Science.gov

Sample records for accompanying side effects

  1. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  2. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  3. Surgical repair for aortic dissection accompanying a right-sided aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Yukio; Koizumi, Nobusato; Iwahashi, Toru; Saiki, Naozumi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Aortic anomaly in which a right-sided aortic arch associated with Kommerell's diverticulum and aberrant left subclavian artery is rare. The present report describes a patient with type-B aortic dissection accompanying aortic anomalies consisting of right-sided aortic arch and the left common carotid and left subclavian artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. As dissecting aortic aneurysm diameter increased rapidly, Single-stage surgical repair of extensive thoracic aorta was performed through median sternotomy and right posterolateral fifth intercostal thoracotomy, yielding favorable results. Our surgical procedures are discussed.

  4. Surgical repair for aortic dissection accompanying a right-sided aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aortic anomaly in which a right-sided aortic arch associated with Kommerell's diverticulum and aberrant left subclavian artery is rare. The present report describes a patient with type-B aortic dissection accompanying aortic anomalies consisting of right-sided aortic arch and the left common carotid and left subclavian artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. As dissecting aortic aneurysm diameter increased rapidly, Single-stage surgical repair of extensive thoracic aorta was performed through median sternotomy and right posterolateral fifth intercostal thoracotomy, yielding favorable results. Our surgical procedures are discussed. PMID:20459743

  5. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  6. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  7. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  8. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  9. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  10. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  11. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  12. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  15. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  16. [Selected aspects of oral contraception side effects].

    PubMed

    Wolski, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before con- sulting their doctor what may result in unintended pregnancy The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their moni- toring and diagnosis. PMID:25669065

  17. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    PubMed

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  18. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  19. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  1. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced side effects

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available antipsychotic drugs (APDs) carry significant, though highly variable, liability to neurologic and metabolic side effects. Pharmacogenetics approaches offer the possibility of identifying patient-specific biomarkers for predicting risk of these side effects. To date, a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a handful of genes have received convergent support across multiple studies. The primary focus has been on SNPs in dopamine and serotonin receptor genes: persuasive meta-analytic evidence exists for an effect of the dopamine D2 and D3 receptor genes (DRD2 and DRD3) in risk for tardr inesia (TD) and for an effect of variation at the receptor gene (HTR2C) for liability to APD-inducec gain. However, effect sizes appear to be modest, and pharmacoeconomic considerations have not been sufficiently studied, thereby limiting clinical applicability at this time. Effects of these genes and others on risk for TD, extrapyramidal side effects, hyperprolactinemia, and weight gain are revieved in this article. PMID:20135898

  2. Calculation of a volume effect accompanying an electronic topological transition in pure cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryova, S. O.; Koval', Yu. M.; Ponomaryov, O. P.

    2012-10-01

    An analytic expression for estimating the volume effect accompanying an electronic topological transition (ETT) in pure cerium is derived on the basis of the microscopic Falikov-Ramirez-Kimball model.

  3. Xanthelasma palpebrarum: a new side effect of nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Irmak; Ayli, Meltem; Oğuz, Ali Kemal; Seval, Güldane Cengiz

    2016-01-12

    Chronic myeloid leucaemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterised by a reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22 resulting in constitutionally active tyrosine kinase signalling. BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective molecules in the treatment of CML. Unfortunately, these novel therapeutic agents are accompanied by various side effects, and haematological, cutaneous and metabolic abnormalities are among the most prevalent. Nilotinib, a second-generation TKI, has been shown to cause both--cutaneous lesions and lipid profile abnormalities. We present two CML cases developing xanthelasma palpebrarum while receiving nilotinib. Case 1 also acquired a lipid abnormality following the start of nilotinib therapy, while case 2 meanwhile stayed normolipidemic. In addition to a low cholesterol diet, atorvastatin was prescribed to case 1. Currently, both cases are normolipidemic and continuing their nilotinib therapy. Xanthelasma palpebrarum secondary to nilotinib therapy is new to the literature.

  4. Analysis of the side effects of tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Delalleau, B; Dulcire, C; Le Moine, P; Kamoun, A

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of clinical and paraclinical safety of tianeptine was performed in (a) clinical pharmacology studies assessing night sleep EEG organization; electrocardiographic stability by continuous 24-h recordings (Holter's method); ocular tonus in patients with stabilized glaucoma; salivary flow; prolactin secretion; photodynamic dermatologic reactions; cerebral electrical activity; hematologic, hepatic, renal and main metabolic parameters; separately, withdrawal phenomena and addictive potential were searched for in drug addicts; (b) double-blind controlled studies versus reference compounds. The results confirm that the therapeutic safety of tianeptine is satisfactory with respect to clinical side effects and paraclinical parameters. Tianeptine does not induce sedation and thus does not disturb the recovery of active life. It does not induce anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, constipation, etc.), even in elderly subjects. It is devoid of heart and blood pressure side effects including postural hypotension tachycardia, ECG abnormalities, and especially atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction disorders. Moreover, tianeptine does not disturb the hematologic, renal, hepatic parameters, even in alcoholic patients in the detoxification period. It does not induce physical or psychological signs of dependence when discontinued, even in alcoholic patients or drug addicts. No abuse of tianeptine and no tolerance were noted in detoxified opiate addicts.

