12 years old with low myopia, normal visual acuity, and no strabismus participated as part of an ancillary study within the screening process for a randomized trial. Accommodative response to a 3.00 D demand was first assessed by MEM and Nott retinoscopy, viewing binocularly with spherocylindrical refractive error corrected, with testing order randomized and each performed by a different masked examiner. The response was then determined viewing monocularly with spherical equivalent refractive error corrected, using an open-field autorefractor, which was the gold standard used for eligibility for the clinical trial. Sensitivity and specificity for accommodative lags of 1.00 D or more were calculated for each retinoscopy method compared to the autorefractor. Results 116 (69%) of the 168 children had accommodative lag of 1.00 D or more by autorefraction. MEM identified 66 children identified by autorefraction for a sensitivity of 57% (95% CI = 47% to 66%) and a specificity of 63% (95% CI = 49% to 76%). Nott retinoscopy identified 35 children for a sensitivity of 30% (95% CI = 22% to 39%) and a specificity of 81% (95% CI = 67% to 90%). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed for MEM and for Nott retinoscopy failed to reveal alternate cut points that would improve the combination of sensitivity and specificity for identifying accommodative lag ≥ 1.00 D as defined by autorefraction. Conclusions Neither MEM nor Nott retinoscopy provided adequate sensitivity and specificity to identify myopic children with accommodative lag ≥ 1.00 D as determined by autorefraction. A variety of methodological differences between the techniques may contribute to the modest to poor agreement. PMID:19214130

  5. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V

    2012-06-15

    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits. PMID:22580016

  6. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-01

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy. PMID:17201579

  7. Accommodation and vergence infrared measurement using hologram stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, T.; Dušek, J.; Dostálek, M.; Fiala, P.; Škereň, M.

    2011-09-01

    Diagnostics of the visual system disorders belongs to the common examination in infancy. Especially important is diagnostics of refractive and oculomotor disorders that could negatively affect development of the infants' visual system and rapidly decrease quality of life. This work describes application of hologram stimulation and infrared videometrics in measuring of the dynamics of the human accommodation and vergence. Virtual hologram stimulation rapidly decreases diameters of the system and allows its compact construction. Data about dynamic changes of accommodation and vergence were not yet available so far in the clinical practice. This data could be helpful tool for early diagnostics of the visual system disorders as the strabismus.

  8. Accommodation and vergence infrared measurement using hologram stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, T.; Dušek, J.; Dostálek, M.; Fiala, P.; Škereň, M.

    2012-02-01

    Diagnostics of the visual system disorders belongs to the common examination in infancy. Especially important is diagnostics of refractive and oculomotor disorders that could negatively affect development of the infants' visual system and rapidly decrease quality of life. This work describes application of hologram stimulation and infrared videometrics in measuring of the dynamics of the human accommodation and vergence. Virtual hologram stimulation rapidly decreases diameters of the system and allows its compact construction. Data about dynamic changes of accommodation and vergence were not yet available so far in the clinical practice. This data could be helpful tool for early diagnostics of the visual system disorders as the strabismus.

  9. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  10. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  11. Analysis and applications of accommodative lenses for vision corrections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Teng; Jiang, Minshan; Chang, Chun-Lin; Hong, Yu-Ling; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and applications of vision correction via accommodating intraocular lens (AIOL) are presented. By Gaussian optics, analytic formulas for the accommodation rate function (M) for two-optics and three-optics systems are derived and compared with the exact numerical results. In a single-optics AIOL, typical value of M is (0.5-1.5) D∕mm, for an IOL power of (10-20) diopter. For a given IOL power, higher M is achieved in positive-IOL than negative-IOL. In the dual-optics AIOL, maximum accommodation is predicted when the front positive-optics moves toward the corneal plan and the back negative-optics moves backward. Our analytic formulas predict that greater accommodative rate may be achieved by using a positive-powered front optics, a general feature when either front or back optics is mobile. The M function is used to find the piggy-back IOL power for customized design based on the individual ocular parameters. Many of the new features demonstrated in this study can be easily realized by our analytic formulas, but not by raytracing method. PMID:21280927

  12. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  13. Student Perspectives on Using Accommodations during Statewide Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Thompson, Sandra J.; Walz, Lynn; Shin, Hyeonsook

    Ninety-six high school students from school districts across Minnesota who received special education services for learning disabilities or mild cognitive impairments agreed to participate in an interview on their participation and accommodation use on Minnesota's Basic Standards tests, minimum competency tests in Mathematics, Reading, and Writing…

  14. Speech Accommodation without Priming: The Case of Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijssels, Tom; Casasanto, Laura Staum; Jasmin, Kyle; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    People often accommodate to each other's speech by aligning their linguistic production with their partner's. According to an influential theory, the Interactive Alignment Model, alignment is the result of priming. When people perceive an utterance, the corresponding linguistic representations are primed and become easier to produce. Here we…

  15. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  16. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  17. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  18. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  19. 7 CFR 1744.30 - Automatic lien accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... make an investment in an affiliated company, approval is hereby given for all investments made in affiliated companies with the proceeds of private lender notes qualifying for an automatic lien accommodation...) The Property Schedule for inclusion as supplemental mortgage Schedule B, containing legally...

  20. Accommodating a Student with a Disability: Suggestions for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer Leigh

    This handbook provides information for University of Victoria faculty that will assist in the process of accommodating students with disabilities in the classroom or the laboratory. The focus of the handbook is on ways that instructors can modify the learning environment to facilitate learning for these groups, and it is divided into sections…

  1. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  2. Using the World Wide Web To accommodate Diverse Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan L.; Schulz, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ways to use the World Wide Web in college instruction considers first, logistical issues; second, ways the Web can meet the needs of the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learner; third, ways to accommodate the social learner; and fourth, using the Web with four cognitive learning styles, as measured by the Gregoric Style Delineator.…

  3. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  4. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  5. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  6. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  7. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. College Students' Preferences for Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Lambert, Tonya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Sytsma, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    College students with (n = 137) and without disabilities (n = 475) were surveyed about their perceptions of using various types of test accommodations. Results indicated that extended time was perceived as having a positive effect by the most students (>87% of both groups), followed by separate room testing and extra breaks (>60% of both…

  9. Design Criteria for Public School Plants Accommodating the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. School Building Services.

    Criteria are presented for implementation in the design and construction of school buildings and facilities so as to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. Accommodations for the physically handicapped are considered for the following--(1) public walks, (2) parking lots, (3) ramps with gradients and handrails, (4) entrances,…

  10. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  11. Maximising Occupancy. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Julia

    This module on maximizing occupancy is intended to cover the basic framework for analysis of occupancy in accommodations and for identification of ways to improve it on both a long-term and day-to-day basis. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives…

  12. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  13. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  14. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  15. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  16. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... inspection from the FHWA Washington Headquarters and all FHWA Division Offices as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of...

  17. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  18. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325 Section 154.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements §...

  19. 41 CFR 101-8.306 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 101-8.306 Section 101-8.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS...

