Science.gov

Sample records for accommodation space created

  1. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  2. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  3. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  4. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  5. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  6. Space shuttle baseline accommodations for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle system as it relates to payloads is described. This study provides potential users of the space shuttle with a uniform base of information on the accommodations between the payload and the shuttle. By utilizing this information, preliminary payload planning and design studies can be evaluated and compared against a common set of shuttle/payload accommodations. This information also minimizes the necessity for each payload study to develop information on the shuttle configuration.

  7. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  8. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  9. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  12. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  13. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  14. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  15. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  16. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  17. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  18. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  19. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) On all units, the deckhead of each accommodation space must be above the deepest load line. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location...

  20. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) On all units, the deckhead of each accommodation space must be above the deepest load line. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location...

  1. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) On all units, the deckhead of each accommodation space must be above the deepest load line. ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location...

  2. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) On all units, the deckhead of each accommodation space must be above the deepest load line. ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location...

  3. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) On all units, the deckhead of each accommodation space must be above the deepest load line. ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location...

  4. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  5. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  6. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  7. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  8. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  9. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  10. Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

  11. Accommodations: Staff Identity and University Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Andrew; Herrick, Tim; Keating, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Space has been of growing significance in social theory in recent years, yet, explorations of it in the scholarship of higher education have been limited. This is surprising, given the critical role space has in shaping staff and students' engagement with the university. Taking a practice-based approach and focusing on academic identities, this…

  12. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  13. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  14. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  15. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  16. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  17. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  18. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  19. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  5. Plant and animal accommodation for Space Station Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.

    1986-01-01

    An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.

  6. Creating Spaces for Literacy, Creating Spaces for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Christy

    2016-01-01

    This study represents the practices of a middle school social studies teacher as she focuses on integrating questioning, reading, and writing in her content area. This teacher uses literacy strategies to engage students in practices of reading multiple texts and writing to showcase learning. She creates opportunities for students to make…

  7. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation...

  8. Creating food for deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Explorers and scientists have to eat, whether they're on top of a mountain, deep in the sea, or in space. NASA scientists are working to develop a viable food program by 2030 that could feed six crew members for a 3-year mission to Mars.

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall...

  11. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A class bulkhead and A class deck respectively— (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or combination galley and messroom; (c) Main pantry; (d) Classified space; (e) Store room....

  12. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A class bulkhead and A class deck respectively— (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or combination galley and messroom; (c) Main pantry; (d) Classified space; (e) Store room....

  13. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A class bulkhead and A class deck respectively— (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or combination galley and messroom; (c) Main pantry; (d) Classified space; (e) Store room....

  14. 46 CFR 116.427 - Fire load of accommodation and service spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire load of accommodation and service spaces. 116.427... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.427 Fire load of accommodation and service spaces. (a) Fire load calculations must be submitted by the owner for review to the Marine Safety Center when: (1) A space...

  15. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  16. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. 108.137 Section 108.137 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE....137 Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck...

  17. Space Station Freedom accommodation of the Human Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.; Peach, Lewis L., Jr.; Ahlf, Peter R.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.

    1990-01-01

    The design requirements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are proposed based on the requirements and assumptions of the Human Exploration Initiative. In this summary of a NASA study consideration is given to the mission-supporting capabilities needed to sustain support of a continuous human presence in earth orbit for scientific activities. The initial SSF configuration (called Assembly Complete) is found to be insufficient in terms of the optimal provisions for crew size, power, pressurized volume, and truss structure. Specific design requirements are also given for the Lunar Transfer Vehicle, and the checkout of this vehicle creates additional demands on the SSF facilities. General specifications are given for the SSF modules, vehicle processing, remote manipulator, and mobile transporter within the context of a continuous human presence in orbit.

  18. Space science/space station attached payload pointing accommodation study: Technology assessment white paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Richard Y.; Mann, Kenneth E.; Laskin, Robert A.; Sirlin, Samuel W.

    1987-01-01

    Technology assessment is performed for pointing systems that accommodate payloads of large mass and large dimensions. Related technology areas are also examined. These related areas include active thermal lines or power cables across gimbals, new materials for increased passive damping, tethered pointing, and inertially reacting pointing systems. Conclusions, issues and concerns, and recommendations regarding the status and development of large pointing systems for space applications are made based on the performed assessments.

  19. Creating Spaces to Support Transgender Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jenifer K.; Conover-Williams, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the opportunity to create spaces within the family, school, and community that specifically promote the well-being of transgender adolescents and young adults. When social contexts are supportive, transgender youth report significantly less risk. Supportive home and school environments have been linked to better outcomes…

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  1. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  2. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  3. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  4. Space Management. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew; Dobbs, John

    This module on space management is intended to help supervisors or managers make more profitable use of existing areas in their establishment. An imaginary licensed house is used as a case study to show the steps involved. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in five sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of…

  5. Space Shuttle payload accommodation and trends in customer demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, Daniel L.; Wilson, James R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review payload demands for Shuttle resources and services in the pre-Space Station Freedom time frame. Requests for flight in both the Orbiter cargo bay and middeck will be considered. Factors limiting more efficient use of the Shuttle will also be discussed.

  6. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... spaces. (f) Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for artistic treatment, privacy, etc... accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section 72.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. (a) Ceilings and...

  7. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spaces. (f) Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for artistic treatment, privacy, etc... accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section 72.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. (a) Ceilings and...

  8. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... spaces. (f) Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for artistic treatment, privacy, etc... accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section 72.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. (a) Ceilings and...

  9. Temperature Dependence of Accommodation and Excitation in Space-Clamped Axons

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Rita

    1968-01-01

    Accommodation and excitation in space-clamped squid axons were studied with the double sucrose gap technique, using linear current ramps, short (50 µsec) square wave pulses, and rheobasic square wave pulses as stimuli. The temperature was varied from 5° to 35°C. Experimental results showed a Q10 for accommodation which was 44% higher than that for excitation. Yet calculations on the basis of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations predict equal Q10's for excitation and accommodation. Although the Hodgkin-Huxley equations are spectacularly successful for so many nerve phenomena, the differences between calculations of accommodation and these experiments, which were designed to test the equations, show that the equations need modification in this area. PMID:5676183

  10. 46 CFR 154.330 - Openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the cargo area or on the outboard side of the house. (b) Each port light, located on the athwartship... than 207 kPa gauge (30 psig). (d) Port lights in the hull plating below the uppermost continuous deck... accommodation, service, and control spaces must have metal closures that pass a tightness test with a fire...

  11. 46 CFR 154.330 - Openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the cargo area or on the outboard side of the house. (b) Each port light, located on the athwartship... than 207 kPa gauge (30 psig). (d) Port lights in the hull plating below the uppermost continuous deck... accommodation, service, and control spaces must have metal closures that pass a tightness test with a fire...

  12. 46 CFR 153.201 - Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces... bulkhead facing the cargo area a distance at least equal to the following: (1) 3 m (approx. 10 ft) if the... 125 meters (approx. 410 ft). (b) Fixed port lights, wheelhouse doors, and windows need not meet...

  13. 46 CFR 153.201 - Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Openings to accommodation, service or control spaces... bulkhead facing the cargo area a distance at least equal to the following: (1) 3 m (approx. 10 ft) if the... 125 meters (approx. 410 ft). (b) Fixed port lights, wheelhouse doors, and windows need not meet...

  14. 46 CFR 116.427 - Fire load of accommodation and service spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... quantity of combustibles, that the fire load present in a high risk accommodations space may exceed 37.5 kg (7.5 pounds) of combustibles per square meter (square foot) of deck area. (b) When required under paragraph (a) of this section, fire load calculations must include all combustible construction...

  15. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.

  16. Razzle Dazzle: Creating Interactive Library Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Creating an interactive and engaging school library environment for your school community is an important prerequisite to establishing a creditable identity with teaching staff, which in turn, leads to opportunities to develop collaborative curriculum programs. The library and its personnel must be perceived as a hub for learning and part of the…

  17. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings.

  18. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings. PMID:27649915

  19. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefel, John P.; ACCESS Accommodation Study Team

    1999-01-01

    ACCESS-Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station-was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the ``knee'' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control, power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Accommodation of a Single US Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Garn, Michelle A.; Troutman, Patrick A.; Wang, Yuan; Kumar, Renjith; Heck, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The following report was generated to give the International Space Station (ISS) Program some additional insight into the operations and issues associated with accommodating a single U.S. developed Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). During the generation of this report, changes in both the ISS and ACRV programs were factored into the analysis with the realization that most of the work performed will eventually need to be repeated once the two programs become more integrated. No significant issues associated with the ISS accommodating the ACRV were uncovered. Kinematic analysis of ACRV installation showed that there are viable methods of using Shuttle and Station robotic manipulators. Separation analysis demonstrated that the ACRV departure path clears the Station structure for all likely contingency scenarios. The payload bay packaging analysis identified trades that can be made between payload bay location, Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) reach and eventual designs of de-orbit stages and docking adapters.

  1. Periodic-disturbance accommodating control of the space station for asymptotic momentum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong; Geller, David

    1989-01-01

    Periodic-disturbance accommodating control is investigated for asymptotic momentum management of control moment gyros used as primary actuating devices for the Space Station. The proposed controller utilizes the concepts of quaternion feedback control and periodic-disturbance accommodation to achieve oscillations about the constant torque equilibrium attitude, while minimizing the control effort required. Three-axis coupled equations of motion, written in terms of quaternions, are derived for roll/yaw controller design and stability analysis. The quaternion feedback controller designed using the linear-quadratic regulator synthesis technique is shown to be robust for a wide range of pitch angles. It is also shown that the proposed controller tunes the open-loop unstable vehicle to a stable oscillatory motion which minimizes the control effort needed for steady-state operations.

  2. Periodic-disturbance accommodating control of the Space Station for asymptotic momentum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong; Geller, David

    1989-01-01

    Periodic-disturbance accommodating control is investigated for asymptotic momentum management of control moment gyros used as primary actuating devices for the Space Station. The proposed controller utilizes the concepts of quaternion feedback control and periodic-disturbance accommodation to achieve oscillations about the constant torque equilibrium attitude, while minimizing the control effort required. Three-axis coupled equations of motion, written in terms of quaternions, are derived for roll/yaw controller design and stability analysis. The quaternion feedback controller designed using the linear-quadratic regulator synthesis technique is shown to be robust for a wide range of pitch angles. It is also shown that the proposed controller tunes the open-loop unstable vehicle to a stable oscillatory motion which minimizes the control effort needed for steady-state operations.

  3. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  4. Space Station accommodation of life sciences in support of a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Hagaman, Jane A.; Seddon, Rhea M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a life science impact analysis for accommodation to the Space Station of a manned Mars mission are discussed. In addition to addressing such issues as on-orbit vehicle assembly and checkout, the study also assessed the impact of a life science research program on the station. A better understanding of the effects on the crew of long duration exposure to the hostile space environment and to develop controls for adverse effects was the objective. Elements and products of the life science accommodation include: the identification of critical research areas; the outline of a research program consistent with the mission timeframe; the quantification of resource requirements; the allocation of functions to station facilities; and a determination of the impact on the Space Station program and of the baseline configuration. Results indicate the need at the Space Station for two dedicated life science lab modules; a pocket lab to support a 4-meter centrifuge; a quarantine module for the Mars Sample Return Mission; 3.9 man-years of average crew time; and 20 kilowatts of electrical power.

  5. Accommodation requirements for microgravity science and applications research on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Holland, L. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific research conducted in the microgravity environment of space represents a unique opportunity to explore and exploit the benefits of materials processing in the virtual abscence of gravity induced forces. NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. A study is performed to define from the researchers' perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. The accommodation requirements focus on the microgravity science disciplines including combustion science, electronic materials, metals and alloys, fluids and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and polymer science. User requirements have been identified in eleven research classes, each of which contain an envelope of functional requirements for related experiments having similar characteristics, objectives, and equipment needs. Based on these functional requirements seventeen items of experiment apparatus and twenty items of core supporting equipment have been defined which represent currently identified equipment requirements for a pressurized laboratory module at the initial operating capability of the NASA space station.

  6. Challenge to Create the Space Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1997-01-01

    To travel to our neighboring stars as practically as envisioned by science fiction, breakthroughs in science are required. One of these breakthroughs is to discover a self-contained means of propulsion that requires no propellant. To chart a path toward such a discovery, seven hypothetical space drives are presented to illustrate the specific unsolved challenges and associated research objectives toward this ambition. One research objective is to discover a means to asymmetrically interact with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. Another is to develop a physics that describes inertia, gravity, or the properties of space-time as a function of electromagnetics that leads to using electromagnetic technology for inducing propulsive forces. Another is to determine if negative mass exists or if its properties can be synthesized. An alternative approach that covers the possibility that negative mass might not exist is to develop a formalism of Mach's principle or reformulate ether concepts to lay a foundation for addressing reaction forces and conservation of momentum with space drives.

  7. Utilization of Shuttle small payload accommodations in the DOD Space Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, Thomas; Czajkowski, Eva

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, the U.S. Air Force, as executive agent for the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program, has flown approximately 325 space experiments for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and other DOD agencies. These experiments have made significant contributions to the improvement of military technology and operations. Flight of Space Test Program experiments has been carried out utilizing free flyer spacecraft, the Space Shuttle crew cabin, and the Space Shuttle cargo bay. This paper will concentrate on those experiments which have been flown by the NASA Space Shuttle small payload flight systems, e.g., GAS, uprated GAS (CAP), and Hitchhiker flight systems. Discussions of Space Test Program experiments flown by Space Shuttle small payloads flight systems will include the experiment objectives, the accommodations and services provided by the flight systems, experiment results, and lessons learned from the planning and conduct of the flight. Particular emphasis will be placed on those experiments which required and were provided with a new and unique capability by the small payloads flight systems. These capabilities include the first use of the GAS opening lid, the first use of the GAS payload ejection capability, and the first use of the Hitchhiker cross bay carrier.

  8. The Challenge to Create the Space Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1999-01-01

    To travel to our neighboring stars as practically as envisioned by science fiction, breakthroughs in science are required. One of these breakthroughs is to discover a self-contained means of propulsion that requires no propellant. To chart a path toward such a discovery, seven hypothetical space drives are presented to illustrate the specific unsolved challenges and associated research objectives toward this ambition. One research objective is to discover a means to asymmetrically interact with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. Another is to develop a physics that describes inertia, gravity, or the properties of spacetime as a function of electromagnetics that leads to using electromagnetic technology for inducing propulsive forces. Another is to determine if negative mass exists or if its properties can be synthesized. An alternative approach that covers the possibility that negative mass might not exist is to develop a formalism of Mach's Principle or reformulate ether concepts to lay a foundation for addressing reaction forces and conservation of momentum with space drives.

  9. The challenge to create the space drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    To travel to our neighboring stars as practically as envisioned by science fiction, breakthroughs in science are required. One of these breakthroughs is to discover a self-contained means of propulsion that requires no propellant. To chart a path toward such a discovery, seven hypothetical space drives are presented to illustrate the specific unsolved challenges and associated research objectives toward this ambition. One research objective is to discover a means to asymmetrically interact with the electro-magnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. Another is to develop a physics that describes inertia, gravity, or the properties of spacetime as a function of electro-magnetics that leads to using electro-magnetic technology for inducing propulsive forces. Another is to determine if negative mass exists or if its properties can be synthesized. An alternative approach that covers the possibility that negative mass might not exist is to develop a formalism of Mach's Principle or re-formulate ether concepts to lay a foundation for addressing reaction forces and conservation of momentum with space drives.

  10. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  11. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  12. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  13. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960's to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and the modifications were funded, by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink and, the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in the overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  14. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive modifications

  15. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft.) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft.) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope, which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to minimize dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  16. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  17. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  18. A dual-mode disturbance-accommodating controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addington, Stewart; Johnson, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the Solar Arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted, oscillating disturbance torques on the HST main body, which cause unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: (1) a `total isolation' (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel-out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions, and (2) an `array damping' (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of Disturbance-Accommodating Control (DAC) Theory a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance-accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing-performance such a controller can achieve.

  19. A dual-mode disturbance-accommodating controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addington, Stewart; Johnson, C. D.

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the Solar Arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted, oscillating disturbance torques on the HST main body, which cause unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: (1) a `total isolation' (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel-out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions, and (2) an `array damping' (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of Disturbance-Accommodating Control (DAC) Theory a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance-accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing-performance such a controller can achieve.

  20. Dual-mode disturbance-accommodating pointing controller for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addington, Stewart I.; Johnson, C. D.

    1995-03-01

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the solar arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: 1) a total isolation (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions and 2) an array damping (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of disturbance accommodation control theory, a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing performance such a controller can achieve.