  5. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  6. Epitope-distal effects accompany the binding of two distinct antibodies to hepatitis B virus capsids.

    PubMed

    Bereszczak, Jessica Z; Rose, Rebecca J; van Duijn, Esther; Watts, Norman R; Wingfield, Paul T; Steven, Alasdair C; Heck, Albert J R

    2013-05-01

    Infection of humans by hepatitis B virus (HBV) induces the copious production of antibodies directed against the capsid protein (Cp). A large variety of anticapsid antibodies have been identified that differ in their epitopes. These data, and the status of the capsid as a major clinical antigen, motivate studies to achieve a more detailed understanding of their interactions. In this study, we focused on the Fab fragments of two monoclonal antibodies, E1 and 3120. E1 has been shown to bind to the side of outward-protruding spikes whereas 3120 binds to the "floor" region of the capsid, between spikes. We used hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to investigate the effects on HBV capsids of binding these antibodies. Conventionally, capsids loaded with saturating amounts of Fabs would be too massive to be readily amenable to HDX-MS. However, by focusing on the Cp protein, we were able to acquire deuterium uptake profiles covering the entire 149-residue sequence and reveal, in localized detail, changes in H/D exchange rates accompanying antibody binding. We find increased protection of the known E1 and 3120 epitopes on the capsid upon binding and show that regions distant from the epitopes are also affected. In particular, the α2a helix (residues 24-34) and the mobile C-terminus (residues 141-149) become substantially less solvent-exposed. Our data indicate that even at substoichiometric antibody binding an overall increase in the rigidity of the capsid is elicited, as well as a general dampening of its breathing motions. PMID:23597076

  7. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  8. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    PubMed Central

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. Results: In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Conclusion: Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it’s essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term. PMID:25932218

  9. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  10. A Qualitative Investigation into the Characteristics and Effects of Music Accompanying Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, David-Lee; Karageorghis, Costas I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of…

  11. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  12. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  13. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  14. A current appraisal of side effects of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Evans, J H

    1976-05-01

    Oral contraception, although offering almost 100 per cent protection against pregnancy, is associated with many side effects which have resulted in much unnecessary adverse publicity. Such side effects, the majority of which are of annoying nature only, are due to the synthetic hormones used, and have resulted in many changes in formulation and in the withdrawal of several preparations. The types of preparations available are discussed and the side effects appraised from both the patient's and the physician's viewpoint.

  15. Effect of Leonurus cardiaca oil extract in patients with arterial hypertension accompanied by anxiety and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Demchenko, Dmitry V; Shikh, Evgenia V

    2011-04-01

    Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) is used traditionally for its sedative, hypotensive and cardiotonic effects. Due to the lack of clinical data regarding its effect in patients, a study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of Leonurus oil extract (LOE) in patients with arterial hypertension stages 1 and 2, accompanied by anxiety and sleep disorders. Fifty patients were treated for 28 days with 1200 mg LOE per day. Positive effects of LOE on psycho-emotional status and arterial blood pressure in patients with stage 1 hypertension were observed 1 week earlier than in patients with stage 2 hypertension. According to the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, a significant improvement in the symptoms of anxiety and depression was observed in 32% of patients, a moderate improvement in 48% and a weak effect in 8%; 12% of patients did not respond to therapy. Side effects were minimal in all groups. Leonurus oil extract may therefore be a potentially effective therapeutic agent for patients with arterial hypertension and concurrent psycho-neurological disorders.

