Science.gov

Sample records for accompanying intellectual property

  1. Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  2. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).

  3. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  4. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  5. An intellectual property primer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  6. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  7. Who Owns Faculty Intellectual Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines definitions of ownership relevant to faculty's intellectual property. Highlights exclusive rights that copyright owners hold under Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act. Notes university initiatives looking into the question of intellectual property. Provides examples of "significant" resources which in the case of public…

  8. Know your intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Khan, A

    1999-03-01

    Dismissing intellectual property rights as someone else's responsibility may not be prudent. It can jeopardize a company's future business because any new product could be unprotected, or even worse, belong to someone else. This article explains how a little strategic planning and due diligence can help prevent unnecessary legal costs. Much of a company's value can be tied up in intangible assets such as patents, trademarks and copyright, and an intellectual property audit helps assess its true worth.

  9. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  10. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of Federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of Federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  11. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Industry and Agency Concerns Over Intellectual Property Rights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    march in” and grant a license to a third party to use the patent. This action may also be taken to alleviate health and safety concerns . While “march-in...General Accounting Office GAO For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. Friday, May 10, 2002 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Industry and Agency Concerns Over...Page Report Date 10MAY2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Industry and Agency Concerns Over

  12. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  13. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered.

  14. Getting smart about intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    Intellectual Property, particularly a patent portfolio, is a critical part of many companies' assets. Yet many of these companies act dumb when it comes to Intellectual Property. Blundering forward without a plan or a manager, the company may throw money at a patent attorney pursuing a patent of little value; it may fool itself into thinking it has protection with a "provisional patent" it may fail to act in a timely fashion and lose its rights to a valuable patent. This paper highlights some of the mistakes some companies make so that you can avoid falling into the same pitfalls.

  15. Multimedia and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Julian

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns that various sectors involved in the multimedia industry have concerning intellectual property rights. Issues affecting copyright owners, hardware manufacturers, and producers are discussed, including user fees, licensing agreements, quality assurances, pricing, copyright ownership, and the control of distribution and marketing.…

  16. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property...

  17. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property...

  18. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  19. 32 CFR 37.1310 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intellectual property. 37.1310 Section 37.1310... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1310 Intellectual property. Inventions, data, works of authorship, and other intangible products of intellectual effort...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1310 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1310 Intellectual property. Inventions, data, works of authorship, and other intangible products of intellectual effort...

  1. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  2. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  3. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1285 Intellectual property. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts....

  4. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1285 Intellectual property. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts....

  5. [Intellectual property in natural sciences].

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The way from scientific finding through invention to production line and finally to the consument is long and expensive and patent should be taken into account. This is evident because the investment connected with the new application needs clear definition of intellectual property rights. Independently what we personally think about patenting in nature sciences--this is a common practice around the world. The positive and negative parameters of patenting are focus on biotechnology. The development of biotechnology is a cumulative effect of co-operation of several disciplines: biology, biochemistry, chemistry, engineering, genetics, medicines and pharmacy and many more. Between not cited here is law and consequently the needs of cooperation between researchers and lawyers. There are several barriers in this co-operation, for example: nomenclature as well as the way of thinking. These borders could be pass only with intercommunication and cross-understanding. The dialog and transfer of knowledge is a must for understanding the nomenclature, terminology of nature by lawyers and by researchers in case of law. Polish legislation concerning intellectually rights is regulated by the law "Prawo własności przemysłowej" (30 June, 2000; Dz. U. 2003, Nr 119, pos. 1117, with later amendments). This legislation is related to European Union directives and Munich Convention. Accordingly patenting of product and process is possible in Poland. However, the procedure is time and money consuming, particularly in the case of patent submission in several countries. Amendment of the Polish law to biotechnology made possible patenting of living organism and their parts. It is worth to stress that patented inventions can be used free of charge for research and teaching.

  6. Ethnobotany and intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Barton, J H

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary intellectual property law permits only the patenting of an identified active principle from a plant, not the plant or folk information relating to medicinal properties of a plant. The most significant rights of indigenous peoples are those deriving from physical control of the plants and the knowledge pertaining to their use. This control can provide the basis for trade secret protection. Such agreements are enforceable in developed nations and should become so in developing nations. There have been recent efforts to strengthen indigenous peoples' rights over genetic resources and relevant folk knowledge but the most far-reaching of these are not yet a part of international law. Pharmaceutical patents combined with trade secrecy can allow firms to develop and market products and ensure that the nation and/or people from which the material or information was derived are properly rewarded. This does not provide protection from competition or with respect to derived knowledge nor does it act retrospectively. At present, rights under the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity are prospective only. These rights belong to the nation and there is little legal pressure for recompense to be shared with indigenous peoples. A uniform agreement that deals in a balanced way with the relative rights of indigenous peoples and of their governments should be developed by non-governmental organizations.

  7. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, R.; Tiwari, G.; Rai, A. K.; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria. PMID:22470229

  8. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, R; Tiwari, G; Rai, A K; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria.

  9. Promoting justice in stem cell intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra J H

    2011-11-01

    According to the World Trade Organization, intellectual property rights are "rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time." The rationale behind intellectual property rights is to offer a quid pro quo, between creators and the public, intended to spur innovation. Inventors gain exclusivity (and an opportunity for profits) in exchange for publicly disclosing details about their creations. The public gains free access to information - information that can then be used to support further innovation. Innovation is seen as an inherent good in this context, as it can lead to the development of things people need (e.g., treatments for disease, green energy technologies or a better mousetrap). Exclusive rights to intellectual property are managed via patents and licenses, with patenting being primarily regulated at the national level. Intellectual property rights are the dominant mechanism used in innovation policy, particularly in science. However, myriad modifications and alternatives to intellectual property rights have been proposed and utilized, including patent pooling, intellectual property exchanges and clearing houses, innovation prizes and open-source licenses. The challenges related to competing models of innovation policy present in a fairly consistent manner across most fields of science. However, this paper will focus exclusively on intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy in the context of stem cell science. It is not that the issues themselves are unique in this context, but rather that there are a series of factors that make a discussion of intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy particularly important in the context of stem cell science.

  10. Pluralism and Context: Intellectual Property and the Social Understandings of Intellectual Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual property affects an increasingly large range of social life. Despite the breadth of goods and activities affected by intellectual property schemas, policy-makers, legislators, jurists and even many social theorists have a narrow understanding of the basis for instituting intellectual property rights and understanding their limits:…

  11. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms..., protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts....

  12. International intellectual property strategies for therapeutic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies need international patent protection as their markets expand to include industrialized and emerging countries. Because international intellectual property strategies are frequently complex and costly, applicants require sound information as a basis for decisions regarding the countries in which to pursue patents. While the most important factor is the size of a given market, other factors should also be considered. PMID:22123063

  13. 2 CFR 200.448 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Intellectual property. (a) Patent costs. (1) The following costs related to securing patents and copyrights are..., and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make such disclosures; (ii) Costs of preparing... Federal government; and (iii) General counseling services relating to patent and copyright matters,...

  14. Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

  15. Intellectual Property in the Connected Age.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J

    2015-07-01

    Concerns about intellectual property for nursing are becoming increasingly acute as information becomes highly accessible in the digital age. Nurse faculty members need to check policies of the agencies that they work for to evaluate explicit written policies for their protection and full understanding of the agency's rights.

  16. Who Owns Online Course Intellectual Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranch, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Faculty develop intellectual property needed for online courses while employed by an academic institution. That institution has a claim on the copyright because the instructional materials developed by the faculty members could be seen as "works for hire." On the other hand, both tradition and case law have seen faculty as the copyright…

  17. "Intellectual Property" and Knowledge Creation in Disorganisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere

    2006-01-01

    Given the current forms of economic production and corporate markets, the liberating and democratic potential of digital information is counteracted by the concentration of media ownership, as well as by policy, legislation, and the development of proprietary forms of technology. The notion of "intellectual property" produces artificial scarcity…

  18. Indigenous Research, Publishing, and Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author makes a case for a greater understanding of Native research and how the academy can learn from it to become more sensitive to the concerns of the research constituencies. How academics handle the intellectual property that results from their research is also critical. What they make public and what they decide is better…

  19. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  20. The Mystery of Intellectual Property Revealed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Julia

    1999-01-01

    Presents examples that librarians can use with any age group to explain the differences between patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Defines three basic types of intellectual property--patent, trademark, and copyright, followed by three sample dialogues to explain all three. Highlights further activities and practical applications. (AEF)

  1. Distance Education and Digital Intellectual Property Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRamio, David C.; Kops, Gerald C.

    2004-01-01

    While many colleges and universities enthusiastically push forward to create new online courses, important campus policies regarding copyright and academic intellectual property in the digital age lag behind. Policy questions regarding ownership and control of online courses and how the new TEACH Act affects the concept of fair use of…

  2. Managing Intellectual Property for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Managing permissions for hundreds of pieces of intellectual property (IP) can be a daunting task for any course, but it is vital in distance learning courses because of legal implications specific to the online environment. In 1998, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)severely limited the use of copyrighted materials in distance learning.…

  3. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  4. Data management in academic settings: an intellectual property perspective.

    PubMed

    Geller, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Intellectual property can be an important asset for academic institutions. Good data management practices are important for capture, development and protection of intellectual property assets. Selected issues focused on the relationship between data management and intellectual property are reviewed and a thesis that academic institutions and scientists should honor their obligations to responsibly manage data.

  5. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... costs associated with intellectual property if the costs are based on sound estimates of market value of... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property....

  6. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... costs associated with intellectual property if the costs are based on sound estimates of market value of... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property....

  7. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... costs associated with intellectual property if the costs are based on sound estimates of market value of... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property....

  8. What Every School Should Know about Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroder, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Most institutions aren't aware of their valuable intellectual property, and some believe they have intellectual property when they don't, which can lead to expensive lawsuits or licensing fees. "Intellectual property" generally consists of copyrights, trademarks, and patents. Most familiar is copyright, the statutory protection mechanism for…

  9. Introduction to intellectual property rights for investigators in health research and institutional intellectual property policy.

    PubMed

    Shemdoe, Georges S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of Intellectual Property (IP) in the domain of technology has assumed enhanced importance and the subject matter has attracted more interest with time. As the world moves towards a knowledge-based economy, where wealth creation is no longer based on the capital investment per se, but rather more and more on the brainpower and ability to create, Intellectual Property has become an integral part of world business and a major source for wealth creation and economic growth (ARIPO, 2002). In recognizing the importance of IPR, African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET) has decided to include a module of intellectual property rights in its Health Research Ethics Training Courses for Investigators. This paper is introducing the subject of IP to investigators in health research so that they are able to recognize its importance as IP creators and utilizers of the IP system.

  10. Intellectual Property Rights and The Classroom: What Teachers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual property rights restrict teachers' and students' ability to freely explore the intellectual realms of the classroom. Copyright laws protect the author and their work but disable other intellectuals from investigating probable learning environments. This paper will look at key issues where educational institutions are conflicting with…

  11. Intellectual property protection: strategies for antibody inventions.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, therapeutic antibodies have become one of the commercially most successful classes of biopharmaceutical drugs. Major drug manufacturers who have successfully managed to occupy this new market, as well as biotechnology firms, some of which have experienced a quick growth and are now on par with the former, owe part of their success to suitable intellectual property strategies. This article provides an overview of the current thinking on antibody-related patents, and discusses strategies for protecting the antibody products of the future.

  12. Is the Non-rivalrousness of Intellectual Objects a Problem for the Moral Justification of Economic Rights to Intellectual Property?

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    It is often argued that the fact that intellectual objects-objects like ideas, inventions, concepts, and melodies-can be used by several people simultaneously makes intellectual property rights impossible or particularly difficult to morally justify. In this article, I assess the line of criticism of intellectual ownership in connection with a central category of intellectual property rights, economic rights to intellectual property. I maintain that it is unconvincing.

  13. Intellectual Property: What Do Teachers and Students Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise; Corbett, Susan; Bondy, Ann; Davidson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    As society changes from an industrial to a knowledge era increasing importance and value is being placed on intellectual property rights. Technology teachers need to have pedagogical content knowledge of intellectual property if they are to incorporate it into their learning programmes to enable students to consider how to respect others'…

  14. Essjay's "Ethos": Rethinking Textual Origins and Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of intellectual property are often the focus of rhetoric and composition research, and the question of textual origins grounds these discussions. Through an examination of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia anyone can edit, this essay addresses disciplinary concerns about textual origins and intellectual property through a discussion…

  15. 'Food for Engineers': Intellectual Property Education for Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soetendorp, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Intellectual property competence can assist individuals and organizations to capitalize on opportunities presented by accelerating developments in the knowledge economy. Engineers translate ideas into concrete solutions, which are frequently useful and commercially valuable, if the intrinsic intellectual property has been identified and protected.…

  16. Introduction: Intellectual Property on Campus: Computers, Copyright, and Cyperspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    After highlighting the importance of intellectual property in higher education, provides a brief overview of the issue's articles presented as papers at a December 1999 research conference co-sponsored by the University of Houston Law Center's Institute for Higher Education Law and Governance and Institute for Intellectual Property and Information…

  17. Intellectual Property and Higher Education: Challenges and Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual property has become a highly coveted asset that can potentially reap a financial windfall for the owner who exploits its utility. Higher education has focused on the discovery of new knowledge, which can translate into intellectual property, but legislation, higher education policy, and/or contractual engagement may dictate ownership…

  18. Intellectual Property in "College English"--and English Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoss, Danielle Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I look back to the first issue of College English, and then across the years to trace the ways in which "Intellectual Property" (and this distinction from intellectual property is important) has been addressed by authors in the pages of the journal. I distinguish two periods of time marked by different approaches to IP issues, and…

  19. Intellectual Property in Higher Education: A Legal Compendium. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byman, Abigail, Ed.; Geller, Randolph, Ed.

    This compendium focuses on intellectual property law, which includes copyrights, patents, and trademarks as well as applications of intellectual property in distance learning software, the Internet, and research data. It includes formal journal articles, policies, and outlines from the National Association of College and University Attorneys. Ten…

  20. 76 FR 60114 - Section 306 Monitoring of Paraguay: Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... successfully entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights. USTR subsequently... enforcement of intellectual property rights. Dates: Submissions from the general public and foreign... ``Paraguay Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights'' in the ``Type comment'' field...

  1. Intellectual property law: a primer for scientists.

    PubMed

    Brown, William M

    2003-03-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors and creators of such ideas. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work, as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefiting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it a trade secret. IP impinges on almost everything scientists do. As scientists are paid to come up with ideas and aspire to patent and/or publish their work, the protection of ideas and of written works especially should be of interest and concern to all.

  2. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right.

  3. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in Online Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Edit

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of intellectual property and copyright issues as they relate to online learning environments. Includes a historical perspective; laws and regulations; liability; Web-related issues; higher education; distance learning; compliance strategies; and policy recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  4. Impact of Intellectual Property Laws on Part-Time Faculty. The Effective Voice for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, James R., Jr.

    This guide explains some of the intellectual property rights of part-time college faculty members and the circumstances under which faculty can defend intellectual property rights. The term "intellectual property" refers to proprietary information, materials, or products, the owner of which may possess intellectual property rights under trademark,…

  5. Intellectual property rights and technological innovation in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Horbulyk, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    This paper addresses the potential role and importance of an appropriate system of intellectual property rights in sustaining innovation and technological change in agriculture, a sector where the research and development process is typically cumulative in nature. The design and use of intellectual property rights as an economic incentive is illustrated by reference to Canada`s new system of Plant Breeder`s Rights, and by reference to recent economic research analyzing alternative designs for such a system. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Research on Intellectual Property Conflicts Identification in Knowledge Transferring among EC Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shibin

    As the lacks of existing research about intellectual property conflicts management of EC enterprise, the paper analysis the intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by intellectual property types, then, the paper makes research on intellectual property conflicts identification in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises, and gives relative assumption, meanwhile, the paper makes quantities identification of intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by evidential theory, finally, the paper gives the further research orientations.

  7. "The Fruits of Intellectual Labor": International Student Views of Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datig, Ilka; Russell, Beth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study conducted at New York University Abu Dhabi in the fall of 2013. Our goal in the study was to gain a global college student perspective on issues related to intellectual property, including copyright and plagiarism. We found that, contrary to popular opinion, most of our students have a solid…

  8. Education of Intellectual Properties for the Training of Creative Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yoshifumi; Kajiwara, Katuhiko; Oodan, Kyouji

    Kurume National College of Technology has obtained results concerning intellectual property education combined with inventive education. In the education program, students learn about industrial property and practical expertise such as searching the open patents, making up patent-maps, and making patent application papers to the Patent Office under the guidance of a teacher, a patent adviser and attorney. As a result, some of the creative students have already applied for patents. In the future, we are going to prepare a managing system for the intellectual property at our college for the intensification of cooperative application with the local company.

  9. Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The term "intellectual property" tends to warp thinking wherever it is used. It carries a bias in favor of dealing with a variety of issues as kinds of "property"; even worse, applying the term to various disparate issues focuses attention erroneously on the little that they have in common. The term should never be used, and we should not let…

  10. 75 FR 54086 - Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Property Academy Program Survey ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States... . Include ``0651- 00xx Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey comment'' in the subject line of... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION I. Abstract The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office plans to survey participants of...

  11. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-20

    Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other developed countries, with relatively strong regulatory systems...U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith in WIPO: Debates US WTO Cases Against China,” Intellectual...Factsheet, “Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement,” August 4, 2008. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another Year of Elevating IP Protection With

  12. Synthetic biology and intellectual property rights: six recommendations.

    PubMed

    Minssen, Timo; Rutz, Berthold; van Zimmeren, Esther

    2015-02-01

    On 26th November 2013, the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation organized an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" in Copenhagen sponsored by the European Research Area Network in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio). The meeting brought together ten experts from different countries with a variety of professional backgrounds to discuss emerging challenges and opportunities at the interface of synthetic biology and intellectual property rights. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of the major issues and recommendations discussed during the meeting.

  13. 76 FR 7681 - Establishment of the Intellectual Property Enforcement Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... established an interagency Senior Intellectual Property Enforcement Advisory Committee (Senior Advisory... interagency Intellectual Property Enforcement Advisory Committee (Enforcement Advisory Committee), which shall... to enhance cooperation among Federal, State, and local authorities responsible for...