  1. SLR-induced changes on storm flooding in coastal areas: the role of accommodation space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Dockx, Stijn; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2015-04-01

    Most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in coastal storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of any significant increasing trend in neither wave height nor surge. However, this does not mean that magnitude and/or frequency of storm-induced coastal hazards will not be affected by climate change. Thus, sea level rise will induce a series of long-term changes in coastal areas that although not directly affecting storminess will interact with storm-induced processes and, thus, changing coastal storm risks. A typical approach to account SLR-induced effects on coastal inundation by storms is to modify present water level extreme climate by adding expected MWL increase. This implies to consider the coast as a static and passive system to SLR maintaining its configuration from actual to projected (rised) sea level and, as a result of this, the frequency of flood events should increase and, the magnitude of flooding associated to a probability of occurrence will also increase. This will only be realistic for really passive or rigid coasts. However, sandy coastlines will response to SLR and, thus, this approach should undervalue coastal resilience. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to propose a method to assess the effects of SLR on the magnitude of storm-induced coastal flooding on sandy coastlines taking into account their capacity of response. It combines the use of a inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP) for delineating the flood-prone area for given storm conditions and, a coastal module to account for SLR-induced changes in the coastal fringe. The method assumes an equilibrium-type coastal response to SLR which, ideally, implies that the beach profile will be reconstructed under the new higher water level, in such a way that the relative beach configuration will be the same. However, this should only be possible provided there is enough accommodation space in the hinterland. In most of developed coasts, the existence of human built

  2. Periodic-disturbance accommodating control of the space station for asymptotic momentum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong

    1989-01-01

    Periodic maneuvering control is developed for asymptotic momentum management of control gyros used as primary actuating devices for the Space Station. The proposed controller utilizes the concepts of quaternion feedback control and periodic-disturbance accommodation to achieve oscillations about the constant torque equilibrium attitude, while minimizing the control effort required. Three-axis coupled equations of motion, written in terms of quaternions, are derived for roll/yaw controller design and stability analysis. It is shown that the quaternion feedback controller is very robust for a wide range of pitch angles. It is also shown that the proposed controller tunes the open-loop unstable vehicle to a stable oscillatory motion which minimizes the control effort needed for steady-state operations.

  3. Depth discrimination of constant angular size stimuli in action space: role of accommodation and convergence cues

    PubMed Central

    Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Chellali, Ryad

    2015-01-01

    In our daily life experience, the angular size of an object correlates with its distance from the observer, provided that the physical size of the object remains constant. In this work, we investigated depth perception in action space (i.e., beyond the arm reach), while keeping the angular size of the target object constant. This was achieved by increasing the physical size of the target object as its distance to the observer increased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a similar protocol has been tested in action space, for distances to the observer ranging from 1.4–2.4 m. We replicated the task in virtual and real environments and we found that the performance was significantly different between the two environments. In the real environment, all participants perceived the depth of the target object precisely. Whereas, in virtual reality (VR) the responses were significantly less precise, although, still above chance level in 16 of the 20 observers. The difference in the discriminability of the stimuli was likely due to different contributions of the convergence and the accommodation cues in the two environments. The values of Weber fractions estimated in our study were compared to those reported in previous studies in peripersonal and action space. PMID:26441608

  4. Applying a Crew Accommodations Resource Model to Future Space Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer Linda

    2003-01-01

    The success of research and development for human space flight depends heavily on modeling. In addition, the use of such models is especially critical at the earliest phase of research and development of any manned vehicle or habitat. NASA is currently studying various innovative and futuristic propulsion technologies to enable further exploration of space by untended as well as tended vehicles. Details such as vehicle mass, volume, shape and configuration are required variables to evaluate the success of the propulsion concepts. For tended vehicles, the impact of the crew's requirements on those parameters must be included. This is especially important on long duration missions where the crew requirements become more complex. To address these issues, a crew accommodations resource model, developed as a mission planning tool for human spaceflight (Stillwell, Boutros, & Connolly), was applied to a reference mission in order to estimate the volume and mass required to sustain a crew for a variety of long duration missions. The model, which compiled information from numerous different sources and contains various attributes which can be modified to enable comparisons across different dimensions, was instrumental in deriving volume and mass required for a tended long duration space flight. With the inclusion of some additional variables, a set of volume and mass requirements were provided to the project. If due consideration to crew requirements for volume and mass had not been entertained, the assumptions behind validation of the propulsion technology could have been found to be incorrect, possibly far into development of the technology or even into the design and build of test vehicles. The availability and use of such a model contributes significantly by increasing the accuracy of human space flight research and development activities and acts as a cost saving measure by preventing inaccurate assumptions from driving design decisions.

  5. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  6. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 4, Appendix A: Space station accommodations. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Roger M.

    1987-01-01

    Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing at the space station is divided into two major categories: OTV processing and assembly operations, and support operations. These categories are further subdivided into major functional areas to allow development of detailed OTV processing procedures and timelines. These procedures and timelines are used to derive the specific space station accommodations necessary to support OTV activities. The overall objective is to limit impact on OTV processing requirements on space station operations, involvement of crew, and associated crew training and skill requirements. The operational concept maximizes use of automated and robotic systems to perform all required OTV servicing and maintenance tasks. Only potentially critical activities would require direct crew involvement or supervision. EVA operations are considered to be strictly contingency back-up to failure of the automated and robotic systems, with the exception of the initial assembly of Space-Based OTV accommodations at the space station, which will require manned involvement.

  7. Creating Space for Teaching Writing and for Test Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Nancy Rankie; Fu, Danling

    2004-01-01

    The different ways of creating space for teaching writing and for test preparation as well the tension a teacher undergoes of implementing a writing workshop approach within a school context focused on high-test scores are described. The findings suggest maintaining teacher autonomy and surviving the high demands imposed upon teachers.

  8. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design...

  9. Assertion, Regulation and Consent: Gay Students, Straight Flatmates, and the (Hetero)Sexualisation of University Accommodation Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulke-Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Building upon conceptualisations of the sexualisation of space, this paper interrogates the ways in which heterosexual discourses are produced, enforced, legitimised and maintained as dominant within student accommodation. Analysis is derived from interviews with 17 gay male undergraduates attending a UK institution. I detail the micro-level…

  10. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  11. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  12. Accommodative Esotropia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Accommodative Esotropia En Español Read in Chinese What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive ...

  13. CU Prime Diversity Workshops: Creating Spaces for Growth Amongst Organizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyater-Adams, Simone

    2016-03-01

    CU Prime is a graduate student run organization that was created as a way to promote community and inclusion amongst students in CU Physics Department. With a mission to improve the experiences of students, especially those underrepresented in the department and field, the core organizers developed three programs: a seminar series, a class, and a mentorship program. However, because this is strictly volunteer time for most organizers, there is little time for development and growth as a group. In response, we developed a series of diversity workshops for the group, in order to provide space and time for organizers to reflect on and grapple with difficult issues around diversity and inclusion that are important to think about when running these programs. With a structure based on readings, informal videos, and reflection, there have been 5 workshops around topics ranging from gender in physics to how to be an ally. We overview the structure and framing of these workshops, along with the challenges and successes throughout the process of developing them, along with plans for future development.

  14. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  15. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  16. Creating a Learning Space in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2013-01-01

    An important aspect of PBL problems is the affordances that they hold for engaging students in discussion of important content knowledge. In this paper, I argue that one can analyze a problem in terms of a deep problem space and a broader learning space to identify the conceptual ideas for potential engagement. The problem space refers to the…

  17. Creating a Public Space through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Erin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that community-based learning can act as a "public space" for the exchange of religious and non-religious identities. By providing a space for the collaboration between religiously-affiliated Universities and non-religiously affiliated community partners, community-based learning offers the opportunity for the negotiation…

  18. Creating Hybrid Border Spaces in the Classroom through Video Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Franci

    2010-01-01

    This article explores emerging patterns of communication within a multicultural school environment. South Africa consists various and different identities all sharing overlapping living spaces. Diverse cultural identities exist in public spaces, and family units are in many cases so hybrid that very few adolescents can define themselves as…

  19. Assessment: The Key to Creating Spaces that Promote Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunley, Sawyer; Schaller, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Learning spaces in higher education environments have received much attention in the last several years due to innovative architectural design, the movement to connect campus spaces with learning, and assessment technologies that allow for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of relevant information. In this article, the authors describe…

  20. Alternate space station freedom configuration considerations to accommodate solar dynamic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.; Cruz, J. N.; Heck, M. L.; Robertson, B. P.; Troutman, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a technical audit of the Space Station Freedom Program conducted by the Program Director was announced in early 1989 and included a proposal to use solar dynamic power generation systems to provide primary electrical energy for orbital flight operations rather than photovoltaic solar array systems. To generate the current program baseline power of 75 kW, two or more solar concentrators approximately 50 feet in diameter would be required to replace four pairs of solar arrays whose rectangular blanket size is approximately 200 feet by 30 feet. The photovoltaic power system concept uses solar arrays to generate electricity that is stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries. The proposed concept uses the solar concentrator dishes to reflect and focus the Sun's energy to heat helium-xenon gas to drive electricity generating turbines. The purpose here is to consider the station configuration issues for incorporation of solar dynamic power system components. Key flight dynamic configuration geometry issues are addressed and an assembly sequence scenario is developed.

  1. Creating a positive place and space in NICUs.

    PubMed

    Flacking, Renée; Dykes, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on place and space within maternity and neonatal care and how configuration of space influences the experiences of parents, babies and staff. Furthermore, although there is increasing emphasis upon family-centred care, research shows wide differences in NICUs' provision of facilities to enable parental presence and involvement. In this article we refer to key findings from a recent ethnographic study on parents' and staff experiences related to feeding preterm babies in four NICUs in England and Sweden. We describe the ways in which design of space in NICUs influences infant feeding experiences and the developing parent-baby relationship. PMID:25109070

  2. Lab Creates 'Fake Vomit' To Test Space Trash Bag

    NASA Video Gallery

    After answering the question of how the space potty works, astronaut Mike Massimino now visits a NASA lab where chemists have been working hard to develop a next-generation trash bag for future exp...

  3. Opting Out: Parents Creating Contested Spaces to Challenge Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Mann, Bryan; Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We explore how the opt-out movement has responded to the combination of a stringent federal policy with weak and often variable implementation among the states. Gaps between federal expectations and states' understandings of just how to make NCLB's demands a reality have created policy ambiguity. Parents who oppose standardized testing have…

  4. Colombia an approach to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales, O.

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  5. To Create Space on Earth: The Space Environment Simulation Laboratory and Project Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Lori C.

    2003-01-01

    Few undertakings in the history of humanity can compare to the great technological achievement known as Project Apollo. Among those who witnessed Armstrong#s flickering television image were thousands of people who had directly contributed to this historic moment. Amongst those in this vast anonymous cadre were the personnel of the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. SESL houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers with solar simulation capabilities. At a time when NASA engineers had a limited understanding of the effects of extremes of space on hardware and crews, SESL was designed to literally create the conditions of space on Earth. With interior dimensions of 90 feet in height and a 55-foot diameter, Chamber A dwarfed the Apollo command/service module (CSM) it was constructed to test. The chamber#s vacuum pumping capacity of 1 x 10(exp -6) torr can simulate an altitude greater than 130 miles above the Earth. A "lunar plane" capable of rotating a 150,000-pound test vehicle 180 deg replicates the revolution of a craft in space. To reproduce the temperature extremes of space, interior chamber walls cool to -280F as two banks of carbon arc modules simulate the unfiltered solar light/heat of the Sun. With capabilities similar to that of Chamber A, early Chamber B tests included the Gemini modular maneuvering unit, Apollo EVA mobility unit and the lunar module. Since Gemini astronaut Charles Bassett first ventured into the chamber in 1966, Chamber B has assisted astronauts in testing hardware and preparing them for work in the harsh extremes of space.

  6. Colombia: reasons to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2004-01-01

    All modern nations are concerned with their independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support countries which are in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields which hold promise for our future. The present moment is one of serious crises in Colombia's history. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how the nation could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  7. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  8. Cultural Agents Creating Texts: A Collaborative Space Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which young children collaboratively use narrative play and the available space and materials around them in order to exert cultural agency. The collaborative creation of texts is asserted as central to this expression of agency. By presenting an illustrative vignette of a group of 5-year-old boys as they engage in…

  9. One Black, One White: Power, White Privilege, & Creating Safe Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade O.; Parks, Marguerite W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of two professors as they teach about White privilege in predominately White institutions of higher education. The authors discuss how racial potentiality shapes the classroom climates of each of the professors and then present strategies that utilize safe spaces to navigate students away from the resistance…

  10. The Family Writing Project: Creating Space for Sustaining Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Marilyn; Lasley, Saralyn; Holmes-Gull, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Family writing projects can change the nature of classroom writing instruction and rejuvenate teachers. Marilyn McKinney, Saralyn Lasley, and Rosemary Holmes-Gull report on their study of one such project in an urban school district. Using the concept of "third space," they describe the influence of this family literacy program on teacher practice.

  11. Creating Spaces for Transformation: Educational Opportunities for Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Burton, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of experience for a special education director as she constructs her life in special education and the spaces that allow for the transformation of practices in the education of all students. A qualitative single case study design was utilized. Interviews with the participant and significant…

  12. The Transformative Qualities of a Liminal Space Created by Musicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce-Tillman, June

    2009-01-01

    This paper will examine the transformative possibilities of liminal space as described by Victor Turner and Isabel Clark in the musical experience. It draws on the author's previous phenomenography of musical experience an analytical frame based on the liminality of musical experience using the notion of difference-in-relationship drawing on…

  13. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  14. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  15. Creating new opportunities for communicating about space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Debbie

    1996-01-01

    With the political and economic atmosphere changing so drastically, NASA has found it necessary to change its mission from one of exploration to that of accountability and application. These changes have made it difficult for NASA to access how its roles and constituency groups have changed in response. Specifically, at the MSFC Space Sciences Lab, management must now decide the most appropriate communication objectives, strategies and target market to direct messages reflecting these changes. Complicating the issue is that MSFC, must walk a fine line between looking as though it is spending too much money and 'marketing' themselves, which it is strictly prohibited from doing, and imparting the information in an exciting enough form to be picked up by the media.

  16. Creating a Space to Learn: A Classroom of Fun, Interaction, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carole F.; Kakela, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    By creating a space for fun, interaction, and trust, teachers and students together can build a learning environment that promotes engagement, deep learning, and meaning. Such a space emphasizes process, not product, personalizes learning, and contributes to whole person development. To facilitate the creation of this space, the teachers show…

  17. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section 1251.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical...

  18. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  19. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  20. Photochemical changes in water accommodated fractions of MC252 and surrogate oil created during solar exposure as determined by FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Pamela P; Wilson, Tashiema; Kamerman, Rebecca; Hagy, Melissa E; McKenna, Amy; Chen, Huan; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2016-03-15

    To determine effects of photochemical weathering of petroleum, surrogate and Macondo (MC252) crude oils were exposed to solar radiation during the formation of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) in sterile seawater. Samples were incubated in either unfiltered sunlight, with ultraviolet radiation blocked (Photosynthetically Active Radiation [PAR] only), or in darkness. WAFs were collected at two time points over the course of a week. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses of water soluble species formed during exposure to sunlight were compared for the different treatments. Photochemical alterations resulted in differences in compound class distributions. In general, surrogate oil was photo-oxidized across a wider carbon number range compared to MC252. While photochemical differences were observed between MC252 and surrogate oils, microbial production in seawater responded similarly to both WAFs from both types of oils with the majority of the inhibition resulting from oil exposure to visible light. PMID:26774346

  1. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  2. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results, attachment 2. Phase A: Conceptual design and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    The study results from the conceptual design and programmatics segment of the Space Platform and Station Accommodation for Life Sciences Research Facilities. The results and significant findings of the conceptual design and programmatics were generated by these tasks: (1) the review and update engineering and science requirements; (2) analysis of life sciences mission transition scenario; (3) the review and update of key trade issues; (4) the development of conceptual definition and designs; and (5) the development of the work breakdown schedule and its dictionary, program schedule, and estimated costs.

  3. Welcoming and Restoring, Dwelling and Sending: Creating a Space for Hospitality in Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Marion H.

    2009-01-01

    Parker Palmer's (1983) often-quoted definition of teaching--"To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced"--can be applied productively to work in faculty development. Exploring this notion is enhanced by the theological literature in hospitality, which can be viewed through Amy Oden's (2001) discussion of four movements…

  4. Science Students Creating Hybrid Spaces When Engaging in an Expo Investigation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; de Beer, Josef

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiences of three 9th-grade South African students (13-14 years) in doing open science investigation projects for a science expo. A particular focus of this study was the manner in which these students merge the world of school science with their social world to create a hybrid space by appropriating knowledge…

  5. Finding a Third Space in Teacher Education: Creating an Urban Teacher Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Emily J.; Taylor, Monica; Onore, Cynthia; Strom, Kathryn; Abrams, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an urban teacher residency program, the Newark Montclair Urban Teacher Residency, a collaborative endeavor between the Newark, New Jersey Public Schools and Montclair State University, built on a decades-long partnership. The authors see the conceptual work of developing this program as creating a "third space" in teacher…

  6. Cultivating Research Pedagogies with Adolescents: Created Spaces, Engaged Participation, and Embodied Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly K.; Staples, Jeanine M.; Vasudevan, Lalitha; Nichols, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes an approach to adolescent literacies research we call "research pedagogies." This approach recognizes the pedagogical features of the research process and includes three dimensions: created spaces, engaged participation, and embodied inquiry. By drawing upon and sometimes recasting foundational anthropological…

  7. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  8. Method of creating additional parking spaces in the “Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, A.; Dontu, A. I.; Sachelarie, A.; Budeanu, B.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing number of vehicles in recent years has yielded a lot of problems regarding road vehicle infrastructure in residential areas, especially in towns. The problem is that roads dimensioning and especially parking spaces are under dimensioned for the current number of vehicles in use. The current paper addresses the problem of the lack of parking spaces in the “Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus. The Campus infrastructure was build in the early 1970's and has received only a slight upgrade regarding access roads width, the access roads that were enlarged were Prof. Vasile Petrescu Street and Prof. Gheorghe Alexa Street. On the first specified road, parking spaces at 45 degrees were created, but this does not cover the number of needed parking spaces.