  20. Student Accommodation Projects: A Guide to PFI Contracts. Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Pinsent

    This guide is intended for higher education institutions in England that are about to embark on student residential accommodation projects. It focuses on procurements under the Private Financial Initiative (PFI), a form of Public Private Partnership in the United Kingdom, but other approaches are considered. The guide draws on good practices from…

  1. The Temperament Trap: Recognizing and Accommodating Children's Personalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Susan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Goodness of fit is the compatibility between a child's temperament and his or her environment. When temperament is recognized, respected, and accommodated by creating complementary classroom environments and situations, healthy social and personality development occurs. Compatibility between the child and the demands and expectations of teachers…

  2. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  3. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Peshkin, M.

    1999-08-01

    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  4. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  5. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  6. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  7. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  8. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accommodations for the physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF...

  9. Living Accommodation for Young People. Report of An Exploratory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Phyllis G.; Miller, A.

    The Building Research Station has embarked on a series of case-studies on the provision of living accommodations for single young people in the 15 to 24 age group in England who live away from home because of education, training or employment. An exploratory review of the existing literature on the subject was made. Discussed are some of the…

  10. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation designed for students of limited English proficiency (LEP), using data from the Delaware state science assessment program for grades 4 and 6. Findings for 11,306 non-LEP and 109 LEP students show that tests and items can be simplified linguistically without compromising score…

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for the... be of such size that there is at least 2.78 square meters (30 square feet) of deck area and a volume... contained therein for the use of the occupants are not to be deducted from the total volume or from the...

  12. Dictation and Speech Recognition Technology as Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Cavalier, Albert R.

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed the feasibility and validity of dictation using speech recognition software and dictation to a scribe as accommodations for tests involving extended writing. On the issue of feasibility, high school students with and without learning disabilities (LD) learned to use speech recognition software with acceptable accuracy. Total…

  13. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  14. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye's accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45-50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  15. Testing Accommodations. NetNews. Volume 7, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2006

    2006-01-01

    LDA (Learning Disabilities Association) of Minnesota receives many calls and emails regarding testing accommodations for large-scale testing programs. Callers include the test-takers themselves, parents, teachers, counselors, advocates, and an occasional attorney. The standardized tests they ask about include the GED, SAT and ACT (for college…

  16. Simplified Language as an Accommodation on Math Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Monroe, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    As accountability requirements for determining adequate yearly progress increase, states are working to make standards-based assessments accessible for all students. Providing accommodations on assessments is one of the main ways to allow not only students with disabilities but also students who are English Language Learners to be included in…

  17. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity,…

  18. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines the nature…

  19. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests indicated…

  20. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  1. Mass accommodation of aniline, phenol and toluene on aqueous droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, M.R.; Pilling, M.J.; Titcombe, P.E.

    1995-11-15

    This report describes measurements of mass accommodation coefficients at a temperature of 283k for the volatile organic compounds aniline, phenol, and toluene using the droplet train method. Laser induced fluoresecence was used as a detection method for the trace molecules.

  2. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  3. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  4. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  5. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  6. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  7. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  8. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  9. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  10. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  11. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  12. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  13. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  14. An Analysis of State Assessment Policies Addressing the Accommodation of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Carlene; Collum, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews 15 research studies that: (1) examined effects of particular accommodations or groups of accommodations on performance: and (2) employed experimental and quasi-experimental research designs that allowed examination of the effect of the accommodation(s) on English Language Learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs. Studies looked at one or…

  15. Retinal Image Quality during Accommodation in Adult Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Aslakson, Emily; Kornaus, Andrew; Thibos, Larry N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Reduced retinal image contrast produced by accommodative lag is implicated with myopia development. Here, we measure accommodative error and retinal image quality from wavefront aberrations in myopes and emmetropes when they perform visually demanding and naturalistic tasks. Methods Wavefront aberrations were measured in 10 emmetropic and 11 myopic adults at three distances (100, 40, and 20 cm) while performing four tasks (monocular acuity, binocular acuity, reading, and movie watching). For the acuity tasks, measurements of wavefront error were obtained near the end point of the acuity experiment. Refractive state was defined as the target vergence that optimizes image quality using a visual contrast metric (VSMTF) computed from wavefront errors. Results Accommodation was most accurate (and image quality best) during binocular acuity whereas accommodation was least accurate (and image quality worst) while watching a movie. When viewing distance was reduced, accommodative lag increased and image quality (as quantified by VSMTF) declined for all tasks in both refractive groups. For any given viewing distance, computed image quality was consistently worse in myopes than in emmetropes, more so for the acuity than for reading/movie watching. Although myopes showed greater lags and worse image quality for the acuity experiments compared to emmetropes, acuity was not measurably worse in myopes compared to emmetropes. Conclusions Retinal image quality present when performing a visually demanding task (e.g., during clinical examination) is likely to be greater than for less demanding tasks (e.g., reading/movie watching). Although reductions in image quality lead to reductions in acuity, the image quality metric VSMTF is not necessarily an absolute indicator of visual performance because myopes achieved slightly better acuity than emmetropes despite showing greater lags and worse image quality. Reduced visual contrast in myopes compared to emmetropes is consistent

  16. Accommodation, Acuity, and their Relationship to Emmetropization in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Jones, Lisa A.; Friedman, Nina E.; Frane, Sara L.; Lin, Wendy K.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Methods Defocus at distance and near (57cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Results Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R2 = 0.17, p<0.0001) and near (R2 = 0.13, p<0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p-values <0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00D or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68, 0.88)). Conclusions The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that the amount of accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization. PMID

  17. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  18. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-11-15

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  19. Beyond Psychometric Evaluation of the Student--Task Determinants of Accommodation: Why Students with Learning Disabilities May Not Need to Be Accommodated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities obtain a wide range of recommended accommodations in secondary school, which they anticipate will continue into postsecondary education. Although the student's specific learning disability (SLD) contributes to the accommodation planning process, it is not the sole determinant of appropriate accommodation.…

  20. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…

  1. Lung epithelial cell death induced by oil-dispersant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Shi, Yongli; Major, Danielle; Yang, Zhanjun

    2012-08-01

    The dispersants used in oil spill disasters are claimed to be safe, but increased solubility of high-molecular-weight components in crude oil is of public health concern. The water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of crude oil mixed with dispersants may become airborne and cause lung epithelial damage when inhaled. This study was designed to examine the cell death and related death pathways of lung epithelial cells in response to WAF. Cultured A549 cells were treated for 2 or 24h with different concentrations of WAF. The WAF was prepared by mixing each of the dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and Corexit EC9580A) with crude oil for extraction with PBS. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay, morphology and cleaved caspase 9 protein, and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 were all used to measure cell viability, necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy quantitation, respectively. Results showed that the WAF of oil-dispersant mixtures caused cell death in the lung epithelial cells, in a dose-dependent manner, with the major cellular pathways of necrosis and apoptosis involved. Autophagy also occurred in cells exposed to WAF mixtures at lower concentrations before any detectable cell death, indicating greater sensitivity to WAF exposure. The three types of cell behavior, namely necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, may play different roles in oil spill-related respiratory disorders. PMID:22504303

  2. An extended soft-cube model for the thermal accommodation of gas atoms on solid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical soft cube model was developed for calculating thermal accommodation coefficients alpha and trapping fractions f sub t for the interaction of gases incident upon solid surfaces. A semiempirical correction factor c which allows the calculation of alpha and f sub t when the collision times are long compared to the surface oscillator period were introduced. The processes of trapping, evaporation, and detailed balancing were discussed. The numerical method was designed to treat economically and with moderate (+ or - 20 percent) accuracy the dependence of alpha and f sub t on finite and different surface and gas temperatures for a large number of gas/surface combinations. Comparison was made with experiments of rare gases on tungsten and on alkalis, as well as one astrophysical case of H2 on graphite. The dependence of alpha on the soft cube dimensionless parameters is presented graphically.