  14. Copyright in Cyberspace: Intellectual Property and Electronic Media and Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, A. J.

    The increasing presence of electronic materials, databases, and networks in society's institutions raises a number of new questions related to copyrighted and intellectual property in cyberspace environments (e.g., How will the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law and practice be extended to electronic situations?). Such questions have…

  15. Managing intellectual property to develop medicines for the world's poorest.

    PubMed

    Fonteilles-Drabek, Sylvie; Reddy, David; Wells, Timothy N C

    2017-02-24

    It has been argued that patents impede the development and access of medicines for tropical diseases such as malaria. However, we believe that intellectual property can be a key tool to enable timely progression of drug development projects involving multiple partners and to ensure equitable access to successful products.

  16. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS FOR THE TRANSFER OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY § 290.9 Intellectual property rights. (a) Awards under the... for registration as a published work in the U.S. Copyright Office. For data other than...

  17. Intellectual Property and Online Courses: Policies at Major Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggie, Kathryn Ann; Barron, Ann E.; Gulitz, Elizabeth; Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the intellectual property policies of a stratified random sample of public and private Carnegie Doctoral Research-Extensive Universities. University policies were examined to determine whether or not they included provisions for distance education materials or courseware, what provisions were made for…

  18. Intellectual property issues in holography and high tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya

    2004-06-01

    The author with technical education background (Ph.D. in holography) shares her 3+ years of experience working on intellectual property (IP) issues that includes patents, trademarks, and copyrights. A special attention is paid to the patent issues: the application procedure, the patent requirements, the databases for prior art search, how to make the cost efficient filing.

  19. Tort Liability That May Attach to Intellectual Property Licensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, William R.

    1979-01-01

    Examined are elements that complicate the relationship between tort law and intellectual property licensing (patents): governmental regulation of products, legal standards, the evolution of tort doctrine, international law and practice, trademark, technology and patent licensing. Available from P.O. Box 2600, Arlington, VA 22202. (MSE)

  20. Integrating Intellectual Property Concepts into MIS Education: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykytyn, Peter P., Jr.; Mykytyn, Kathleen; Harrison, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The evolving legal environment surrounding intellectual property (IP) and its impact on information systems, especially involving electronic commerce, and the type of education and training provided by management information systems (MIS) faculty to MIS students is a relationship that has not been investigated. Although organizations are…

  1. Developments in Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect indigenous/traditional knowledge, intellectual property law must be leveraged in a way that is responsive to the dynamic inter-relationships between law, society and culture. Over the last decade, increased attention to Indigenous concerns has produced a wealth of literature and prompted recognition of the diverse needs of…

  2. Innovation and Intellectual Property: The Case of Genomic Patenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian A.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to balance static and dynamic efficiency in the production and use of knowledge, societies institute intellectual property policies. In the United States, the patent system is a well-established mechanism to provide inventors with time-limited protection of new technologies in exchange for disclosure of information about their…

  3. Intellectual Property Rights: Governing Cultural and Educational Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Nikolas Rose's theory of governmentality to examine ways in which intellectual property is imbricated in a broad spectrum of globalised and globalising discourses. Using the 2004 Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement as a case in point, it shows how discourses of culture, trade, foreign policy, and security intersect and…

  4. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in the Entrepreneurial Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah L.; Katz, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    While universities are intensely protective of revenue streams related to intellectual property interests for the institution and professors, the financial and legal interests of students in the entrepreneurial process have largely been overlooked. This lack of attention, both in universities and in the literature, is intriguing given the…

  5. An Overview of Intellectual Property and Intangible Asset Valuation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic models most commonly applied to estimate the value of intellectual property and other forms of intangible assets. It highlights the key strengths and weaknesses of these models. One of the apparent weaknesses of the most commonly used valuation models is the failure to incorporate legal rights into their…

  6. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intellectual property rights. 290.9 Section 290.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS...

  7. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intellectual property rights. 290.9 Section 290.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS...

  8. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intellectual property rights. 290.9 Section 290.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS...

  9. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intellectual property rights. 290.9 Section 290.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS...

  10. 15 CFR 296.11 - Intellectual property rights and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROGRAM General § 296.11 Intellectual property rights and procedures. (a) Rights in... commercialize the technology in a timely fashion. (c) Patent procedures. Each award by the Program will...

  11. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  12. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  13. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Tom, Ed.

    This sourcebook presents a collection of papers focusing on the intellectual property rights (IPR) of indigenous peoples--their rights to protect and control their cultural knowledge. Subsidiary IPR goals are to manage the degree and process by which cultural knowledge is shared with outsiders and, in some instances, to be justly compensated for…

  14. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost... Cost Sharing § 37.550 May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? (a) In most instances, you should not count costs of patents and other intellectual property (e.g., copyrighted material,...

  15. 75 FR 60408 - Government Programs To Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... programs for protecting the intellectual property rights of U.S. businesses, including Small- and Medium.... businesses that are: 1. Acquiring intellectual property rights in foreign markets; 2. Contemplating exporting.... businesses facing barriers related to intellectual property rights protection and enforcement in...

  16. Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chandra Nath; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. PMID:22171299

  17. Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Chandra Nath; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2011-04-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era.

  18. Intellectual Property Rights at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Vernon E.

    1994-01-01

    At a fundamental level, intellectual property is the core work product of a technical organization. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), produces a variety of intellectual property including: patents, trademarks, data rights, copyright and rights associated with National Security. For a scientific organization to properly manage its work product it has to manage its intellectual property. This paper endeavors to describe how the intellectual property rights are generated and allocated at NASA. The author then goes on to discuss how the intellectual property might be managed to meet the objectives of program implementation, technology transfer and security.

  19. Intellectual Property in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven W.; Lyman, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Nearly every academic practice is being transformed by information technology. The concept of "piracy," or "theft," presumes that ideas can still be treated as if they are property, and if so, that the rules controlling the movement of idea-properties can be enforced. (MLW)

  20. The increasing importance of Intellectual Property in Transfusion Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Ian D; Rooney, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) originated in Edinburgh in the 1920's by dentist Jack Copland. Since that time the scope of Transfusion Medicine has broadened significantly to accommodate advances in technologies such as cell isolation, culture and manipulation. Many transfusion services, including SNBTS, now provide expertise both in the traditional field of blood transfusion and the newer, wider field of human cell (including 'adult' and embryonic stem cells) and tissue procurement and culture - in all the new science of "regenerative medicine". This paper describes the importance of Intellectual Property in the provision of Transfusion Medicine today and provides guidance on the management of Intellectual Property so that advances in the field have the best chance of successful translation into clinical practice.

  1. Sharing Research Data and Intellectual Property Law: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security laws that regulate sharing certain types of data, this Perspective explains how to work through the general intellectual property and contractual issues for all research data. PMID:26313685

  2. Innovations and intellectual property: the case of genomic patenting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian A

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to balance static and dynamic efficiency in the production and use of knowledge, societies institute intellectual property policies. In the United States, the patent system is a well-established mechanism to provide inventors with time-limited protection of new technologies in exchange for disclosure of information about their inventions. Emerging biotechnology, specifically the filing of patents on gene sequences, raises serious questions about whether the patent system is appropriately weighing societal costs and benefits in its grants of intellectual property protection. Gene sequences represent a hybrid case between discrete inventions and more general pieces of information that are useful for many, potentially very different, purposes. This information content in genes makes it possible for a patent on a gene to cover a wide range of possible technological applications and, as a result, be of unknown breadth when issued. This analysis explores the potential effect of these characteristics on future innovation in biotechnology.

  3. Sharing Research Data and Intellectual Property Law: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security laws that regulate sharing certain types of data, this Perspective explains how to work through the general intellectual property and contractual issues for all research data.

  4. An overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals as intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Trask, Andrew V

    2007-01-01

    This review article focuses on the interaction among certain scientific, legal, and regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical crystal forms. The article offers an analysis of pharmaceutical cocrystals as patentable inventions by drawing upon recent scientific developments in the field. Several potential commercial advantages of pharmaceutical cocrystals are highlighted, and a number of recent court decisions involving salient issues are summarized. The article provides an outlook on how the developing field of cocrystallization may impact the pharmaceutical intellectual property landscape.

  5. Institutional Responses on Strengthened Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture and Needs' Assessment on Intellectual Property Management of Public Research Institutions in Asian Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payumo, Jane; Grimes, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are being introduced or strengthened in developing countries as a result of international agreements such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study conducted a web-based survey to gain perspective on the impact of IPRs to…

  6. Intellectual property education exemplified by the patents on the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangyu; Liao, Guojian; Xie, Jianping

    2014-12-01

    With the accelerated globalization of the world economies, the role of intellectual property in the the competition is increasingly important. The universities are important base to instill the intellectual property awareness to the young generation. However, current model of intellectual property education cannot meet the needs of undergraduates. In this paper, we take the first patent issued for CRISPR/Cas9 system as a teaching example, and together with personal teaching experience in biomedicine related intellectual property, we propose a new way for intellectual property education which consists of two stages: enlightenment stage and in-depth training stage. In the former stage, we integrate the intellectual property education with the basic major courses. In the latter stage, students are encouraged to devote into intellectual property related career. This model can somehow solve the the current shortage of qualified teachers for biotechnology related intellectual property education and will facilitate the popularization of intellectual property in college students. Since genetics plays a pivotal role in biomedicine, this effort is illustrated by the novel genome editing technology based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is one hotspot of recent studies. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas9 from basic microbial genetics discovery to major tools for genome editing exeplified the essence of biomedicine related intellectual property education.

  7. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  8. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  9. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  10. Investigations regarding the evaluation of specific intellectual property production risks within Quality Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakocs, R.; Lupulescu, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a theoretical research concerning methods for risk assessment of specific intellectual property production risks that are identified in the product achievement stage within the Quality Management System. In order to realize this, we will start by identifying the specific intellectual property production risks and by proposing some new calculating formulas for minimalizing their negative effects. The theoretical model proposed assessment of specific intellectual property production risks, will be realized based on 3 hypothetical situations. This study intends to reduce the intellectual property risks identified in the production process of commercial societies that have an industrial profile.

  11. 32 CFR 34.25 - Intellectual property developed or produced under awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intellectual property developed or produced under awards. 34.25 Section 34.25 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 34.25 Intellectual property...

  12. Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.

  13. Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine. PMID:23049179

  14. Predictive diagnostic value for the clinical features accompanying intellectual disability in children with pathogenic copy number variations: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) has become the first-tier investigation in patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). Although the costs are progressively decreasing, a-CGH is still an expensive and labour-intensive technique: for this reason a definition of the categories of patients that can benefit the most of the analysis is needed. Aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical features of children with DD/ID attending the outpatient clinic of the Mother & Child Department of the University Hospital of Modena subjected to a-CGH, to verify by uni- and multivariate analysis the independent predictors of pathogenic CNVs. Methods 116 patients were included in the study. Data relative to the CNVs and to the patients’ clinical features were analyzed for genotype/phenotype correlations. Results and conclusions 27 patients (23.3%) presented pathogenic CNVs (21 deletions, 3 duplications and 3 cases with both duplications and deletions). Univariate analysis showed a significant association of the pathogenic CNVs with the early onset of symptoms (before 1 yr of age) and the presence of malformations and dysmorphisms. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant independent predictive value for diagnosing a pathogenic CNV for malformations (P = 0.002) and dysmorphisms (P = 0.023), suggesting that those features should address a-CGH analysis as a high-priority test for diagnosis. PMID:24775911

  15. 31 CFR 515.528 - Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property. 515.528 Section 515.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property. (a) The following...

  16. 31 CFR 515.527 - Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. 515.527 Section 515.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. (a)(1) Transactions related...

  17. 31 CFR 515.528 - Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property. 515.528 Section 515.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain transactions with respect to blocked foreign intellectual property. (a) The following...

  18. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protection of Intellectual Property. (a) General. The Secretary, in consultation with the Office of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE...

  19. 31 CFR 515.527 - Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. 515.527 Section 515.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. (a)(1) Transactions related...

  20. The Public and Private Domains: Intellectual Property Rights in Traditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutfield, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Defines traditional knowledge and its uses and argues that intellectual property law contains an in-built bias that protects the intangible assets of companies while failing to recognize traditional knowledge as protectable subject matter. Discusses the globalization of intellectual property rights and the unjust situation for indigenous people.…

  1. Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Confronting Modern Norms to Promote Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbole-Chaudhuri, Pragati; Srikantaiah, Deepa; van Fleet, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The global proliferation of intellectual property rights (IPRs), most recently through the World Trade Organization's Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, poses a grave threat for Indigenous knowledge systems. There is an increasing amount of "piracy" of Indigenous knowledge, whereby corporations and scientists…

  2. Understanding Copyright and Intellectual Property in the Digital Age: Guidelines for Teacher Educators and Their Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines federal law and institutional policies relevant to copyright and intellectual property as they apply to faculty and students in teacher education programs in special education. Copyright law and intellectual property are explained, including changes associated with the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization…

  3. College Writing, Identification, and the Production of Intellectual Property: Voices from the Stanford Study of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Andrea A.; Fishman, Jenn; Liew, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    When, why, and how do college students come to value their writing as intellectual property? How do their conceptions of intellectual property reflect broader understandings and personal engagements with concepts of authorship, collaboration, identification, and capital? We address these questions based on findings from the Stanford Study of…

  4. Changing drug markets under new intellectual property regimes: the view from Central America.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass; Cerón, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    The intellectual property rules inscribed in the Central American Free Trade Agreement have generated concern about access to medicines. We examined the implementation of the new intellectual property regime by tracking the policies and practices in place across 4 Central American countries. Although all 4 were responding to the same requirements under the agreement, their implementation of intellectual property rules differed. Not only were institutional practices different, but the lists of drugs to which intellectual property protection was applied varied in both volume and content. We also found that even without the influence of intellectual property, drug pricing in the region was often unpredictable and that lower cost was not the only motivation driving governments' purchasing decisions.

  5. [On the necessity of intellectual property rights involving standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion therapies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Yan-Jing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jun-Wen

    2014-08-01

    In the process of working out and implementing standardization of acupuncture-moxibustion (acu-moxi) therapy, the issue of intellectual property rights has been frequently involved. Whether is the standardization inevitably involved in intellectual property rights? A reasonable answer to this question is definitely of important realistic guiding value and significance for acu-moxi standardization work. For this reason, authors of the present paper sum up historical development of correlation between acu-moxi standardization and intellectual property rights, and fully analyze the related causes under the conditions of knowledge economy from 1) increasing protection of acu-moxi intellectual property rights, 2) intrinsic requirements for raising the standardization level of acu-moxi, 3) profits drive of the intellectual property rights owners, and 4) increasing impetuous international economic trade competition.

  6. Changing Drug Markets Under New Intellectual Property Regimes: The View From Central America

    PubMed Central

    Cerón, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The intellectual property rules inscribed in the Central American Free Trade Agreement have generated concern about access to medicines. We examined the implementation of the new intellectual property regime by tracking the policies and practices in place across 4 Central American countries. Although all 4 were responding to the same requirements under the agreement, their implementation of intellectual property rules differed. Not only were institutional practices different, but the lists of drugs to which intellectual property protection was applied varied in both volume and content. We also found that even without the influence of intellectual property, drug pricing in the region was often unpredictable and that lower cost was not the only motivation driving governments' purchasing decisions. PMID:21566033

  7. Biotechnology-Related Intellectual Property Law of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rasekh, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to expound the Iranian law of intellectual property in relation to biotechnology. The most important themes studied are patents, industrial designs and trade marks. The latest relevant piece of legislation concerning the subject matters was passed in March 2008. However, the history of laws and regulations in this field goes back to early twentieth century (i.e. 1925). In this review, on the basis of the latest law passed in 2008, the topics explored are the responsible authority, patentable items and criteria, excluded items, registration procedure, rights conferred and sanctions. At the end, an attempt is made to put forward a few points as an analysis of the above Law from a critical point of view. PMID:23407745

  8. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms.

  9. Recalibrating intellectual property rights to enhance translational research collaborations.

    PubMed

    Bubela, Tania; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gold, E Richard

    2012-02-22

    Multisectoral collaborative models for drug and therapeutic research and development (R&D) are emerging, requiring a recalibration of how intellectual property rights (IPRs) are used. Although these models appear promising, little study has been conducted on the optimal blend of sharing and exclusion as mediated through the proactive use or nonuse of IPRs. This Commentary is a call for a combination of theoretical and empirical analyses to build a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between formal IP laws, institutions that administer and manage IPRs, and the use of IPRs in practice to better construct and manage collaborations. Such analyses require outcome metrics formulated to measure the success of therapeutic outcomes and to capture the complexity of a highly networked R&D environment.

  10. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  11. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  12. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  13. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  14. 26 CFR 1.6050L-2 - Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified intellectual property contributions. 1.6050L-2 Section 1.6050L-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.6050L-2 Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions... receives or accrues net income during a taxable year from any qualified intellectual property...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6050L-2 - Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualified intellectual property contributions. 1.6050L-2 Section 1.6050L-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...) Information Returns § 1.6050L-2 Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property...), that receives or accrues net income during a taxable year from any qualified intellectual...

  16. Transfer of Teaching Materials between Universities: Where Is the Boundary between Legitimate Transaction and Violation of Moral Intellectual Property Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiwald, Matthias; Harrington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual property rights have various facets. The best-known one is copyright, enabling the owner to legally utilise intellectual materials. However, there is a separate set of legal entitlements, termed moral intellectual property rights. The purpose of these is to prevent false attribution, damage to an author's reputation and some forms of…

  17. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact.

  18. Plants genetic manipulation: an approach from intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Anisley Negrin; Rivero, Lazaro Pino

    2013-01-01

    From the end of the 20th century the Biotechnology has experimented a vertiginous advance so far, putting on approval concepts like bio-security and bioethics; becoming this way, the work with the genome of the plants, in a matter is worthy to be reconsidered by the juridical mark that regulates it, in order to moderate the norm to the new scientific context. The Intellectual Property, when recognizing patent rights on products that have incorporate biological material, as well as to the obtainer about the new vegetable varieties obtained, could mean an obstacle that impedes or hinder the access from the society to that product or that variety. In the same way is worthy of consideration, the fact that such products or varieties can be a risk for the human health or the Environment, and a monopoly of commercial exploitation for the holder of the patent or of the obtainer certificate. This study is about this topic; and valuation about aspects of Biotechnology related with the genome of the plants and their juridical protection, in the international sand as well in Cuba.