  9. CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing 3D Escher Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.

    2009-04-10

    We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of 3D tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive constrained Delaunay triangulation library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating 3D tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these 3D tiles is more constrained, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.

  10. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  11. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  12. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  13. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  14. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  15. Establishment of a promoter-based chromatin architecture on recently replicated DNA can accommodate variable inter-nucleosome spacing

    PubMed Central

    Fennessy, Ross T.; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosomes, the fundamental subunits of eukaryotic chromatin, are organized with respect to transcriptional start sites. A major challenge to the persistence of this organization is the disassembly of nucleosomes during DNA replication. Here, we use complimentary approaches to map the locations of nucleosomes on recently replicated DNA. We find that nucleosomes are substantially realigned with promoters during the minutes following DNA replication. As a result, the nucleosomal landscape is largely re-established before newly replicated chromosomes are partitioned into daughter cells and can serve as a platform for the re-establishment of gene expression programmes. When the supply of histones is disrupted through mutation of the chaperone Caf1, a promoter-based architecture is generated, but with increased inter-nucleosomal spacing. This indicates that the chromatin remodelling enzymes responsible for spacing nucleosomes are capable of organizing nucleosomes with a range of different linker DNA lengths. PMID:27106059

  16. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  17. Benchmarking flood models from space in near real-time: accommodating SRTM height measurement errors with low resolution flood imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; di Baldassarre, G.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) measured the elevation of most of the Earth's surface with spatially continuous sampling and an absolute vertical accuracy greater than 9 m. The vertical error has been shown to change with topographic complexity, being less important over flat terrain. This allows water surface slopes to be measured and associated discharge volumes to be estimated for open channels in large basins, such as the Amazon. Building on these capabilities, this paper demonstrates that near real-time coarse resolution radar imagery of a recent flood event on a 98 km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) combined with SRTM terrain height data leads to a water slope remarkably similar to that derived by combining the radar image with highly accurate airborne laser altimetry. Moreover, it is shown that this space-borne flood wave approximation compares well to a hydraulic model and thus allows the performance of the latter, calibrated on a previous event, to be assessed when applied to an event of different magnitude in near real-time. These results are not only of great importance to real-time flood management and flood forecasting but also support the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that will routinely provide water levels and slopes with higher precision around the globe.

  18. Fluvial architecture variations linked to changes in accommodation space: Río Chico Formation (Late Paleocene), Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foix, Nicolás; Paredes, José M.; Giacosa, Raúl E.

    2013-08-01

    The Upper Paleocene Río Chico Formation is a 50-180 m thick fluvial succession developed in a passive-margin setting, Golfo San Jorge basin, Central Patagonia, Argentina. A detailed description and interpretation of outcrops was carried out, analyzing exposures from the northern basin margin to the most complete successions at the southern depocenter. The unit is characterized by a regional fluvial system that flowed to the south-east. Five main lithofacies associations were defined: (I) active fluvial channels, with three sub-types: braided, meandering and low-sinuosity, (II) sheet-flood deposits, (III) proximal floodplain (natural levee and crevasse-splay), (IV) distal floodplain, and (V) abandoned channels. Lateral/vertical changes in fluvial architecture of the Río Chico Formation were recognized by variations in preserved thickness, fluvial styles, geometry of fluvial channels, regional paleoflow directions, and channel/floodplain ratios. Close to the northern basin margin, the fluvial succession is 50-60 m thick, composed of braided channels, sheet-flow deposits, and high channel/floodplain ratio. In a basinward direction, the alluvial succession increases to 180 m in thickness, the dominant fluvial styles change to low-sinuosity and meandering channels and channel/floodplain ratio reduces. The fluvial architecture of the Río Chico Formation shows two main depositional trends that resulted from changes in accommodation space across the basin. The interpreted break-point coincides with the underlying Cretaceous basin-boundary, thus the synsedimentary extensional reactivation of the pre-existing tectonic lineament generated differential subsidence, delimiting two different accommodation settings.

  19. Creating a public space and dialogue on sexuality and rights: a case study from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyses a research based engagement by a university school of public health in Bangladesh aimed at raising public debate on sexuality and rights and making issues such as discrimination more visible to policy makers and other key stakeholders in a challenging context. The impetus for this work came from participation in an international research programme with a particular interest in bridging international and local understandings of sexual and reproductive rights. The research team worked to create a platform to broaden discussions on sexuality and rights by building on a number of research activities on rural and urban men’s and women’s sexual health concerns, and on changing concepts of sexuality and understandings of sexual rights among specific population groups in Dhaka city, including sexual minorities. Linked to this on-going process of improving the evidence base, there has been a series of learning and capacity building activities over the last four years consisting of training workshops, meetings, conferences and dialogues. These brought together different configurations of stakeholders – members of sexual minorities, academics, service providers, advocacy organisations, media and policy makers. This process contributed to developing more effective advocacy strategies through challenging representations of sexuality and rights in the public domain. Gradually, these efforts brought visibility to hidden or stigmatised sexuality and rights issues through interim outcomes that have created important steps towards changing attitudes and policies. These included creating safe spaces for sexual minorities to meet and strategise, development of learning materials for university students and engagement with legal rights groups on sexual rights. Through this process, it was found to be possible to create a public space and dialogue on sexuality and rights in a conservative and challenging environment like Bangladesh by bringing

  20. Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Meneses, M Rocio; Hamilton, Chris E; Lichter-Marck, Eli; Mannan, R William; Snyder, Noel; Snyder, Helen; Wethington, Susan M; Dyer, Lee A

    2015-09-01

    The indirect effects of predators on nonadjacent trophic levels, mediated through traits of intervening species, are collectively known as trait-mediated trophic cascades. Although birds are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, clear examples of trait-mediated indirect effects involving bird predators have almost never been documented. Such indirect effects are important for structuring ecological communities and are likely to be negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation, climate change, and other factors that reduce abundance of top predators. We demonstrate that hummingbirds in Arizona realize increased breeding success when nesting in association with hawks. An enemy-free nesting space is created when jays, an important source of mortality for hummingbird nests, alter their foraging behavior in the presence of their hawk predators.

  1. Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Meneses, M. Rocio; Hamilton, Chris E.; Lichter-Marck, Eli; Mannan, R. William; Snyder, Noel; Snyder, Helen; Wethington, Susan M.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    The indirect effects of predators on nonadjacent trophic levels, mediated through traits of intervening species, are collectively known as trait-mediated trophic cascades. Although birds are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, clear examples of trait-mediated indirect effects involving bird predators have almost never been documented. Such indirect effects are important for structuring ecological communities and are likely to be negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation, climate change, and other factors that reduce abundance of top predators. We demonstrate that hummingbirds in Arizona realize increased breeding success when nesting in association with hawks. An enemy-free nesting space is created when jays, an important source of mortality for hummingbird nests, alter their foraging behavior in the presence of their hawk predators. PMID:26601258

  2. Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Meneses, M Rocio; Hamilton, Chris E; Lichter-Marck, Eli; Mannan, R William; Snyder, Noel; Snyder, Helen; Wethington, Susan M; Dyer, Lee A

    2015-09-01

    The indirect effects of predators on nonadjacent trophic levels, mediated through traits of intervening species, are collectively known as trait-mediated trophic cascades. Although birds are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, clear examples of trait-mediated indirect effects involving bird predators have almost never been documented. Such indirect effects are important for structuring ecological communities and are likely to be negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation, climate change, and other factors that reduce abundance of top predators. We demonstrate that hummingbirds in Arizona realize increased breeding success when nesting in association with hawks. An enemy-free nesting space is created when jays, an important source of mortality for hummingbird nests, alter their foraging behavior in the presence of their hawk predators. PMID:26601258

  3. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and "flexible" force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing $2.75 M in

  4. Combination of space- and ground-based astrometric observations to create astrometric catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrák, J.; Štefka, V.

    2008-09-01

    Modern space-based astrometric observations made by Hipparcos satellite yielded two principal catalogs in optical wavelength: Hipparcos and Tycho. These catalogs, that recently celebrated ten years of existence, contain star positions with unprecedented accuracy. However, their proper motions are, due to a relatively short interval of Hipparcos mission, quite often not as good as their formal standard errors indicate. This deficiency is especially significant for about twenty per cent of double or multiple stars contained in these catalogs. The combination with ground-based astrometric observations that have much longer history is therefore very important for improving the Hipparcos proper motions. Significant improvement in this respect was achieved during the past years by creating combined catalogs, such as Tycho-2, FK6, GC+HIP, TYC2+HIP, or ARIHIP. Yet a large and important group of astrometric observations of latitude/universal time variations, made in the programs of monitoring Earth orientation, stood apart from these activities. Recently we started to use these observations, covering almost the whole 20th century, to create astrometric catalogs EOC-1, EOC-2, EOC-3 and most recently EOC-4. To construct them, we used the Earth orientation observations in combination with the above mentioned catalogs. The latter two, EOC-3 and EOC-4, contain not only the ``classical'' linear proper motions, but also periodic changes due to orbital motions, for a substantial portion of the observed stars.

  5. Creating a Teacher-Student Research Program Using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; Pompea, S.; Thaller, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have created a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers will also attend a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the SST and work with the SST archival data. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers. The Spitzer educational research program also reaches an additional national audience of students through an informal education program based at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, directed by Dr. Don McCarthy. During this camp, the teachers and their students will learn about the SST through the vast amount of data available in the Spitzer archives.

  6. Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    "Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts" focuses on planning contemporary school library spaces with user-based design strategies. The book walks school librarians and administrators through the process of gathering information from students and other stakeholders involved in…

  7. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  8. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  9. Collaborating with Space-related Research Institutes, Government Agencies and an Artistic team to create a series of Space-themed public events in Ireland in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, N.; McSweeney, C.; Smyth, N.; O'Neill, S.; Foley, C.; Phelan, R.; Crawley, J.; Henderson, C.; Cullinan, M.; Baxter, S.; Colley, D.; Macaulay, C. J.; Conroy, L.

    2015-10-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives was created, to promote the importance of Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space science industries. These included: (1)'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult, (2) an adaptation of 'To Space' for 13- 17 year old students entitled 'ToSpace for School leavers' and (3) 'My Place in Space', created for families. Blending humour, warmth and humanity and positioning science within story is a highly effective public engagement tool in igniting curiosity across many audience types. The nurturing and investment of artists working within these new cross-disciplinary relationships should be encouraged and supported to further broaden and develop new methodology in public engagement of the planetary sciences.

  10. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  11. A space for mothers: grief as identity construction on memorial websites created by SIDS parents.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Christopher J; Krueger, Guenther

    2011-01-01

    In this article we conduct a textual analysis of memorial websites created by mothers who have experienced a loss due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Using an online Internet ethnographic approach, we reviewed a series of 20 sites in an attempt to analyze the motivations of the site creators as manifested in their online projects. We spent time on the sites, moving through all facets of them, following links, and experiencing them the way a visitor would encounter them. In this virtual exploration we uncovered personal narratives, community building, religious imagery, and numerous examples of social networking. We also analyzed guest books in order to understand who visits these sites and their reasons for doing so. We conclude that development of these sites are a process that helps some mothers in their grief and gives them a focus and activity that is helpful and perhaps healing. More importantly perhaps is the potential for community building and networking that this type of activity allows. As an extension of a real-world memorial such as a gravesite, a virtual mourning space provides more in the way of these types of communications. Our work suggests that memorial websites constructed by SIDS parents help in meaning and identity reconstruction after loss.

  12. How space-number associations may be created in preliterate children: six distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Patro, Katarzyna; Cress, Ulrike; Schild, Ulrike; Friedrich, Claudia K.; Göbel, Silke M.

    2015-01-01

    The directionality of space-number association (SNA) is shaped by cultural experiences. It usually follows the culturally dominant reading direction. Smaller numbers are generally associated with the starting side for reading (left side in Western cultures), while larger numbers are associated with the right endpoint side. However, SNAs consistent with cultural reading directions are present before children can actually read and write. Therefore, these SNAs cannot only be shaped by the direction of children’s own reading/writing behavior. We propose six distinct processes – one biological and five cultural/educational – underlying directional SNAs before formal reading acquisition: (i) Brain lateralization, (ii) Monitoring adult reading behavior, (iii) Pretend reading and writing, and rudimentary reading and writing skills, (iv) Dominant attentional directional preferences in a society, not directly related to reading direction, (v) Direct spatial-numerical learning, (vi) Other spatial-directional processes independent of reading direction. In this mini-review, we will differentiate between these processes, elaborate when in development they might emerge, discuss how they may create the SNAs observed in preliterate children and propose how they can be studied in the future. PMID:25798116

  13. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  14. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared

  15. Getting beyond "I Like the Book": Creating Space for Critical Literacy in K-6 Classrooms. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    "Getting Beyond "I Like the Book": Creating Space for Critical Literacy in K-6 Classrooms" (second edition) draws you into life in classrooms where students and teachers together use critical literacy as a framework for taking on local and global issues like racism and gender using books and everyday texts such as school posters and…

  16. The Social Benefits of the Morning Meeting: Creating a Space for Social and Character Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Hughes, Lily

    2013-01-01

    The intense focus of academics currently in practice in elementary schools limits the opportunities for developing social skills and abilities that are necessary 21st century skills. Through a specifically structured Morning Meeting a teacher can create a space in the classroom that encourages the growth of important social skills that will…

  17. My Space- a collaboration between Arts & Science to create a suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Niamh, , Dr.; McSweeney, Clair; Smith, Niall, , Dr.; O'Neill, Stephanie; Foley, Cathy; Crawley, Joanna; Phelan, Ronan; Colley, Dan; Henderson, Clare; Conroy, Lorraine

    2015-04-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives, entitled 'MySpace' was created, to promote the importance of Earth science and Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space and Earth Science industries. Site visits to research centres in Ireland & abroad, interviews with scientists, engineers, and former astronauts were conducted over a 6 month period. A suite of performance pieces emerged from this development phase, based on Dr. Shaw's personal documented journey and the dissemination of her research. These included: 1. 'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult. Initially presented as a 'Work In Progress' event at The Festival of Curiosity, the full theatre show 'To Space' premiered at Science Gallery, Dublin as part of Tiger Dublin Fringe Arts Festival. Response to the piece was very strong, indicated by audience response, box office sales and theatre reviews in national press and online. A national and international tour is in place for 2015. To Space was performed a total of 10 times and was seen by 680 audiences. 2. An adapted piece for 13-17 year old students -'ToSpace for Secondary Schools'- to increase awareness of Ireland's involvement in Space Exploration & to encourage school leavers to dream big. This show toured nationally as part of World Space week and Science week events in conjunction with ESERO Ireland, CIT Blackrock Castle Observatory, Cork, Armagh Planetarium & Dunsink Observatory. It was performed 12 times and was seen by 570 students. 3. 'My Place in Space', created for families from the very old (60 +) to the very young (3yrs +), this highly interactive workshop highlighted the appeal of science through the wonders of our planet and its place in Space. Presented at Festival of Curiosity, the Mallow Science Fair and at Science week 2014, this

  18. Accommodation for flickering stimuli.

    PubMed

    Owens, D A; Wolfe, J M

    1985-01-01

    A laser optometer was used to measure accommodative responses of three observers for sinusoidal gratings presented in Maxwellian view at optical distances ranging from 0 to 4 diopters. Contrast of the stimuli was modulated spatially at 1.0, 4.2 and 6.5 cycles deg.-1 (cpd), and temporally at six frequencies ranging from 3.0 to 40 Hz. Accommodation was consistently more accurate for the 4.2 cpd than for either the 1.0 or 6.5 cpd gratings. Furthermore, accommodative responsiveness for the 4.2 cpd was not affected by temporal modulation, while that for the other spatial frequencies improved monotonically as a function of temporal frequency. These results reinforce earlier reports that accommodation is most responsive for contrast of intermediate spatial frequencies and they indicate that stimulus flicker generally degrades accommodation for spatial contrast.

  19. Creating Processes Associated with Providing Government Goods and Services Under the Commercial Space Launch Act at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Janet F.