  3. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  4. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  5. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO NO. 2 FUEL OIL COINCIDENT WITH INITIATION OF PARTICLE FEEDING IN DEVELOPING MUD SNAILS, 'ILYANASSA OBSOLETA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Encapsulated embryos and free-living larvae of Ilyanassa obsoleta were exposed to concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil (water-accommodated fraction, WAF) up to 1.0 ppm. Development of velum pigmentation and release of larvae from egg capsules were delayed in the presence of 1.0 ppm W...

  6. Tempered fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  7. Tempered fractional calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  8. Spontaneous γH2AX Foci in Human Solid Tumor-Derived Cell Lines in Relation to p21WAF1 and WIP1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Scott, April; Wang, Ying W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Murray, David

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of H2AX on Ser139 (γH2AX) after exposure to ionizing radiation produces nuclear foci that are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy. These so-called γH2AX foci have been adopted as quantitative markers for DNA double-strand breaks. High numbers of spontaneous γH2AX foci have also been reported for some human solid tumor-derived cell lines, but the molecular mechanism(s) for this response remains elusive. Here we show that cancer cells (e.g., HCT116; MCF7) that constitutively express detectable levels of p21WAF1 (p21) exhibit low numbers of γH2AX foci (<3/nucleus), whereas p21 knockout cells (HCT116p21−/−) and constitutively low p21-expressing cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231) exhibit high numbers of foci (e.g., >50/nucleus), and that these foci are not associated with apoptosis. The majority (>95%) of cells within HCT116p21−/− and MDA-MB-231 cultures contain high levels of phosphorylated p53, which is localized in the nucleus. We further show an inverse relationship between γH2AX foci and nuclear accumulation of WIP1, an oncogenic phosphatase. Our studies suggest that: (i) p21 deficiency might provide a selective pressure for the emergence of apoptosis-resistant progeny exhibiting genomic instability, manifested as spontaneous γH2AX foci coupled with phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of p53; and (ii) p21 might contribute to positive regulation of WIP1, resulting in dephosphorylation of γH2AX. PMID:26006237

  9. p21(CIP1/WAF1)-dependent inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in response to Angiotensin II involves Akt/Myc and pRb signaling.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Ludger; Grothe, Daniela; Billia, Filio

    2016-09-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) (p21) is highly expressed in the adult heart. However, in response to stress, its expression is downregulated. Therefore, we investigated the role of p21 in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophic growth. At 2 months of age, p21 knockout mice (p21KO) lack an overt cardiac phenotype. In contrast, by 10 months of age, p21KO developed age-dependent cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. After 3 weeks of trans-aortic banding (TAB), the heart/body weight ratio in 11 week old p21KO mice increased by 57%, as compared to 42% in wild type mice indicating that p21KO have a higher susceptibility to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We then chronically infused 8 week old wild type mice with Angiotensin II (2.0mg/kg/min) or saline subcutaneously by osmotic pumps for 14 days. Recombinant TAT conjugated p21 protein variants (10mg/kg body weight) or saline were intraperitoneally injected once daily for 14 days into Angiotensin II and saline-infused animals. Angiotensin II treated mice developed pathological cardiac hypertrophy with an average increase of 38% in heart/body weight ratios, as compared to saline-treated controls. Reconstitution of p21 function by TAT.p21 protein transduction prevented Angiotensin II-dependent development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Taken together, our genetic and biochemical data show an important function of p21 in the regulation of growth-related processes in the heart. PMID:27486069

  10. The acute toxicity of chemically and physically dispersed crude oil to key arctic species under arctic conditions during the open water season

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, William W; Word, Jack Q; Word, Jack D; Perkins, Robert A; McFarlin, Kelly M; Hester, Brian W; Word, Lucinda S; Ray, Collin M

    2013-01-01

    The acute toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9500 were evaluated for key Arctic species. The copepod Calanus glacialis, juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.) were tested under conditions representative of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas during the ice-free season. The toxicity of 3 water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Alaska North Slope crude oil was examined with spiked, declining exposures. A dispersant-only test was conducted with the copepod C. glacialis. Each preparation with oil (WAF, breaking wave WAF [BWWAF], and chemically enhanced WAF [CEWAF]) produced distinct suites of hydrocarbon constituents; the total concentrations of oil were lowest in WAF and highest in CEWAF preparations. The relative sensitivity for the different species and age classes was similar within each WAF type. Median lethal concentration values based on total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 mg/L to 4.0 mg/L for WAF and BWWAF treatments and from 22 mg/L to 62 mg/L for CEWAF. For Corexit 9500 exposures, median lethal concentration values ranged from 17 mg/L to 50 mg/L. The differences in the relative toxicity among the accommodated fractions indicated that the majority of petroleum hydrocarbons in the CEWAF are in less acutely toxic forms than the components that dominate the WAF or BWWAF. Further evaluation showed that the parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, specifically naphthalene, were highly correlated to acute toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2284–2300. PMID:23765555

  11. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    PubMed

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges. PMID:23960266

  12. Lightning accommodation systems for wind turbine generator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind turbine safety program identifies the naturally occurring lightning phenomenon as a hazard with the potential to cause loss of program objectives, injure personnel, damage system instrumentation, structure or support equipment and facilities. Several candidate methods of lightning accommodation for each blade were designed, analyzed, and tested by submitting sample blade sections to simulated lightning. Lightning accommodation systems for composite blades were individually developed. Their effectiveness was evaluated by submitting the systems to simulated lightning strikes. The test data were analyzed and system designs were reviewed on the basis of the analysis. This activity is directed at defining design and procedural constraints, requirements for safety devices and warning methods, special procedures, protective equipment and personnel training.

  13. The visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmstrom, F. V.; Randle, R. J.; Bendix, J. S.; Weber, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of the human visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity are investigated. Subject focusing responses to targets at distances of 0.0 D, 3.0 D and an indeterminate distance were monitored by means of an optometer during the performance of a backwards counting task and a visual imagery task (thinking near and thinking far). In both experiments a shift in accommodation towards the visual far point is observed particularly for the near target, which increases with the duration of the task. The results can be interpreted in terms of both the capacity model of Kahneman (1973) and the autonomic arousal model of Hess and Polt (1964), and are not inconsistent with the possibility of an intermediate resting position.