  16. Effect of Leonurus cardiaca oil extract in patients with arterial hypertension accompanied by anxiety and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Demchenko, Dmitry V; Shikh, Evgenia V

    2011-04-01

    Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) is used traditionally for its sedative, hypotensive and cardiotonic effects. Due to the lack of clinical data regarding its effect in patients, a study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of Leonurus oil extract (LOE) in patients with arterial hypertension stages 1 and 2, accompanied by anxiety and sleep disorders. Fifty patients were treated for 28 days with 1200 mg LOE per day. Positive effects of LOE on psycho-emotional status and arterial blood pressure in patients with stage 1 hypertension were observed 1 week earlier than in patients with stage 2 hypertension. According to the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, a significant improvement in the symptoms of anxiety and depression was observed in 32% of patients, a moderate improvement in 48% and a weak effect in 8%; 12% of patients did not respond to therapy. Side effects were minimal in all groups. Leonurus oil extract may therefore be a potentially effective therapeutic agent for patients with arterial hypertension and concurrent psycho-neurological disorders. PMID:20839214

  17. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  18. A novel semisupervised algorithm for rare prescription side effect discovery.

    PubMed

    Reps, Jenna M; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Aickelin, Uwe; Soria, Daniele; Gibson, Jack E; Hubbard, Richard B

    2014-03-01

    Drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with the aim of improving each patient's medical state, but an unfortunate consequence of most prescription drugs is the occurrence of undesirable side effects. Side effects that occur in more than one in a thousand patients are likely to be signaled efficiently by current drug surveillance methods, however, these same methods may take decades before generating signals for rarer side effects, risking medical morbidity or mortality in patients prescribed the drug while the rare side effect is undiscovered. In this paper, we propose a novel computational metaanalysis framework for signaling rare side effects that integrates existing methods, knowledge from the web,metric learning, and semisupervised clustering. The novel framework was able to signal many known rare and serious side effects for the selection of drugs investigated, such as tendon rupture when prescribed Ciprofloxacin or Levofloxacin, renal failure with Naproxen and depression associated with Rimonabant. Furthermore, for the majority of the drugs investigated it generated signals for rare side effects at a more stringent signaling threshold than existing methods and shows the potential to become a fundamental part of post marketing surveillance to detect rare side effects.

  19. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  20. Thermogenic side effects to migratory predisposition in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Jalvingh, Kirsten M; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-03-01

    In the calidrine sandpiper red knot (Calidris canutus), the weeks preceding takeoff for long-distance migration are characterized by a rapid increase in body mass, largely made up of fat but also including a significant proportion of lean tissue. Before takeoff, the pectoral muscles are known to hypertrophy in preparation for endurance flight without any specific training. Because birds facing cold environments counterbalance heat loss through shivering thermogenesis, and since pectoral muscles represent a large proportion of avian body mass, we asked the question whether muscle hypertrophy in preparation for long-distance endurance flight would induce improvements in thermogenic capacity. We acclimated red knots to different controlled thermal environments: 26 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and variable conditions tracking outdoor temperatures. We then studied within-individual variations in body mass, pectoral muscle size (measured by ultrasound), and metabolic parameters [basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (M(sum))] throughout a 3-mo period enclosing the migratory gain and loss of mass. The gain in body mass during the fattening period was associated with increases in pectoral muscle thickness and thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation. Regardless of their thermal treatment, birds showing the largest increases in body mass also exhibited the largest increases in M(sum). We conclude that migratory fattening is accompanied by thermoregulatory side effects. The gain of body mass and muscle hypertrophy improve thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation in this species. Whether this represents an ecological advantage depends on the ambient temperature at the time of fattening.

  1. Some side-effects of alpha-methyldopa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, V K

    1976-04-10

    Three different regimens of drug treatment for hypertension were compared with regard to the development of undesirable side-effects in a group of 53 patients attending a hypertension clinic. The combination of alpha-methyldopa and chlorthalidone produced the highest incidence of side-effects. Weakness and impotence were most frequently encountered. In contrast, the combination of chlorthalidone, hydralazine and propranolol, and chlorthalidone alone, produced fewer side-effects. It is recommended that alpha-methyldopa should not be a first choice in the treatment of hypertension.

  2. Effects of accompanying anions on cesium retention and translocation via droplets on soybean leaves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Zhao, Ye; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Shuifeng; Xu, Dongyu; Zhang, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Plant foliar uptake and translocation is an important pathway for the migration of radiocesium to the human diet. This study reports the effects of accompanying anions ( [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , and I(-)) on cesium retention and translocation. An experiment to simulate cesium retention and translocation was conducted in a greenhouse by applying droplets of stable cesium solutions to the upper surface of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] trifoliate leaves. The average percentages of cesium retention with the accompanying anions [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , and I(-) on the leaves were 7.2, 21.5, 49.3, and 10.2%, respectively. Retention values of the four treatments were stable during the 3-day exposure period, indicating that cesium could be absorbed and penetrate the cuticle quickly once it was dissolved. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that particles containing cesium remained on the leaf surfaces after washing. Also, nano-sized particles containing cesium were observed inside the leaf tissues. Cesium concentrations in the uncontaminated leaves, pods, stems, and roots increased during the study period indicating cesium redistribution from the contaminated leaves.