    2011-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has decided to write its agreements under the Commercial Space Launch Act (CSLA) authority to cover a broad range of categories of support that KSC could provide to our commercial partner. Our strategy was to go through the onerous process of getting the agreement in place once and allow added specificity and final cost estimates to be documented on a separate Task Order Request (TOR). This paper is written from the implementing engineering team's perspective. It describes how we developed the processes associated with getting Government support to our emerging commercial partners, such as SpaceX and reports on our success to date.

  20. G-38, 39 and 40: An artist's exploration of space. [using the space environment to create orbiting sphere configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcshane, J. W.; Coursen, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments are described which use space processing technology in the formation of and coating of bubbles and spheres to be orbited as sculptures visible from Earth. In one experiment, a 22,000 m1 sphere is to ride into orbit containing a 15 psi Earth atmosphere. Once in orbit, a controller directs a valve to open, linking the sphere to a vacuum of space. Technologies used in the fabrication of these art forms include vacuum film deposition and large bubble formation in the space environment.

  1. Using Email Interviews in Qualitative Educational Research: Creating Space to Think and Time to Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Nalita

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Internet and email offer space for participants to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…

  2. Creating a "Third Space" in Student Teaching: Implications for the University Supervisor's Status as Outsider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Alexander; Schmeichel, Mardi; Butler, Brandon M.; Dinkelman, Todd; Nichols, Joseph R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The work of teacher education during student teaching typically takes place in two distinct "spaces": placement sites and college/university settings. The program featured in this article is structured in ways that clearly mark out those two spaces. Yet this configuration led our university supervisors, whose work primarily took place in the…

  3. Creating Interdisciplinary Space on Campus: Lessons from US Area Studies Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Jonathan Z.; Worden, Elizabeth Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Recent calls for university administrators to advance interdisciplinary research and teaching have suggested that allocating campus space to such initiatives is key to their success. Yet questions remain concerning just what kinds of spaces are most conducive to this agenda. This article aims to shed light on this relationship by drawing on case…

  4. The Context of Creating Space: Assessing the Likelihood of College LGBT Center Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2012-01-01

    LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) resource centers are campus spaces dedicated to the success of sexual minority students. However, only a small handful of American colleges and universities have such spaces. Political opportunity and resource mobilization theory can provide a useful framework for understanding what contextual factors…

  5. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  6. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  7. 46 CFR 167.50-1 - Hospital accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital accommodations. 167.50-1 Section 167.50-1... SHIPS Accommodations § 167.50-1 Hospital accommodations. Each nautical school ship, which makes voyages... compartment suitably separated from other spaces for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have...

  8. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  9. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each accommodation space must be...

  10. Accommodating Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  11. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  12. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  13. Cloning, Creating, or Merely Mutating? Translating Traditional Instructional Materials for Use in Electronic Learning Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerth, Robert

    This paper discusses the processes and outcomes of translating a traditionally-taught business writing course into the online format, using bulletin board software. The paper covers creating, teaching, and managing the online business writing course at Golden Gate University (San Francisco, California). Pedagogical objectives are to emulate group…

  14. Creating Discursive Space for Religion and Spirituality in Universities: A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Parrish, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The secularization of higher education has created a complicated context for discourse about religion and spirituality in most public and some private universities. Yet the growing orientation toward spirituality and faith among undergraduates calls for a renewed openness to matters of beliefs and values in college classrooms, a topic addressed by…

  15. Life Inside the Hive: Creating a Space for Literacy to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    This piece describes how a 5th grade language arts teacher employed technology to create and sustain a metaphorical, virtual, and physical figured world in her class by means of a web site called "The Hive Society." This world positioned students as intellectuals and scholars, and explored how Ms. Smith integrated 21st Century…

  16. What Stick Figures Tell Us about Irish Politics: Creating a Critical and Collaborative Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Sharon; Hogan, John; Donnelly, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the interpretation of freehand drawings produced by a small sample of 220 first-year students taking an Irish politics introductory module in response to the question, "What is Irish Politics?" By sidestepping cognitive verbal-processing routes, through employing freehand drawing, we aim to create a critical and…

  17. The Transformation of Ms. Corazon: Creating Humanizing Spaces for Mexican Immigrant Students in Secondary ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Franquiz, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the journey of one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher who held rigid boundaries that negatively impacted the academic resiliency of her Mexican immigrant students. As she transformed her pedagogical orientation, she created permeability in her curricular practices. With the elements of "respeto" (respect), "confianza"…

  18. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Austin T; La Peyre, Megan K; Decossas, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and "predator-free space" to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of "predator-free space" was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require "predator-free space" measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of "predator-free space" are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats. PMID:22145037

  19. Lessons learned in creating spacecraft computer systems: Implications for using Ada (R) for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomayko, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five years of spacecraft onboard computer development have resulted in a better understanding of the requirements for effective, efficient, and fault tolerant flight computer systems. Lessons from eight flight programs (Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, Mariner, Voyager, and Galileo) and three reserach programs (digital fly-by-wire, STAR, and the Unified Data System) are useful in projecting the computer hardware configuration of the Space Station and the ways in which the Ada programming language will enhance the development of the necessary software. The evolution of hardware technology, fault protection methods, and software architectures used in space flight in order to provide insight into the pending development of such items for the Space Station are reviewed.

  20. Composite of liposome and metal complexes: Toward creating a new chemical reaction space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiyama, Tomomi; Ohba, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our research is to construct a novel functional space by fixation of various metal complexes into the liposome space. For the functionalization of liposome surface, we designed lipophilic metal complexes and succeeded in the fixation of various metal complexes such as oxidation catalysts. In addition, reactivities of metal complexes on the liposome surface were optimized by controlling their surrounding environment using various types of phospholipids. Furthermore, we succeeded in the incorporation of coordination polymers in inner water phase of liposomes using antibiotic ion channel, and the composites showed absorption of metal ions through antibiotic ion channels.

  1. Creating a Team Archive During Fast-Paced Anomaly Response Activities in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Hicks, LaDessa; Overland, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Christofferesen, Klaus; Chow, Renee

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a Web-based system to support the temporary Anomaly Response Team formed from distributed subteams in Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The system was designed for easy and flexible creation of small collections of files and links associated with work on a particular anomaly. The system supports privacy and levels of formality for the subteams. First we describe the supported groups and an anomaly response scenario. Then we describe the support system prototype, the Anomaly Response Tracking and Integration System (ARTIS). Finally, we describe our evaluation approach and the results of the evaluation.

  2. Does Digitized Virtual Space Allow for Effective Learning in Creating Environments for Theatrical Productions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to transform an empty space into one alive with dramatic possibilities is one of the challenges facing students in several disciplines--for example, graphic design, filmmaking, gaming, architecture, interior design, visual arts, and designing and directing for the theatre. The author, a professor of directing for the theatre,…

  3. Hearing Voices, Creating Spaces: The Craft of the "Artisan Teacher" in a Mass Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I explore the concepts of voice and space as critical to the issues of widening participation, inclusive learning and teaching and academic engagement. Drawing on research conducted between 2006 and 2008 within two universities in England, and developmental work carried out with some of the teacher participants subsequently, I…

  4. The Failure of a Virtual Social Space (VSS) Designed to Create a Learning Community: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2004-01-01

    The disappearance of physical social spaces from today's society is seen by some to be a modern phenomenon, resulting in isolation and lack of socialisation. In fact, this is always the case in distance education, due to geographical dispersion and disparate time schedules of learners. Very often, peer-to-peer socialisation in distance education…

  5. Creating a Dialogic Space for Research: A Reading Conference in a Chinese Complementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on research carried out in a Chinese complementary school in Scotland. The research focused on children's experience of learning to read Chinese and on the strategies that they used to support their learning. Here, I provide an account of one particular aspect of this research, namely the creation of a dialogic space for…

  6. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  7. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  8. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

    2002-05-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

  9. All Source Solution Decision Support Products Created for Stennis Space Center in Response to Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and in response to the needs of SSC (Stennis Space Center), NASA required the generation of decision support products with a broad range of geospatial inputs. Applying a systems engineering approach, the NASA ARTPO (Applied Research and Technology Project Office) at SSC evaluated the Center's requirements and source data quality. ARTPO identified data and information products that had the potential to meet decision-making requirements; included were remotely sensed data ranging from high-spatial-resolution aerial images through high-temporal-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. Geospatial products, such as FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Advisory Base Flood Elevations, were also relevant. Where possible, ARTPO applied SSC calibration/validation expertise to both clarify the quality of various data source options and to validate that the inputs that were finally chosen met SSC requirements. ARTPO integrated various information sources into multiple decision support products, including two maps: Hurricane Katrina Inundation Effects at Stennis Space Center (highlighting surge risk posture) and Vegetation Change In and Around Stennis Space Center: Katrina and Beyond (highlighting fire risk posture).

  10. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  11. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  12. Vinyl by design: creating interior spaces that stand the test of time.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Managing design liability, avoiding risk and providing successful buildings are founded upon a conscious awareness of many important details. A key component of a designer's professionalism is understanding potential problems before they occur and proactively specifying the solutions to them. Familiarity with the inherent characteristics of any building material, along with the performance capabilities of specifiable products made with that material, aids in this process. Documenting the selection of a product in the project specifications should take this understanding into account. Knowing the important role of proper product installation--and, where necessary, calling upon the expertise of product manufacturers--should not be underestimated. Each part of the process has a major impact on whether the interior spaces delivered to a building owner provide lasting gratification, value, user satisfaction and recognition of the design professional's strategic importance to the project's overall success. PMID:12510346

  13. Kennedy Space Center: Creating a Spaceport Reality from the Dreams of Many

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, James A.; Colloredo, Scott

    2012-01-01

    On December 17, 1903, Orville Wright piloted the first powered airplane only 20 feet above the ground near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet. Who would have guessed that the bizarre looking contraption developed by brothers in the bicycle business would lay the ground work eventually resulting in over a million passengers moved daily in a sky filled with the contrails of jets flying at over 30,000 feet in elevation and over 500 miles per hour. Similarly, who would have guessed that the destructive nature of V-2 rockets of Germany would spark the genesis of spaceflight to explore our solar system and beyond? Yet the interest in using the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) continues to grow. Potential customers have expressed interest in KSC as a location for testing new rocket engines, servicing the world's largest airborne launching platform for drop-launch rockets, developing multi-use launch platforms that permit diverse customers to use the same launch platform, developing new spacecraft, and implementing advanced modifications for lifting 150 metric ton payloads to low earth orbit. The multitude of customers has grown and with this growth comes a need to provide a command, control, communication, and range infrastructure that maximizes flexibility and reconfigurability to address a much more frequent launch rate of diverse vehicles and spacecraft. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program Office at KSC is embarking upon these developments to realize the dream of a robust spaceport. Many unique technical trade studies have been completed or are underway to successfully transition KSC into a multi-user customer focused spaceport. Like the evolution of the airplane, GSDO is working to transform KSC infrastructures that will turn once unthinkable space opportunities into a reality for today.

  14. Creating Welcoming Spaces for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patients: An Evaluation of the Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2016-01-01

    Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care.

  15. Creating Welcoming Spaces for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patients: An Evaluation of the Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2016-01-01

    Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care. PMID:26643126

  16. The Zero-Point Field and the NASA Challenge to Create the Space Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop seeks to explore concepts that could someday enable interstellar travel. The effective superluminal motion proposed by Alcubierre (1994) to be a possibility owing to theoretically allowed space-time metric distortions within general relativity has since been shown by Pfenning and Ford (1997) to be physically unattainable. A number of other hypothetical possibilities have been summarized by Millis (1997). We present herein an overview of a concept that has implications for radically new propulsion possibilities and has a basis in theoretical physics: the hypothesis that the inertia and gravitation of matter originate in electromagnetic interactions between the zero-point field (ZPF) and the quarks and electrons constituting atoms. A new derivation of the connection between the ZPF and inertia has been carried through that is properly co-variant, yielding the relativistic equation of motion from Maxwell's equations. This opens new possibilities, but also rules out the basis of one hypothetical propulsion mechanism: Bondi's "negative inertial mass," appears to be an impossibility.

  17. Modern analogs for the importance of seaward migration of the equilibrium point and Bayline and production of subareal accommodation space and widespread fluvial reservoirs and stratigraphic traps: Late highstand systems tracts on the broad continental margin of the East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bartek, L.R.; Wellner, R. )

    1996-01-01

    Geopulse seismic reflection (2,825 km) data collected during a survey of the East China Sea (ECS) in September of 1993 have been used to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphic architecture of the ECS continental margin. This area is characterized by a broad continental shelf and has extremely high sediment supply relative to other margins. On the inner to middle portions of the ECS margin we identified extensive areas outside of several incised valleys that contain channelized seismic facies that are interpreted as fluvial sequences deposited as sea level fell prior to the last low-stands. These deposits lie above highstand silts and clays and beneath a transgressive surface, above which sediments appear to have been extensively reworked. Historical records suggest that the tremendous sediment load of the Yellow River caused the river to avulse over an area of hundreds of kilometers during the Holocene and deposition of thick sheet of fluvial sands in [open quotes]interfluvial[close quotes] areas. We suggest that as sea level fall in this area, the equilibrium point and bayline synchronously migrated seaward, and subareal accommodation was created during the latter stages of highstands, in a manner similar to that proposed in published models. The high sediment supply of the area and increasing subareal accommodation space provided an opportunity for deposition of the laterally extensive fluvial facies we observe on the seismic data. The upper portions of these [open quotes]interfluvial[close quotes] fluvial deposits were reworked during the ensuing transgression and downlapped upon by muddy highstand deposits, but the lower fluvial sheet-sand facies, are preserved in place. This situation creates a laterally extensive, braided fluvial sand type reservoir with a potential for a stratigraphic seal that is within close proximity to hydrocarbon source rocks.

  18. Modern analogs for the importance of seaward migration of the equilibrium point and Bayline and production of subareal accommodation space and widespread fluvial reservoirs and stratigraphic traps: Late highstand systems tracts on the broad continental margin of the East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bartek, L.R.; Wellner, R.

    1996-12-31

    Geopulse seismic reflection (2,825 km) data collected during a survey of the East China Sea (ECS) in September of 1993 have been used to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphic architecture of the ECS continental margin. This area is characterized by a broad continental shelf and has extremely high sediment supply relative to other margins. On the inner to middle portions of the ECS margin we identified extensive areas outside of several incised valleys that contain channelized seismic facies that are interpreted as fluvial sequences deposited as sea level fell prior to the last low-stands. These deposits lie above highstand silts and clays and beneath a transgressive surface, above which sediments appear to have been extensively reworked. Historical records suggest that the tremendous sediment load of the Yellow River caused the river to avulse over an area of hundreds of kilometers during the Holocene and deposition of thick sheet of fluvial sands in {open_quotes}interfluvial{close_quotes} areas. We suggest that as sea level fall in this area, the equilibrium point and bayline synchronously migrated seaward, and subareal accommodation was created during the latter stages of highstands, in a manner similar to that proposed in published models. The high sediment supply of the area and increasing subareal accommodation space provided an opportunity for deposition of the laterally extensive fluvial facies we observe on the seismic data. The upper portions of these {open_quotes}interfluvial{close_quotes} fluvial deposits were reworked during the ensuing transgression and downlapped upon by muddy highstand deposits, but the lower fluvial sheet-sand facies, are preserved in place. This situation creates a laterally extensive, braided fluvial sand type reservoir with a potential for a stratigraphic seal that is within close proximity to hydrocarbon source rocks.

  19. Creating space for citizenship: The impact of group structure on validating the voices of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C; O'Connor, Deborah L; Loiselle, Lisa; Hickman, Kathy; Heibein, Bill; Hounam, Brenda; Mann, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been increasing attention given to finding ways to help people diagnosed with dementia 'live well' with their condition. Frequently however, the attention has been placed on the family care partner as the foundation for creating a context that supports the person with dementia to live well. A recent participatory action research (PAR) study highlighted the importance of beginning to challenge some of the assumptions around how best to include family, especially within a context of supporting citizenship. Three advisory groups consisting of 20 people with dementia, 13 care partners, and three service providers, were set up in three locations across Canada to help develop a self-management program for people with dementia. The hubs met monthly for up to two years. One of the topics that emerged as extremely important to consider in the structuring of the program revolved around whether or not these groups should be segregated to include only people with dementia. A thematic analysis of these ongoing discussions coalesced around four inter-related themes: creating safe spaces; maintaining voice and being heard; managing the balancing act; and the importance of solidarity Underpinning these discussions was the fifth theme, recognition that 'one size doesn't fit all'. Overall an important finding was that the presence of family care-partners could have unintended consequences in relation to creating the space for active citizenship to occur in small groups of people with dementia although it could also offer some opportunities. The involvement of care partners in groups with people with dementia is clearly one that is complex without an obvious answer and dependent on a variety of factors to inform a solution, which can and should be questioned and revisited.