  14. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  15. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  16. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    PubMed

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T

    2015-12-01

    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. PMID:26540454

  17. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  18. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  19. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-12-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3 (-1)) and oblique trefoil (Z3 (-3)) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  20. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  1. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  2. Simplifying the Measurement of Gastric Accommodation using SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Breen, Mary; Burton, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background Noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been validated as a test for postprandial gastric volume accommodation, with volumes measured twice over 30 minutes and averaged. The purpose of this study is to simplify the SPECT measurement of gastric accommodation. Methods The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 postprandial gastric volume measurements with data collected retrospectively from 443 patients and healthy volunteers who had undergone SPECT in the last decade. The differences in the two gastric volumes were compared in the entire group and each subgroup, and the correlation between the 2 measurements and their differences across a wide range of gastric volumes were plotted. Key Results There was a median difference of <2% (p=0.041) between postprandial scan 1 (757 mL) and scan 2 (743 mL), with significant correlation (rs = 0.859, p<0.01) and excellent agreement (S.D. 60 mL) between the 2 scans across the entire range of observed postprandial gastric volumes. Conclusions & Inferences A single postprandial scan can detect gastric accommodation with the same accuracy as averaging 2 postprandial scans. These data support simplifying SPECT measurement of postprandial gastric volume with a scan in the first 15 minutes after a meal. PMID:23413813

  3. Thermal Accommodation Coefficients Based on Heat-Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael A.; Trott, Wayne M.; Torczynski, John R.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2006-11-01

    A new method to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient of gases on solid surfaces based on heat-flux measurements is presented. An experimental chamber and supporting diagnostics have been developed that allow accurate heat-flux measurements between two parallel plates. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates using precision thermistors, where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. The resulting heat flux is used in a recently derived semi-empirical formula to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient. This formula has the advantage of eliminating the ˜8% discrepancy between molecular simulations and the predictions of the more approximate Sherman-Lees formula used in most studies. Nitrogen, argon, and helium on stainless steel with various finishes and on other silicon-based surfaces are examined. The thermal accommodation coefficients thus determined indicate that the Maxwell gas-surface interaction model can adequately represent all of the experimental observations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Stereoacuity Outcomes Following Treatment of Infantile and Accommodative Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Wang, Jingyun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To review what is known about the normal maturation of stereoacuity, the stereoacuity deficits associated with infantile and accommodative esotropia, the rationale for making improved stereoacuity a goal of treatment, and strategies for improving stereoacuity outcomes. Methods Studies of stereoacuity maturation during normal development, studies of stereoacuity outcomes following treatment for infantile and accommodative esotropia, and studies of primate models of esotropia are reviewed. Results Stereoacuity maturation normally proceeds rapidly during the first year of life. Infantile and accommodative esotropia are associated with profound and permanent disruption of stereopsis. While rehabilitation of stereoacuity following treatment of esotropia remains a challenge, even the achievement of subnormal stereoacuity may have real benefits to the child. Conclusions Some abnormalities in stereoacuity may exist before the onset of esotropia, but others may result directly from abnormal binocular experience. Several strategies for improving stereoacuity outcomes in esotropia are currently under active investigation. Improved stereoacuity outcomes are associated with better long term stability of alignment, reduced risk for and/or severity of amblyopia, improved achievement of sensorimotor developmental milestones, better reading ability, and improved long-term quality of life. PMID:19390468

  5. FRACTIONAL INTEGRATION TOOLBOX

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Toma M.; Ramirez, Nelson; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    The problems formulated in the fractional calculus framework often require numerical fractional integration/differentiation of large data sets. Several existing fractional control toolboxes are capable of performing fractional calculus operations, however, none of them can efficiently perform numerical integration on multiple large data sequences. We developed a Fractional Integration Toolbox (FIT), which efficiently performs fractional numerical integration/differentiation of the Riemann-Liouville type on large data sequences. The toolbox allows parallelization and is designed to be deployed on both CPU and GPU platforms. PMID:24812536

  6. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  7. Analysis of p21Waf1/Cip1 expression in normal, premalignant, and malignant cells during the development of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Ito, T.; Kameda, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Kubota, Y.; Kitamura, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our studies suggested that adenocarcinoma of the peripheral lung mostly develops by several steps from atypical adenomatous hyperplasia through early adenocarcinoma to overt adenocarcinoma, and that some p53 abnormalities play an important role in this progression. In the present study, we examined by immunohistochemistry the expression of p53-inducible cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 (p21) in the cells at various developmental stages of lung adenocarcinoma (32 lesions of adenomatous hyperplasia, 14 of early adenocarcinoma, 23 of well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and 17 of moderately or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) in comparison with 19 reactive proliferative lesions and analyzed the relationship between p53 and p21 expression. Bronchioalveolar cells in the normal lung expressed very little or no p21 and no p53 expression. In not only reactive but also neoplastic lesions regardless of their developmental stage, the cells expressed p21 at various frequencies. The average labeling indices ranged from 5.4 to 13.8%, and there was no significant difference between any of these categories. The expression of p21, however, tended to be relatively low in moderately and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas (5.5%) compared to well differentiated adenocarcinomas (12.2%), and high-level p21 expressors (10% < or = positive cells) were more frequent in the latter group (1 of 17 (6%) versus 3 of 23 (35%), P < 0.05), suggesting that p21 expression is affected by the degree of differentiation of the neoplastic cells. Although the correlation was positive between the expression of p21 and p53 in reactive lesions (r = 0.88; P < 0.001), none was found in neoplastic lesions at any step or grade (-0.12 < or = r < or = 0.26). These results indicated that p21 expression depends upon p53 expression in reactive lung cells, whereas p21 expression is at least in part independent of that of p53 from the earliest to the most fully developed step of lung adenocarcinoma

  8. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1-dependent regulation of the expression and oncogenic functions of p21(CIP1/WAF1) in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, M; Gui, Y; Kandhi, R; Bobbala, D; Tobelaim, W-S; Saucier, C; Yoshimura, A; Ferbeyre, G; Ramanathan, S; Ilangumaran, S

    2016-08-11

    The SOCS1 gene coding for suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is frequently repressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hence SOCS1 is considered a tumor suppressor in the liver. However, the tumor-suppressor mechanisms of SOCS1 are not yet well understood. SOCS1 is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production and signaling and to promote activation of the p53 tumor suppressor. However, we observed that SOCS1-deficient mice developed numerous and large liver tumor nodules following treatment with the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) without showing increased interleukin-6 production or activation of p53. On the other hand, the livers of DEN-treated Socs1-null mice showed elevated levels of p21(CIP1/WAF1) protein (p21). Even though p21 generally functions as a tumor suppressor, paradoxically many cancers, including HCC, are known to express elevated levels of p21 that correlate with poor prognosis. We observed elevated p21 expression also in the regenerating livers of SOCS1-deficient mice and in cisplatin-treated Socs1-null hepatocytes, wherein the p21 protein showed increased stability. We show that SOCS1 interacts with p21 and promotes its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Besides, the DEN-treated livers of Socs1-null mice showed increased nuclear and cytosolic p21 staining, and the latter was associated with growth factor-induced, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of p21 in SOCS1-deficient hepatocytes. Cytosolic p21 is often associated with malignancy and chemo-resistance in many cancers. Accordingly, SOCS1-deficient hepatocytes showed increased resistance to apoptosis that was reversed by shRNA-mediated p21 knockdown. In the regenerating livers of Socs1-null mice, increased p21 expression coincided with elevated cyclinD levels. Correspondingly, SOCS1-deficient hepatocytes showed increased proliferation to growth factor stimulation that was reversed by p21 knockdown. Overall, our findings indicate that the