  19. NASA Intellectual Property Negotiation Practices and their Relationship to Quantitative Measures of Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.

    1997-01-01

    In the current political climate NASA must be able to show reliable measures demonstrating successful technology transfer. The currently available quantitative data of intellectual property technology transfer efforts portray a less than successful performance. In this paper, the use of only quantitative values for measurement of technology transfer is shown to undervalue the effort. In addition, NASA's current policy in negotiating intellectual property rights results in undervalued royalty rates. NASA has maintained that it's position of providing public good precludes it from negotiating fair market value for its technology and instead has negotiated for reasonable cost in order to recover processing fees. This measurement issue is examined and recommendations made which include a new policy regarding the intellectual property rights negotiation, and two measures to supplement the intellectual property measures.

  20. 15 CFR 295.8 - Intellectual property rights; publication of research results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... derivative works, perform publicly and display publicly, and for data other than computer software to... intellectual property owned and developed by any business or joint research and development venture...

  1. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  3. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Musungu, Sisule F

    2006-05-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries.

  4. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Sisule F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

  5. Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Herman T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

  6. New Technologies and Intellectual Property: An Economic Analysis. A Rand Note N-2601-NSF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besen, Stanley M.

    This report examines how new information and communications technology may affect the economic system in which knowledge-based products and services are created, produced, packaged, distributed, delivered, and used. The following issues are considered: (1) the economic basis for the system of property rights in intellectual property, copyrights,…

  7. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights.

  8. The Management Of Intellectual Property In A Romanian State University Where Research Represents A Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tîţu, Aurel Mihail; Oprean, Constantin; Răulea, Andreea Simina

    2015-07-01

    The transition to the knowledge-based economy and society requires adaptation to constant change that implies intellectual property as a multidimensional concept that continually leaves its mark on generations contributing to their well-being in obvious and undeniable ways. The main objective of this article was to assess the present level of the management of intellectual property in a state university in Romania displaying their strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the work is to analyze the state of the art in a Romanian state university in order to find solutions to the current problems that the Romanian scientific environment is facing. The conclusions drawn in the study converge in directions and proposals for improving the way in which the intellectual property is regarded and its management in the state universities of Romania.

  9. The intellectual property management for data sharing in a German liver cancer research network.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Sharing data in biomedical research networks has great potential benefits including efficient use of resources, avoiding duplicate experiments and promoting collaboration. However, concerns from data producers about difficulties of getting proper acknowledgement for their contributions are becoming obstacles for efficient and network wide data sharing in reality. Effective and convenient ways of intellectual property management and acknowledging contributions to the data producers are required. This paper analyzed the system requirements for intellectual property management in a German liver cancer research network and proposed solutions for facilitating acknowledgement of data contributors using informatics tools instead of pure policy level strategies.

  10. [Research on basic questions of intellectual property rights of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Yan-Jing; Meng, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Along with the modernization and internationalization of acupuncture-moxibustion (acu-moxibustion), the issue of intellectual property rights has been becoming prominent and remarkable increasingly. In the present paper, the authors explain the basic issues of acu-moxibustion learning from the concept, scope, subject, object, contents and acquisition way of intellectual property rights. To make clear these questions will help us inherit and carry forward the existing civilization achievements of acu-moxibustion, and unceasingly bring forth new ideas and further improvement in clinical application, so as to serve the people's health in a better way.

  11. Library Faculty Publishing and Intellectual Property Issues: A Survey of Attitudes and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Howard; Snyder, Carolyn A.; Imre, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Researchers from Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) surveyed faculty members from 10 academic research libraries to learn about scholarly publishing activities, attitudes, and policies. Areas of special interest included the effect of publishers' intellectual property policies and institutional promotion and tenure processes on library…

  12. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  13. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  14. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British…

  15. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  16. Finding a Balance: Computer Software, Intellectual Property and the Challenge of Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report, prepared by the Office of Technological Assessment (OTA) in response to a request from the House Committee on the Judiciary, examines the rapid and complex technological changes and trends in computer software technologies and their possible effects on the nation's intellectual property system. The three policy issues identified are:…

  17. Psychometric Properties of a Sleep Questionnaire for Use in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Braam, Wiebe; Collin, Philippe; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of one part of the Sleep Questionnaire developed by Simonds and Parraga (SQ-SP; 1982), a questionnaire that is frequently used to explore sleep problems and behaviors related to sleep in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SQ-SP was completed for 345 individuals with ID (sleep clinic n = 146;…

  18. Whose Idea Is This? Teaching Artists Reflect on Intellectual Property Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jill

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with four seasoned Teaching Artists: Keith Terry, Kimberly de Caires, Ruth Bossieux, and Jeff Raz. The TAs reflect on the importance and complexity of intellectual property issues. They also shed new light on the views and experiences of TAs around this issue and encourages a broader dialog in the TA community.

  19. Intellectual Property Rights in E-Learning Programmes: Report of the Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report is a good practice guide for higher education institutions on intellectual property rights in e-learning programs. The report includes model clauses that may be included in contracts at higher education institutions and incorporates comments from a previous limited "expert" consultation. It focuses on how to manage…

  20. Intellectual Property and Copyright: Protecting Educational Interests and Managing Changing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruwelheide, Janis H.

    The electronic environment is currently forcing educators at all levels to revisit issues concerning intellectual property. Quick availability of information and data through the Internet has changed the way the general public views information since it seems to be in endless supply from any computer on any individual desktop. This paper presents…

  1. An Overview of Intellectual Property Issues Associated with Distance Learning in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee.

    This report serves as an overview of intellectual property law, policies, and practices as they relate to distance learning. It seeks to provide background information and direction for the Florida Distance Learning Network and the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission's Task Force on Telecommunications. Several of the technologies used in…

  2. 75 FR 68325 - Government Programs to Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...) concerning government programs for protecting the intellectual property rights of U.S. businesses in foreign... rights in foreign markets. The goal of the review is to improve efforts to support U.S. businesses facing... rights in foreign markets in particular. 2. Identify specific challenges businesses, including SMEs,...

  3. Can you shrinkwrap a cow? Protections available for the intellectual property of the animal breeding industry.

    PubMed

    Ogden, E R; Weigel, K

    2007-12-01

    There are currently four main intellectual property protection statutory schemes available: copyright, trade secret, trademark and patent. Each of these protects a different aspect of intellectual property, which leaves gaps of protection when an innovation does not fit squarely within the boundaries of the statutes. Contracts allow the industry to tailor the protection desired. One very common approach is to license the product via contract. Licences allow intellectual property owners to retain ownership and give permission to others to use the product. Although there are several types of licences, the most common is the field of use licence, which limits the licensee's use of the product. This often leads to price discrimination where various levels of restriction are offered at corresponding prices. The more rights retained by the owner, the more restricted the buyer is and the lower the purchase price allowing customers to choose the level of restriction they are willing to accept. Therefore, the different uses and needs of various customers can be accounted for and reflected in the price. The animal breeding industry is currently struggling to protect their innovations falling into these statutory gaps. The protection for animal breeding industry innovations is most likely through contract law rather than traditional intellectual property law. By taking advantage of the unique nature of contracts, industry will be able to tailor protection and pricing to best suit the variety of customers and uses for the products sold.

  4. Global Justice and Intellectual Property Rights: Reforming the International IPR Regime for Balanced Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salokannel, Marjut

    2006-01-01

    Today it is widely recognized that a uniform global intellectual property (IP) system requiring a high level of protection is inherently unjust and affects countries differently depending upon their level of technological and economic development. This article analyzes the functioning of the current international treaty framework having…

  5. The Implications of Incumbent Intellectual Property Strategies for Open Source Software Success and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    While open source software (OSS) emphasizes open access to the source code and avoids the use of formal appropriability mechanisms, there has been little understanding of how the existence and exercise of formal intellectual property rights (IPR) such as patents influence the direction of OSS innovation. This dissertation seeks to bridge this gap…

  6. 31 CFR 542.520 - Certain transactions related to patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other intellectual property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., trademark, copyright or other intellectual property protection in the United States or Syria are authorized, including exportation of services to Syria, payment for such services, and payment to persons in Syria... the United States Government or the Government of Syria, or of the reasonable and customary fees...

  7. The ethics of intellectual property rights in an era of globalization.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Warsh, Jonathan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support--a theory of natural rights and a utilitarian argument. We contend that these theories provide insufficient bases for an intellectual property rights regime that compromises access to essential medicines in the developing world. While the policy community has engaged in active debate around the policy effects of TRIPS, scholars have not thoroughly considered the full ethical underpinnings of those policy arguments. We believe that a more robust understanding of the ethical implications of the agreement should inform policy discussions in the future.

  8. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? 37.550 Section 37.550 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  9. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? 37.550 Section 37.550 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  10. 3 CFR 13565 - Executive Order 13565 of February 8, 2011. Establishment of the Intellectual Property Enforcement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Organization for Intellectual Property Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-403)(15 U.S.C. 8111-8116) (the... Joint Strategic Plan required every 3 years under title III of the PRO IP Act (15 U.S.C. 8113... (15 U.S.C. 8111(b)(3)). (b) Membership. The Enforcement Advisory Committee shall be composed of...

  11. [On the interrelationship between standardization and intellectual property rights of acu-moxibustion therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mai-lan; Chang, Xiao-rong; Yuan, Yi-qin

    2014-10-01

    Under the condition of knowledge economy, the acu-moxibustion standardization definitely involves intellectual property rights. Then, what is the relationship between the standardization and the intellectual property rights of acu-moxibustion? The authors of the present paper hold that it is not only exclusive, but also syncretic. If their relationship cannot be handled properly, their own respective development will be affected adversely. Therefore, a proper handling of the relationship between the two is of great practical significance. The present paper makes a comprehensive analysis about their interaction (mutual promotion and mutual inhibition), similarities (systemic composition, dynamic implementation course, standardization-rated order and ultimate targets) and differences (in properties, working components, secret requirement, effectiveness-time limitation, usage cost, etc).

  12. Intellectual Property Is No Game: An Interview with James G. Gatto, JD.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Copying within the games industry is reportedly widespread. Some people attribute this to the belief that this is just the way it is and has always been based on the notion that the "idea" for a game is not protectable. But as the game market grows, so too do the losses from copying suffered by game innovators. A contributing factor is that many game developers do not develop comprehensive strategies for protecting the valuable intellectual property that they create. In the following interview, Bill Ferguson, PhD, Editor of Games for Health Journal, discusses the hazards and ways to protect health game assets with intellectual property expert Jim Gatto, Leader of the Social Media, Entertainment & Technology Team at the respected law firm of Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP.

  13. Space Shuttle, private enterprise and intellectual properties in the context of space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.; Kempf, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    It is a national policy to make the capabilities of the Space Transportat ion System available to a wide range of potential users. This includes its availability as a space manufacturing facility for commercial activities, which may be carried out on a reimbursable basis or as a joint endeavor with NASA, but with substantial private investment. In any high risk, long lead-time research and development activity directed towards commercialization, the protection afforded the results of the research and development under the laws relating to intellectual property rights may provide an important incentive for private investment. The paper reviews NASA's policies and practices for the protection of privately-established intellectual property rights involved in STS use, with particular emphasis on reimbursable launch agreements and joint endeavor agreements.

  14. Promoting global health: utilizing WHO to integrate public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate role of innovation and intellectual property (IP) in global public health is a controversial issue. Discussion is one-sided, with potential benefits advocated by industry in stark contrast to condemnation by certain civil society players. WHO's Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Department (PHI) was established to address healthcare resource need for developing countries, assess impact of innovation and IP on access to medicines, explore innovative funding mechanisms for R&D and provide evidence-based policy-making recommendations in response to the changing global health landscape. Importantly, PHI could represent a potential forum to bridge shared, yet often diverse, interests and opportunities between various public and private stakeholders, a crucial issue for ensuring the future viability of WHO.

  15. [Essential medicines and the TRIPS Agreement: collision between the right to health and intellectual property rights].

    PubMed

    Allard Soto, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The strengthening of pharmaceutical patent protection globally puts strains on access to essential medicines. According to the present paper, this process has led to the collision of the intellectual property rights adopted in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and the right to health stated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Several controversies disputed in the WTO illustrate the confrontation between countries with a powerful pharmaceutical industry and the interests of developing countries. It is concluded that the TRIPS-plus rules subscribed to by developing countries in free trade agreements which give the pharmaceutical patent holder more rights than those stipulated in the original TRIPS Agreement are incompatible with the obligations to provide access to essential medicines under the right to health of the ICESCR.

  16. [Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways].

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  17. Improving Global Access to New Vaccines: Intellectual Property, Technology Transfer, and Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers. PMID:25211753

  18. Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  19. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-09-03

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  20. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada’s overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada’s commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada’s position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada’s involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada’s views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada’s 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries. PMID:24007595

  1. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  2. Intellectual property rights and research disclosure in the university environment: preserving the commercialization option and optimizing market interest.

    PubMed

    Patino, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Clinical and basic scientists at academic medical and biomedical research institutions often form ideas that could have both monetary and human health benefits if developed and applied to improvement of human wellbeing. However, such ideas lose much of their potential value in both regards if they are disclosed in traditional knowledge-sharing forums such as abstracts, posters, and oral presentations at research meetings. Learning the basics about intellectual property protection and obtaining professional guidance in the management of intellectual property from a knowledgeable technology management professional or intellectual property attorney can avoid such losses yet pose a minimal burden of confidentiality on the investigator. Knowing how to successfully navigate the early stages of intellectual property protection can greatly increase the likelihood that discoveries and knowledge will become available for the public good without diminishing the important mandate of disseminating knowledge through traditional knowledge-sharing forums.

  3. Intellectual Property Rights and Research Disclosure in the University Environment: Preserving the Commercialization Option and Optimizing Market Interest

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and basic scientists at academic medical and biomedical research institutions often form ideas that could have both monetary and human health benefits if developed and applied to improvement of human wellbeing. However, such ideas lose much of their potential value in both regards if they are disclosed in traditional knowledge-sharing forums such as abstracts, posters, and oral presentations at research meetings. Learning the basics about intellectual property protection and obtaining professional guidance in the management of intellectual property from a knowledgeable technology management professional or intellectual property attorney can avoid such losses yet pose a minimal burden of confidentiality on the investigator. Knowing how to successfully navigate the early stages of intellectual property protection can greatly increase the likelihood that discoveries and knowledge will become available for the public good without diminishing the important mandate of disseminating knowledge through traditional knowledge-sharing forums. PMID:19383208

  4. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  5. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... property (e.g., copyrighted material, including software) as cost sharing because: (1) It is difficult to... the contribution. For example, a for-profit firm may offer the use of commercially available software for which there is an established license fee for use of the product. The costs of the development...

  6. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property (e.g., copyrighted material, including software) as cost sharing because: (1) It is difficult to... the contribution. For example, a for-profit firm may offer the use of commercially available software... the software would not be a reasonable basis for valuing its use....

  7. Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    microprocessor IPs or cryptographic cores, and automate parts or all of the extra duties imposed by the PCHIP on hardware IP developers. PCHIP...fundamental PCHIP framework, enhance its capabilities to be usable for various hardware types with different requirements, e.g. microprocessor IPs or...of formal proofs for those security theorems. We established a set of security properties which ensure the trustworthiness of microprocessor IPs and

  8. Beyond the Ingelfinger Rule: the intellectual property ethics after the end of biomedical journals' monopoly.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E

    1999-01-01

    According to the so-called Ingelfinger Rule (IR), biomedical journals do not accept for publication papers which have already been publicized elsewhere. This rule was subjected to fierce criticism which was mainly based on the fact that authors transfer the intellectual rights of their work to the journals. With the emergence of the Internet, the scientific community has a golden opportunity to re-evaluate the IR concept. Scientists no longer have to depend on the debatable benefits (i.e. publicity and review) stemming from journal publications; rather they can be free to explore novel communication opportunities and, subsequently, to tackle the emerging intellectual property issues. This approach should take into account the tight bond between applied research and the world economy, the need for teamwork instead of individual effort for effective scientific research, and the added value of journal publications. Based on such an analysis, it would appear that the inherent characteristics of the Internet promote a re-assessment of the intellectual property theory on three levels: the cognitive (the way in which knowledge is made up from its building blocks), the morphological (the use of hypertext) and finally the sociological (the formation of virtual scientific communities). It is concluded that publishing on the Internet necessitates a different approach to the question of intellectual property based on the primal values of science. This can be achieved only if the scientific community embraces and nourishes the academic nature of the Internet as well as laying down the rules to control the dissemination of ideas without the intervention of non-scientific third parties.

  9. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-12-27

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  10. Analysis of intellectual properties on animal-derived regenerative, implantable medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongman; Li, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses and summarizes issues of intellectual property involved in animal-derived regenerative, implantable medical devices (ADRIMD) in order to better understand global trends in patent applications and disclosures, the legal status of patent families (i.e. sets of patents filed in various countries to protect a single invention), and International Patent Classification topics such as main assignee and core expertise. Analysis of research trends will enhance and inform the decision-making capacity of researchers, investors, government regulators and other stake-holders as they undertake to develop, deploy, invest in or regulate ADRIMD. PMID:26816653

  11. On the importance of intellectual property rights for e-science and the integrated health record.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Giuseppina; Hinds, Chris; Jirotka, Marina; Meyer, Charles; Piper, Tina; Rahman, Mustafizur; Vaver, David

    2008-06-01

    An integrated health record (IHR) that enables clinical data to be shared at a national level has profound implications for medical research. Data that have been useful primarily within a single clinic will instead be free to move rapidly around a national network infrastructure. This raises challenges for technologists, clinical practice, and for the governance of these data. This article considers one specific issue that is currently poorly understood: how intellectual property (IP) relates to the sharing of medical data for research on large-scale electronic networks. Based on an understanding of current practices, this article presents recommendations for the governance of IP in an integrated health record.