  20. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results. Appendix D: Life sciences research facility requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this requirements document is to develop the foundation for concept development for the Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) on the Space Station. These requirements are developed from the perspective of a Space Station laboratory module outfitter. Science and mission requirements including those related to specimens are set forth. System requirements, including those for support, are detailed. Functional and design requirements are covered in the areas of structures, mechanisms, electrical power, thermal systems, data management system, life support, and habitability. Finally, interface requirements for the Command Module and Logistics Module are described.

  1. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results. Appendix E: Work breakdown structure and dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    A work breakdown structure for the Space Station Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) is presented up to level 5. The purpose is to provide the framework for task planning and control and to serve as a basis for budgeting, task assignment, cost collection and report, and contractual performance measurement and tracking of the Full Scale Development Phase tasks.

  2. Workplace accommodations: evidence based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schartz, Helen A; Hendricks, D J; Blanck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    One central component to meaningful employment for people with disabilities is the ADA's workplace accommodation provision that allows qualified individuals to perform essential job functions. Little empirical evidence is available to evaluate the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of accommodations. Previous research has focused on direct costs. This article advocates an inclusive accommodation cost/benefit analysis to include direct and indirect costs and benefits and to differentiate disability-related accommodation costs from typical employee costs. The inclusive cost/benefit analysis is applied to preliminary data from interviews with employers who contacted the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). Results suggest that accommodations are low cost, beneficial and effective.

  3. Modeling of Plasma Irregularities Associated with Artificially Created Dusty Plasmas in the Near-Earth Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haiyang

    Plasma turbulence associated with the creation of an artificial dust layer in the earth's ionosphere is investigated. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) aims to understand the mechanisms for enhanced radar scatter from plasma irregularities embedded in dusty plasmas in space. Plasma irregularities embedded in a artificial dusty plasma in space may shed light on understanding the mechanism for enhanced radar scatter in Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) and Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSEs) in the earth's mesosphere. Artificially created, charged-particulate layers also have strong impact on radar scatter as well as radio signal propagation in communication and surveillance systems. The sounding rocket experiment was designed to develop theories of radar scatter from artificially created plasma turbulence in charged dust particle environment. Understanding plasma irregularities embedded in a artificial dusty plasma in space will also contribute to addressing possible effects of combustion products in rocket/space shuttle exhaust in the ionosphere. In dusty space plasmas, plasma irregularities and instabilities can be generated during active dust aerosol release experiments. Small scale irregularities (several tens of centimeter to meters) and low frequency waves (in the ion/dust scale time in the order of second) are studied in this work, which can be measured by High Frequency (HF), Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radars. The existence of dust aerosol particles makes computational modeling of plasma irregularities extremely challenging not only because of multiple spatial and temporal scale issue but also due to complexity of dust aerosol particles. This work will provide theoretical and computational models to study plasma irregularities driven by dust aerosol release for the purpose of designing future experiments with combined ground radar, optical and in-situ measurement. In accordance with linear analysis, feasible hybrid

  4. Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This research thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  5. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  6. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  7. Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy-free space for aphids colonizing novel host plants.

    PubMed

    Vosteen, Ilka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2016-09-01

    The existence of an enemy-free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper, we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well-studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy-free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation.

  8. Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy-free space for aphids colonizing novel host plants.

    PubMed

    Vosteen, Ilka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2016-09-01

    The existence of an enemy-free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper, we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well-studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy-free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation. PMID:27328648

  9. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  10. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  11. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  12. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  13. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  14. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  15. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  16. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  17. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK CREATE H I HOLES? A HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/VERY LARGE ARRAY STUDY OF HOLMBERG II

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Lee, Janice; Walter, Fabian E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.co E-mail: jlee@obs.carnegiescience.ed

    2009-10-20

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) F555W and F814W photometry of resolved stars in the M81 Group dwarf irregular galaxy Ho II to study the hypothesis that the holes identified in the neutral interstellar medium (H I) are created by stellar feedback. From the deep photometry, we construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and measure the star formation histories (SFHs) for stars contained in H I holes from two independent holes catalogs, as well as select control fields, i.e., similar sized regions that span a range of H I column densities. The CMDs reveal young (< 200 Myr) stellar populations inside all H I holes, which contain very few bright OB stars with ages less than 10 Myr, indicating they are not reliable tracers of H I hole locations while the recent SFHs confirm multiple episodes of star formation within most holes. Converting the recent SFHs into stellar feedback energies, we find that enough energy has been generated to have created all holes. However, the required energy is not always produced over a timescale that is less than the estimated kinematic age of the hole. A similar analysis of stars in the control fields finds that the stellar populations of the control fields and H I holes are statistically indistinguishable. However, because we are only sensitive to holes approx100 pc in diameter, we cannot tell if there are smaller holes inside the control fields. The combination of the CMDs, recent SFHs, and locations of young stars shows that the stellar populations inside H I holes are not coherent, single-aged, stellar clusters, as previously suggested, but rather multi-age populations distributed across each hole. From a comparison of the modeled and observed integrated magnitudes, and the locations and energetics of stars inside of H I holes, we propose a potential new model: a viable mechanism for creating the observed H I holes in Ho II is stellar feedback from multiple generations of SF spread out over tens

  18. Does Stellar Feedback Create H I Holes? A Hubble Space Telescope/Very Large Array Study of Holmberg II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Lee, Janice; Walter, Fabian

    2009-10-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) F555W and F814W photometry of resolved stars in the M81 Group dwarf irregular galaxy Ho II to study the hypothesis that the holes identified in the neutral interstellar medium (H I) are created by stellar feedback. From the deep photometry, we construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and measure the star formation histories (SFHs) for stars contained in H I holes from two independent holes catalogs, as well as select control fields, i.e., similar sized regions that span a range of H I column densities. The CMDs reveal young (< 200 Myr) stellar populations inside all H I holes, which contain very few bright OB stars with ages less than 10 Myr, indicating they are not reliable tracers of H I hole locations while the recent SFHs confirm multiple episodes of star formation within most holes. Converting the recent SFHs into stellar feedback energies, we find that enough energy has been generated to have created all holes. However, the required energy is not always produced over a timescale that is less than the estimated kinematic age of the hole. A similar analysis of stars in the control fields finds that the stellar populations of the control fields and H I holes are statistically indistinguishable. However, because we are only sensitive to holes ~100 pc in diameter, we cannot tell if there are smaller holes inside the control fields. The combination of the CMDs, recent SFHs, and locations of young stars shows that the stellar populations inside H I holes are not coherent, single-aged, stellar clusters, as previously suggested, but rather multi-age populations distributed across each hole. From a comparison of the modeled and observed integrated magnitudes, and the locations and energetics of stars inside of H I holes, we propose a potential new model: a viable mechanism for creating the observed H I holes in Ho II is stellar feedback from multiple generations of SF spread out over tens or

  19. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  20. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  1. Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwala, Karan R.; Kruger, Ekaterina S.; Mathews, Steven; Kruger, Philip B.

    1995-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that targets illuminated by monochromatic (narrow-band) light are less effective in stimulating the eye to change its focus than are black-white (broadband) targets. The present study investigates the influence of target spectral bandwidth on the dynamic accommodation response in eight subjects. The fixation target was a 3.5-cycle / deg square-wave grating illuminated by midspectral light of various bandwidths [10, 40, and 80 nm and white (CIE Illuminant B)]. The target was moved sinusoidally toward and away from the eye, and accommodation responses were recorded and Fourier analyzed. Accommodative gain increases, and phase lag decreases, with increasing spectral bandwidth. Thus the eye focuses more accurately on targets of wider spectral bandwidth. The visual system appears to have the ability to analyze polychromatic blur to determine the state of focus of the eye for the purpose of guiding the accommodation response. blur, chromatic, focus, retinal image, spectral, wavelength

  2. Additional circular intercostal space created by bifurcation of the left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the thorax there are normally 11 pairs of intercostal spaces: the spaces between adjacent ribs. The intercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles, intercostal nerves and vessels. Case presentation During a routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed a variation involving the left 3rd rib and 3rd costal cartilage in the cadaver of a man of Indian ethnicity aged about 65 years. The left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage were bifurcated at their costochondral junction enclosing a small circular additional intercostal space. Muscle tissue covered by deep fascia was present in this circular intercostal space. The muscle in the circular intercostal space received its nerve supply from a branch of the 2nd intercostal nerve. Conclusions Knowledge of such variations is helpful to surgeons operating on the anterior thoracic wall involving ribs and intercostal spaces. Knowing the possibility of the presence of an additional space between normal intercostal spaces can guide a surgeon through to a successful surgery. PMID:23298541

  3. Accommodation of COTS LCDs in military displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James B.; Henz, James M.; Dodd, Sonia R.

    1998-09-01

    Commercial off the shelf (COTS) liquid crystal displays are attractive as an alternative to LCDs that are custom designed and manufactured for the military environment. Commercial displays require significant modification to accommodate their use. This paper describes specific modifications that create a thermal cocoon around a nominal 3.6 X 4.6-inch commercial industrial/automotive display. The thermal design techniques allow the display to function in the particularly challenging F-16 thermal environment without exceeding the display's operating specification. The work is extended to examine what additional design extensions are required for still larger displays.

  4. "Smart" Spaces Aren't Just for Classrooms Anymore: Intentional Design Creates Casual Learning Opportunities on Today's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Darren L.; Infanzon, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Each educational environment exhibits a distinct personality that supports and influences the student body. As educational institutions develop new spaces and buildings for university and college campuses nationwide, the need increasingly arises to provide spaces that both help fulfill each school's educational mission and reinforce the vitality…

  5. Not all space is created equal: distribution of free space and its influence on heat-stress and the limpet Patelloida latistrigata.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A

    2014-12-01

    For most marine benthic communities unoccupied primary substrata, or free space, is considered the principle limiting resource. Substratum temperatures, desiccation rates and hydrodynamic characteristics of free space, however, may vary depending on patch size and isolation and therefore potentially influence biotic processes. This paper investigates the relationship between small-scale changes in the availability and configuration of free space, heat stress and abundance of the small rocky intertidal gastropod Patelloida latistrigata within southeastern Australia. Using infrared thermography I show that heat stress of rocky intertidal communities increased linearly with increasing amounts of free space on three neighbouring shores during four separate sampling intervals from October 2009 to January 2010. Abundances of P. latistrigata generally declined with increasing availability of free space and the associated increases in heat stress. An experimental manipulation that altered the configuration but not the availability of free space demonstrated that both heat stress and P. latistrigata abundance are not affected by small-scale changes in the configuration of free space. The small-scale distribution of P. latistrigata, however, was significantly influenced by differences in the configuration of free space with limpets displaying bimodal distributions within areas characterised by unevenly distributed free space. Since the distribution of Patelloida varies depending on the configuration of free space but thermal properties at the scale of individual limpets do not then we might expect Patelloida to be responding to changes in other abiotic factors, such as hydrodynamic forces and desiccation rates, which may change with the configuration of free space. This study highlights the dynamic and usually unexamined relationship between abiotic stress and the availability and acquisition of resources by marine benthic invertebrates.

  6. Modern Foreign Languages Accommodation: A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Beech, Ed.; Watson, Lucy, Ed.

    This document offers school design guidance for accommodating the needs for teaching modern foreign languages (MFLs) in secondary education. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces in a typical MFL suite and describes how to calculate the number of timetabled spaces required. It includes guidance on planning the suite and what to consider if there…

  7. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and benefits. 152.421 Section 152.421 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421...

  8. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and benefits. 152.421 Section 152.421 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421...

  9. Illustrating Relevance, Questioning Norms, and Creating Space: Three Steps for Teaching Critical Perspectives in the HRD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly dialogue in HRD (Human Resource Development) has become gradually more accepting of essential conversations regarding equity and social justice in research. However, much work remains in bridging the gaps between this scholarship and the practice of HRD. One way to create change is through teaching, as the ways in which we choose to…

  10. The ACCESS Mission: ISS Accommodation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Wilson, Thomas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is a new mission concept payload for the International Space Station (ISS) which has undergone a preliminary accommodation study. ACCESS science goals include new measurements of the rare ultra-high energy and ultra-heavy components of the cosmic radiation above the Earth's atmosphere. The critical resource made available by the ISS is collecting power; up to 10,000 square meters-sr-days, for a four-year stay on-orbit, allows ACCESS to go beyond balloon-borne detectors. The instrument, consisting of a charge module, a transition radiation detector, and a calorimeter, measures nuclei throughout the periodic table. The study demonstrates that the ISS as a stable science platform at the threshold of space, can make improved cosmic-ray investigations possible in the next century.

  11. Accommodative load for stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Masako; Ishihara, Shin'ya; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Hisao; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Tahara, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the visual accommodation of subjects who were gazing fixedly at 3D images from two different displays: a cathode ray tube (CRT) while wearing special glasses and a liquid crystal display (LCD) while not wearing special glasses. The subjects were 3 people aged 20 years (2 people) and 36 years, all with normal vision. Visual function was tested using a custom-made apparatus (Nidek AR-1100). The instrument objectively measured visual accommodative changes of the right eye in both binocular and natural viewing conditions. The target shown to subjects moved away slowly and disappeared at a distance about 3 m from the eye. The results suggested that it was easy and comfortable to focus on both the LCD and CRT. When the subjects viewed the progressively receding target, their accommodation was about 0.8 D at the presumed furthest points, a level at which the ciliary muscle is relaxed. The accommodative power differed by about 1.5 D from the near to far point. Thus, the ciliary muscle is repeatedly strained and relaxed while the subject views the moving target. In the present study, the subjects" accommodative amplitude was changed when the target moved from the near to far point.

  12. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.

  13. Using Philosophy of Education to Create Communities in Difficult Times: Adult Learners and New Spaces for Learning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the kind of space formed by philosophical discussion of education with lower-income, adult learners making their way back to structured education amidst work and life responsibilities. It explores two new social contexts that define this experience of return to education. The first is the sociability of philosophical…

  14. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  15. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  16. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  17. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  18. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  19. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special population in…

  20. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  1. Accommodating Law Faculty with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bonnie Poitras; Smith, Joseph F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The obligations of law schools, under federal law, to accommodate faculty with disabilities are examined. Employment provisions of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the definition of a disabled individual are reviewed, and real and hypothetical scenarios in hiring and employing law teachers are…

  2. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  3. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  4. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  5. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  6. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  7. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  8. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  9. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  10. ARDUSAT, an Arduino-Based CubeSat Providing Students with the Opportunity to Create their own Satellite Experiment and Collect Real-World Space Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeroms, D.; Bertho, S.; De Roeve, M.; Lempens, R.; Ordies, M.; Prooth, J.

    2015-09-01

    Short for “Arduino Satellite”, ArduSat is an open-source Nanosatellite, based on the CubeSat standard. The extensive Arduino sensor suite on board gives students the opportunity to create their own satellite experiments and collect real-world space data using the Arduino open-source prototyping platform. From March until May 2014, two undergraduate physics students from Hasselt University used the downloadable ArduSat Software Development Kit which allowed them to design the command sequences they used to conduct their experiments.

  11. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may be below the deepest load waterline. (c) Any deck with accommodations for crew members or offshore workers may be below the deepest load waterline if— (1) The vessel complies with the damage-stability requirements in § 174.205 of this chapter; and (2) The deck head of the space is not below the deepest...

  12. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may be below the deepest load waterline. (c) Any deck with accommodations for crew members or offshore workers may be below the deepest load waterline if— (1) The vessel complies with the damage-stability requirements in § 174.205 of this chapter; and (2) The deck head of the space is not below the deepest...

  13. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be below the deepest load waterline. (c) Any deck with accommodations for crew members or offshore workers may be below the deepest load waterline if— (1) The vessel complies with the damage-stability requirements in § 174.205 of this chapter; and (2) The deck head of the space is not below the deepest...

  14. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may be below the deepest load waterline. (c) Any deck with accommodations for crew members or offshore workers may be below the deepest load waterline if— (1) The vessel complies with the damage-stability requirements in § 174.205 of this chapter; and (2) The deck head of the space is not below the deepest...

  15. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be below the deepest load waterline. (c) Any deck with accommodations for crew members or offshore workers may be below the deepest load waterline if— (1) The vessel complies with the damage-stability requirements in § 174.205 of this chapter; and (2) The deck head of the space is not below the deepest...

  16. Skilled interaction among professional carers in special accommodations for adult people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H

    2013-09-01

    Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities.

  17. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  18. Creating a Classroom Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating classroom libraries, noting how to set up a library (create a space, build and organize the collection, and set rules), where to find books at bargain prices (e.g., garage sales, libraries, book clubs, and grants), basic books to include, and information on authors and illustrators. (SM)

  19. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  20. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  1. Creating Library Spaces: Libraries 2040.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijnzeels, Rob

    This paper suggests that by 2004, the traditional public libraries will have ceased to exist and new, attractive future libraries will have taken their place. The Libraries 2040 project of the Netherlands is initiating seven different libraries of the future. The Brabant library is the "ultimate library of the future" for the Dutch province of…

  2. The Rate of Change of Vergence-Accommodation Conflict Affects Visual Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort. PMID:25448713

  3. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  4. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  5. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  6. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  7. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  8. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  9. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  10. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  11. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  12. Presbyopia correction and the accommodation in reserve.