  3. Effects of SCR-3 on the immunosuppression accompanied with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Niu, Jie; Ou, Shan; Ye, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Deng-Qun; Wang, Feng-Chao; Su, Yong-Ping; Wang, Jun-Ping

    2012-05-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in mammary gland growth, development, and tumorigenesis. In this study, SCR-3 gene knockout mice were used to study the effects of SCR-3 on the immunosuppression accompanied with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Bacterial clearance assay was performed by blood culture and frozen sections, and the results showed that the absence of SCR-3 protein serious damaged the innate immune system and the body's ability to inactivate or phagocytosis of bacteria was significantly decreased, and the absence of SCR-3 protein also weakened phagocytes' ability to degrade bacteria and their metabolites. Furthermore, animal model of inflammatory reaction was established and the immune function was determined, and the results revealed that SRC-3 protein may play an important role in maintenance of T-cells' immune function, and severe T-cell immune function disorder would be resulted once SRC-3 protein is missing. In addition, the results of our study showed the steady-state of lymphocyte subsets was destroyed after SIRS, leading the suppression of cellular immune function, and the absence of SCR-3 protein may aggravate the suppression of T-lymphocyte function. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the absence of SCR-3 protein would aggravate immunosuppression. In addition, SRC-3 protein is a significant regulator of infection and inflammation, and SRC-3 protein play an essential role in the development of immunosuppression accompanied with SIRS.

  4. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  5. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  6. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In a Danish population study using health registers, agranulocytosis caused by antithyroid drugs was 4 times more frequent than liver failure. Both were very rare in pregnancy, where birth defects were the dominant side effect. PMID:26815881

  7. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study Doctors should weigh the risk-benefit ratio, researcher ... of drugs that boost the immune system," said study author Dr. Laura Cappelli. She is a rheumatologist ...

  8. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  9. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  10. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  11. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  12. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed.

  13. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  14. Is ethnicity associated with morphine's side effects in children? morphine pharmacokinetics, analgesic response and side effects in children having tonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Anderson, Gail D.; Shen, Danny D.; Nielsen, Susan Searles; Farin, Federico M.; Seidel, Kristy; Lynn, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Aims To examine whether morphine pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or genetic polymorphisms in opioid-related genes, underlie differences in analgesic response and side effects to morphine in Latino (L) vs non-Latino Caucasian (NL) children. Background Morphine has high interindividual variability in its analgesic response and side effects profile. Earlier studies suggest that morphine response may vary by race and ethnicity. Methods Prospective cohort study in L and NL children, 3–17 years of age comparing pain scores, occurrence of side effects, plasma morphine, morphine-6-and morphine-3-glucuronide concentrations measured after a single morphine IV bolus administration. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and genotyping for 28 polymorphisms in 8 genes (UGT1A8, UGT2B7, ABCB1, COMT, STAT6, MC1R, OPRM1, and ARRB2) were done. Results We enrolled 68 children (33 L, 35 NL). There were no differences in pain scores or need for rescue analgesia. Statistically significant differences in the occurrence of side effects were documented: While 58% of L children experienced at least one side effect only 20% of NL did (p=0.001). Pruritus was 4 times (p=0.006) and emesis 7 times (p=0.025) more frequent in L compared to NL. PK parameters were similar between groups. None of the assessed polymorphisms mediated the association between ethnicity and side effects. Conclusions We found statistically significant differences in occurrence of side effects after morphine administration between L and NL children. Neither differences in morphine or metabolite concentrations, nor the genetic polymorphisms examined, explain these findings. Studies are needed to further investigate reasons for the increase in morphine side effects by Latino ethnicity. PMID:22486937

  15. Possible Cosmic Ray Using for Forecasting of Major Geomagnetic Storms, Accompanied by Forbush-Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    2003-07-01

    We present developing of methods for forecasting on the basis of NM hourly on-line data geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-effects. These geomagnetic storms are dangerous for technology (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others) and people health. We show that for esp ecially dangerous geomagnetic storms can be used global-sp ectrographic method if on-line will be available 35-40 NM of world-wide net. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of geomagnetic storms can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor is specifically behavior of CR density for about 30-15 hours before SC (pre-increase effect, caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre-decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of ma jor geomagnetic storms. This research is partly supported by the EU INTAS grant 00-0810.