  9. TSPYL5 is involved in cell growth and the resistance to radiation in A549 cells via the regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and PTEN/AKT pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, So Yong; Kim, Tae Rim; Choi, Soo Im; Cho, Eun Wie; Kim, Kug Chan; Kim, In Gyu

    2010-02-12

    TSPYL5, encoding testis-specific Y-like protein, has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor gene, and its hypermethylation is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. In this study, we report that the TSPYL5 gene was less methylated (30%) in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, which are relatively resistant to {gamma}-radiation, than in H460 lung cancer cells, in which the TSPYL5 gene was hypermethylated (95%); thus, the expression level of TSPYL5 is much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We showed that TSPYL5 suppression with silencing RNA in A549 cells up-regulated cellular PTEN, followed by down-regulation of AKT activation. Therefore, blockage of TSPYL5 sensitized A549 cells to cytotoxic agents such as {gamma}-radiation. In addition, TSPYL5 suppression also showed an increased level of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and subsequently induced inhibition of cell growth in A549 cells. The overexpression of TSPYL5 in H460 cells showed the opposite effects. This study provides the first demonstration that TSPYL5 modulates cell growth and sensitization of cells to the detrimental effects of damaging agents via regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and PTEN/AKT pathway.

  10. p53 can repress transcription of cell cycle genes through a p21WAF1/CIP1-dependent switch from MMB to DREAM protein complex binding at CHR promoter elements

    PubMed Central

    Quaas, Marianne; Müller, Gerd A.; Engeland, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cell cycle arrest by downregulating transcription. Many genes repressed by p53 code for proteins with functions in G₂/M. A large portion of these genes is controlled by cell cycle-dependent elements (CDE) and cell cycle genes homology regions (CHR) in their promoters. Cyclin B2 is an example of such a gene, with a function at the transition from G₂ to mitosis. We find that p53-dependent downregulation of cyclin B2 promoter activity is dependent on an intact CHR element. In the presence of high levels of p53 or p21WAF1/CIP1, protein binding to the CHR switches from MMB to DREAM complex by shifting MuvB core-associated proteins from B-Myb to E2F4/DP1/p130. The results suggest a model for p53-dependent transcriptional repression by which p53 directly activates p21WAF1/CIP1. The inhibitor then prevents further phosphorylation of p130 by cyclin-dependent kinases. The presence of hypophosphorylated pocket proteins shifts the equilibrium for complex formation from MMB to DREAM. In the case of promoters that do not hold CDE or E2F elements, binding of DREAM and MMB solely relies on a CHR site. Thus, p53 can repress target genes indirectly through CHR elements. PMID:23187802

  11. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies

    PubMed Central

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects’ symptoms. Methods We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. Results We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. Conclusions There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. PMID:25323640

  12. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts. PMID:25395372

  13. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2013-11-15

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  14. Accommodating and cracking mechanisms in low-cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineau, A.

    1978-01-01

    The three main stages of fatigue life (accommodation, crack initiation and crack growth) are briefly reviewed. The cyclic behavior of annealed or predeformed face-centered cubic metals is described. Moreover, two types of alloys (Al-4-Cu and WASPALOY) are examined regarding the influence of the interactions between the precipitates and the dislocations on the cyclic behavior. Data on the percent of life to crack initiation (for a microcrack smaller than about 100 microns) are also given. Finally, experimental and theoretical results on crack growth rates in lowcycle fatigue are described.

  15. Cultural Accommodation of Substance Abuse Treatment for Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Martinez, Charles; Hops, Hyman; Wrona, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Collaborating with community stakeholders is an often suggested step when integrating cultural variables into psychological treatments for members of ethnic minority groups. However, there is a dearth of literature describing how to accomplish this process within the context of substance abuse treatment studies. This paper describes a qualitative study conducted through a series of focus groups with stakeholders in the Latino community. Data from focus groups were used by researchers to guide the integration of cultural variables into an empirically-supported substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents currently being evaluated for efficacy. A model for culturally accommodating empirically-supported treatments for ethnic minority participants is also described. PMID:21888499

  16. Functionalised Polysiloxanes as Injectable, In Situ Curable Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L.; Wilkie, John S.; Meijs, Gordon; Clayton, Anthony; Watling, Jason; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G. M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    The aged eye’s ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D4H concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 minutes under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photorheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels were biocompatible with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted optical and

  17. Performance analysis of Ethernet PON system accommodating 64 ONUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiji; Ohara, Kazuho; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Edagawa, Noboru

    2007-05-01

    We report the performance of an IEEE 802.3 standard compliant Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system accommodating 64 optical network units (ONUs). After investigating the optical transmission performance, we successfully demonstrate that a high throughput of more than 900Mbits/s can be achieved in a 64-ONU EPON system using multiple logical link identifiers per ONU within a range of 10km. In addition, we confirm the feasibility of IP-based high-quality triple play services in the EPON system.

  18. Accommodations assessment: Spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An accommodations analysis performed by the MSFC Preliminary Design Office for a spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system is summarized. A dedicated, free-flying spacecraft design concept is described. Mass and beginning-of-life power requirements are estimated at 2260 kg and 6.0 - 8.5 kW respectively, to support a pulsed, CO2, Doppler lidar having a pulse energy of 10 J, pulse rate of 8 Hz, and efficiency of approximately 5%. Under the assumptions of the analysis, such a system would provide wind measurements on a global scale, with accuracies of a few meters per second.

  19. Plant and animal accommodation for Space Station Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.

    1986-01-01

    An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.

  20. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  1. Treatment of Accommodative Dysfunction in Children: Results from an Random Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Cotter, Susan; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cooper, Jeffrey; Gallaway, Michael; Hopkins, Kristine B.; Bartuccio, Mary; Chung, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments. Of the enrolled children, 164 (74%) had accommodative dysfunction; 63 (29%) had a decreased amplitude of accommodation with respect to age, 43 (19%) had decreased accommodative facility, and 58 (26%) had both. Analysis of variance models were used to compare mean accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility for each treatment group after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Results After 12 weeks of treatment, the increases in amplitude of accommodation [office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement group (OBVAT) 9.9D, home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy group (HBCVAT+) 6.7D, home-based pencil push-up therapy group (HBPP) 5.8D] were significantly greater than in the office-based placebo therapy group (2.2D) (p-values ≤ 0.010). Significant increases in accommodative facility were found in all groups (OBVAT: 9cpm, HBCVAT+: 7cpm, HBPP: 5cpm, OBPT: 5.5cpm); only the improvement in the OBVAT group was significantly greater than that found in the OBPT group (p = 0.016). One year after completion of therapy, reoccurrence of decreased accommodative amplitude was present in only 12.5% and accommodative facility in only 11%. Conclusions Vision therapy/orthoptics is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-age children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction. PMID:21873922

  2. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  3. Ensuring Accommodations Used in Content Assessments Are Responsive to English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Lynn Shafer; Rivera, Charlene; Acosta, Barbara D.