  12. Managing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) intellectual property rights: the possible role of patent pooling.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, James H. M.; Claassen, Eric; Correa, Carmen E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Patent applications that incorporate the genomic sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, have been filed by a number of organizations. This is likely to result in a fragmentation of intellectual property (IP) rights which in turn may adversely affect the development of products, such as vaccines, to combat SARS. Placing these patent rights into a patent pool to be licensed on a non-exclusive basis may circumvent these difficulties and set a key precedent for the use of this form of mechanism in other areas of health care, leading to benefits to public health. PMID:16211163

  13. Thought police. Healthcare executives must carefully guard intellectual property developed in their facilities.

    PubMed

    Scott, J S

    1991-03-01

    Healthcare executives should have a working knowledge of intellectual property law--the legal principle that, for a limited period, treats intangible ideas and concepts as if they were products or property. Not only should administrators be aware of how to protect their facilities' patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets, but they must also be sure that employees in their own facilities do not infringe on the intellectual property of others. A patent is granted when an inventor proposes a useful new process, machine, "article of manufacture," or composition of matter, including any new and useful improvement on existing items in these same categories. A trademark is a name, symbol, device, or combination thereof adopted and used by an institution to identify its goods or services and to distinguish them from its competitors' goods or services. Expressions of ideas and thoughts set forth in words, sentences, paragraphs, sketches, pictures, graphs, or any other means of conveying ideas or concepts commonly understood to be works of authorship--both published and unpublished--may be protected by a copyright. Trade secret law applies to those who might misappropriate information that has been given to them because of their special relationship with the holder of the trade secret (i.e., through employment, contract, or other fiduciary or trust relationship).

  14. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively.

  15. Whose body is it anyway? Human cells and the strange effects of property and intellectual property law.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Whatever else I might own in this world, it would seem intuitively obvious that I own the cells of my body. Where else could the notion of ownership begin, other than with the components of the tangible corpus that all would recognize as "me"? The law, however, does not view the issue so neatly and clearly, particularly when cells are no longer in my body. As so often happens in law, we have reached this point, not by design, but by the piecemeal development of disparate notions that, when gathered together, form a strange and disconcerting picture. This Article examines both property and intellectual property doctrines in relation to human cells that are no longer within the body. In particular, the Article discusses the Bilski decision, in the context of life science process patents, and the Molecular Pathology case, in the context of gene patents. For patent law, the Article concludes that the problem lies not with the fact that genes constitute patentable subject matter, but rather with the extent of the rights that are granted. For both property and intellectual property law, the Article concludes that a more careful application of basic legal principles would better reflect the interests of society as a whole and the interests of individual human subjects, as well as the interests of those who innovate.

  16. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, Intellectual Property Protection, and Access to Medicines.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Belinda; Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Leaked drafts of IP provisions proposed by Japan and South Korea raise similar concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. This article identifies TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement)-Plus provisions in leaked negotiating texts and examines their implications for LMICs that are not also parties to the TPP: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, China, and India. We find that higher levels of IP protection delay the market entry of generic medicines, giving rise to increased costs to governments and reduced access to essential medicines. The article concludes that the public health community should recognize risks inherent in trade agreements that promote expansions of IP rights and engage with governments to ensure that public health is adequately and explicitly protected in trade and investment negotiations.

  18. Intellectual property rights and traditional medicine: policy dilemmas at the interface.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Karin

    2003-08-01

    Traditional medicines play an important role in the provision of health care in many developing countries. Their use is also significant in developed countries, increasing their commercial value. Several 'high-profile' cases of patenting of traditional medicines, without consent from or compensation to their holders, have further focussed attention on their importance. Traditional medicine usually involves biological resources and the knowledge of local and indigenous peoples and/or healers regarding their medicinal use; thus, it is interlinked with biodiversity conservation and indigenous peoples' rights over their knowledge and resources. At this multi-faceted interface, complex ethical questions arise. This article provides an overview and discussion of key issues, dilemmas and challenges. It points to possible modifications and at ways to devise new forms of intellectual property ownership that may better suit the needs of those who seek to protect traditional medicine. Yet it also questions whether such protection, which may restrict access, is the preferred option. While intellectual property protection for traditional medicines has multiple and diverse objectives, the priorities are often not clear and the strategies which could be deployed may interfere with each other, as well as with the prioritization of objectives. This is further aggravated by differences in stakeholders' concepts on ownership of knowledge and by uncertain or paradoxical effects of some potentially useful strategies. Thus, policymakers should address the multiple, multi-layered issues and questions, and try to develop a range of solutions in order to address and balance the various objectives and interests.

  19. Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia E

    2014-08-01

    South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests?

  20. Intellectual property rights, moral imagination, and access to life-enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Werhane, Patricia H; Gorman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Although the idea of intellectual property (IP) rights--proprietary rights to what one invents, writes, paints, composes or creates--is firmly embedded in Western thinking, these rights are now being challenged across the globe in a number of areas. This paper will focus on one of those challenges: government-sanctioned copying of patented drugs without permission or license of the patent owner in the name of national security, in health emergencies, or life-threatening epidemics. After discussing standard rights-based and utilitarian arguments defending intellectual property we will present another model. IP is almost always a result of a long history of of scientific or technological development and numbers of networks of creativity, not the act of a single person or a group of people at one moment in time. Thus thinking about and evaluating IP requires a traditional model of IP. It follows that the owner of those rights has some obligations to share that information or its outcomes. If that conclusion is applied to the distribution of antiretroviral drugs, what pharmaceutical companies are ethically required to do to increase access to these medicines in the developing world will have to be reanalyzed from a more systemic perspective.

  1. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access. PMID:16710548

  2. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of ‘ontological pluralism’ and ‘epistemic subsidiarity’, which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources. PMID:27774245

  3. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of 'ontological pluralism' and 'epistemic subsidiarity', which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources.

  4. High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires: Synthesis, characterization and field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Song; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang; Li, Hejun

    2017-04-01

    As a key refractory carbide, hafnium carbide (HfC) is commonly used as structural materials while the field emission (FE) application of HfC in the field of vacuum microelectronics is almost the only one for functional material purposes. Based on its outstanding physical and chemical characteristics, HfC is identified as a potential candidate with satisfactory mechanical properties and long-term and/or high-temperature FE stability for future applications in high-performance field emitters. However, the development of HfC in various FE applications is hindered because it is not facile to fabricate large-scale low-dimensional HfC field nanoemitters. Herein, High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires were synthesized on a large scale by a traditional and simple catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Classical vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) theory was employed to explain the growth of the HfC nanowires and nanobelts along axial direction. The thin HfO2 shell and thin C layer surrounding the nanostructures might give rise to the diameter fluctuation of HfC nanowires and the width increase of HfC nanobelts in lateral direction. Field emission results show that the high-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by the nanowires are promising field nanoemitters, which exhibit excellent field emission properties with a fairly low turn-on field of ∼1.5 V μm-1 and a low current fluctuation less than ∼10%. This suggests that HfC ceramics with high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are ideal cathode material for various field emission applications.

  5. Intellectual property rights in synthetic biology: an anti-thesis to open access to research?

    PubMed

    Saukshmya, Trichi; Chugh, Archana

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Biology is a surging area of contemporary life science based research that is rapidly evolving by virtue of its multidisciplinary composition and applications. Biology never before has seen such a gold rush and demonstrated potential for knowledge based economy. The area of synthetic biology is in a nascent and tender stage, however issues pertaining to open access to research versus the monopolistic intellectual property regime (specifically patents) have already started raising concerns in the emerging bio-based economy. The present study critically analyses the comparative benefits as well as lacunas of open access to research and patenting issues. It is noteworthy that both approaches for synthetic biology development have to co-exist in order to optimally benefit the society at large.

  6. A Marxist Analysis of the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). There are many WTO Agreements, but TRIPS is likely to have significant implications for areas such as information, education and libraries. The article provides an overview of TRIPS in general. Various intellectual…

  7. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  8. Intellectual Property Rights of Faculty in the Digital Age--Evolution or Dissolution in 21st Century Academia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Lynn S.; Roche, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Unforeseen forces are at work in higher education today. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues involved in the changing landscape. Decisions are and will be made that impact the intellectual property rights of faculty. It is important to be cognizant of the factors involved and alert to possible ramifications. The basics of the…

  9. Intellectual Property Development and Use for Distance Education Courses: A Review of Law, Organizations, and Resources for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemire, Ruth E.

    2007-01-01

    Advancement of knowledge and progress in technology drives the need for protecting inventions, new ideas, writings, music, and other media. While abundant, intellectual property and copyright issues are not simple, and the United States has adopted multiple rules via treaties worldwide. Academia has been fortunate with regard to the freedom…

  10. The right to health and medicines: the case of recent multilateral negotiations on public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, German

    2014-08-01

    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the 'IGWG', undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on 'Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated by the Director General of the WHO. The result of these negotiations was the 'Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property' which was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2008. The intention of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action (GSPOA) which was produced by the IGWG was to substantially reform the pharmaceuticals' research and development system in view of the findings that this system, whose purpose is to produce medicines for diseases which affect the greater part of the world population which lives in developing countries, had failed. The intellectual property rights imposed by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the recent trade agreements could become one of the main obstacles to access to medicines. The GSPOA makes a critical analysis of this reality, and opens the door to searching for new solutions to this problem.

  11. Antiepileptic Drugs with Mood Stabilizing Properties and Their Relation with Psychotropic Drug Use in Institutionalized Epilepsy Patients with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leunissen, C. L. F.; de la Parra, N. M.; Tan, I. Y.; Rentmeester, Th. W.; Vader, C. I.; Veendrick-Meekes, M. J. B. M.; Aldenkamp, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability take medication, amongst which antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs, often simultaneously. Certain antiepileptic drugs have mood-stabilizing properties, e.g. carbamazepine, valproic acid and lamotrigine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of these…

  12. Legal Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing for E-Learning Content in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrpouyan, Azadeh; Razavi, Ghassem Khadem

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the legal rules of intellectual property rights (IPR) in networked e-learning. Its purpose is to act as an awareness-raising device about IPR, especially in the public-sector e-learning community in the UK, by describing the relevant aspects of IPR, providing legal guidance on IPR in e-learning, especially on the use of…

  13. The Psychometric Properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale Adapted for Use with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.; McDowell, K.; Masson, J.; Banks, P.; Hare, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of depression in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). There is a need to develop well-standardised self-report measures for both clinical and research purposes. This paper presents some psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) adapted for use with people with ID.…

  14. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  15. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, σ increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, σ{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  16. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jerome H.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP

  17. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  18. Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights: creating reciprocity and maintaining relationships.

    PubMed

    King, S R; Carlson, T J; Moran, K

    1996-04-01

    When new plant-derived therapeutics based on indigenous knowledge are being explored, it is important that the pharmaceutical companies return benefits to the native populations and the local governments from which the research material was obtained. When a potentially marketable plant product is being developed, it is essential that equitable agreements have already been established between the pharmaceutical companies and the people and/or countries from which this indigenous knowledge was acquired. Equally important is the commitment to provide immediate reciprocity that will enhance the welfare, the biocultural diversity and the well-being of the forest peoples. These measures should commence when a research project begins and continue during its duration. The development of these measures must be based upon the expressed needs of the indigenous communities. The relationship between the stability of the rain forest biocultural diversity, the creation and development of agro-forest resources and the long term benefits to the forest people is highlighted. Examples of initiatives taken by Shaman Pharmaceuticals Inc. and the Healing Forest Conservancy are described and discussed in the context of exploring appropriate use of intellectual property law to address the ethical issues facing all business and research groups working in the tropics.

  19. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  20. After thalidomide - do we have the right balance between public health and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Feldschreiber, Peter; Breckenridge, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The current European regulatory and consumer protection legal framework is the legacy of Thalidomide. The disaster led to the introduction of systematic biological and clinical data to endorse the safety and efficacy of new medicines. The European Medicines Directive outlined the pre-clinical, clinical data and product information to evaluate an appropriate benefit. Risk profile of new medicines and also allowed innovative companies to extend patent protection and data/marketing exclusivity periods to compensate for the cost for research and development. However in recent years it has become apparent that the costs and time for research and development are becoming increasingly burdensome, particularly for new drugs with recently discovered mechanisms of action for cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The costs of development and the commercial uncertainty of such products is reducing commercialisation of these medicines. There is now considerable debate in the regulatory community as to how this regulatory burden may be eased by making earlier review of benefit risk and hence earlier access to authorised medicines. The Courts are moving away from the wide definition of medicinal product to a more nuanced view of the biological and clinical therapeutic mechanisms to satisfy the 'functional' limb definition in the Directive. This may be a move away from the rigorous scientific methodology generated after thalidomide. We discuss the ethical and public health implications of this shift in policy and the implications for intellectual property mechanisms currently available to protect the commercial needs of companies.

  1. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing.

    PubMed

    Soejarto, D D; Fong, H H S; Tan, G T; Zhang, H J; Ma, C Y; Franzblau, S G; Gyllenhaal, C; Riley, M C; Kadushin, M R; Pezzuto, J M; Xuan, L T; Hiep, N T; Hung, N V; Vu, B M; Loc, P K; Dac, L X; Binh, L T; Chien, N Q; Hai, N V; Bich, T Q; Cuong, N M; Southavong, B; Sydara, K; Bouamanivong, S; Ly, H M; Thuy, Tran Van; Rose, W C; Dietzman, G R

    2005-08-22

    Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology has contributed to the discovery of many important plant-derived drugs. Field explorations to seek and document indigenous/traditional medical knowledge (IMK/TMK), and/or the biodiversity with which the IMK/TMK is attached, and its conversion into a commercialized product is known as bioprospecting or biodiversity prospecting. When performed in a large-scale operation, the effort is referred to as mass bioprospecting. Experiences from the mass bioprospecting efforts undertaken by the United States National Cancer Institute, the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDG) and the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) programs demonstrate that mass bioprospecting is a complex process, involving expertise from diverse areas of human endeavors, but central to it is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort. Future mass bioprospecting endeavors must take heed of the lessons learned from past and present experiences in the planning for a successful mass bioprospecting venture.

  2. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare.

  3. Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response.

  4. Human-tissue-related inventions: ownership and intellectual property rights in international collaborative research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Andanda, P A

    2008-03-01

    There are complex unresolved ethical, legal and social issues related to the use of human tissues obtained in the course of research or diagnostic procedures and retained for further use in research. The question of intellectual property rights over commercially viable products or procedures that are derived from these samples and the suitability or otherwise of participants relinquishing their rights to the samples needs urgent attention. The complexity of these matters lies in the fact that the relationship between intellectual property rights and ownership or rights pertaining to the samples on which the intellectual property right is based may either be overlooked or taken for granted. What equally makes the matter complex is that samples may be obtained from participants in developing countries and exported to developed countries for analysis and research. It is important for research ethics committees to tread carefully when reviewing research protocols that raise such issues for purposes of ensuring that appropriate benefit sharing agreements, particularly with developing countries, are in place. This paper attempts to analyse the key questions related to ownership and intellectual property rights in commercially viable products derived from human tissue samples. Patent law is used as a point of reference as opposed to other forms of intellectual property rights such as industrial designs because it is the right that most inventors apply for in respect of human tissue-related inventions. The key questions are formulated following a systematic analysis of peer reviewed journal articles that have reported original investigations into relevant issues in this field. Most of the cases and reported studies that are referred to in this paper do not directly deal with HIV/AIDS research but the underlying principles are helpful in HIV/AIDS research as well. Pertinent questions, which members of ethics review committees should focus on in this regard are discussed and

  5. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-19

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  6. 78 FR 3015 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; DHS/CBP-004-Intellectual Property Rights...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Property Rights Internal Search (IPRiS) system. IPRS provides a web-based search engine for the public to...-Intellectual Property Rights e-Recordation and Search Systems, System of Records AGENCY: Department of Homeland... Property Rights e-Recordation and Search Systems System of Records.'' This system of records allows...

  7. 75 FR 8137 - Coordination and Strategic Planning of the Federal Effort Against Intellectual Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., including the costs to the U.S. economy resulting from such violations, and the threats to public health and... future threats to the U.S. economy or to health and safety over the next five to ten years. Part II The... submissions from the public regarding the costs to the U.S. economy resulting from intellectual...

  8. The Controllability Beliefs Scale Used with Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, D.; Hull, A.; McDonnell, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Beliefs about the controllability of behaviour have been consistently shown to be important in understanding the responses of carers to the challenging behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This paper reports the reliability and validity of the Controllability Beliefs Scale (CBS), a 15-item measure of beliefs…

  9. [Exclusivity of data in drug registration files and Israel's international status with regard to intellectual property rights protection].

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Yoel; Tamir, Orly; Shemer, Joshua

    2004-12-01

    Protecting intellectual property rights encourages creativity and innovation, which are key measures for research and development of new drugs and also promotes the introduction of drugs to new markets. Over the past years, many countries have enacted laws implementing the protection of data in drug registration files. Until recently, Israel has not provided any form of data protection. Current moves focus on new legislation granting exclusivity in the marketing of innovative drugs. Although controversial, this legislation aims to secure balance in Israel between the innovative pharmaceutical companies and the public's interest in competitive generic drugs.

  10. [Evolution of the international intellectual property rights system: patent protection for the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Hasenclever, Lia; de Melo, Luiz Martins

    2007-02-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the international intellectual property rights system in three phases and the implications for public health, especially for the implementation of policies for access to medicines. During the first phase, characterized by the Paris and Berne Convention, signatory countries defined which technological fields should be protected (or not). Under the second phase, with the enforcement of the WTO TRIPS Agreement, countries are obliged to grant patent protection for all technological fields, including for the pharmaceutical industry. Within their national legislations, countries also have the opportunity to implement access to TRIPS flexibilities for medicines. With the third phase, characterized by the negotiation and signing of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, countries will have to implement TRIPS-plus provisions which may have negative implications for the TRIPS flexibilities as well as for policies for access to medicines. The authors conclude that the currently proposed international intellectual property rights system favors patent-holder rights and that a balance is needed between patent holders' and health rights.