  16. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  17. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  18. Relief from cancer chemotherapy side effects with pharmacologic vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Carr, Anitra C; Vissers, Margreet C M; Cook, John

    2014-01-24

    Fatigue is a common, often debilitating, side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Pharmacologic vitamin C has been used as an alternative treatment for the disease itself but its effects on fatigue have not often been documented. Here we report on the case of a woman with recurrent breast cancer, undergoing weekly chemotherapy, with lethargy as a major symptom. Vitamin C (50 g/session) was administered twice weekly and quality of life and multidimensional fatigue symptomology questionnaires were undertaken. Dramatic decreases in fatigue and insomnia were observed, as well as increased cognitive functioning. There were no adverse side effects of i.v. vitamin C.

  19. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  20. Effects of Levosulpiride in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia Accompanied by Delayed Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Wook; Chun, Hoon-Jae; Kim, Chang-Duck; Ryu, Ho-Sang; Choe, Jae-Gol; Hyun, Jin-Hai

    1998-01-01

    Objectives Levosulpiride is the levo-enantiomer of sulpiride, a well-known antiemetic, antidyspeptic and antipsychotic drug. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of levosulpiride on dyspeptic symptoms and gastric motor function in a group of patients with functional dyspepsia showing delayed gastric emptying. Method Forty two eligible patients were entered into a 3 week, double-blind randomized comparison of 25mg of levosulpiride or placebo t.i.d.. Symptom assessment and gastric scintigraphy following the intake of scrambled egg sandwich, were performed in each patient before and after treatment. Results The improvement of symptom score in levosulpiride group was higher than the placebo group (p<0.05). We assessed global efficacy, which was excellent in 1 (6%), good 11 (65%), fair 4 (24%), nil 1 (6%) of those receiving levosulpiride, and fair 9(60%), nil 5 (33%), poor 1 (6%) of those receiving placebo. Levosulpiride tended to be more effective than placebo in relieving the dyspeptic symptoms especially in the subgroups of dysmotility-like (p<0.05) and nonspecific (p<0.05) as compared to other subgroups (p=0.16). The reduction of gastric emptying time after levosulpiride treatment was more marked than Placebo group (p<0.05). We found a significant correlation between changes of symptom score and gastric emptying time (r=0.47, p=0.01. No serious adverse effects were reported after administration of either levosulpiride or placebo. Only two patients reported mild somnolence during levosulpiride administration. Conclusions Levosulpiride is effective and well tolerated in patients with functional dyspepsia accompanied by delayed gastric emptying. Its efficacy may be related to its action on the gastric motor function by improving the delayed gastric emptying. PMID:9538626

  1. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  2. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  3. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  4. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs. PMID:20603395

  5. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated ... health care provider tells you to. What HIV medicines can cause a hypersensitivity reaction? Nevirapine (brand name: ...

  6. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Lipodystrophy (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Lipodystrophy refers to the changes ... loss on the face and leg . Which HIV medicines are linked to lipodystrophy? Although more research is ...

  7. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in ... are also infected with hepatitis C. What HIV medicines increase the risk of type 2 diabetes? Some ...

  9. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  10. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  11. Development and validation of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Tracy A.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a measure of antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects in children with a variety of seizure types, treatments, and therapy durations. Methods: Content for an initial 44-item measure was developed using the previously published Hague Scale and expert opinion from recognized pediatric epileptologists (n = 12) and caregivers of children with epilepsy (n = 21). The measure was completed by caregivers during routine clinic visits. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Results: Questionnaires were analyzed from 495 children with epilepsy (Mage = 10.1 years; range 2–21 years; 42% female; 14% African American; 32% new onset vs 68% chronic epilepsy). The final questionnaire, the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ), is a 19-item measure with 5 subscales (i.e., cognitive, motor, behavioral, general neurological, and weight) that accounts for 99% of the variance. Internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.93 and 0.74 to 0.97, respectively. Construct validity was demonstrated by increasing side effects as the number of drugs increased. Participants on valproic acid had significantly higher scores on the Weight Scale compared to those on carbamazepine. Conclusions: The PESQ is a reliable and valid measure of AED side effects in children across the epilepsy spectrum that can be used in both clinical and research settings. PMID:22875082

  12. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis.

  13. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  14. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  15. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do not correspond to ADRs.

  16. Self-report of gastrointestinal side effects after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of bariatric surgery are limited due to incomplete reporting, cross sectional samples, and non-standardized assessments. Objective To report on GI side effects over the first 6 months following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Setting Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods One hundred forty-four patients completed a standardized clinical interview 6 months after operation, including questions on the occurrence and frequency of episodes of dumping syndrome, vomiting, and plugging for each of the past 6 months; monthly rates were stable, so results were averaged over the entire period. Although data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial, randomization group and the interaction of group by surgical procedure were not related to GI side effects. Thus, results are reported by procedure only (RYGB; n = 87, LAGB; n= 56). Results RYGB patients had a higher preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 6.8 vs. 43.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.001), were more likely to report dumping (45.7% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and were less likely to report plugging (45.7% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.0005). Vomiting did not differ significantly by procedure (68.6% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.7). Most patients experienced each GI side effect less than once per week. Conclusions Although self-reported GI side effects were common over the first 6 months after operation, the frequency of episodes was relatively low. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether symptoms worsen or improve over time. PMID:25443069

  17. [Influence of potassium on Mg- and Ca-metabolism in cows: effects and side effects of scientific research].