    PubMed

    Millodot, M; Millodot, S

    1989-04-01

    One method of determining the additional correction for presbyopia suggests leaving a percentage of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The rationale for this assumption seems logical because using all of the available accommodation is not sustainable without discomfort. However there is no empirical evidence indicating what percentage of the amplitude of accommodation should actually be left in reserve. Common figures adopted have been one-half and one-third. In this investigation the percentage of accommodation used is deduced mathematically after having determined the following: 1. The 'add' by the direct subjective clinical method. 2. Measured the amplitude of accommodation. 3. Measured the reading distance in 305 presbyopes ranging from 40 to 83 years of age. The results showed a small decline in the amplitude of accommodation up to the age of 52, after which age the measurements were scattered about a steady level. This finding suggests that after the age of 52 the results are based on the depth-of-focus of the eye. Females had slightly greater accommodation than males of the same age. The power of the add was significantly correlated to the age of the subject. The mean percentage of accommodation used for the 305 subjects was found to be 50.7%, thus confirming the rule of leaving half of the accommodation in reserve, although there were large variations: there were differences between males and females and with age the percentage of measured accommodation used, after having determined the correct add, diminished. Similarly the percentage of accommodation also decreased for shorter reading distances.

  13. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities: Phase A conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are highlighted. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or Follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSRF to the FOC LSRF.

  14. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer Service Practices § 1232.10 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A...

  15. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  16. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 142.12 Section 142.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall...

  17. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reasonable accommodation. 17.211 Section 17.211 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.211 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient...

  18. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and the…

  19. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the CA/C (convergence accommodation to convergence) linkage but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression, so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4-11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. Methods 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photorefractor set in a remote haploscopic device which assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Responses on decompensation were compared to those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Results Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target reduced significantly (p<0.0001), with resultant mean under-accommodation of 2.33D at 33cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Conclusions Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near. PMID:21873311

  20. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  1. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to...

  2. Creating Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robyn, Elisa

    2000-01-01

    Suggests the use of the "tribal" metaphor to foster team building and collaborative learning in college classes. Offers examples of how linking students in the classroom in tribes builds identification and interdependence through such activities as creating a group myth and participating in membership rituals. The tribal metaphor has also led to…

  3. Creating Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  4. Creating Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruane, Patricia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Brookline (Massachusetts) Public Schools has created a telecommunications network that encourages creative thinking, risk taking, thoughtful practice. Interested parties are advised to identify leadership team; rethink resources; identify potentially successful conference groups; learn to make deals; provide training and ongoing support; expect…

  5. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  6. A role for genetic accommodation in evolution?

    PubMed

    Braendle, Christian; Flatt, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Whether evolutionary change can occur by genetic assimilation, or more generally by genetic accommodation, remains controversial. Here we examine some of the experimental evidence for both phenomena. Several experiments in Drosophila suggest that assimilation is possible, and a new paper shows that a color polyphenism in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, can evolve by genetic accommodation. We argue that genetic accommodation, including assimilation, is a plausible mechanism in evolution; however, more work is required to test how this mechanism acts and how often it is involved in evolutionary change.

  7. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  8. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  9. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  10. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  11. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  12. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  13. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or... reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant....

  14. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  15. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Section 504 of the... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  16. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  17. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  18. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  19. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  20. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  1. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and other similar actions. This list is neither all inclusive nor meant to suggest that employers must... of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any employment opportunity to a...

  2. Employers' knowledge and utilization of accommodations.

    PubMed

    Unger, Darlene; Kregel, John

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, employers are providing a variety of accommodations to applicants or employees with disabilities. However, little is know about the resources that employers access to identify and develop accommodations in the recruitment, hiring and retention of employees with disabilities. Human resource professionals and supervisors were surveyed to determine the extent to which businesses were aware of, and utilized, the vast array of workplace supports available. Findings indicated that employers have limited awareness of workplace supports and rely primarily on their own organizational resources in identifying and securing accommodations. Yet, business professionals expressed confidence in their ability to meet and support the needs of employees with disabilities despite many supervisors indicating that they did not have the authority to secure accommodations for workers with disabilities.

  3. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of the employee or applicant. ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON...

  4. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leat, S J

    1996-09-01

    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  5. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation would..., number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation,...

  6. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  7. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  8. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees, number and type of facilities and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's...

  9. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... similar actions. (c) In determining pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation... employees or volunteers, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the...

  10. Extralenticular and Lenticular Aspects of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Human Versus Monkey Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P.; Katz, Alexander; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if the accommodative forward movements of the vitreous zonule and lens equator occur in the human eye, as they do in the rhesus monkey eye; to investigate the connection between the vitreous zonule posterior insertion zone and the posterior lens equator; and to determine which components—muscle apex width, lens thickness, lens equator position, vitreous zonule, circumlental space, and/or other intraocular dimensions, including those stated in the objectives above—are most important in predicting accommodative amplitude and presbyopia. Methods. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in 12 visually normal human subjects (ages 19–65 years) and by midbrain electrical stimulation in 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6–27 years). Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaged the entire ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens surfaces, and the zonule. Relevant distances were measured in the resting and accommodated eyes. Stepwise regression analysis determined which variables were the most important predictors. Results. The human vitreous zonule and lens equator move forward (anteriorly) during accommodation, and their movements decline with age, as in the monkey. Over all ages studied, age could explain accommodative amplitude, but not as well as accommodative lens thickening and resting muscle apex thickness did together. Accommodative change in distances between the vitreous zonule insertion zone and the posterior lens equator or muscle apex were important for predicting accommodative lens thickening. Conclusions. Our findings quantify the movements of the zonule and ciliary muscle during accommodation, and identify their age-related changes that could impact the optical change that occurs during accommodation and IOL function. PMID:23745002

  11. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression. PMID:16009391

  12. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2006-02-01

    We assessed the extent to which different accommodative functions are correlated and whether accommodative functions predict the refractive error or the progression of myopia over a 12 month period in 64 young adults (30 myopes and 34 non-myopes). The functions were: amplitude of accommodation; monocular and binocular accommodative facility (6 m and 40 cm); monocular and binocular accommodative response to target distance; AC/A and CA/C ratios, tonic accommodation (dark focus and pinhole), accommodative hysteresis, and nearwork-induced transient myopia. Within groups of related accommodative functions (such as facility measures or open-loop measures) measurements on individuals were generally significantly correlated, however correlations between functions from different groups were generally not significant. Although accommodative amplitude and pinhole (open loop) accommodation were significantly different in myopes than in non-myopes, these functions were unrelated to myopia progression. Facility of accommodation and accommodative lag was independent predictors of myopia progression.

  13. Effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and morphology of martensites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanju, Gu; Xiaoyan, Song; Jianxin, Zhang; Fuxing, Yin; Ruixiang, Wang

    1995-08-01

    The effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and the displacement vector for lattice deformation are discussed. The authors propose that the formation of an invariant habit plane is connected with the self-accomodation between different martensitic variants and results in the formation of internal twinned martensites; the plastic accommodation, rather than self-accommodation, occurs between parent and new phases when the strength is low or the dislocation density is high for the parent phase and the invariant habit plane is difficult to form, resulting in the formation of dislocation martensites.

  14. Hitchhiker: Customer Accommodations and Requirements Specifications (CARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984, NASA Headquarters established projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop quick-reaction carrier systems for low-cost 'flight of opportunity' or secondary payloads on the Space Transportation System (STS). One of these projects is the Hitchhiker (HH) Program. GSFC has developed a family of carrier equipment known as the Shuttle Payload of Opportunity Carrier (SPOC) system for mounting small payloads such as HH to the side of the Orbiter payload bay. The side-mounted HHs are referred to as Hitchhiker-G (HH-G). MSFC developed a cross-bay 'bridge-type' carrier structure called the Hitchhiker-M (HH-M). In 1987, responsibility for the HH-M carrier was transferred to and is now managed by the HH Project Office at the GSFC. The HH-M carrier now uses the same interchangeable SPOC avionics unit and the same electrical interfaces and services developed for HH-G. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has created this document to acquaint potential HH system customers with the facilities NASA provides and the requirements which customers must satisfy to use these facilities. This publication defines interface items required for integrating customer equipment with the HH carrier system. Those items such as mounting equipment and electrical inputs and outputs; configuration, environmental, command, telemetry, and operational constraints are described as well as weight, power, and communications. The purpose of this publication is to help the customer understand essential integration documentation requirements and to prepare a Customer Payload Requirements (CPR) document.

  15. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  16. Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Dedi, Sonia; Kumar, Dimple; Patel, Tanuj; Aloo, Mohammed; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    We manipulated the accommodative response using positive and negative lenses to study any association between symptoms of pattern glare and accommodation. Two groups of eighteen young adults were selected from seventy-eight on the basis (i) that their rate of reading increased by 5% or more with an overlay compared to their rate without it, and (ii) that they reported more than 2 symptoms of pattern glare (group 1) or had no such increment in reading speed and reported fewer than 3 symptoms (group 2). Under double-masked conditions participants observed at 0.4 m a pattern of stripes while measurements of accommodation were made using an open field autorefractor with and without positive and negative trial lenses (0.75 D), and with and without a coloured overlay. Pattern glare was also assessed with and without the trial lenses. Without lenses, the mean accommodative response in group 1 was 1.55 D, a lag of 0.95 D +/- 0.24 D relative to the demand. The lag decreased by 0.43 D (p < 0.0001) when the chosen overlay was used, an effect that was not shown in group 2 even when lag increased with negative trial lenses (p = 0.13). In both groups, pattern glare scores were reduced by the trial lenses, but were unaffected by the sign of the lenses. This suggests that symptoms of pattern glare are not strongly associated with accommodative response. PMID:23586285

  17. Americans with Disability Act: financial aspects of reasonable accommodations and undue hardship.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Matthews, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) is a significant piece of discrimination legislation that merits ongoing managerial exploration. This civil rights legislature indicates that employers are expected to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with reported disabilities. The statute also indicates that employers can refuse to offer a reasonable accommodation if doing so creates an undue hardship on the organization. However, health care managers should exercise extreme caution when using undue hardship as a defense against providing reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities. This point should be duly noted by health care managers given that studies indicate that lawsuits alleging disability discrimination are on the rise. This is unfortunate given the costs of reasonable accommodations are typically miniscule. PMID:23155745

  18. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes. PMID:19838277

  19. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  20. A Lunar Mission to Create a Constellation of Space Solar Power Satellites as a Precursor to Industrial Establishment, Resource Extraction, and Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsrud, C. M.; Straub, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of a system of space solar power satellites (SSPSs) to service lunar science, mining and manufacturing operations. The SSPS system will provide power to enable a new paradigm of lunar and Moon-based exploration.

  1. Play Spaces to Accommodate Disabled Children. Research Project 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, James H.

    This report deals primarily with the design of an integrated free play environment for both able-bodied and disabled children. First, the different types of handicaps (and their debilitating effects) which affect children, and the different mobility aids which are used by these children are discussed. Then, a number of guidelines concerning…

  2. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  3. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  4. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices §...

  5. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1232.10 Section 1232.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer...

  6. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  7. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  8. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.32...

  9. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  10. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  11. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 84.12 Section 84.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... qualified handicapped employee or applicant if the basis for the denial is the need to make...

  12. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  13. Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J M; Owens, D A

    1981-01-01

    Two adjacent regions define an edge if they differ in either color or luminance. If the difference is purely chromatic, the edge is said to be isoluminant. Isoluminant contours are often perceptually unstable. Perhaps some of this instability could be explained if isoluminant contours were difficult to bring into focus. To test this hypothesis, a vernier optometer was used to measure the accuracy of steady-state accommodation for the vertical boundary of a red-green bipartite field. This edge was presented at optical distances of 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 diopters, with brightness contrasts between the two hemifields of 0% (isoluminant), 15%, 58%, and 100%. Accommodation was essentially unresponsiveness to the isoluminant edge and exhibited increasing focusing accuracy with increased brightness contrast. Control experiments replicated this finding for red-orange, green-blue, and white-white fields. These results imply that luminance contrast is a necessary stimulus for monocular accommodation. Inappropriate accommodation may be a factor contributing to the perceptual instability of isoluminant patterns. PMID:7255083

  14. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  15. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1040.67 Section 1040.67 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended...

  18. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  19. Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brief guide explains the use of testing accommodations for students with a disability participating in state or district educational assessments under federal and Florida state law. These include the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Florida Administrative Code. Planning…

  20. A Developmental Model of Infant Visual Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Martin S.; Leitner, Edward F.

    This paper reports the major findings and interprets the results of longitudinal and cross-sectional exPeriments concerning the development of visual accommodation in infants 1 to 3 months of age. The stimulus was a high-contrast, random checkerboard which was presented at three different distances from the infants (25, 50 or 100 cm). The physical…

  1. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  2. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 354.225 Section 354.225 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. (c) An adequate number of hand...

  3. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  4. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  5. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  6. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  7. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities," exclaimed Thomas…

  8. Accommodating Students' Religious Needs. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Offers a lesson for secondary students that addresses the role of public schools in religious expression where the students consider how or if schools can accommodate the religious needs of students. Focuses on the religious obligations of Muslim students as a case study. Provides a student handout. (CMK)

  9. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  10. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  11. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  12. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  13. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN...

  14. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... similar actions. (c) Whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a... overall size of the recipient's program or activity with respect to number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget; (2) The type of the recipient's operation, including...

  15. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  16. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  17. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  19. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  20. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  2. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  5. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  7. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  8. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  9. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  10. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  11. Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Troilo, David; Quinn, Nicole; Baker, Kayla

    2007-04-01

    Accommodation may indirectly influence visually guided eye growth by affecting the retinal defocus signal used to guide growth. Specifically, increased lags of accommodation associated with low stimulus-response (S-R) function slopes will impose increased hyperopic blur on the retina and may induce axial elongation and myopia. The purpose of this study was (1) to measure accommodation in awake, free viewing marmosets and (2) compare accommodation behavior in marmosets before and after inducing different amounts of myopia with binocular spectacle lenses. In untreated marmosets, the average accommodation S-R slope approached one, but showed considerable inter-individual variability (mean+/-SD: 0.964+/-0.249 for monocular viewing; 0.895+/-0.235 for binocular viewing; monocular and binocular measures not significantly different). The monocular S-R slopes were significantly reduced following a period of lens rearing that produced axial myopia (change in slope=-0.30+/-0.30, p<.01) and the reduction in slope was proportional to the amount of myopia induced (p<.01). The S-R slopes measured either under monocular or binocular conditions before induction of myopia were not well correlated with the degree of myopia induced (monocular: r=-.240, p=.453; binocular: r=-.060, p=.824). These results support the hypothesis that the reduction in S-R slope in myopes is a consequence of the myopia induced. The alternative hypothesis-that low S-R slope increases susceptibility to the development of myopia--is not supported by the weak correlation between the pre-manipulation S-R slopes and the magnitude of the myopic shift.

  12. Religious Diversity and Inclusion: Policy and Accommodation Practices in British Columbia's Secular School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquet, Marianne; D'Amico, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The religious diversity of students and staff within a secular school system may sometimes create tensions. To better understand the possible issues generated by and practical accommodations made with respect to these tensions, interviews were conducted at the district level with key administrators in metropolitan school districts in British…

  13. In Their Words: An Exploration into How the Construction of Congruent Third Space Creates an Environment for Employment of Scientific Discourse in Urban, African-American Kindergarten Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how young, urban, African American girls learn new science discourse. The research questions focused on three units of analysis: the teacher, the student, and the discourse. These research questions were the following: (1) How is a congruent Third Space constructed by the teacher in this…

  14. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  15. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  16. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  17. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  18. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  19. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  20. Strain accommodation beneath structures on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    A recent review of tectonic features on Mars shows that most of their subsurface structures can be confidently extended only a few kilometers deep (exceptions are rifts, in which bounding normal faults penetrate the entire brittle lithosphere, with ductile flow at deeper levels). Nevertheless, a variety of estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and application of accepted failure criteria under likely conditions on Mars suggest a brittle lithosphere that is many tens of kilometers thick. This raises the question of how the strain (extension or shortening) accommodated by grabens and wrinkle ridges within the upper few kilometers is being accommodated at deeper levels in the lithosphere. Herein, the nonrift tectonic features present on Mars are briefly reviewed, along with their likely subsurface structures, and some inferences and implications are presented for behavior of the deeper lithosphere.

  1. The Inuulitsivik Maternities: culturally appropriate midwifery and epistemological accommodation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Vasiliki K

    2010-06-01

    This is a literature-based historical analysis that uses Michel Foucault's technique of tracing epistemological change over time to understand the epistemological changes and their outcomes that have occurred in Nunavik, the Inuit region of Northern Quebec, with the introduction of modern techniques and technology of childbirth in the period after the Second World War. Beginning in 1986, in the village of Puvurnituq, a series of community birthing centres known as the Inuulitsivik Maternities have been created. They incorporate biomedical techniques and technology, but are incorporated into the Inuit epistemology of health, in which the community is the final arbitrator of medical authority. This epistemological accommodation between modern biomedicine and the distinctly premodern Inuit epistemology of health has led to the creation of a new and profoundly non-modern approach to childbirth in Nunavik.