  11. Intellectual disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure to grow intellectually or continued infant-like behavior Lack of curiosity Problems keeping up in school Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations) Difficulty understanding and following social rules Signs of intellectual disability can range from ...

  12. Statement of Roger B. Andewelt, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, concerning H.R. 557, Intellectual Property Licensing Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andewelt, Roger B.

    The recent increased awareness of the importance to our economy of innovation and the development of new technologies has been coupled with the crafting of new legislation to increase the level of intellectual property protection available to innovators. Because one of the key methods of encouraging the efficient use of intellectual property is…

  13. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as "market exclusivity" and in Europe as "data exclusivity," these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers' undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers' clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers' consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the expense of public

  14. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “market exclusivity” and in Europe as “data exclusivity,” these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers’ undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers’ clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers’ consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the

  15. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  16. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the threat to patients: a plea for doctors to respond internationally.

    PubMed

    Faunce, T A; Drahos, P

    1998-01-01

    Many recent international agreements sponsored by bodies such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO), aim to facilitate the global free flow of goods, services and capital, by opening markets under the threat of trade sanctions. Nation States signing such agreements, in particular the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), agree to suffer a sovereignty deficit in order to enhance their trading prospects. In the resulting reorganization of trade, medicine may be marginalised as merely another industry that must open its regional doors in the interests of global corporate productivity. We make a plea for medical organizations to lobby in appropriate international forums to create "hard" norms that ensure such international trade agreements that adequately respect the demands of fundamental ethical principles of the doctor patient relationship, principles such as medical loyalty and beneficence.

  17. Protecting intellectual property in space; Proceedings of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference, McLean, VA, March 20, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference was to bring together people and organizations which have a common interest in protecting intellectual property generated in space. Operational concerns are discussed, taking into account security implications of the space station information system, Space Shuttle security policies and programs, potential uses of probabilistic risk assessment techniques for space station development, key considerations in contingency planning for secure space flight ground control centers, a systematic method for evaluating security requirements compliance, and security engineering of secure ground stations. Subjects related to security technologies are also explored, giving attention to processing requirements of secure C3/I and battle management systems and the development of the Gemini trusted multiple microcomputer base, the Restricted Access Processor system as a security guard designed to protect classified information, and observations on local area network security.

  18. Protecting intellectual property in space; Proceedings of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference, McLean, VA, March 20, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-07-01

    The primary purpose of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference was to bring together people and organizations which have a common interest in protecting intellectual property generated in space. Operational concerns are discussed, taking into account security implications of the space station information system, Space Shuttle security policies and programs, potential uses of probabilistic risk assessment techniques for space station development, key considerations in contingency planning for secure space flight ground control centers, a systematic method for evaluating security requirements compliance, and security engineering of secure ground stations. Subjects related to security technologies are also explored, giving attention to processing requirements of secure C3/I and battle management systems and the development of the Gemini trusted multiple microcomputer base, the Restricted Access Processor system as a security guard designed to protect classified information, and observations on local area network security.

  19. Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property [and] The ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library [and] International Information Gateway Collaboration [and] The Standards Fora for Online Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladney, Henry M.; Andreoni, Antonella; Baldacci, Maria Bruna; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Peters, Carol; Pisani, Serena; Dempsey, Lorcan; Gardner, Tracy; Day, Michael; van der Werf, Titia; Bacsich, Paul; Heath, Andy; Lefrere, Paul; Miller, Paul; Riley, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of the emerging digital information infrastructure on intellectual property; the implementation of a digital library for a European consortium of national research institutions; an international information gateway collaboration; and developing standards for the description and sharing of educational…

  20. Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) in a Swedish Community Population of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) in a community population. The Swedish version of the BPI-01 was administered by interviewing care staff of all adults (n = 915) with administratively defined intellectual disabilities (IDs) living in Orebro…

  1. Measurement Properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): A Pain Scale for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Scored in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    The 18 items' Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC) has been developed from the 27 items Non-Communicating Children Pain Checklist to better capture pain behavior of adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). As part of the NCAPC's measurement properties, internal consistency, reliability and sensitivity to pain have…

  2. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  3. Intellectual Property Law Confers Rights in Respect of Online Distance Education, yet Most Learning Resources Are Still Free--Truth or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Educational technologists might well describe online distance education as "a series of instructional events over the Internet that find their expression as learning events in a student". As a legal construct however, "online distance education" is simply "the intellectual property of its owner". This description is…

  4. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  5. Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-02-21

    increasing knowledge about its enzymatic properties and the regulation of its expression, little is known about its function. We have generated transgenic animals that express an autoactivating mutant of rat SL1 targeted to the epithelial compartment of the mammary gland. Phenotypically, SL1 transgenic mice display increased branching morphogenesis and lactogenic differentiation at prepubertal stages and premature involution during late pregnancy. Branching morphogenesis requires the invasion of epithelial cells into the adipose tissue, a process reminiscent of invasion of stromal compartments by tumor cells. Strikingly, a large number of SL1 transgenic animals also develop mammary tumors of various histotypes, including invasive adenocarcinomas. Because tumor development is a late response of SL1 transgenic mice to overexpression of the transgene, it remains unclear whether SL1 plays a direct role in tumor growth and/or invasion or whether the observed tumors are a consequence of other molecular alterations in the microenvironment of the mammary gland before the onset of tumor growth. Studies performed with synthetic inhibitors of MMP activity and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have shown that suppression of MMP activity also suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. In many cases, the level of SL1 expression in tumors of the mammary gland and other tissues is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. However, the only direct evidence for the nature of the MMPs involved was provided by the demonstration that function-blocking antibodies against gelatinase A and antisense inhibition of matrilysin expression decreased the invasiveness of tumor cells in a reconstituted basement membrane assay. These studies encouraged us to investigate whether SL1 plays a direct role in invasion of ECM. We used two carcinoma cell lines, TCL1 and SCg6 that formed rapidly growing, invasive tumors in vivo and migrated through Matrigel and collagen gels in culture

  6. Development and Psychometric Properties of an Assessment for Persons with Intellectual Disability--The InterRAI ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Smith, Trevor F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the interRAI-Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID), a comprehensive instrument that assesses all key domains of interest to service providers relative to a person with an intellectual disability (ID). The authors report on the reliability and validity of embedded scales for cognition, self-care, aggression,…

  7. The effects of business practices, licensing, and intellectual property on development and dissemination of the polymerase chain reaction: case study

    PubMed Central

    Fore, Joe; Wiechers, Ilse R; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a seminal genomic technology discovered, developed, and patented in an industry setting. Since the first of its core patents expired in March, 2005, we are in a position to view the entire lifespan of the patent, examining how the intellectual property rights have impacted its use in the biomedical community. Given its essential role in the world of molecular biology and its commercial success, the technology can serve as a case study for evaluating the effects of patenting biological research tools on biomedical research. Case description Following its discovery, the technique was subjected to two years of in-house development, during which issues of inventorship and publishing/patenting strategies caused friction between members of the development team. Some have feared that this delay impeded subsequent research and may have been due to trade secrecy or the desire for obtaining lucrative intellectual property rights. However, our analysis of the history indicates that the main reasons for the delay were benign and were primarily due to difficulties in perfecting the PCR technique. Following this initial development period, the technology was made widely available, but was subject to strict licensing terms and patent protection, leading to an extensive litigation history. Discussion and evaluation PCR has earned approximately $2 billion in royalties for the various rights-holders while also becoming an essential research tool. However, using citation trend analysis, we are able to see that PCR's patented status did not preclude it from being adopted in a similar manner as other non-patented genomic research tools (specifically, pBR322 cloning vector and Maxam-Gilbert sequencing). Conclusion Despite the heavy patent protection and rigid licensing schemes, PCR seems to have disseminated so widely because of the practices of the corporate entities which have controlled these patents, namely through the use of business

  8. Current topics on software use in medicinal chemistry: intellectual property, taxes, and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Patlewicz, Grace; López-Díaz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In recent times, there has been an increased use of software and computational models in Medicinal Chemistry, both for the prediction of effects such as drug-target interactions, as well as for the development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SAR). Whilst the ultimate goal of Medicinal Chemistry research is for the discovery of new drug candidates, a secondary yet important outcome that results is in the creation of new computational tools. The adoption of computational tools by medicinal chemists is sadly, and all too often accompanied, by a lack of understanding of the legal aspects related to software and model use, that is, the copyright protection of new medicinal chemistry software and software-mediated discovered products. This article aims to provide a reference to the various legal avenues that are available for the protection of software, and the acceptance and legal treatment of scientific results and techniques derived from such software. An overview of relevant international tax issues is also presented. We have considered cases of patents protecting software, models, and/or new compounds discovered using methods such as molecular modeling or QSAR. This paper has been written and compiled by the authors as a review of current topics and trends on the legal issues in certain fields of Medicinal Chemistry and as such is not intended to be exhaustive.

  9. Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking, find it hard to remember things, not understand ... intellectual functioning ); and whether the person has the skills he or she needs to live independently (called ...

  10. Implementing Intellectual Property of Pharmaceuticals in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of Patent Regulation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Elize Massard; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2016-06-01

    The protection of pharmaceutical intellectual property (IP) rights is one of the most controversial debates in contemporary public health as countries have to balance incentives for drug development with the necessity of providing life-saving drugs. Compliance with IP protections is mandatory for members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, because of the costs associated with IP implementation we should expect late and/or poor implementation in middle-income countries. Surprisingly, this was not the case in Brazil. The country not only just fully implemented the WTO's requirement but declined the grace period granted for countries to adapt and included extra IP protections, going against a coalition of local industrialists and activists. Notwithstanding, as the consequences of IP regulations unfolds, Brazil also promoted new alliances that tailored and adjusted the regulations toward public health. We demonstrate that arguments of foreign pressure and lobbying are exaggerated and call attention to domestic shifts, long-term processes of regulatory decision, and political dynamics happening at the local level. By analyzing the case of Brazil, we provide a nuanced contribution to the discussion of IP implementation in middle-income countries and call attention to new models of government-society interactions in regulatory policy.

  11. 77 FR 42765 - Request of the U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator for Public Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... property rights and ensuring the safety of products entering the stream commerce, e.g., U.S. Food and Drug... utilizes Internet based e- commerce and mobile platforms for transactions, the number of shipments sent... site is a Federal E-Government Web site that allows the public to find, review and submit comments...

  12. 76 FR 64075 - Request for Comments on Intellectual Property Enforcement in China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... (IP) in that country. China's patent and trademark offices are now among the largest in the world in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As the second largest economy in the world, China continues to attract U.S... Property Office (SIPO) of the People's Republic of China is now one of the largest patent office in...

  13. Faster and Cheaper: Creating a Culture of Innovation for AFRL Intellectual Property

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    graphs showing how technology growth is moving at an exponential rate, see Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near (New York, NY: Viking Books, 2005...of the Federal Management Regulation regarding restrictions on animals in federal buildings.79 Also, options to include interns and volunteers in...Corporation,” Harvard Business Review 80, no. 8, May 2009, 105. 79 “What is the policy concerning dogs and other animals on Federal property? No person

  14. Skill Acquisition of the Prior Art Search for Intellectual Property Special Talented People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    The comparative analysis of the prior art search was made using the training program which National Center for Industrial Property Information and Training performs. The correct answer rate was high when longer years of experience, experiences such as search/retrieval in charge or database. Depending on a technical field, there was the feature according to consideration of search/retrieval or timing of doing prior art search. The improvement in skill of the prior art search according to a technical field and the personnel training for it are important as a premise for protecting valuable invention and performing the practical use. The comparative analysis beyond technical fields is needed.

  15. Sodium channel SCN8A (Nav1.6): properties and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Janelle E.; Meisler, Miriam H.

    2013-01-01

    The sodium channel Nav1.6, encoded by the gene SCN8A, is one of the major voltage-gated channels in human brain. The sequences of sodium channels have been highly conserved during evolution, and minor changes in biophysical properties can have a major impact in vivo. Insight into the role of Nav1.6 has come from analysis of spontaneous and induced mutations of mouse Scn8a during the past 18 years. Only within the past year has the role of SCN8A in human disease become apparent from whole exome and genome sequences of patients with sporadic disease. Unique features of Nav1.6 include its contribution to persistent current, resurgent current, repetitive neuronal firing, and subcellular localization at the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Loss of Nav1.6 activity results in reduced neuronal excitability, while gain-of-function mutations can increase neuronal excitability. Mouse Scn8a (med) mutants exhibit movement disorders including ataxia, tremor and dystonia. Thus far, more than ten human de novo mutations have been identified in patients with two types of disorders, epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability. We review these human mutations as well as the unique features of Nav1.6 that contribute to its role in determining neuronal excitability in vivo. A supplemental figure illustrating the positions of amino acid residues within the four domains and 24 transmembrane segments of Nav1.6 is provided to facilitate the location of novel mutations within the channel protein. PMID:24194747

  16. A Typology of Intellectual Property Management for Public Health Innovation and Access: Design Considerations for Policymakers§

    PubMed Central

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation – though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of ‘exclusive rights’, as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to

  17. Intellectual Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, J.P.

    In investigations of decline of intellectual status with age, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies give divergent results--the former show almost universal declines in test performances among older groups while the latter often show gains. Although few structure-of-intellect (SI) factors have been explored in relation to adult ages, two kinds…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Two Measures of Crisis and Distress in Parents of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger, Tara L.; Witwer, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Parents and their children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) are under significant amounts of stress (Lecavalier, Leone & Wiltz, 2006). When stress escalates to crisis, some children with IDD are admitted to the emergency department or an inpatient unit. While existing measures evaluate stress over time, we…

  19. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  20. The dilemma of intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals: the tension between ensuring access of the poor to medicines and committing to international agreements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jillian Clare; Illingworth, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of how the outcomes of the Uruguay Round affected the application of pharmaceutical intellectual property rights globally. Second, we explain how specific pharmaceutical policy tools can help developing states mitigate the worst effects of the TRIPS Agreement. Third, we put forward solutions that could be implemented by the World Bank to help overcome the divide between creating private incentives for research and development of innovative medicines and ensuring access of the poor to medicine. Fourth, we evaluate these solutions on the basis of utilitarian considerations and urge that equitable pricing is morally preferable to the other solutions.

  1. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  2. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  3. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

  4. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual…

  5. Intellectual Property Rights in an Electronic Age. Proceedings of the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee Meeting (Washington, D.C., April 22-24, 1987). Network Planning Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Sigrid G., Ed.

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference on the issues of intellectual property rights in a technology-driven environment. Following an introduction which summarizes the conference presentations and discussions, copies of the five presentations are provided: (1) "The OTA (Office of Technology Assessment) Report on Intellectual…

  6. Consumer Benefits of Today's Digital Rights Management (DRM) Solutions. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (June 5, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    The Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property, Committee on the Judiciary met, pursuant to call, at 2:15 p.m., in Room 2141, Rayburn House Office Building, to review the consumer benefits of today's digital rights management (DRM) solutions. The Honorable Howard Coble, a Representative in Congress from North Carolina and…

  7. The psychometric properties of the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form and the Moral Theme Inventory for men with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Clare, Isabel C H; Palmer, Emma J

    2010-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the literature regarding the moral development of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is difficult because of the use of unstandardised and idiosyncratic measures. In order to address this short-coming, a moral reasoning production measure (the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form; SRM-SF) and a recognition measure (the Moral Theme Inventory; MTI) were presented to men with and without IDs who had no known history of engaging in illegal behaviour. The instruments were completed on two occasions, separated by a two-week interval, in order to investigate their basic psychometric properties. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between the MTI and the SRM-SF, suggesting that the MTI has convergent validity. The internal consistency of the MTI and the SRM-SF ranged from moderate to substantial for both men with and without IDs. However, the test-retest reliability of the MTI was poor for men with IDs, while it was good for men without IDs. The test-retest reliability of the SRM-SF was good for both men with and without IDs. Comparison of the moral reasoning abilities of men with and without IDs suggested that many of the differences between the two groups could be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. The exception was overall score on the SRM-SF and moral reasoning in relation to the law, where men with IDs scored at stage 2(1), when intelligence was controlled. The results were interpreted by suggesting that the relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour may take an inverted U curve shape, moderated by intelligence.

  8. An initial assessment of the psychometric properties of the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities (CGQ-ID).

    PubMed

    Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; Tyrell, Janette; McEvoy, John; Buckley, Sarah; Hillery, John

    2009-01-01

    Given the research evidence that people with intellectual disability (ID) do grieve following bereavement, the present study aimed to describe and gather preliminary psychometric data for a version of the Inventory of Complicated Grief [Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., Reynolds, C. F., Bierhals, A. J., Newsom, J. T., Fasiczka, A., et al. (1995). Inventory of Complicated Grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry Research, 59, 65-79] adapted for use with this population. Carers completed the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with ID (CGQ-ID) for 76 individuals with ID, half of whom had experienced a parental bereavement within the last 2 years. The final scale and subscales (Separation Distress and Traumatic Grief) showed very good internal and inter-rater reliability and distinguished between the two groups. While the findings suggest that the CGQ-ID is suitable for identifying complicated grief-type symptoms among adults with ID, further research must be conducted to ascertain whether the findings can be replicated.

  9. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  10. 76 FR 55744 - Currently Approved Information Collection: Comment Request for Application for Intellectual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Intellectual Property Use Forms AGENCY: United States Mint. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... for Intellectual Property Use forms. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November... INFORMATION: Title: Applications for Intellectual Property Use. OMB Number: 1525-0013. Abstract:...