    PubMed

    Martens, H; Schweigel, M

    2003-12-01

    Results of scientific studies are obtained by analysing of the present knowledge of a current problem and a corresponding new experimental set-up. Under ideal conditions the data of the new study agree with the deduced working hypothesis. This general consideration is true for the well established correlation between K content and growth rates of plants. At low K concentrations (up to 3% of dry matter) K causes a linear increase of growth and finally a saturation. This positive effect of K on growth rates of plants is accompanied by some side effects. There is no doubt that a high intake of K is involved in the pathogenesis of grass tetany and of milk fever. The present publication gives some information about this correlation and discusses the discrepancy between the intention of a scientific study and possible "side effects", which cannot be predicted in many cases. PMID:14725184

  18. Anti-inflammatory and side effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Süleyman, Halis; Demircan, Berna; Karagöz, Yalçin

    2007-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly used drugs in inflammatory diseases, since they are effective in management of pain, fever, redness, edema arising as a consequence of inflammatory mediator release. Studies have shown that both therapeutic and side effects of NSAIDs are dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. COX isoforms have been named constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2). COX-1 catalyzes formation of cytoprotective prostaglandins in thrombocytes, vascular endothelium, stomach mucosa, kidneys, pancreas, Langerhans islets, seminal vesicles, and brain. Induction of COX-2 by various growth factors, proinflammatory agents, endotoxins, mitogens, and tumor agents indicates that this isoform may have a role in induction of pathological processes, such as inflammation. It is well known that therapy with COX inhibitors is associated with a number of side effects including gastrointestinal erosions, and renal and hepatic insufficiency. Such critical adverse reactions are mostly dependent on COX-1 inhibition. As a result of research focused on reduction of the adverse effects of NSAIDs, selective COX-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib and rofecoxib have been developed. However, many data demonstrate that mechanisms of action of these drugs are multidirectional and complex. These drugs or their derivatives, which belong to the same group, have distinct pharmacological effects, side effects and potencies which implies that there may be more than two, five or even tens of COX isoforms.

  19. Iconic gestures prime words: comparison of priming effects when gestures are presented alone and when they are accompanying speech

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing-Chee; Yi-Feng, Alvan Low; Yap, De-Fu; Kheng, Eugene; Yap, Ju-Min Melvin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that iconic gestures presented in an isolated manner prime visually presented semantically related words. Since gestures and speech are almost always produced together, this study examined whether iconic gestures accompanying speech would prime words and compared the priming effect of iconic gestures with speech to that of iconic gestures presented alone. Adult participants (N = 180) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions in a lexical decision task: Gestures-Only (the primes were iconic gestures presented alone); Speech-Only (the primes were auditory tokens conveying the same meaning as the iconic gestures); Gestures-Accompanying-Speech (the primes were the simultaneous coupling of iconic gestures and their corresponding auditory tokens). Our findings revealed significant priming effects in all three conditions. However, the priming effect in the Gestures-Accompanying-Speech condition was comparable to that in the Speech-Only condition and was significantly weaker than that in the Gestures-Only condition, suggesting that the facilitatory effect of iconic gestures accompanying speech may be constrained by the level of language processing required in the lexical decision task where linguistic processing of words forms is more dominant than semantic processing. Hence, the priming effect afforded by the co-speech iconic gestures was weakened. PMID:24155738

  20. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  1. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE...

  2. The Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied with Animations on Overcoming 11th Grade Students' Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Hulya; Demircioglu, Gokhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with computer animations on 11th grade students' understanding and alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding. One experimental group (EG; N = 28) and one comparison group (CG; N = 30) were used in the study. While the comparison group taught traditional…

  3. Aggressive behavior as a rare side effect of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has a well-established position in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), it may be accompanied by different side effects including behavioral changes. We present a patient with advanced PD after bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) who developed attacks of aggressive behavior. The patient with a 12 year history of PD underwent the procedure of DBS with one-stage bilateral stereotactic approach using the Leksel G stereotactic frame. For STN identification microrecording technique was applied (5 microelectrodes). Four weeks after surgery STN stimulation was switched on. With increasing the amplitude of stimulation on the right (active contacts 1 and 2) the patient experienced transient episodes of aggression. Change of stimulation mode led to withdrawal of all side effects. We hypothesize that aggression episodes in the patient were caused by stimulation of limbic circuit probable within STN although we cannot exclude simultaneous stimulation of neighboring structures. Aggression episodes are rare side effect of STN-DBS, nevertheless they may be expected in more posteromedial placement of the electrode within STN. The presented case extends the evidence for non-motor functions of STN and highlights its role as an integrating structure within the basal ganglia system.