    2009-01-01

    This column offers an overview of the requirements for including and accommodating English-language learners (ELLs) in content assessments and an explanation of how accommodations for ELLs work. It concludes with recommendations drawn from research and practice to ensure accommodations are assigned and implemented in ways that are likely to…

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  5. Accommodations Quality for Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Stephanie W.; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and…

  6. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  7. 41 CFR 60-50.3 - Accommodations to religious observance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Accommodations to religious observance and practice. 60-50.3 Section 60-50.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...-50.3 Accommodations to religious observance and practice. An employer must accommodate to...

  8. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  9. Teachers' Knowledge of Accommodations as a Validity Issue in High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Tindal, Gerald; Almond, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 166 regular and special-education teachers concerning allowable accommodations on statewide assessment tests found only 21% reported that they used allowed accommodations. Teachers' knowledge of allowable accommodations was low and suggests some students are unnecessarily exempted from participation. Results support preservice and…

  10. Work Barriers Experienced and Job Accommodations Used by Persons with Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn H.; Li, Wei; LaValley, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Many people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the types of work barriers they experience and their use of job accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in persons with arthritis at risk for work disability. (Contains 30…

  11. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  12. The Effects of Testing Accommodations on Students' Performances and Reactions to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on students' test performances and reactions to the use of testing accommodations. Participants (N = 170) were fourth- and eighth-grade students, with and without disabilities. All students were administered, with and without accommodations, equivalent forms of widely used math and reading…

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  16. Guidelines for Providing Accommodations Using CASAS Assessment for Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  18. Origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary presentation is given of a model which explains the picritic lunar mare green glass compositions as composites or magmas derived by polybaric fractional melting. The model accommodates changes in source composition and solidus temperature. As in the Klein and Langmuir model, the final compositions of the melts signify only average depths of melting. The onset of melting is deeper, final segregation is shallower.

  19. Scaling and Accommodation of Jaw Adductor Muscles in Canidae.

    PubMed

    Penrose, Fay; Kemp, Graham J; Jeffery, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size. Data were collected for a suite of morphological metrics, including body mass, endocranial volume, and muscle masses and we used geometric morphometric shape analysis to reveal associated form changes. We find that all jaw adductor muscles scale isometrically against body mass, regardless of phylogeny or trophic group, but that endocranial volume scales with negative allometry against body mass. These findings suggest that head shape is partly influenced by the need to house isometrically scaling muscles on a neurocranium scaling with negative allometry. Principal component analysis suggests that skull shape changes, such as the relatively wide zygomatic arches and large sagittal crests seen in species with higher body masses, allow the skull to accommodate a relative enlargement of the jaw adductors compared with the endocranium. Anat Rec, 299:951-966, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103346

  20. Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Dunlap, Susan; Fiez, Julie; Perfetti, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Native English speakers with no knowledge of Chinese were trained on 60 Chinese characters according to one of three mapping conditions: orthography to pronunciation and meaning (P + M), orthography to pronunciation (P), and orthography to meaning (M). Following the training, fMRI scans taken during passive viewing of Chinese characters showed activation in brain regions that partially overlap the regions found in studies of skilled Chinese readers, but typically not found in alphabetic readers. Areas include bilateral middle frontal (BA 9), right occipital (BA 18/19), and fusiform (BA 37) regions. The activation pattern of Chinese characters was similar across the three groups. However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups. Direct contrasts between the groups also revealed stronger activation of left middle frontal in the P + M group. The results suggest that learners acquired skill in reading Chinese characters using a brain network similar to that used by Chinese native speakers. The results are consistent with the system accommodation hypothesis: The brain's reading network accommodates to features of an acquired writing system. PMID:17274024

  1. Geostationary platform study: Advanced ESGP/evolutionary SSF accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The implications on the evolutionary space station of accommodating geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) facilities including unmanned satellites and platforms, manned elements, and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements. The latest existing definitions of typical unmanned GEO facilities and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements are utilized. The physical design, functional design, and operations implications at the space station are determined. Various concepts of the space station from past studies are utilized ranging from the IOC Multifunction Space Station to a branched transportation node space station, and the implications of the accommodation the GEO infrastructure of each type are assessed. Where possible, parametric data are provided to show the implications of variations in sizes and quantities of elements, launch rates, crew sizes, etc. The use of advanced automation, robotics equipment, and an efficient mix of manned/automated support for accomplishing necessary activities at the space station are identified and assessed. The products of this study are configuration sketches, resource requirements, trade studies, and parametric data.

  2. Geostationary platform study: Advanced ESGP/evolutionary SSF accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The implications on the evolutionary space station of accommodating geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) facilities are assessed. These facilities include unmanned satellites and platforms, manned elements, and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements. The latest existing definitions of typical unmanned GEO facilities and transportation and servicing vehicles/elements are utilized. The physical design, functional design, and operations implications at the space station are determined. Various concepts of the space station from past studies are utilized ranging from the IOC Multifunction Space Station to a branched transportation node space station and the implications of accommodating the GEO infrastructure at each type are assessed. Where possible, parametric data is provided to show the implications of variations in sizes and quantities of elements, launch rates, crew sizes, etc. The use of advanced automation, robotics equipment, and an efficient mix of manned/automated support for accomplishing necessary activities at the space station are identified and assessed. The products of this study are configuration sketches, resource requirements, trade studies, and parametric data.

  3. Crystalline hosts to accommodate the transmutation of Cs and Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Roy, R.; Pepin, J.; Agrawal, D. K.

    1982-04-01

    Certain deleterious effects on a solid nuclear waste form, though not yet quantitatively defined, could occur due to transmutations such as 137Cs+ yields 137 Ba2+ and 90Sr2+ yields 90Zr4+ (t sub /1/2/ = 30 yr in both cases). The relevant causes of such possible effects are the changes in ionic valence and size. This report explicitly formulates a chemical mitigation strategy: if the transmuting species can be incorporated in a multiple-cation host, in which one of the inert cations is a variable-valence transition metal, the valence change aspect of transmutation can be mitigated by a complementary valence change of the transition metal ion. The present work consisted of chemically simulating the transmutation, the goal being to find a Cs- and Sr-bearing single-phase host that would remain single-phase after the transmutation had occurred. Of several structures tried, perovskite appears to be the most promising, as the A-site can accommodate the approximately 20% size change that occurs when Cs decays to Ba. Ta and Nb were used as the variable-valence ions in the B site. Although not explicity studied here, magnetoplumbite seems likely to accommodate the Cs yields Ba transmutation. The application of the results to unpartitioned and partitioned nuclear wastes is discussed.