  11. To be or not IP? Exploring limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of intellectual property rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The article explores limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of Intellectual Property Rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health. To this end, it starts by explaining the inherent rationales of two fundamental limits within European patent law, namely (1) the boundary between discovery and invention (Art. 52 EPC); (2) the ordre public and public policy clause (Art. 53 (a) EPC). Both these exclusions from patent eligibility bear a normative function but rely on opposing inherent logics, functions, and regulatory aims. While in the first type of logics, "enabling access for all" is the guiding principle, in the second, converse logics, no one should have access to the technological knowledge in question. The second part contends that decisions on whether and how to grant patents in synthetic biology are not independent from institutional frameworks: The arena in which synthetic biology patenting will be dealt with will be decisive for whether and how boundaries will be deployed. From a political science perspective, the administrative, legislative and judicial arena can be distinguished. If synthetic biology will be negotiated in the legislative arena, in particular in the European Parliament, the probabilities will be higher that either the discovery clause or the ordre public clause will be applied. In contrast, patent offices and courts have, at least in the past decades, employed a narrow interpretation of these absolute exemptions from patentability and hardly ever used them. The third part asserts that metaphoric framing of synthetic biology is another crucial factor for patentability questions. Semantic framing may relate to the articulation and mobilization of consent or dissent, and thus public acceptance of synthetic biology. Whether applications of synthetic biology are conceived as "natural" or "synthetic" DNA may have an influence on whether patenting might become contested as "patenting life" or accepted as novel, and

  12. [Conceptual foundations of creation of branch database of technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical educational institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie

    2013-09-01

    The question of implementation of the state policy in the field of technology transfer in the medical branch to implement the law of Ukraine of 02.10.2012 No 5407-VI "On Amendments to the law of Ukraine" "On state regulation of activity in the field of technology transfers", namely to ensure the formation of branch database on technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical education institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine and established by budget are considered. Analysis of international and domestic experience in the processing of information about intellectual property rights and systems implementation support transfer of new technologies are made. The main conceptual principles of creation of this branch database of technology transfer and branch technology transfer network are defined.

  13. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices.

  14. Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, J. P.; Farina, P.; Pearson, A.; Mezes, P. S.; Sabatelli, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Isotopic Engineering (MIE) is the directed stable-isotopic synthesis of chemical products for reasons of product identification and of product security, and also for intellectual property considerations. We report here a generally excellent correspondence between the observed and predicted stable carbon-isotopic (δ13C) results for a successful directed synthesis of racemic mixture from its immediate precursors. The observed results are readily explained by the laws of mass balance and isotope mass balance. Oxygen- and hydrogen isotopic results which require an additional assessment of the effects of O and H exchange, presumably due to interaction with water in the reaction solution, are addressed elsewhere. A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.

  15. Bio-prospecting or bio-piracy: intellectual property rights and biodiversity in a colonial and postcolonial context.

    PubMed

    Merson, J

    2000-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of decolonization following World War II, developing countries are, if anything, more dependent now on the science and technology of the developed world than they were in colonial times. This has led some critics to describe their situation as "neo-colonial." This paper will explore the issue in relation to the biotechnology industry, and to the 1993 United Nations Convention on Biodiversity. This convention challenged the assumption that the earth's biological and genetic resources are part of the "global commons" by giving property rights over these resources to the nation-states. While the objective of encouraging states to conserve biodiversity is universally endorsed, the strategy of using property law to do so is not. The search for new genetic and biological resources has become a major priority for the agrichemical and pharmaceutical industries, and despite continuation of the colonial tradition of appropriating indigenous knowledge and resources, new and more equitable models are being explored and developed within the convention's framework. These strategies, while controversial, offer the hope of a new and more just "International Genetic Order."

  16. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  17. Industry-University Collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA – With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  18. Scholars, Intellectuals, and Bricoleurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the AIR Self-Determination Scale: The Chinese Version (AIR SDS-C) for Chinese People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, P. K. S.; Wong, D. F. K.; Zhuang, X. Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The construct of self-determination has received considerable attention in the international field of intellectual disabilities (ID). Recently, there has been a rapid development of this construct in Chinese societies including Hong Kong. However, there is no locally validated instrument to measure self-determination in people with ID.…

  20. Intellectual Property Protection for Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    taken from Coca - Cola Co. v. Snow Crest Beverages, Inc., 64 the employer’s program. F. Supp. 980 (D. Mass. 1946). Roth Trademark case discussing...that is, suggestive of person or firm that does not make the goods some quality or ingredient of the product) or services being certified. Use of the

  1. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  2. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  3. [Wernicke encephalopathy accompanying linitis plastica].

    PubMed

    Soós, Zsuzsanna; Salamon, Mónika; Oláh, Roland; Czégeni, Anna; Salamon, Ferenc; Folyovich, András; Winkler, Gábor

    2014-01-05

    Wernicke encephalopathy (or Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy) is a rarely diagnosed neurological disorder, which is caused by vitamin B1 deficiency. In the classical form it is characterized by a typical triad (confusion, oculomotor disturbance and ataxia), however, in the majority of the cases only confusion is present. It can be frequently observed in subjects with chronic alcohol consumption, but it may accompany different pathological states of which end stage malignant diseases are the most importants, where confusion may have different backgrounds. The authors present the case of an old male patient with advanced gastric cancer recognised and treated vitamin B1 deficiency, and they draw attention to difficulties of the diagnosis of Wernicke's disease.

  4. Mediating Community Participation: Practice of Support Workers in Initiating, Facilitating or Disrupting Encounters between People with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Wiesel, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Promoting community participation for people with intellectual disability through encounter with strangers is an integral part of the mission of disability support workers. This paper offers detailed micro-level analysis of the practices of support workers when they accompany a person with intellectual disability outside their home and explores…

  5. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  6. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  7. Photolysis Accompanying Peptide Absorption in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. David; Foster, Joseph F.

    1972-01-01

    Exposure of proteins and polypeptides to ultraviolet radiation below 240 nm produces peptide cleavage which may or may not be accompanied by observable changes in conformation and optical rotary dispersion (ORD) properties, depending on the stability of the secondary and tertiary structure of the macromolecule under the experimental conditions. Helical and coiled forms of poly-L-glutamic acid undergo degradation at similar rates but only the helical form shows a significant change in rotatory properties. The helical form of poly-L-lysine, but neither the coiled nor β forms, shows a change in [α]233 on irradiation at 233 nm. β-Lactoglobulin shows essentially no change in [α]233 on irradiation in either dilute salt solution or 4 M urea at room temperature; however, in 4 M urea at 56°C a large change occurs. A model is developed which shows that studies of the effect of radiation on ORD properties may be useful in providing information on possible intermediate steps in protein denaturation. The method is illustrated with results on bovine plasma albumin. A quantum yield, 4.3 × 10-3 moles/einstein, was obtained for peptide cleavage in this protein at 225 nm. These studies, based on gel electrophoresis, also showed that the fragments produced are essentially random, suggesting that transfer of energy from aromatic residues is not an important contributor to the peptide photolysis. Possible errors which could arise in ORD and other studies involving intense ultraviolet radiation are considered. PMID:5063838

  8. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  9. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  10. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  11. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  12. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  13. Carpentry Is Intellectual Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that carpentry is as much an intellectual as a physical activity. Terms are defined, the problem is outlined, examples are given, and some general conclusions are drawn for education. Some sketches are provided for graphic illustration of the examples. The interpretation in effect is pragmatic and cites Dewey on occasion to…

  14. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  15. Perfecting Intellectual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Liberal arts faculty are ill equipped to teach their disciplines; they are equipped to transmit the latest research results as they define the discipline. Students are not well prepared to respond; they have not been encouraged to enter into others' thinking. Under these conditions, the prospects for intellectual community are not good. (MSE)

  16. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  17. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  18. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  19. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  20. Intellectual Work and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The university as a site of public intellectuals and intellectual work is facing challenge. Historically this has happened and continues apace through the inter-relationship of a number of trends: first, the entry of disciplines into bureaucratic specialisation, where status is through a named school, disciplinary paradigms and networks, journals…

  1. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  2. Global Academe: Engaging Intellectual Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy-Zekmi, Silvia, Ed.; Hollis, Karyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of the economic, political, cultural and, more importantly, global interrelations between agents involved in the process of intellectual activity is at the core of the inquiry in this volume that scrutinizes a distinct transformation occurring in the modalities of intellectual production also detectable in the changing role of…

  3. Anthony Crosland: Intellectual and Politician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Anthony Crosland was the most formative of education ministers in the 1960s whose contribution promoted intellectual activity within the policy discourse. He retains an iconic status for that reason. He provided the intellectual foundations of "revisionism" which emancipated the Labour Party from belief in nationalisation as the way to…

  4. The Awakening of Intellectual Virtue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutz, Cathleen K.; Tauer, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Responds to the assumption that it is too late to teach virtue in college, noting that Aristotle considered intellectual virtue essential to the cultivation of excellence. Asserts that university education ought to embrace the cultivation of intellectual virtue in students, proposing that by helping students see the pursuit of knowledge as a…

  5. Ten Year Plan for the Redevelopment of Intellectual Disability Services: Consumers' Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson Associates Pty. Ltd., Melbourne (Australia).

    This consumers' guide provides an easily understandable, large print summary of the recommendations in a 10-year plan for changes in services to people with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia. Twenty of the 250 recommendations of the plan are given in simplified language accompanied by illustrations, including recommendations for:…

  6. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Assertive Community Treatment in Intellectual Disability: The TACTILD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, P. C.; Piachaud, J.; Tyrer, P.; Regan, A.; Dack, M.; Alexander, R.; Bakala, A.; Cooray, S.; Done, D. J.; Rao, B.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a policy shift away from hospital to community in the services of all those with psychiatric disorders, including those with intellectual disability (ID), in the last 50 years. This has been accompanied recently by the growth of assertive outreach services, but these have not been evaluated in ID services. In a randomized controlled…

  8. Facilitating Intellectual Liberation, Engaging the Null Curriculum, and WebCT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcik, Teresa G.; Titone, Connie

    2015-01-01

    College professors seek to create intellectual experiences that free students from false perceptions and incomplete truths. This article explores one curricular decision and an accompanying pedagogical approach which, the authors argue, facilitates such a liberating experience. In the online environment of WebCT, students post their reactions to…

  9. Children with an Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... only on the basis of below-normal intelligence (IQ), and that persons with intellectual disabilities are unable ... the person has to have both significantly low IQ and considerable problems in everyday functioning. Most children ...

  10. Patterns in American Intellectual Frontiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    in some new framework.’ The ascendant phase or leading edge of each intellectual frontier is populated by enthusiastic visionaries who eagerly...1823-1893) who expressed the intellectual idea of the land frontier in their writings for those who stayed home, while the art of Frederick Remington...34Daddy Warbucks" of the comic strip, "Little Orphan Annie," was initially introduced derisively as a symbol of the role of the industrial barons in

  11. Intellectual property rights, standards and data exchange in systems biology: Reflections from the IP Expert Meeting at the University of Luxembourg, 8-9 October 2015, ERASysAPP - ERA-Net for Systems Biology Applications.

    PubMed

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become a key concern for researchers and industry in basically all high-tech sectors. IPRs regularly figure prominently in scientific journals and at scientific conferences and lead to dedicated workshops to increase the awareness and "IPR savviness" of scientists. In 2015, Biotechnology Journal published a report from an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" organized by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation sponsored by the European Research Area Network (ERA-Net) in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio), in which we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders [1]. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in systems biology (SysBio) resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought together experts and stakeholders (e.g. scientists, company representatives, officials from public funding organizations) in SysBio from different European countries. Despite the different profiles of the stakeholders at the meeting and the variety of interests, many concerns and opinions were shared. In case particular views were expressed by a specific type of stakeholder, this will be explicitly mentioned in the text. In this article, we explore a number of particularly relevant issues that were discussed at the meeting and offer some recommendations. SysBio involves the study of biological systems at a so-called systems level. This is not a new concept in the life sciences - many former approaches in physiology, enzymology and other scientific disciplines have already taken a systemic view of selected biological subjects. Yet, SysBio has gained strong interest within the past 10 to 15 years. One predominant reason and a critical prerequisite for this success story being that the relevant scientific methodologies and research tools have become far more powerful and

  12. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  13. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  14. Intellectuals and the Persisting Significance of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, William M.; Jewell, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes of 173 black thinkers about racial and ethnic identity and membership in the intellectual subsociety, and establishes an empirical basis for thinking about African American intellectuals. Survey responses and follow-up interviews with 20 subjects indicate the existence of marked differences between black and white intellectuals.…

  15. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right…

  16. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NASA's General Counsel. When a waiver is granted, any inventions made in the performance of work under... organization for experimental, developmental, research, design or engineering work in support of the agreement... performance of work under the agreement are subject to certain reporting, election and filing requirements,...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... performance of work under the agreement are subject to certain reporting, election and filing requirements, a... business organization for experimental, developmental, research, design or engineering work in support of... the performance of work under the agreement are subject to certain reporting, election and...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... performance of work under the agreement are subject to certain reporting, election and filing requirements, a... business organization for experimental, developmental, research, design or engineering work in support of... the performance of work under the agreement are subject to certain reporting, election and...

  19. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rights data and/or restricted computer software, may be included. Inclusion of a background patent and/or... availability of the technology would also benefit the government, e.g., clean-up of DOE facilities. The scope..., an award will not require the delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer...

  20. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rights data and/or restricted computer software, may be included. Inclusion of a background patent and/or... availability of the technology would also benefit the government, e.g., clean-up of DOE facilities. The scope..., an award will not require the delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer...

  1. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rights data and/or restricted computer software, may be included. Inclusion of a background patent and/or... availability of the technology would also benefit the government, e.g., clean-up of DOE facilities. The scope..., an award will not require the delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer...

  2. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs.

  3. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  4. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  5. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... royalty-free license to the Government, march-in rights, and certain other reservations. (2) A recipient... Code. The Government obtains an irrevocable, nonexclusive, royalty-free license. (e) Subcontractor... requirements, a royalty-free license to the Government, march-in rights, and certain other reservations....

  6. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  7. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    year. Korea and China, along with India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Mexico, and Malaysia , represented the majority of all patent filings from...on counterfeit goods seized by category . Counterfeit footwear ranked as the top commodity seized, representing $102.3 million in domestic value. Other...retaliation. For countries outside the WTO, the possibility of trade sanctions remain. The USTR also has created several administrative categories for

  8. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    PhRMA, “Special 301 Submission for 2007,” Appendix: Damage Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other...2007, [http://www.ustr.gov]. See also CRS Report RL33536, China-U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith...2007. 88 “Peru IPR Text Reflects FTA Template, Shows Reduced PhRMA Sway,” Inside US Trade, July 6, 2007. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another

  9. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOE, or if other special circumstances exist, e.g., DOE specifying “open-source” treatment of software... statute, other than those providing for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small...

  10. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rights data and/or restricted computer software, may be included. Inclusion of a background patent and/or..., an award will not require the delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer software..., determines that delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer software is necessary, the...

  11. The Relationship of Self-Injurious Behavior and Other Maladaptive Behaviors among Individuals with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cooper, Christopher; Malone, Carrie J.; Moskow, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    Participants were 101 individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe or profound intellectual disability who were matched by gender, age, and level of intellectual disability to controls. Persons with SIB were more likely to exhibit the challenging behaviors of physical aggression, property destruction, sexually inappropriate behaviors…

  12. Estimating the severity of intellectual disability in adults: a Mokken scaling analysis of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen

    2013-09-01

    A Mokken scaling analysis of the learning disability screening questionnaire (LDSQ) suggested that, with the exception of 1 item, the scale conforms to the properties of a Mokken scale. This has advantages for estimating the severity of intellectual disability and inferring the difficulties likely to be experienced by an individual for whom there is incomplete information on intellectual and adaptive functioning.

  13. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  14. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    MedlinePlus

    ... play, and feel support from loving families and good friends. What can you do? If you know someone who has an intellectual disability, be a friend. How? Sometimes, it might mean telling a teacher if you see this person being teased or ...

  15. Gramsci, Freire, and Intellectual Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article reflects on Peter Mayo's synthesis of ideas from two key figures in critical educational studies: Gramsci and Freire. The author identifies a number of distinguishing features of Mayo's work and considers some of the implications of his analysis for our understanding of transformative intellectual activity.

  16. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  17. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  18. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  19. Remembering PESA: An Intellectual Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    This author's interest in philosophy derived from a passion for mathematics that developed in middle high school, which he attended in Sydney. In this article, he provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life and his involvement with the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). He states that despite the research demands of his…

  20. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    MedlinePlus

    ... helmet and always wear a seatbelt in the car!) Doctors figure out that someone has an intellectual disability by testing how well the person thinks and solves problems. If a problem is spotted, doctors and other professionals can work with the family to decide what type of ...

  1. The ACOSTA accompanying measure A2106.

    PubMed

    Thayer, C; De Moor, G; Van Goor, J

    1994-10-01

    At a time when the informatics and telecommunications industries are looking for new markets to exploit in relation, for example, to the emerging ISDN and broadband communications networks, there is a need to create a broad consensus in Europe by bringing together systematically the relevant industries including telecom service providers, health care providers, insurance organisations, standardisation experts and policy makers. The aim of the ACOSTA (Consensus Formation and Standardisation Promotion) Accompanying Measure is the creation of more general awareness of the relevant environment among all the parties, better specification of common requirements and options taking better account of the real needs of the users, and enlargement of the common market in health care telematics.

  2. The Mechanism of Atomization Accompanying Solid Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, R A , Jr

    1933-01-01

    A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.

  3. Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-01-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  4. Immunomodulatory activity accompanying chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Polanowski, A; Zabłocka, A; Sosnowska, A; Janusz, M; Trziszka, T

    2012-12-01

    Immunity transfer from a mother to the newborn does not depend exclusively on immunoglobulins. Peptides, which are characterized by immunoregulatory properties that accompany IgG(2), known as proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP), have been discovered for the first time in ovine colostrum. In this report we present new data showing that some immunoregulatory peptides associated with the main immunoglobulin class, IgY, are also present in the avian immune system. Cytokine-inducing activity of particular fractions obtained from ovine colostrum, IgG+ (IgG(2) containing PRP), IgG- (IgG(2) free of PRP), and purified PRP, was compared with that of crude egg yolk IgY (IgY+), additionally purified egg yolk IgY (IgY-), and polypeptides accompanying IgY named Yolkin (Y), using an ex vivo model of whole human blood cells. It was shown that both IgG+ fraction and PRP, but not IgG-, stimulated the whole blood cells to release tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β cytokines. Similar experiments performed with hen's egg IgY preparations showed that IgY+ and Y samples showed higher cytokine-inducing activity than samples additionally purified with the use of size exclusion chromatography (IgY-). The IgY+ at a dose of 100 μg was even more active than the positive lipopolysaccharide control. It was also found that Y is able to stimulate macrophage cell line J774.2 to release nitric oxide. The results obtained suggest that IgY, the main chicken immunoglobulin fraction, is accompanied by additional polypeptides and plays a role of a transporter of biologically active substances, which was observed in the case of colostral IgG.