  4. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Post-Transplant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Valerian Ciprian; Berardinelli, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Modern immunosuppressive therapy has produced a real revolution in renal and organ transplantation but it comes with the price of multiple side effects. There are many gastrointestinal (GI) complications that are the consequence of transplant immunosuppressant medication. In fact, for any immunosuppressant therapy, certain standardized precepts and attitudes that aim to reduce the incidence and the impact of the medication side effects must be applied. Many patients undergo renal transplantation and the physicians have to be aware of the advantages and the risks associated. This article reviews the main GI complications that may arise as a consequence of immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, focusing on renal and renal/pancreas transplantation, as well as the ways in which the incidence of these complications can be reduced. Management of the post-transplant therapy is mandatory in order to increase not only the grafts' and the patients' survival, but also their quality of life by the occurrence of fewer complications. PMID:27689202

  5. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  6. [New side effects of proton pump inhibitors; time for reflection?].

    PubMed

    de Wit, N J; Numans, M E

    2016-01-01

    Large population studies published recently have revealed additional risks of chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Dementia and renal failure were reported as long-term follow-up side effects of chronic use, in addition to the previously known increased risk for various infections, osteoporosis and metabolic disturbances. In the light of ongoing over-prescription of PPIs, this should lead to reconsideration of individual indications. PMID:27334088

  7. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  8. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  9. Plasma fenfluramine levels, weight loss, and side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Innes, J A; Watson, M L; Ford, M J; Munro, J F; Stoddart, M E; Campbell, D B

    1977-01-01

    Fifty women with refractory obesity received fenfluramine for 20 weeks. Every two weeks details of weight change, drug dose, degree of anorexia, and any side effects were recorded and plasma was obtained for fenfluramine and norfenfluramine measurements. Of the 41 patients available for final analysis 26 achieved a maximum plateau dose of 160 mg/day. Plasma fenfluramine concentrations did not correlate with the degree of anorexia or with the incidence of side effects other than the severity of dream disturbance. There was a highly significant relation between weight loss and plasma fenfluramine and norfenfluramine concentrations and also between weight loss and the presence of sustained anorexia. Women who achieved mean plateau concentrations over 200 ng/ml lost a mean 8.8 kg while those with concentrations less than 100 ng/ml lost a mean of only 2.1 kg. When fenfluramine is prescribed in refractory obesity the dose should be increased stepwise until either satisfactory weight loss is achieved or troublesome side effects appear. PMID:589167

  10. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change.

    PubMed

    Junger, Katherine W; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C

    2015-04-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2-25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were as follows: Cognitive=4.66, Motor=4.67, Behavior=8.05, General Neurological=7.41, Weight=9.58, and Total Side Effects=3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision-making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  11. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic treatment response and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, B; Souza, RP; Likhodi, O; Tiwari, AK; Zai, CC; Sturgess, J

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are particularly interesting in pharmacogenetic studies as they are associated with a large interindividual variability in terms of response and side effects and, therefore, frequently need to be discontinued, requiring switches to other antipsychotics. Any information that allows the prediction of outcome to a given antipsychotic in a particular patient will, therefore, be of great help for the clinician to minimize time and find the right drug for the right patient, thus optimizing response and minimizing side effects. This will also have a substantial impact on compliance and doctor–patient relationships. Moreover, antipsychotic drug treatments are often required for life-long treatment and are also frequently prescribed to the more ‘vulnerable’ populations: children, adolescents and the elderly. This article focuses on some important studies performed with candidate gene variants associated with antipsychotic response. In addition, important findings in pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotic-induced side effects will be briefly summarized, such as antipsychotic treatment induced tardive dyskinesia and weight gain. PMID:22287936

  12. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    PubMed

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  13. Effects and Side Effects of Inspections and Accountability in Education: An Overview of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, Frans J. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of whether inspections have positive causal effects on…

  14. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  15. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  16. Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids in Weight-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R H; Wright, J E; Finerman, G A; Catlin, D H

    1983-12-01

    In brief: This study documents the patterns of use of anabolic steroids in 32 body builders and power lifters. These subjects and seven control athletes who had never used steroids were interviewed and underwent a medical examination including 28 diagnostic blood tests and a urinalysis. Gynecomastia was detected in 4 of the 20 current users and 1 of the other 19 subjects. Sixty-seven percent of users reported temporary changes in libido, and 56% reported a temporary increase in irritability or aggressive behavior. Physicians should tell patients about the possible adverse side effects of such agents.