  2. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  3. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role. PMID:20183631

  4. A Room with a View: Accommodating Hindu Religious Practice on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the question of how to best accommodate Hindu practice on college campuses by contrasting the dedication of a prayer room with the hiring of a Hindu chaplain. The author suggests that this dichotomy--of an impersonal physical space ("a room") on the one hand, and a chaplain empowered to lead a community ("a view") on the…

  5. Space-resolved keV spectroscopy study of neonlike x-ray laser plasmas created with low-level prepulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc; Klisnick, Annie; Jamelot, Gerard; Holden, P. B.; Jaegle, Pierre; Zeitoun, Philippe; Tallents, Gregory J.; MacPhee, Andrew G.; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.

    1995-09-01

    Through the use of time-integrated space-resolved keV spectroscopy, we investigate line plasmas showing gain for irradiation using the prepulse technique. The experiments were conducted with the LULI laser of the Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France), at 1.06 micrometer with prepulse-to-main pulse intensity ratio ranging from 10-6 to 10-2. The particular x-ray lasers which were studied were the collisionally excited Ne-like zinc, copper and nickel systems. The effect of the prepulses on plasma conditions are inferred through spectroscopic line ratio diagnostics. It is observed that the value of the electron temperature for each system does not vary significantly with prepulse levels, nor does their spatially resolved profile along the line. The lateral width and density of the Ne-like regions in the plasmas of all three x-ray lasers are seen to increase with the prepulse level.

  6. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Process of Creating the NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and the results of the quality control (QC) process of the meteorological data from the Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B) are documented in this paper. Meteorological data are used to design a launch vehicle, determine operational constraints, and to apply defined constraints on day-of-launch (DOL). In order to properly accomplish these tasks, a representative climatological database of meteorological records is needed because the database needs to represent the climate the vehicle will encounter. Numerous meteorological measurement towers exist at KSC; however, the engineering tasks need measurements at specific heights, some of which can only be provided by a few towers. Other than the LPS towers, Tower 313 is the only tower that provides observations up to 150 m. This tower is located approximately 3.5 km from LC-39B. In addition, data need to be QC'ed to remove erroneous reports that could pollute the results of an engineering analysis, mislead the development of operational constraints, or provide a false image of the atmosphere at the tower's location.

  7. Creating a Curriculum and Accommodating Teaching Methods at a Federal Prison's Special Housing Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    The federal prison system provides a number of opportunities for inmates to further their education. These prospects can be made available at the prison and can include, college correspondence, the formal classroom, or at the inmate's cell in the special housing unit (SHU). While it is common for inmates to receive a more appropriate education at…

  8. The Process of Inclusion and Accommodation: Creating Accessible Groups for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Supports the important work of group counselors by focusing on the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in nondisability specific groups and addressing disability myths, disability etiquette, architectural accessibility, and group process issues. (LKS)

  9. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  10. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  11. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  12. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  13. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  14. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  15. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  16. The development of visual accommodation during early infancy.

    PubMed

    Banks, M S

    1980-09-01

    4 experiments were conducted concerning the development of visual accommodation in 1- to 3-month-old infants. In experiments 1 and 2 dynamic retinoscopy was used to measure accomodation responses at 3 stimulus distances. The results of experiment 1 revealed better accommodative capability from 1 to 3 months than reported originally. The procedure of experiment 2 was somewhat different but the results confirmed those of experiment 1. In experiment 3, accommodative responses at 7 stimulus distances were carefully measured in a small number of infants. These data provided estimates of the shape of infants' accommodation functions. In experiment 4, we used infrared photography to measure infants' pupil diameters while they viewed the stimuli of experiments 1 and 2. 2 simple hypotheses of the developmental mechanisms which underlie early accommodative development were considered. First, development of the motor component of the accommodative system might determine accommodative development. Second, development of the sensory component of the accommodative system might determine the observed development. The first hypothesis was tentatively rejected because it is inconsistent with some clinical findings. Evaluation of the second hypothesis involved calculating infants' depth of focus. We used those depth-of-focus values to predict how well infants of different ages should accommodate if their only limitation were in the sensory component of the accommodative system. The agreement between those predictions and observed accommodation was excellent, suggesting that changes in depth of focus in the first 3 months are largely responsible for growth in accommodation. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  17. Student Perceptions of the Accommodation Process in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Noelle; Mellard, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    One cause of the underrepresentation of students with disabilities in postsecondary education may be a lack of appropriate and effective accommodations (e.g., West et al., 1993). This study hypothesized that ineffective and inappropriate accommodations result from an accommodation selection process that focuses on disability type rather than…

  18. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  19. Extended Time Testing Accommodations: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Extended time is among the most common testing accommodations given to students with a wide range of disabilities. However, although school psychologists are often involved in accommodation decisions, many are unaware of research from the past decade that has changed their understanding of extended time. Used properly, testing accommodations let…

  20. Prevention of Spacecraft Anomalies: The Role of Space Climate and Space Weather Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based systems are developing into critical infrastructure to support the quality of life on Earth. Mission requirements along with rapidly evolving technologies have outpaced efforts to accommodate detrimental space environment impacts on systems. This chapter describes approaches to accommodate space climate and space weather impacts on systems and notes areas where gaps in model development limit our ability to prevent spacecraft anomalies.

  1. Design of built environments to accommodate mobility scooter users: part II.

    PubMed

    King, Emily C; Dutta, Tilak; Gorski, Susan M; Holliday, Pamela J; Fernie, Geoff R

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE.Accessibility standards for wheeled mobility devices currently use a 1.5 m turning circle, designed to accommodate manual wheelchairs. Scooters are less manoeuvrable than wheelchairs, so allowing a full turning circle would require too much space. Instead, we propose using a rectangle that provides space for a three-point turn. Here, we determine the area requirements of this approach. METHOD. For rectangular 'rooms' of varying aspect ratios, we measured the minimum dimensions in which two four-wheeled scooters (the Celebrity-X and Fortress-1700), which combine good outdoor performance with reasonable indoor manoeuvrability, could enter the space, perform a three-point turn and exit. Moveable Styrofoam walls defined each 'room', and a doorway was located either near the corner of the space or in the middle of one wall. 'Room' size was decreased until our expert driver could no longer perform the manoeuvre. RESULTS. Compared to the area required for a turning circle, 42-54% savings were achieved. Relative to existing requirements, 53-95% more space is required to accommodate the Celebrity-X; 173-223% increases are necessary for the Fortress-1700. CONCLUSIONS. When accommodating four-wheeled scooters, our proposed three-point turn definition would require more space than the current standards, but considerably less than if a full turning circle were used.

  2. Design of built environments to accommodate mobility scooter users: part II.

    PubMed

    King, Emily C; Dutta, Tilak; Gorski, Susan M; Holliday, Pamela J; Fernie, Geoff R

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE.Accessibility standards for wheeled mobility devices currently use a 1.5 m turning circle, designed to accommodate manual wheelchairs. Scooters are less manoeuvrable than wheelchairs, so allowing a full turning circle would require too much space. Instead, we propose using a rectangle that provides space for a three-point turn. Here, we determine the area requirements of this approach. METHOD. For rectangular 'rooms' of varying aspect ratios, we measured the minimum dimensions in which two four-wheeled scooters (the Celebrity-X and Fortress-1700), which combine good outdoor performance with reasonable indoor manoeuvrability, could enter the space, perform a three-point turn and exit. Moveable Styrofoam walls defined each 'room', and a doorway was located either near the corner of the space or in the middle of one wall. 'Room' size was decreased until our expert driver could no longer perform the manoeuvre. RESULTS. Compared to the area required for a turning circle, 42-54% savings were achieved. Relative to existing requirements, 53-95% more space is required to accommodate the Celebrity-X; 173-223% increases are necessary for the Fortress-1700. CONCLUSIONS. When accommodating four-wheeled scooters, our proposed three-point turn definition would require more space than the current standards, but considerably less than if a full turning circle were used. PMID:21657823

  3. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  4. Method and system for fault accommodation of machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai Frank (Inventor); Subbu, Rajesh Venkat (Inventor); Rausch, Randal Thomas (Inventor); Frederick, Dean Kimball (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for multi-objective fault accommodation using predictive modeling is disclosed. The method includes using a simulated machine that simulates a faulted actual machine, and using a simulated controller that simulates an actual controller. A multi-objective optimization process is performed, based on specified control settings for the simulated controller and specified operational scenarios for the simulated machine controlled by the simulated controller, to generate a Pareto frontier-based solution space relating performance of the simulated machine to settings of the simulated controller, including adjustment to the operational scenarios to represent a fault condition of the simulated machine. Control settings of the actual controller are adjusted, represented by the simulated controller, for controlling the actual machine, represented by the simulated machine, in response to a fault condition of the actual machine, based on the Pareto frontier-based solution space, to maximize desirable operational conditions and minimize undesirable operational conditions while operating the actual machine in a region of the solution space defined by the Pareto frontier.

  5. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  6. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals. PMID:25426061

  7. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  8. Designing for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    2004-02-01

    This presentation addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future human spaceflight exploration platforms. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform proposed. The development of the analytical tool employed an approach that accommodated possible payloads characterized as simplified parameters such as power, weight, volume, crew size, and endurance. In creating the approach, basic principles are employed and combined with parametric estimates as necessary. Key system parameters are identified in conjunction with overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are provided based on empirical data extracted from actual human spaceflight systems. In order to provide a credible basis for a valid engineering model, an extensive survey of existing manned space platforms was conducted. This survey yielded key engineering specifications that were incorporated in the engineering model. Data from this survey is also used to create parametric equations and graphical representations in order to establish a realistic range of engineering quantities used in the design of manned space platforms.

  9. Disorders of Accommodative Convergation and Accommodation (AC/A) Relations at Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Serdarevic, Raif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation (AC/A) ratio is constant at one and the same person in the course of life, i.e. the same ratio accommodative convergence monitor any change in accommodation measured in diopters. Such a perfect relationship is possible if there are no refractive anomalies in both eyes and oculomotor imbalance of eye muscles. Material and methods: We are examined 50 patients with close brain injury, and patients which had problems with near vision, accommodation and convergency were reducted, with loss motor fussion, and preserved stereoscopis vision, and showed us, that disturbances are clear motor and folowed with incapable of patient to hold of superposition view to watching object. Results: The difference in average proximity distance vision and reading time with no fatigue after 6 months a statistically significant, the value of t-test, t = 1873 for p <0.01, r = 0. 718. The value of convergent fusion 6 months after treatment in 30% of the patients was from 0 to16 Pd, S. D. = 18. 6, and χ2 = 7. 22. In 18% of the patients was from 0 to 10 Pd, S. D = 17. 61, and χ2 = 5. 41, at 20% of patients 0 to 22 Pd, SD = 14. 18, χ2 = 6. 84, in 16% of patients 0 to 4 Pd, SD = 16. 41, χ2 t-test = 5. 13 and the remaining 16% of patients the value of convergent fusion is about 1 PD, S. D = 15. 01, χ2 t = 5. 18. All patients showed significant improvement in near vision compared to the value of convergent fusion before treatment where χ2 t-test = 9.41, after 6 months of treatment, there is considerable significance p < 0 01, t–test 0. 914, correlation coefficient r = 0. 881. Conclusion: Disturbances of AC / A ratio should be evaluated only with regard to all symptoms and is only possible by proper rating interference in reading. PMID:26005257

  10. Accommodating to new ears: the effects of sensory and sensory-motor feedback.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Balachandar, Kapilesh; Kelly, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Changing the shape of the outer ear using small in-ear molds degrades sound localization performance consistent with the distortion of monaural spectral cues to location. It has been shown recently that adult listeners re-calibrate to these new spectral cues for locations both inside and outside the visual field. This raises the question as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity. Furthermore, large individual differences in the extent and rate of accommodation suggests a number of factors may be driving this process. A training paradigm exploiting multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback during accommodation was examined to determine whether it might accelerate this process. So as to standardize the modification of the spectral cues, molds filling 40% of the volume of each outer ear were custom made for each subject. Daily training sessions for about an hour, involving repetitive auditory stimuli and exploratory behavior by the subject, significantly improved the extent of accommodation measured by both front-back confusions and polar angle localization errors, with some improvement in the rate of accommodation demonstrated by front-back confusion errors. This work has implications for both the process by which a coherent representation of auditory space is maintained and for accommodative training for hearing aid wearers.

  11. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  12. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  13. Fault Accommodation in Control of Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Lim, Kyong B.

    1998-01-01

    New synthesis techniques for the design of fault accommodating controllers for flexible systems are developed. Three robust control design strategies, static dissipative, dynamic dissipative and mu-synthesis, are used in the approach. The approach provides techniques for designing controllers that maximize, in some sense, the tolerance of the closed-loop system against faults in actuators and sensors, while guaranteeing performance robustness at a specified performance level, measured in terms of the proximity of the closed-loop poles to the imaginary axis (the degree of stability). For dissipative control designs, nonlinear programming is employed to synthesize the controllers, whereas in mu-synthesis, the traditional D-K iteration is used. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed techniques, they are applied to the control design of a structural model of a flexible laboratory test structure.

  14. Effective techniques for the identification and accommodation of disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    The successful control of dynamic systems such as space stations, or launch vehicles, requires a controller design methodology that acknowledges and addresses the disruptive effects caused by external and internal disturbances that inevitably act on such systems. These disturbances, technically defined as uncontrollable inputs, typically vary with time in an uncertain manner and usually cannot be directly measured in real time. A relatively new non-statistical technique for modeling, and (on-line) identification, of those complex uncertain disturbances that are not as erratic and capricious as random noise is described. This technique applies to multi-input cases and to many of the practical disturbances associated with the control of space stations, or launch vehicles. Then, a collection of smart controller design techniques that allow controlled dynamic systems, with possible multi-input controls, to accommodate (cope with) such disturbances with extraordinary effectiveness are associated. These new smart controllers are designed by non-statistical techniques and typically turn out to be unconventional forms of dynamic linear controllers (compensators) with constant coefficients. The simplicity and reliability of linear, constant coefficient controllers is well-known in the aerospace field.

  15. Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Oscar

    Research on residential crime patterns in 150,000 New York City public housing units has established that the combined effect of the residents' social characteristics and the projects' design affects the crime rate. Architectural design concepts applicable to all-level income housing ranging in type from single-family housing to high-rise…

  16. Creating Institutional Space for Business Model Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Robert; Crawford, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    From college campuses to the halls of Congress, there is broad agreement that higher education is experiencing a major wave of innovation. This article holds that the changes are significant, but that the resulting threats to existing institutions are manageable if key leaders understand them and if institutions adapt to the new environment. The…

  17. Create a Safe Space to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Amy B.; Langer, Georgea M.; Goff, Loretta S.

    2015-01-01

    Probing is a communication skill that provides the psychological safety teachers need to share their perspectives, inquire into those of others, and reconsider what they have been doing and how they have been thinking about it. In their book, "The Collaborative Analysis of Student Learning: Professional Learning That Promotes Success for…

  18. Creating a Common Space for Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The increased interest in community engagement within higher education provides new opportunities for examining the role of university continuing education (UCE) units in relation to their participation in community university partnerships. This article is based on findings from a qualitative study that used a social theory lens to examine the…

  19. Creating Spaces that Are "Communication Friendly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The new EYFS (The Early Years Foundation Stage, DfES, 2007) reinforces that mathematical language and understanding should be developed through stories, songs, games and imaginative play; that practical activities should provide opportunities for children to practise and talk about their developing mathematical understanding. Despite a huge number…

  20. Creating Safe Spaces within Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents, educators, and specialists are challenged to find effective ways to ensure that our participants learn in program contexts that are inclusive and respectful of all people. In order to make our programs inclusive environments, it is important for us to be brave enough to disrupt statements that are demeaning and marginalize…

  1. Creating Space: Engaging Deliberation about Climate Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phear, Nicolette

    In the United States public discourse, climate change is often framed as a polarized and intractable issue. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore deliberation about climate action, and to evaluate whether effective responses to climate change can be facilitated through new structures and processes that enable and encourage dialogue on the subject of how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Working with sustainability leaders at the University of Montana and in the community of Missoula, Montana, the author convened three public deliberations, in which a variety of solutions to climate change were discussed. Three questions guided this study: 1) what motivated individuals to engage in deliberation about climate action; 2) how did individual engagement vary and affect the quality of the deliberation; and 3) how effective were the deliberations in building a sense of individual agency and generating collaborative action strategies to address climate change. Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of survey responses combined with qualitative data, this action research study offers a holistic exploration of the three deliberative events convened. The deliberative processes generated collaborative action strategies and increased participants' sense of agency to take action on climate change; the findings also revealed differences in the ways individuals engaged and affected the quality of the overall group deliberation. This dissertation contributes to the literature on collaborative responses and collective action on climate change, broadens understanding of deliberative processes, and provides new insight into opportunities for leading deliberation about climate action.