  5. Developmental Defects of Enamel in Children with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Vesna; Modrić; Karlović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. Subjects and methods Children aged 5–18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. Results Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27.78%) presented dental defects of enamel, compared with 8 (11.11%) of those in the control group, which was considered statistically significant (p = 0.021). The majority of children in both groups had white demarcated opacities. Children in both groups were more likely to have maxillary teeth affected than the mandibular teeth and the asymmetrical demarcated enamel defects were more common than the symmetric ones. Majority of opacities in children in both groups were on the maxillary incisors. Conclusions Children with intellectual disabilities have more developmental defects of enamel than children in the control group. Enamel defects increase caries risk and cause reduction in enamel mechanical properties leading to restoration failures. PMID:27688428

  6. Control by technological mode parameters with an intellectual automated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupina, A. A.; Shigina, A. A.; Shigin, A. O.; Karaseva, M. V.; Korpacheva, L. N.

    2016-11-01

    The scheme of functional correlation of input and output parameters of the "drilling rig - rolling cutter bit - rock" system is proposed. The necessity to apply drilling rigs of the automated intellectual system with the adaptive element for a quick time response of the investigated system on the change of physical and mechanical rock properties and the maintenance of the adjusted operating parameters of the technical system in an optimal ratio.

  7. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  8. Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Benjamin; El Hady, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The action potential (AP) is the basic mechanism by which information is transmitted along neuronal axons. Although the excitable nature of axons is understood to be primarily electrical, many experimental studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane co-propagates with the electrical signal. While the experimental evidence for co-propagating mechanical waves is diverse and compelling, there is no consensus for their physical underpinnings. We present a model in which these mechanical displacements arise from the driving of mechanical surface waves, in which potential energy is stored in elastic deformations of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is stored in the movement of the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. Our model allows us to predict the shape of the displacement that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the well-characterized AP. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology. See Arxiv/1407.7600

  9. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory. PMID:19182539

  10. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying...

  11. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  12. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  13. Compressibility changes accompanying conformational transitions of apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Taulier, Nicolas; Beletskaya, Irina V; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2005-11-01

    We used high-precision density and ultrasonic velocity measurements to characterize the native (N), molten globule (MG), and unfolded (U) conformations of apomyoglobin. The molten globule states that were studied in this work include the MG(pH4)(NaCl) state observed at pH 4 and 20 mM NaCl, the MG(pH4)(NaTCA) state observed at pH 4 and 20 mM sodium trichloracetate (NaTCA), the MG(pH2)(NaCl) state observed at pH 2 and 200 mM NaCl, and the MG(pH2)(NaTCA) state observed at pH 2 and 20 mM NaTCA. We used our densimetric and acoustic data to evaluate changes in adiabatic compressibility associated with the acid- or salt-induced N-to-MG, MG-to-U, MG-to-MG, and U-to-MG transitions of the protein. The N-to-MG(pH4)(NaCl) and N-to-MG(pH4)(NaTCA) transitions are accompanied by decreases in compressibility of -(3.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(-6) and -(2.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(-6) cm3 g(-1)bar(-1), respectively. The N-to-MG(pH2)(NaCl) and N-to-MG(pH2)(NaTCA) transitions are associated with compressibility changes of -(4.9 +/- 1.1) x 10(-6) and (0.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-6) cm3 g(-1) bar(-1), respectively. We interpret these data in terms of the degree of unfolding of the various molten globule forms of apomyoglobin. In general, our compressibility data reveal significant disparities between the various equilibrium molten globule states of apomyoglobin while also quantitatively characterizing each of these states. Volumetric insights provided by our data facilitate gaining a better understanding of the folding pathways, intermediates, and kinetics of apomyoglobin folding.

  14. Psychometric Comparisons of Three Measures for Assessing Motor Functions in Preschoolers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y-P.; Su, C-Y.; Huang, M-H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficit in motor performance is common in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). A motor function measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of three commonly used clinical measures for assessing motor function in…

  15. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  16. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  17. Maintaining Intellectual Freedom in a Filtered World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of intellectual freedom as expressed in these two quotations are as relevant to information in electronic formats as they are in print. As a proponent of intellectual freedom, the author of this article advocated and received administrative support for unfiltered Internet access in the Mankato Area (Minnesota) Public Schools from 1994…

  18. Religious Expression amongst Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susannah; Hatton, Chris; Shah, Robina; Stansfield, Julie; Rahim, Nabela

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although religion is an important part of many people's lives, little is known about the role of religion in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. Method: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 29 people with intellectual disabilities of a range of faiths (various Christian denominations, Islam and…

  19. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  20. Towards Hybrid Therapeutic Strategies in Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondal, Jean-A.; Lang, Sc.

    2009-01-01

    I present and discuss what I see as a decisive convergence between future (no longer science fiction) genetic therapies in human beings with intellectual disabilities and standard (so to speak) neurobehavioral interventions. This crossing will lead to a radical modification in the life prospect of people with intellectual disability from genetic…

  1. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  2. An Education Belief Worth Reflection: Molding Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Molding intellectuals is one of the expectations people have, which comes from a deep-rooted belief in education. The humanity hypothesis of this belief is to take knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge as the only prescription for human beings. This hypothesis overturns the relation of knowledge and life. Intellectuals make scientific paradigm as…

  3. The Family Dynamics of Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Birth order effects on intellectual performance show both positive and negative results. Considers the intellectual aspects of siblings' changing environments, explaining that birth order and family size effects depend crucially on the age at which children are tested. Within-family data conceal patterns of aggregate effects that are revealed by…

  4. The Saint Mary's Woman: toward Intellectual Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick E.

    This two-year project at Saint Mary's College, a women's college in Notre Dame (Indiana), focused on building intellectual community and fostering student leadership skills. The study targeted two student groups: (1) students with much to contribute to the intellectual life of the college but alienated from traditional forms of leadership, and (2)…

  5. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  6. INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT, MOTOR APTITUDE AND INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRUBER, J.J.; ISMAIL, A.H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF MOVEMENT RESPONSES TO LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT WERE INVESTIGATED (1) TO IDENTIFY FACTORS CLAIMED TO MEASURE MOTOR APTITUDE AND INTELLECTUAL ACHIEVEMENT IN PRE-ADOLESCENTS, (2) TO DEVELOP MOTOR APTITUDE TEST BATTERIES FOR PREDICTING INTELLECTUAL ACHIEVEMENT, (3) TO STUDY RELATIONSHIPS OF COORDINATION AND BALANCE TEST ITEMS IN…

  7. Executive Functions in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Ronnberg, Jerker; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n = 46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with…

  8. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  11. Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Colin A

    2002-06-01

    Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals In the author's experience, nurse educators working in universities generally accept that they are 'academics', but dismiss suggestions that they are 'intellectuals' because they see it as a pretentious description referring to a small number of academics and aesthetes who inhabit a conceptual world beyond the imaginative capacity of most other people. This paper suggests that the concept of the 'intellectual', if not the word itself, be admitted into nursing discourse through the adoption of a non-élitist Gramscian understanding, similar to the more recently formulated conception of the reflective practitioner. According to the Italian Marxist scholar Antonio Gramsci, intellectuals are those people who develop ways in which to construct the conditions of their own existence, a possibility he believed was open to all. It is suggested that, from a Gramscian perspective, all nurses are intellectuals to varying degrees, and nurse educators should not only be nurturing their own intellectualism but also the potential for intellectualism as it exists within each individual. The ways in which this project are related to Habermasian critical theory are also briefly outlined.

  12. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  13. Educating for Intellectual Virtues: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Jason

    2013-01-01

    After a brief overview of what intellectual virtues are, I offer three arguments for the claim that education should aim at fostering "intellectual character virtues" like curiosity, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual honesty. I then go on to discuss several pedagogical and related strategies for achieving this aim. (Contains…

  14. Intellectually Gifted Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children's Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…

  15. Is Intellectual Character Growth a Realistic Educational Aim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Responsibilist approaches to virtue epistemology examine the epistemic significance of intellectual virtues like curiosity, attentiveness, intellectual humility, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual tenacity. On one way of thinking about these traits, they are the deep personal qualities or character traits of a good thinker or…

  16. Mediating Community Participation: Practice of Support Workers in Initiating, Facilitating or Disrupting Encounters between People with and without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Bigby, Christine; Wiesel, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    Promoting community participation for people with intellectual disability through encounter with strangers is an integral part of the mission of disability support workers. This paper offers detailed micro-level analysis of the practices of support workers when they accompany a person with intellectual disability outside their home and explores the subtle differences which make some staff practices more effective than others in promoting more convivial encounters with strangers. Based on 160 h of observations of twenty-six adults with intellectual disability in a variety of public places, and interviews and focus groups with their support workers, the paper points to some of the critical judgements support workers need to make when considering whether, when and how to initiate or intervene in such encounters.

  17. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  18. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  19. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  20. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  1. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  2. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  3. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants..., blankets, or other things used for or about ruminants governed by the regulations in this part, shall...

  9. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants..., blankets, or other things used for or about ruminants governed by the regulations in this part, shall...

  10. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants..., blankets, or other things used for or about ruminants governed by the regulations in this part, shall...

  11. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants..., blankets, or other things used for or about ruminants governed by the regulations in this part, shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants..., blankets, or other things used for or about ruminants governed by the regulations in this part, shall...

  13. 49 CFR 591.6 - Documents accompanying declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pursuant to § 591.5(j) shall be accompanied by the following documentation: (1) A declaration made pursuant to § 591.5(j)(1)(i), (ii), (iv), or (v) and (j)(2)(i) shall be accompanied by a letter from the Administrator authorizing importation pursuant to § 591.5(j)(1)(i), (ii), (iv), or (v) and (j)(2)(i). Any...

  14. 49 CFR 591.6 - Documents accompanying declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pursuant to § 591.5(j) shall be accompanied by the following documentation: (1) A declaration made pursuant to § 591.5(j)(1)(i), (ii), (iv), or (v) and (j)(2)(i) shall be accompanied by a letter from the Administrator authorizing importation pursuant to § 591.5(j)(1)(i), (ii), (iv), or (v) and (j)(2)(i). Any...

  15. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submissions Copyrights/Permissions Translation Rights Advertising Supports Intensity Scale Publications Catalog News & Policy News Press Releases News ... Definition FAQs on Intellectual Disability Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale Videos About AAIDD Contact Us Mission Governance Presidential ...

  16. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  17. Identification of Intellectually Able Disadvantaged Filipino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval-Severino, Teresita

    1992-01-01

    Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)

  18. Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services on a broad range of topics that impact people with intellectual disabilities and the field of ... voters with disabilities. Protection and Advocacy for Assistive Technology Assistive technology can be an integral part of ...

  19. Intellectual Disability: A Critical Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pariseau-Legault, Pierre; Holmes, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Over the last number of years, the emergence of new scientific and social constructions of intellectual disability has contributed to many terminological, conceptual, and structural changes. As a result, the expression "mental retardation" has gradually been abandoned in favor of "intellectual disability" for classification and diagnosis. In addition to helping redefine intellectual disability, the implementation of new deinstitutionalized mechanisms of governmentality required the adoption of different clinical models. Concrete applications of those models have yet to be studied in nursing practice. The main objective of this article is to analyze the concept of intellectual disability in light of recent developments to clarify its philosophical bases, influence, and relevance for clinical practice. This concept analysis was realized following a literature review of scientific articles and monographs addressing topics related to intellectual disability. Inspired by a poststructuralist approach, we will discuss about the ambiguity of nurses' role regarding people labeled as having an intellectual disability. Lastly, we will address the clinical implications of our analysis and we will propose an actualized understanding of the nursing practice in such context.

  20. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  1. Instruments Assessing Anxiety in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Heidi; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the last decades several instruments measuring anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities have been developed. Aim: To give an overview of the characteristics and psychometric properties of self-report and informant-report instruments measuring anxiety in this group. Method: Systematic review of the literature. Results:…

  2. Checklists for General Practitioner Diagnosis of Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torr, J.; Iacono, T.; Graham, M. J.; Galea, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In Australia, diagnosis and management of depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID) often occurs within the primary care setting. Few tools are available to assist general practitioners (GPs) in the diagnostic process. The study aim was to assess properties of carer and GP checklists developed to address this problem.…

  3. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  4. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  5. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  6. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  7. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  8. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  9. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  10. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  11. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  12. Map accompanies a series of letters regarding modifications to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map accompanies a series of letters regarding modifications to the Aurora shops written during the later portion of 1878. Aurora shop scale 50 - 1' - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  13. [Intellectual honesty in abortion problems].

    PubMed

    Werner, M

    1991-04-03

    A pastor comments on the recent ruling by the Swedish Department of Health and Social Affairs that the remains of an abortion should be "treated respectfully"--cremated or buried in a cemetery. This decision results from recognition on the part of the government and the medical establishment that a growing segment of public opinion agrees that the fetus is a human being. The new rules mean, though, that a fetus becomes human only upon its death. Logically, an abortion that is respectfully performed ought not to be performed at all. This is the fundamental problem with abortion, and no amount of arbitrary boundary drawing at various levels of supposed capability for survival at the 12th, the 18th, or the 24th week of pregnancy will alter the fact. It is necessary to face the problem with complete intellectual honesty and say that a fetus is a human being no matter what its age, but that voluntary abortion is also a social necessity. Only then can society find another abortion policy, one that recognizes that late abortions are hard to distinguish from births. The Swedish abortion policy must reflect honest facts, rather than etiological legends, preconceived ideas for which arguments must be found afterward.

  14. Pre-Trial Reported Defendants in the Netherlands with Intellectual Disability, Borderline and Normal Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinkers, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectually disabled offenders may have different characteristics than offenders with average intellectual functioning. We therefore compared pre-trial reported defendants with an IQ score =70, 71-84 and =85 points. Methods: Nationwide database of pre-trial psychiatric reports requested by Dutch courts between 2000 and 2006 with a…

  15. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  16. Debunking Anti-Intellectualism: An Examination of African American College Students' Intellectual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the debate on African American "anti-intellectualism," this study examined a longitudinal sample of 460 African American students' intellectual self-concept and college grades (GPA) through regression analyses resulting from their college experiences. The findings showed that the college environment had a modest influence on African…

  17. Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment for Monaural Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Directory: pub/tech-report/2005 File in pdf format: TR61.pdf Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment for Monaural Recordings Yipeng Li...Abstract Separating singing voice from music accompaniment is very useful in many applications, such as lyrics recognition and alignment, singer...identification, and music information retrieval. Although speech separation has been extensively studied for decades, singing voice separation has been little

  18. The Properties of Locke's Common-Wealth of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinksy, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reads the educational implications of "intellectual property" that are found in the double meaning of "property", as the word refers to an economic right and a quality of being. It briefly visits the seventeenth-century origins of this double concept of intellectual property (IP), with particular attention paid to…

  19. Cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe intellectual disability in a patient with 3q29 microduplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Castellanos, María del Carmen; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; de la Vega, Alberto González; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Fernández, Ester Corbacho; Albert, Jacobo; Hombre, María Carmen Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Interstitial microduplication of 3q29 has been recently described. Individuals with this syndrome have widely variable phenotypes. We describe the first clinical case with a 1.607 Mb duplication at 3q29 (chr3: 195,731,956-197,339,329), accompanied by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. This duplication involves 22 genes; PAK2, DLG1, BDH1, and FBXO45 are implicated in neuronal development and synaptic function and could play an important role in this syndrome. We propose considering genetic studies, particularly array comparative genomic hybridization, in patients with epilepsy and/or cerebral palsy of unknown etiology when dysmorphic features are present.

  20. Relationships between Depression and High Intellectual Potential

    PubMed Central

    Weismann-Arcache, Catherine; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the relationships between depression and high intellectual potential through a multidisciplinary and original approach. Based on their respective experience in psychology and child psychiatry, the authors will focus their analysis on creative potential. First, relationships between creativity (literary, artistic, or scientific creativity) and melancholy (“melancholy” comes from the Greek words for “black” (“melas”) and “bile” (“khole”)) will be examined from antiquity to modern times. Aristotle introduced a quantitative factor, asserting that levels of melancholy and black bile are positively correlated; however, under a given threshold of black bile, it can give rise to an exceptional being. Second, the case study of Blaise Pascal (scientific and philosophical creativity associated with major depressive episodes from childhood) will be presented and discussed. This case study sheds light on the paradoxical role of depression in the overinvestment in intellectual and creative spheres as well as on the impact of traumatic events on high intellectual potential. Third, observations will be reported based on a study conducted on 100 children with high intellectual potential (6–12 years old). Finally, based on these different levels of analysis, it appears that heterogeneity of mental functioning in children with high intellectual potential is at the center of the creative process and it has related psychological vulnerability. PMID:22645671

  1. Down syndrome--genetic and nutritional aspects of accompanying disorders.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Dominika; Wyka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the more commonly occurring genetic disorders, where mental retardation is combined with nutritional diseases. It is caused by having a third copy of chromosome 21, and there exist 3 forms; Simple Trisomy 21, Translocation Trisomy and Mosaic Trisomy. Symptoms include intellectual disability/mental retardation, early onset of Alzheimer's disease and the appearance of various phenotypic features such as narrow slanted eyes, flat nose and short stature. In addition, there are other health problems throughout the body, consisting in part of cardiac defects and thyroid function abnormalities along with nutritional disorders (ie. overweight, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals). Those suffering DS have widespread body frame abnormalities and impaired brain development and function; the latter leading to impaired intellectual development. Many studies indicate excessive or deficient nutrient uptakes associated with making inappropriate foodstuff choices, food intolerance, (eg. celiac disease) or malabsorption. DS persons with overweight or obesity are linked with a slow metabolic rate, abnormal blood leptin concentrations and exhibit low levels of physical activity. Vitamin B group deficiencies and abnormal blood homocysteine levels decrease the rate of intellectual development in DS cases. Zinc deficiencies result in short stature, thyroid function disorders and an increased appetite caused by excessive supplementation. Scientific advances in the research and diagnosis of DS, as well as preventing any associated conditions, have significantly increased life expectancies of those with this genetic disorder. Early dietary interventions by parents or guardians of DS children afford an opportunity for decreasing the risk or delaying some of the DS associated conditions from appearing, thus beneficially impacting on their quality of life.