  4. Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

  5. Issues and concerns in accommodating the elderly in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Mital, A

    1994-12-01

    Aging is a natural phenomenon affecting mankind. The more recent interest in the elderly is probably derived from the facts that: (1) currently more and more people are living into old age as compared to populations prior to early twentieth century, (2) people now recognize and appreciate the concept of retirement (until comparatively recently only a small proportion of the population lived into old age), and (3) economic necessities are pushing retirees back into the workforce. With people living and working longer, employers, social scientists, and medical and health professionals are having to gear themselves to solve a special category of problems-problems dealing with accommodating the elderly in the workplace, homes, recreational facilities, vehicles, etc. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the important issues that must be addressed when bringing, or retaining, the elderly in workplaces. The paper is divided into four main sections. The first section is devoted to defining the elderly. In the second section, discussion is focused on how and why the elderly have become an increasingly important part of the working environment. The biological effects of aging are discussed in the third section. In the last section, attention is paid to those age-related functional abilities that are essential consideration in accommodating the elderly in the workplaces. PMID:24234510

  6. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  7. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  8. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    PubMed Central

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged. PMID:24069011

  9. Sick building syndrome in like symptoms in emergency prefabricated accommodation.

    PubMed

    Muzi, G; Accattoli, M P; dell'Omo, M; Frillici, C; Sapia, I E; Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the sources of discomfort and the symptoms reported by earthquake victims residing in temporary emergency prefabricated accommodation (prefab). The investigation was carried out by means of a questionnaire. 203 prefab occupants and 13 inhabitants of houses, who were chosen as reference population, replied in winter and 233 prefab occupants and 154 inhabitants of houses replied in summer. In both seasons more people living in prefabs indentified dry air, stuffy air, stale air, dust, dampness, uncomfortable temperature and bad odours as sources of discomfort. They also complained of general symptoms (headache, irritablility, insomnia, difficulty in concentration) and irritative symptoms of the eyes, upper and lower airways and skin. Multiple regression analysis identified the type of accommodation as the variable that most influenced the onset of general, ocular, upper and lower airway symptoms. Intrinsic characteristics of the prefabs (being constructed with synthetic materials, combustion sources, poor ventilation and insulation) and psychosocial factors e. losing their home, could have contributed to the onset of symptoms. PMID:15345200

  10. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS+/− mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS+/− mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  11. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    PubMed

    Trott, Wayne M; Castañeda, Jaime N; Torczynski, John R; Gallis, Michael A; Rader, Daniel J

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ∼0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations. PMID:21456801

  12. Cellular accommodation and the response of bone to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Jennifer L; Warden, Stuart J; Saxon, Leanne K; Robling, Alexander G; Turner, Charles H

    2005-09-01

    Several mathematical rules by which bone adapts to mechanical loading have been proposed. Previous work focused mainly on negative feedback models, e.g., bone adapts to increased loading after a minimum strain effective (MES) threshold has been reached. The MES algorithm has numerous caveats, so we propose a different model, according to which bone adapts to changes in its mechanical environment based on the principle of cellular accommodation. With the new algorithm we presume that strain history is integrated into cellular memory so that the reference state for adaptation is constantly changing. To test this algorithm, an experiment was performed in which the ulnae of Sprague-Dawley rats were loaded in axial compression. The animals received loading for 15 weeks with progressively decreasing loads, increasing loads, or a constant load. The results showed the largest increases in geometry in the decreasing load group, followed by the constant load group. Bone formation rates (BFRs) were significantly greater in the decreasing load group during the first 2 weeks of the study as compared to all other groups (P<0.05). After the first few weeks of mechanical loading, the BFR in the loaded ulnae returned to the values of the nonloaded ulnae. These experimental results closely fit the predicted results of the cellular accommodation algorithm. After the initial weeks of loading, bone stopped responding so the degree of adaptation was proportional to the initial peak load magnitude. PMID:16023471

  13. Right Ventricular Anatomy Can Accommodate Multiple Micra Transcatheter Pacemakers

    PubMed Central

    EGGEN, MICHAEL D.; BONNER, MATTHEW D.; IAIZZO, PAUL A.; WIKA, KENT

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of transcatheter pacemaker technology has the potential to significantly reduce if not eliminate a number of complications associated with a traditional leaded pacing system. However, this technology raises new questions regarding how to manage the device at end of service, the number of devices the right ventricle (RV) can accommodate, and what patient age is appropriate for this therapy. In this study, six human cadaver hearts and one reanimated human heart (not deemed viable for transplant) were each implanted with three Micra devices in traditional pacing locations via fluoroscopic imaging. Methods A total of six human cadaver hearts were obtained from the University of Minnesota Anatomy Bequest Program; the seventh heart was a heart not deemed viable for transplant obtained from LifeSource and then reanimated using Visible Heart® methodologies. Each heart was implanted with multiple Micras using imaging and proper delivery tools; in these, the right ventricular volumes were measured and recorded. The hearts were subsequently dissected to view the right ventricular anatomies and the positions and spacing between devices. Results Multiple Micra devices could be placed in each heart in traditional, clinically accepted pacing implant locations within the RV and in each case without physical device interactions. This was true even in a human heart considered to be relatively small. Conclusions Although this technology is new, it was demonstrated here that within the human heart's RV, three Micra devices could be accommodated within traditional pacing locations: with the potential in some, for even more. PMID:26710918

  14. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  15. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  16. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage

  17. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: range, impact, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Parental accommodation--i.e., changes in parents' behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress--has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers-68; NFathers-51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  18. Your case will now be heard: sign language interpreters as problematic accommodations in legal interactions.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jeremy L

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were problematic. Three major themes emerged from the informants' narratives: difficulty obtaining the desired accommodation, dealing with a problematic accommodation, and enduring a partial accommodation. These findings suggest that accommodations involving sign language interpreters are not neutral and transparent and that they often have tangible effects on the experiences of and outcomes for deaf persons in the context of dealing with legal matters. Deaf people have very little control over the accommodation they receive and yet are held fully responsible for ensuring its efficacy. These results are discussed in relation to policies and procedures for ensuring that deaf persons have full access in their interactions with American legal institutions. PMID:17595172

  19. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  20. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. PMID:25805123

  1. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  2. Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

  3. Intraocular electro-optic lens with ciliary muscle controlled accommodation.

    PubMed

    Doornaert, Dries; Glorieux, Christ; De Gersem, Herbert; Puers, Robert; Spileers, Werner; Blanckaert, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a concept is proposed of an intraocular lens implant with electro-optic accommodation of a variable-focus hybrid liquid-crystal-based lens. The dioptric strength of the lens is electronically controlled by a signal that is derived from the change of inductance of a sensing coil due to a marker implanted in the nearby contracting or decontracting ciliary muscle. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are reported on the dependency of the frequency of a Colpitts oscillator circuit on the location of a nearby conductive marker. A concept is also reported on the use as an electro-optic lens of a device based on a liquid crystal in planar alignment, which is held between a flat and a curved window coated with optically transparent and electrically conductive layers. PMID:24110406

  4. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-06-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1), Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  5. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  6. Driving time modulates accommodative response and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2016-10-01

    Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. PMID:27235337

  7. Force production and mechanical accommodation during convergent extension

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Pal, Siladitya; Maiti, Spandan; Davidson, Lance A.