  2. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle and paired with the same conversational partner. Participants completed a "spot-the-difference" task which elicited a considerable amount of contrasting regionally specific sign data in the participant-confederate dyads. Accommodation was observed during the task with younger signers accommodating more than older signers. The results are interpreted with reference to the relationship between language contact and lexical accommodation in BSL, and address how further studies could help us better understand how contact and accommodation contribute to language change more generally.

  3. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle and paired with the same conversational partner. Participants completed a "spot-the-difference" task which elicited a considerable amount of contrasting regionally specific sign data in the participant-confederate dyads. Accommodation was observed during the task with younger signers accommodating more than older signers. The results are interpreted with reference to the relationship between language contact and lexical accommodation in BSL, and address how further studies could help us better understand how contact and accommodation contribute to language change more generally. PMID:26405209

  4. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  5. Accommodation of Nuclear Power and Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steven M.; Bolch, Wesley e.; Thomas, J. Kelley

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear systems for propulsion and power are being examined as system options for implementing the lunar and Mars human exploration missions currently being studied by NASA. Systems might include nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles, operating reactors on coorbiting platforms, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and others. The space station, as a transportation node, would have to store, assemble, launch and refurbish elements containing these systems. Care must be taken to safeguard humans from the radiation imposed by these systems, in addition to the naturally occuring background of the space environment. Key issues need to be identified early to enable their proper consideration in planning activities and the baseline space station design. A study was conducted over the past year with Texas A&M University to identify and explore key issues and quantify findings in a way useful to the Space Station Program.

  6. Minimum accommodation for aerobrake assembly, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Haynes, Davy A.; Tutterow, Robin D.; Watson, Judith J.; Russell, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element study was done to assess the practicality of a Space Station Freedom-based aerobrake system for the Space Exploration Initiative. The study was organized into six parts related to structure, aerodynamics, robotics and assembly, thermal protection system, inspection, and verification, all tied together by an integration study. The integration activity managed the broad issues related to meeting mission requirements. This report is a summary of the issues addressed by the integration team.

  7. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  8. Cultural accommodation as method and metaphor.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick T L

    2007-11-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the author's program of research in which the development of the CAM, as well as its precursors, is embedded. L. H. Rogler, R. G. Malgady, and O. Rodriguez's (1989) framework has served as the foundation of the author's program of research on Asian American mental health. In focusing on the 4th stage of L. H. Rogler et al.'s model, F. T. L. Leong (1996) developed an integrative and multidimensional model of cross-cultural psychotherapy based on C. Kluckhohn and H. A. Murray's (1950) tripartite model. The CAM is an extension of F. T. L. Leong's (1996) integrative multidimensional model. The 2nd part of this article provides some speculation about the development of the CAM as a metaphor for the author's development as a psychotherapist and a psychological scientist. PMID:18020785

  9. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  10. Magnitude and rate of accommodation in diving and nondiving birds.

    PubMed

    Sivak, J G; Hildebrand, T; Lebert, C

    1985-01-01

    Accommodation was measured in a variety of waterfowl by projecting parallel low power helium-neon laser beams through the pupils of excised eyes placed in saline. The posterior globe was removed, allowing the beams, refracted only by the lens, to focus well behind the eye. Electrical stimulation of the ciliary muscle results in accommodative movement of the focal point toward the eye. Study of video recordings show that diving ducks (Mergus cucullatus and Bucephala clangala) can accommodate the 70-80 D needed to focus light on the retina when the eye is in water. Diving and nondiving species are compared in amount and rate of accommodation. PMID:4049742

  11. Hypo-accommodation Responses in Hypermetropic Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Aims Accommodation to overcome hypermetropia is implicated in emmetropisation. This study recorded accommodation responses in a wide range of emmetropising infants and older children with clinically significant hypermetropia to assess common characteristics and differences. Methods A PlusoptiXSO4 photorefractor in a laboratory setting was used to collect binocular accommodation data from participants viewing a detailed picture target moving between 33cm and 2m. 38 typically developing infants were studied between 6-26 weeks of age and were compared with cross-sectional data from children 5-9 years of age with clinically significant hypermetropia (n=15), corrected fully accommodative strabismus (n=14) and 27 age-matched controls. Results Hypermetropes of all ages under-accommodated compared to controls at all distances, whether corrected or not (p<0.00001) and lag related to manifest refraction. Emmetropising infants under-accommodated most in the distance, while the hypermetropic patient groups under-accommodated most for near. Conclusions Better accommodation for near than distance is demonstrated in those hypermetropic children who go on to emmetropise. This supports the approach of avoiding refractive correction in such children. In contrast, hypermetropic children referred for treatment for reduced distance visual acuity are not likely to habitually accommodate to overcome residual hypermetropia left by an under-correction. PMID:20603431

  12. Space Weather Effects on Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based systems are developing into critical infrastructure required to support the quality of life on Earth. Hence, spacecraft reliability is a serious issue that is complicated by exposure to the space environment. Complex mission designs along with rapidly evolving technologies have outpaced efforts to accommodate detrimental space environment impacts on systems. Hazardous space environments, the effects on systems, and the accommodation of the effects are described with a focus on the need to predict space environments.

  13. The dynamic nature of assimilation and accommodation procedures in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yafeng; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng; Qi, Ting; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li

    2015-10-01

    The framework of assimilation and accommodation has been proposed to explain the brain mechanisms supporting second language reading acquisition (Perfetti et al. [2007]: Bilingual Lang Cogn 10:131). Assimilation refers to using the procedures of the native language network in the acquisition of a new writing system, whereas accommodation refers to using second language procedures for reading the newly acquired writing system. We investigated assimilation and accommodation patterns in the brains of bilingual individuals by recruiting a group of Chinese-English bilinguals and a group of English-Chinese bilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in both English and Chinese. The key question was whether the assimilation/accommodation procedures supporting second language reading in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals were dynamic, i.e., modulated by proficiency in the second language and perceptual features of the second language's script. Perceptual features of the scripts were manipulated through orthographic degradation by inserting spaces between the radicals of a Chinese character or between the syllables of an English word. This manipulation disrupts the visual configuration of the orthography but does not change its more fundamental design principles. We found that for English-Chinese bilinguals, higher proficiency was associated with greater accommodation, suggesting that the accommodation procedure in a bilingual individual's brain is modulated by second language proficiency. Most interestingly, we found that the assimilation/accommodation effects vanished or diminished when orthographically degraded scripts were processed by both Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals, suggesting that the assimilation/accommodation procedures in a bilingual individual's brain are modulated by perceptual features of orthography. This work therefore offers a new, dynamic perspective for our understanding of the assimilation/accommodation

  14. The dynamic nature of assimilation and accommodation procedures in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yafeng; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng; Qi, Ting; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li

    2015-10-01

    The framework of assimilation and accommodation has been proposed to explain the brain mechanisms supporting second language reading acquisition (Perfetti et al. [2007]: Bilingual Lang Cogn 10:131). Assimilation refers to using the procedures of the native language network in the acquisition of a new writing system, whereas accommodation refers to using second language procedures for reading the newly acquired writing system. We investigated assimilation and accommodation patterns in the brains of bilingual individuals by recruiting a group of Chinese-English bilinguals and a group of English-Chinese bilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in both English and Chinese. The key question was whether the assimilation/accommodation procedures supporting second language reading in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals were dynamic, i.e., modulated by proficiency in the second language and perceptual features of the second language's script. Perceptual features of the scripts were manipulated through orthographic degradation by inserting spaces between the radicals of a Chinese character or between the syllables of an English word. This manipulation disrupts the visual configuration of the orthography but does not change its more fundamental design principles. We found that for English-Chinese bilinguals, higher proficiency was associated with greater accommodation, suggesting that the accommodation procedure in a bilingual individual's brain is modulated by second language proficiency. Most interestingly, we found that the assimilation/accommodation effects vanished or diminished when orthographically degraded scripts were processed by both Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals, suggesting that the assimilation/accommodation procedures in a bilingual individual's brain are modulated by perceptual features of orthography. This work therefore offers a new, dynamic perspective for our understanding of the assimilation/accommodation

  15. Drag and energy accommodation coefficients during sunspot maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano; Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.

    A hundred years of laboratory measurements have shown that gas-surface interactions depend not only on the chemistry and energy of the incident particles but also on the degree of surface contamination. The conditions appropriate to gas-surface interaction in space have not been successfully duplicated in the laboratory. Consequently, knowledge of satellite drag coefficients has been dependent upon opportunities to compare theoretical models with observations of satellite decay. From such studies it is now known that the great majority of molecules which strike satellite surfaces are reemitted in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient, α. Although a few measurements of α were made in the past, none was made near sunspot maximum. In the present study, we take advantage of the increasing data base to compare theoretical determinations of satellite drag coefficients with the history of satellite orbital decay during sunspot maximum. An example is the SNOE satellite which was in a circular orbit with an initial perigee altitude of 515 km during dates from October 1999 to December 2002. SNOE had a cylinder-like shape with a hexagonal cross section. It was attitude stabilized so that it maintained a constant aspect relative to the incident velocity vector, a feature which facilitated the computation of its drag coefficient as a function of α. The satellite drag coefficient was obtained by fitting, in a least squares sense, the semi-major axis decay inferred from the historical two-line elements acquired by the US Space Surveillance Network. All the principal orbital perturbations, namely geopotential harmonics up to the 16th degree and order, third body attraction of the Moon and the Sun, direct solar radiation pressure (with eclipses), and aerodynamic drag were included, using the Jacchia Bowman 2006 (JB2006) model to describe the atmospheric density. The average drag coefficient (fitted to JB2006), calculated

  16. ISS External Payload Accommodations (EXPRESS pallet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Harvey L.

    1996-01-01

    The 'expedite the process of experiments to Space Station' (EXPRESS) pallet which is attached to the DS3 truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS) via the payload attach structure is illustrated. The EXPRESS pallet constitutes the primary ISS external payload carrier. Each pallet carries six robotically replaceable payload adapters which are capable of containing one or more payloads. The following aspects of the EXPRESS program and pallet are illustrated: the concept drivers; the physical integration; the installation and in-orbit replacement; and the experiments to be implemented. The program status is summarized.

  17. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces must be segregated from machinery and boiler spaces, accommodation, service and control spaces, chain...

  18. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces must be segregated from machinery and boiler spaces, accommodation, service and control spaces, chain...

  19. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces must be segregated from machinery and boiler spaces, accommodation, service and control spaces, chain...

  20. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces must be segregated from machinery and boiler spaces, accommodation, service and control spaces, chain...

  1. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces must be segregated from machinery and boiler spaces, accommodation, service and control spaces, chain...

  2. Temporal Co-Variation between Eye Lens Accommodation and Trapezius Muscle Activity during a Dynamic Near-Far Visual Task

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Camilla; Richter, Hans O.; Forsman, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target. PMID:25961299

  3. Handbook of Job Analysis for Reasonable Accommodation. Personnel Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuspeh, Sheldon

    This is the second in a series of booklets on reasonable accommodation. It focuses on a job analysis process that can be used to plan and select appropriate actions necessary to accommodate handicapped persons in specific jobs and work environments. The guide is aimed especially at federal agencies, which are required to make reasonable…

  4. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  5. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  6. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  7. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  8. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  9. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  10. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  11. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  12. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  13. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg

    The purpose of this study was to devise an instructional model accommodating students' learning styles in the following areas: sound, light, temperature, design, and mobility. Specifically, this study determined if students in an experimental group with environmental accommodations to their preferred modes of learning differed from students in a…

  14. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  15. High velocity atomic oxygen/surface accommodation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Gauthier, M. J.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the first experimental evaluation of the energy-accommodation coefficients of 8km/s oxygen atoms on selected materials. Preliminary measurements have been provided for three materials at normal incidence. Neglecting chemical energy, the accommodation coefficients for Ni, Au, and reaction-cured glass are approximately 0.6 +/- 50 percent.

  16. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  18. Impact of Accommodation Strategies on English Language Learners' Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Lord, Carol; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Baker, Eva

    2000-01-01

    Examined the performance of English language learners (ELLs) on mathematics word problems, the effect of accommodation strategies, and the impact of students' background characteristics on accommodation effectiveness. Results for 946 eighth graders show that ELL students were helped by modified English, extra time, and use of a glossary plus extra…

  19. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  20. 29 CFR 1630.9 - Not making reasonable accommodation. \\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Not making reasonable accommodation. \\ 1630.9 Section 1630.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION... making reasonable accommodation.\\ (a) It is unlawful for a covered entity not to make...

  1. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  2. Transition to Postsecondary: New Documentation Guidance for Access to Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently developed a conceptual framework that substantially revises its guidance for disability documentation for accommodations in higher education settings. This new document, "Supporting Accommodation Requests: Guidance on Documentation Practices," was written in response to the…

  3. Semicommunication and Accommodation: Observations from the Linguistic Situation in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunmuller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on semicommunication and accommodation and discusses two longer extracts from a large corpus of authentic communication from Scandinavia. Various aspects of a comprehensive model of semicommunication are presented and discussed, showing code switching and accommodation are not considered antagonistic but rather as scalar phenomena covering…

  4. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  5. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Accommodations in High School and College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Sara E.; Decker, Dawn M.; Lloyd, Megan; Morlock, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    A total of 55 college students with reading- and writing-related disabilities were asked to report on their high school and college experiences with 14 accommodations. Receiving assistance with having materials read aloud, extended time, and individual setting were the accommodations reported as being used by most students. Students tended to…

  7. Accommodation and relocation decision making in continuing care retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Netting, F E; Wilson, C C

    1991-11-01

    Accommodations and relocations in continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) affect the lives of staff and residents. This article defines the CCRC concept and reviews the literature relevant to accommodation and relocation changes within CCRCs. Implications for health and human services practitioners who work with older CCRC residents, along with specific issues, are discussed.

  8. The Reasonable Accommodations Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides broad-based protection for disabled persons by imposing far-reaching obligations on private-sector employers, public services and accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. Provides a descriptive overview of the reasonable accommodations provisions of Title I and II of the ADA. (34…

  9. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  10. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  11. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  12. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  13. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and have at least 610 millimeters (24 inches) of clear space above. (b) Berths must not be located more than... than 1520 millimeters (60 inches) above the deck must be fitted with a suitable aid for access. (c)...

  14. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dwelling. Example (2): Progress Gardens is a 300 unit apartment complex with 450 parking spaces which are available to tenants and guests of Progress Gardens on a first come first served basis. John applies for housing in Progress Gardens. John is mobility impaired and is unable to walk more than a short...

  15. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dwelling. Example (2): Progress Gardens is a 300 unit apartment complex with 450 parking spaces which are available to tenants and guests of Progress Gardens on a first come first served basis. John applies for housing in Progress Gardens. John is mobility impaired and is unable to walk more than a short...

  16. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dwelling. Example (2): Progress Gardens is a 300 unit apartment complex with 450 parking spaces which are available to tenants and guests of Progress Gardens on a first come first served basis. John applies for housing in Progress Gardens. John is mobility impaired and is unable to walk more than a short...

  17. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dwelling. Example (2): Progress Gardens is a 300 unit apartment complex with 450 parking spaces which are available to tenants and guests of Progress Gardens on a first come first served basis. John applies for housing in Progress Gardens. John is mobility impaired and is unable to walk more than a short...

  18. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dwelling. Example (2): Progress Gardens is a 300 unit apartment complex with 450 parking spaces which are available to tenants and guests of Progress Gardens on a first come first served basis. John applies for housing in Progress Gardens. John is mobility impaired and is unable to walk more than a short...

  19. Deformable Surface Accommodating Intraocular Lens: Second Generation Prototype Design Methodology and Testing

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, Sean J.; Schwiegerling, Jim T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Present an analysis methodology for developing and evaluating accommodating intraocular lenses incorporating a deformable interface. Methods: The next generation design of extruded gel interface intraocular lens is presented. A prototype based upon similar previously in vivo proven design was tested with measurements of actuation force, lens power, interface contour, optical transfer function, and visual Strehl ratio. Prototype verified mathematical models were used to optimize optical and mechanical design parameters to maximize the image quality and minimize the required force to accommodate. Results: The prototype lens produced adequate image quality with the available physiologic accommodating force. The iterative mathematical modeling based upon the prototype yielded maximized optical and mechanical performance through maximum allowable gel thickness to extrusion diameter ratio, maximum feasible refractive index change at the interface, and minimum gel material properties in Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. Conclusions: The design prototype performed well. It operated within the physiologic constraints of the human eye including the force available for full accommodative amplitude using the eye's natural focusing feedback, while maintaining image quality in the space available. The parameters that optimized optical and mechanical performance were delineated as those, which minimize both asphericity and actuation pressure. The design parameters outlined herein can be used as a template to maximize the performance of a deformable interface intraocular lens. Translational Relevance: The article combines a multidisciplinary basic science approach from biomechanics, optical science, and ophthalmology to optimize an intraocular lens design suitable for preliminary animal trials. PMID:25938005

  20. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed. PMID:16368666