  2. Gynaecological care for women with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, M; Healy, D L; Nicholson, A

    1994-05-02

    Optimal gynaecological care for women with intellectual disability is complex. Many of these women suffer unique problems with regard to menstrual hygiene, sexuality, contraception and susceptibility to sexual abuse. Complex medical, ethical, social and legal issues must be carefully considered to address these problems. We discuss the "gynaecological" management of intellectually disabled women, with particular reference to contraception and menstrual suppression. We advocate endometrial ablation as an alternative to hysterectomy for women with intractable menstrual problems. Some ethical issues are reviewed which must be addressed to determine which approach is in the patient's "best interest" and adopts the "least restrictive option". Finally, we present Federal and State laws governing informed consent for medical procedures for women and children with intellectual disabilities.

  3. Achievement Test Performance of Intellectually Advanced Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)

  4. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  5. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  6. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  7. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  8. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

  9. Spondylolisthesis Accompanying Bilateral Pedicle Stress Fracture at Two Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Lee, Won Tae

    2012-01-01

    There has been no report of bilateral pedicle stress fractures involving two vertebrae. The authors describe a unique case of spondylolisthesis accompanying a bilateral pedicle stress fracture involving two vertebrae. De novo development of spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 vertebrae accompanying a bilateral pedicle stress fracture at L4 and L5 was observed in a 70-year-old woman. The patient's medical history was unremarkable and she did not have any predisposing factors except severe osteoporosis. Interbody fusion with bone cement augmented screw fixation was performed. Surgical treatment resulted in good pain management and improved functional recovery. PMID:22949973

  10. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  11. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  12. Beyond "Talking out of School": Educational Researchers as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual article explores the notion of educational researchers operating as public intellectuals. To do this, I situate my analysis within a broader tradition of public intellectual work in the American academy. I also offer a framework for three specific forms of public intellectual work, supported by relevant examples, which can be taken…

  13. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. Eleventh Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Bradley, Valerie J.; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Gomez, Sharon C.; Lachapelle, Yves; Luckasson, Ruth; Reeve, Alya; Shogren, Karrie A.; Snell, Martha E.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.; Thompson, James R.; Verdugo-Alonso, Miguel A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Yeager, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This Manual contains the most current and authoritative information and knowledge on intellectual disability, including best practice guidelines on diagnosing and classifying intellectual disability and developing a system of supports for people living with an intellectual disability. Written by a committee of 18 experts, "Intellectual…

  14. Intellectual Entrepreneurship: An Authentic Foundation for Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Gary D.; Cherwitz, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Our position in this article is that "intellectual entrepreneurship" provides an intellectually authentic philosophical foundation that can sustain cross-campus and interdisciplinary entrepreneurship education. Drawing upon initiatives begun at The University of Texas at Austin, we document how intellectual entrepreneurship educates…

  15. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  16. Looking for Meaning. Instructional Manual to Accompany "Pixie".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew; Sharp, Ann Margaret

    Designed to accompany "Pixie," a philosophy reader for students in grades three and four, this instructional manual presents discussion plans, games, philosophical activities, and reasoning exercises so that the concepts in the reader can be readily operationalized in the classroom. The "Pixie" program focuses on abstract reasoning, ambiguity, and…

  17. Teacher's Manual to Accompany "How to Get a Job."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, John D.

    Prepared for teachers of mentally handicapped students, this teacher's guide accompanies the student booklet, "How to Get A Job," and contains suggestions for learning activities and vocabulary development for each subdivision of all four major units in the student booklet: choosing the right kind of work, looking for the job, going on an…

  18. The Global Education Practicum: Perspectives from Accompanying Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Catherine; Cacciattolo, Marcelle; Kidman, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of international education experiences for students are well documented. The effect on the individual of international experiences has been researched and theorised by authors for at least the last 20 years. In this paper the experiences of three academics who accompanied pre-service teachers on a 3 week international practicum are…

  19. 19 CFR 12.6 - Affidavits required to accompany entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Importation of Certain Cheeses § 12.6 Affidavits required to accompany entry. (a) Cheeses produced in the member states of the European Communities shall... (excluding Puerto Rico), of the producer or exporter that the cheese has not received and will not...

  20. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  1. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  2. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  3. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  4. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  5. 36 CFR 14.25 - Documents which must accompany application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Maps. Each application, other than an appropriation for Federal-aid highway purposes under Title 23, United States Code, section 317, must be accompanied by a map prepared on tracing linen, or on tracing... engineer or land surveyor. The map should comply with the following requirements: (1) The scale should be...

  6. 36 CFR 14.25 - Documents which must accompany application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Maps. Each application, other than an appropriation for Federal-aid highway purposes under Title 23, United States Code, section 317, must be accompanied by a map prepared on tracing linen, or on tracing... engineer or land surveyor. The map should comply with the following requirements: (1) The scale should be...

  7. 36 CFR 14.25 - Documents which must accompany application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Maps. Each application, other than an appropriation for Federal-aid highway purposes under Title 23, United States Code, section 317, must be accompanied by a map prepared on tracing linen, or on tracing... engineer or land surveyor. The map should comply with the following requirements: (1) The scale should be...

  8. 36 CFR 14.25 - Documents which must accompany application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Maps. Each application, other than an appropriation for Federal-aid highway purposes under Title 23, United States Code, section 317, must be accompanied by a map prepared on tracing linen, or on tracing... engineer or land surveyor. The map should comply with the following requirements: (1) The scale should be...

  9. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. 93.314 Section 93.314 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  10. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. 93.314 Section 93.314 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  11. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  12. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  13. Hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Nagai, Y; Fujimoto, S; Sobajima, H; Kobayashi, M; Togari, H; Wada, Y

    1993-08-15

    This is the first report of hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance imaging documented multiple bilateral subependymal nodules, which were isointense to gray matter. This disease entity is considered a dominant trait, since the mother and two daughters, half-sisters, were affected.

  14. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... includes or bears any directions for use (by printed word, picture, design, or combination thereof),...

  15. Notes to Accompany the BBC Television Series: Tele-France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Terry; Kuhn, Michel

    These notes are designed to accompany a series of 10 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) television programs intended to give persons already familiar with French, an insight into aspects of contemporary Francophone societies. The programs revolve around various themes: (1) numbers and letters; (2) words and meanings; (3) eating patterns; (4)…

  16. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected on the premises of origin and found free of evidence of communicable disease and, insofar as can... region of origin, or if exported from Mexico, shall be accompanied either by such a certificate or by a..., vesicular stomatitis, or equine infectious anemia has occurred on the premises of origin or on...

  17. 31 CFR 545.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accompanied baggage authorized. 545.507 Section 545.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... that are necessary for personal use incident to travel, that are not intended for any other person...

  18. Changes in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-12-01

    Low-temperature storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low temperature, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-temperature. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were changed. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, changes in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage.

  19. Critical Intellectual Inquiry at Catholic Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, a professor and an academic administrator at a Catholic college, discusses the topics of academic freedom and intellectual debate within the context of Catholic schools operating under guidelines of the Vatican document "Ex Corde Ecclesiae." Under these guidelines, there are fundamental moral questions that…

  20. Censorship and Intellectual Freedom in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes seven articles that discuss censorship and intellectual freedom in junior and senior high schools. Highlights include access to appropriate information; library material selection; dealing with complaints; a list of potentially controversial titles and topics; a history of book burning; the censorship of fiction; weeding versus…

  1. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  2. Mothering and Intellectual Disability: Partnership Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Chrissie

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about mothering an intellectually disabled child identified with special educational needs. It specifically looks at the parent partnership rhetoric that has dominated UK government policy and directives for nearly three decades and yet research suggests parents and more often mothers have to battle to be recognised as legitimate…

  3. Osteoporosis in Groups with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, J. R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-three adults with intellectual impairment referred to an endocrinology clinic in New South Wales (Australia) were measured for lumbar bone mineral density. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in this group than in an age and sex matched control group. Risk factors included male gender, physical inactivity, small body size,…

  4. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  5. Intellectual Disabilities. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Intellectual disability" is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Following a brief story about a child with an intellectual…

  6. Sex Differences in Intellectual and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishio, Kip C.; Schilling, Karen Maitland

    Perry's scheme of intellectual and ethical development was examined for sex differences with respect to content areas for which sex differences have elsewhere been suggested: occupational choice, interpersonal relationships, and sexual identity. In addition, the content area religion and ego development, as measured by Loevinger's sentence…

  7. At the End of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Christopher; Biklen, Douglas; Petersen, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Christopher Kliewer, Douglas Biklen, and Amy J. Petersen unravel the construct of intellectual disability that has dominated both policy and practice in schools and communities. The authors synthesize data from first-person narratives, family accounts, and participatory inquiry to propose a theory of human connectedness in which…

  8. Caregivers: the intellectual capital of healing.

    PubMed

    Authier, Philip

    2007-01-01

    This article helps you to make a distinction that CARING not only fits under the classification of intellectual capital but is also one of the most valuable assets a healthcare organization can have. It takes this basic concept, which is often seen as soft, or even ignored by some, and ties it into the success of the future healthcare system.

  9. Intellectual Freedom and the Rights of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Judith F.

    1973-01-01

    The in loco parentis concept conflicts directly with the intellectual freedom concept, which provides for free choice, regardless of age, in matters concerning the mind. This basic conflict has reached new proportions in recent years because of the U.S. Supreme Court's recognition of youths' rights in the First Amendment area. (4 references)…

  10. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  11. Postsecondary Outcomes for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, Lindsey Beth

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 89 post secondary youth with intellectual impairments exiting a college based school-to-work program tracked school and post school experiences to identify significant correlates and predictors of post school outcomes. The three significant predictors were self-determination training, course taking patterns, and home care skills…

  12. Hegemony: From an Organically Grown Intellectual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the new organic intellectual as rhetoric teacher, working out the ways in which this teacher is uniquely placed to encourage the counter-hegemonic efforts to subordinate groups. Offers concrete classroom activities as well as theoretical elaboration of their genesis. (RS)

  13. Fostering Intellectual Development - Reexamined 22 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard

    Using the book "Fostering Intellectual Development in Young Children" by Kenneth D. Wann and the book's impact on education as a point of departure, this paper presents a way of looking at the early childhood curriculum that goes beyond the book but is in keeping with its concerns for the education of young children. The book was a…

  14. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  15. Obesity and Intellectual Disability in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Kurstyn V.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international literature suggests that obesity is likely to be more pronounced in the population of people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there are no published New Zealand data for this population. Method: We accessed a database containing anonymous data for a New Zealand ID population. Ninety-eight people of 141 had…

  16. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse: Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    The Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received reports of formal challenges to 25 books and 1 recording during the time period between July 1, 1989, and June 30, 1990. It is noted that 17 of the challenged items were held by public libraries and 9 by school library media centers, with 21 items designated as children's and young adult…

  17. Collaboratively Teaching Intellectual Freedom to Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Nadean; Bradley, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Together an education librarian and education professor developed a series of exercises for education students about intellectual freedom and book challenges. The resources are primarily online and they progressively work from book censorship cases and concerns to handling book challenges proactively through discussions, activities, and role…

  18. Championing Intellectual Freedom: A School Administrator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    School administrators want to believe that they are champions for the rights of the students they serve. They strive to provide students with a secure, enriching environment to aid in their intellectual and social development. Through their leadership, administrators have the responsibility to guide and redirect students to help them achieve at…

  19. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that…

  20. A Threefold Model of Intellectual Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The field of styles presents three major controversial issues: styles as value-laden versus value-free, styles as traits versus states, and styles as different constructs versus similar constructs with different labels. We address these issues by proposing an integrative model of styles--the Threefold Model of Intellectual Styles--which divides…

  1. Perspectives on Pain and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, F. J.; Shinde, S. K.; Gilles, E.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have been excluded from pain research and assumed to be insensitive or indifferent to pain. The weight of the evidence suggests that individuals with ID have been subject to practices and procedures with little regard for their ability to experience or express pain. A number of issues…

  2. College Should Be an Intellectual Workout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesic, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The physical fitness required to perform complex athletic feats has a parallel in the intellectual fitness it takes to perform complex mental tasks. At the heart of liberal education sits the idea that moderate training in several disciplines is better than intensive training in just one. Through exercising students' abilities in interpreting…

  3. Contraception and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contraception is widely prescribed to women with intellectual disabilities, yet little is known about what the women think and feel about this. One of the aims of the study was to explore what women understood and to what extent they were able to exercise choice and control. Method: Twenty-three women with mild and moderate…

  4. NON-INTELLECTUAL FACTORS IN LEARNING DISABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Suman

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 100 cases of learning disability are investigated to study non-intellectual factors associated with it. The study reveals that urban area, middle class, unitary and small family show high incidence. Impaired relationship with the parents is the most significant factor, followed by adverse influences in school. The findings are discussed. PMID:22058476

  5. Catholic Intellectual Excellence: Challenges and Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This publication on the subject of Catholic intellectual excellence at the university level reproduces six papers from an annual meeting and four papers on John Henry Cardinal Newman in celebration of the 100th anniversary of his death in 1890. The papers on Newman include the following: "Newman's Idea of a University: Is It Viable…

  6. Communicative Empowerment of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Heestermans, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Personal narratives are conditional for victims of sexual abuse to overcome their trauma. Counsellors can help victims with intellectual disability to take an active position in conversations about sexuality and to co-construct a personal narrative. Method: Using discourse and conversational analysis, we studied 4 conversations between…

  7. New Trends on Intellectual Assessment in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2016-01-01

    The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…

  8. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  9. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  10. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  11. Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrior, Robert Allen

    This book is a comparative interpretation of the works of Vine Deloria, Jr., (Standing Rock Sioux) and John Joseph Mathews (Osage), two American Indian intellectuals of this century. In bringing these two thinkers together, the book lays the groundwork for a discussion of several crucial issues in contemporary American Indian critical studies: (1)…

  12. Using Intellectual Standards To Assess Student Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Nosich, Gerald M.

    This document provides specific examples of what is involved in applying intellectual criteria and standards to students' reasoning, focusing on elements of reasoning (EORs). The significance of reasoning having elements and the need for standards in assessing reasoning are described. The following are the EORs: (1) purpose, goal, or end in view…

  13. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  14. [Study of intellectual activity in twins. I. Developmental features].

    PubMed

    Kantonistova, N S

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of 234 twins and 100 singletons at the age from 7 till 16 years old was carried out by WISC method. The intellectual development of twins was established to fall behind singletons at the expense of lower level of verbal intellectual functions. It is due to organic changes of nervous system, arising as the result of the action of unfavourable factors during antenatal period. Slight asphyxia and prematurity as well as the order of birth do not exert essential effect on intellectual development of twins. Low weight at birth combines with lower intellectual index only in cases when lowering of weight is due to the action of unfavourable factors during intrauterine period. "Twins situation" apparently renders positive influence on twins intellectual activity during school are, distracting children's attention in cases of unfavourable psychological situation in family. Intellectual environment renders positive influence on intellectual development of twins.

  15. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  16. Orfeo, the Pleiades Accompaniment Program and its Users Thematic Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinel, C.; Grizonnet, M.; Fontannaz, D.; de Boissezon, H.; Giros, A.

    2012-08-01

    ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011) . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence) has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB), an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC) started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology) and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies). The paper is illustrated with some examples of

  17. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ACCOMPANIED BY MYELIN DESTRUCTION EXPERIMENTALLY PRODUCED IN MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1935-01-01

    The repeated intramuscular injections of aqueous emulsions and alcohol-ether extracts of sterile normal rabbit brains in some manner produced pathological changes accompanied by myelin destruction in the brains of 7 of 8 monkeys (Macacus rhesus). Eight, control monkeys remained well. Cultures from the involved brains remained sterile, and no transmissible agent was demonstrated by means of intracerebral inoculations of emulsions of bits of the brains into monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs, and white mice. PMID:19870385

  18. Young drivers' attitudes toward accompanied driving: a new multidimensional measure.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-07-01

    Four studies were conducted in order to develop and validate a multidimensional instrument to assess attitudes toward accompanied driving among young drivers. Study 1 (n=841) focused on developing the Attitudes Toward Accompanied Driving Scale (ATADS), a self-report scale based on five previously conceptualized domains of attitudes. Factor analysis revealed the five hypothesized factors: Tension, Relatedness, Disapproval, Avoidance, and Anxiety. In addition, significant associations were found between these factors and gender, age, and the assessment of reckless driving as risky. Study 2 (n=651) adopted a developmental approach, comparing the attitudes of participants in various stages of licensure. Disapproval and Tension were found to be higher, and Relatedness lower, among participants who had not yet begun driving instruction than among those who were taking driving lessons or had already obtained a license. Study 3 (n=160) revealed associations between the five ATADS factors and perceived driving costs and benefits. In Study 4 (n=193), associations were found between these factors and driver's self-image, with a combination of ATADS factors, self-image, and gender contributing to the explained variance of two outcome variables: driving self-efficacy, and reported frequency of reckless driving. The discussion focuses on the validity and utility of the new measure of young drivers' attitudes toward accompanied driving, stressing its practical implications for road safety.

  19. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  20. Assessment of the Self-Determination of Spanish Students with Intellectual Disabilities and other Educational Needs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Vela, Maria; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez Gil, Francisca; Corbella, Marta Badia; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the self-determination of Spanish high school students with Intellectual Disability and other Special Educational Needs (SEN). A total of 371 students between 11 and 17 years of age participated in the study. Of these, 46.4% (n=171) presented SEN, specifically learning disabilities (n=97; 26.2%), borderline and intellectual disability with higher IQ scores (n=43; 11.6%) and mild intellectual disability (n=32; 8.6%). The remaining students without SEN made up the control group. The assessment was carried out using a translated and validated Spanish version of The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale (Wehmeyer, 1995). This measure had appropriate psychometric properties. Students with SEN obtained significantly lower scores than their peers without SEN. However, no differences were found in relation to the type of SEN or, more specifically, in relation to the presence of intellectual disability. The educational implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25057433