    2015-01-01

    Forces generated within the embryo during convergent extension (CE) must overcome mechanical resistance to push the head away from the rear. As mechanical resistance increases more than eightfold during CE and can vary twofold from individual to individual, we have proposed that developmental programs must include mechanical accommodation in order to maintain robust morphogenesis. To test this idea and investigate the processes that generate forces within early embryos, we developed a novel gel-based sensor to report force production as a tissue changes shape; we find that the mean stress produced by CE is 5.0±1.6 Pascal (Pa). Experiments with the gel-based force sensor resulted in three findings. (1) Force production and mechanical resistance can be coupled through myosin contractility. The coupling of these processes can be hidden unless affected tissues are challenged by physical constraints. (2) CE is mechanically adaptive; dorsal tissues can increase force production up to threefold to overcome a stiffer microenvironment. These findings demonstrate that mechanical accommodation can ensure robust morphogenetic movements against environmental and genetic variation that might otherwise perturb development and growth. (3) Force production is distributed between neural and mesodermal tissues in the dorsal isolate, and the notochord, a central structure involved in patterning vertebrate morphogenesis, is not required for force production during late gastrulation and early neurulation. Our findings suggest that genetic factors that coordinately alter force production and mechanical resistance are common during morphogenesis, and that their cryptic roles can be revealed when tissues are challenged by controlled biophysical constraints. PMID:25670794

  8. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals. PMID:25426061

  9. An Appetite for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  10. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems…

  11. The Future of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman P.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1970s, the movement to the metric system (which has still not completely occurred in the United States) and the advent of hand-held calculators led some to speculate that decimal representation of numbers would render fractions obsolete. This provocative proposition stimulated Zalman Usiskin to write "The Future of Fractions" in 1979. He…

  12. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  13. Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation.

    PubMed

    López-Gil, N; Iglesias, I; Artal, P

    1998-10-01

    The changes in the retinal image quality with accommodation in the human eye were studied by using a near-infrared double-pass apparatus. A slightly better modulation transfer function (MTF) in the unaccommodated eye with respect to the accommodated eye was found when using an artificial pupil with a fixed diameter. The technique allows the estimation of the MTF of the accommodated eye discounting the effect of the accommodative defocus error. Most of the reduction found in the MTF with accommodation could be explained in terms of the accommodative defocusing error. However, the shape of the retinal images clearly changes with accommodation, indicating that other aberrations are also altered with accommodation. In general, the double-pass image for the accommodated eye tends to be more symmetric than that of the unaccommodated eye. This is probably due to either a decrease in the amount of coma-like aberrations with accommodation or to an increase of other symmetric aberrations, such as defocus or spherical aberration, that hide the asymmetries present in the retinal image of the unaccommodated eye. PMID:9797986

  14. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  15. The Rate of Change of Vergence-Accommodation Conflict Affects Visual Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort. PMID:25448713

  16. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  17. Depth discrimination of constant angular size stimuli in action space: role of accommodation and convergence cues

    PubMed Central

    Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Chellali, Ryad

    2015-01-01

    In our daily life experience, the angular size of an object correlates with its distance from the observer, provided that the physical size of the object remains constant. In this work, we investigated depth perception in action space (i.e., beyond the arm reach), while keeping the angular size of the target object constant. This was achieved by increasing the physical size of the target object as its distance to the observer increased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a similar protocol has been tested in action space, for distances to the observer ranging from 1.4–2.4 m. We replicated the task in virtual and real environments and we found that the performance was significantly different between the two environments. In the real environment, all participants perceived the depth of the target object precisely. Whereas, in virtual reality (VR) the responses were significantly less precise, although, still above chance level in 16 of the 20 observers. The difference in the discriminability of the stimuli was likely due to different contributions of the convergence and the accommodation cues in the two environments. The values of Weber fractions estimated in our study were compared to those reported in previous studies in peripersonal and action space. PMID:26441608

  18. Accommodation of pyrimidine dimers during replication of UV-damaged simian virus 40 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Stacks, P C; White, J H; Dixon, K

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of simian virus 40-infected cells at fluences between 20 and 60 J/m2, which yield one to three pyrimidine dimers per simian virus 40 genome, leads to a fluence-dependent progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA replication as assayed by incorporation of [3H]deoxyribosylthymine into viral DNA. We used a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques to show that this decrease is due to a block in the progression of replicative-intermediate molecules to completed form I molecules, with a concomitant decrease in the entry of molecules into the replicating pool. Despite this UV-induced inhibition of replication, some pyrimidine dimer-containing molecules become fully replicated after UV irradiation. The fraction of completed molecules containing dimers goes up with time such that by 3 h after a UV fluence of 40 J/m2, more than 50% of completed molecules contain pyrimidine dimers. We postulate that the cellular replication machinery can accommodate limited amounts of UV-induced damage and that the progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA synthesis after UV irradiation is due to the accumulation in the replication pool of blocked molecules containing levels of damage greater than that which can be tolerated. PMID:6621531

  19. Multiple daily fractionation schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Although conventional fractionation schedules have been satisfactory for the treatment of some tumors, there is reason to believe that the results of radiation therapy could be improved in some cases by appropriate alterations in treatment schedules. The pharmacological characteristics of some of the electron affinic radiation sensitizers have provided added incentive to investigate newer fractionation schemes, particularly ones which deliver the majority of the radiation dose in short periods of time. This editorial discusses three papers describing preliminary clinical studies using multi-daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy. Two of these studies also make use of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole. (KRM)

  20. EPO gene expression induces the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells through the p21WAF1‑mediated ERK1/2/NF-κB/MMP-9 pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Lyea; Won, Se Yeon; Song, Jun-Hui; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that modulates the production of red blood cells. Previous studies have contradicted the assumed role of EPO in tumor cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EPO in the proliferation, migration and invasion that is involved in the signaling pathways and cell-cycle regulation of bladder cancer 5637 cells. The results showed that an overexpression of the EPO gene has a potent stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis, migration and invasion. EPO gene expression increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 via the binding activity of NF-κB, AP-1 and Sp-1 in 5637 cells. The transfection of 5637 cells with the EPO gene induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Treatment with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly inhibited the increased proliferation, migration and invasion of EPO gene-transfected cells. U0126 treatment suppressed the induction of MMP-9 expression through NF-κB binding activity in EPO gene transfectants. In addition, EPO gene expression was correlated with the upregulation of cyclins/CDKs and the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1 expression. Finally, the inhibition of p21WAF1 function by siRNA blocked the proliferation, migration, invasion and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 signaling, as well as MMP-9 expression and activation of NF-κB in EPO gene-transfected cells. These novel findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of EPO contribute to the progression and development of bladder tumors. PMID:25175278