  17. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy. PMID:25671958

  18. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism. PMID:27211356

  19. Drug-induced ocular side-effects with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Barrado-Navascués, Eva; Rubido-Crespo, María-José

    2008-09-01

    Whereas there are numerous reported ocular side-effects from isotretinoin medication, we present the first case report of corneal steepening after systemic treatment with isotretinoin for seven and a half weeks. The case was associated with a significant drop in visual acuity which could not be explained from the refractive error change. All signs and symptoms were absent seven and a half weeks after the medication was withdrawn. The case indicates that eye care professionals need to be vigilant about the possibility of adverse ocular manifestations associated with the use of systemic medications.

  20. [Downbeat nystagmus - a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate].

    PubMed

    Monden, M A H; Nederkoorn, P J; Tijsma, M

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman who had been treated with lithium carbonate for 10 years developed a downbeat nystagmus. The literature describes downbeat nystagmus as a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate. In this patient other causes of downbeat nystagmus were ruled out. In most cases stopping lithium carbonate does not alleviate the symptoms, which are often debilitating. At the moment there is no adequate treatment for the condition. In some cases, however, the symptoms subside after the patient stops taking lithium. Therefore, we consider that early recognition of downbeat nystagmus in patients being treated with lithium carbonate is vitally important.

  1. Male superiority in spatial navigation: adaptation or side effect?

    PubMed

    Clint, Edward K; Sober, Elliott; Garland, Theodore; Rhodes, Justin S

    2012-12-01

    In the past few decades, sex differences in spatial cognition have often been attributed to adaptation in response to natural selection. A common explanation is that home range size differences between the sexes created different cognitive demands pertinent to wayfinding in each sex and resulted in the evolution of sex differences in spatial navigational ability in both humans and nonhuman mammals. However, the assumption of adaptation as the appropriate mode of explanation was nearly simultaneous with the discovery and subsequent verification of the male superiority effect, even without any substantive evidence establishing a causal role for adaptation. An alternate possibility that the sex difference in cognition is a genetic or hormonal side effect has not been rigorously tested using the comparative method. The present study directly evaluates how well the range hypothesis fits the available data on species differences in spatial ability by use of a phylogenetically based, cross-species, comparative analysis. We find no support for the hypothesis that species differences in home range size dimorphism are positively associated with parallel differences in spatial navigation abilities. The alternative hypothesis that sex differences in spatial cognition result as a hormonal side effect is better supported by the data.

  2. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-06-21

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of 'exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of 'endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of 'endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.

  3. The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saktanli, S. Cem

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

  4. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change

    PubMed Central

    Junger, Katherine W.; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2–25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were: Cognitive = 4.66; Motor = 4.67; Behavior = 8.05; General Neurological = 7.41; Weight = 9.58; Total PESQ = 3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12 months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12 months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  5. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  6. Gastrointestinal motor-stimulating activity of macrolide antibiotics and analysis of their side effects on the canine gut.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Z; Suzuki, T; Nakaya, M; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1984-01-01

    For clarification of the nature of the side effects of macrolide antibiotics on the gastrointestinal tract, the motor-stimulating activity of these agents was studied in unanesthetized dogs. The results showed that erythromycin and oleandomycin, the 14-membered macrolides with two side chain sugars combined at C3 and C5 in a glycosidic linkage in parallel, strongly stimulate gastrointestinal motor activity, an action accompanied by vomiting at large doses. On the other hand, leucomycin, acetylspiramycin, and tylosin, belonging to a 16-membered macrolide with two side chain sugars in series combined at C5 of the lactone ring, did not induce contractions of the gastrointestinal tract. Motor-stimulating activity by erythromycin and oleandomycin was greatly inhibited by atropine sulfate. These results point to structure-physiological activity relationships. PMID:6524902

  7. Cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drugs in children.

    PubMed

    Ijff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2013-01-01

    Although the causes of cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy have not been completely elucidated, three factors are clearly involved: the underlying etiology of epilepsy, the effects of seizures or the epileptiform EEG discharges themselves, and the central nervous system effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). All commonly used AEDs have some effect on cognitive function, and the effect may be substantial when crucial functions are involved, such as learning in children. With phenobarbital, there is a high risk for serious cognitive effects impacting attention and memory. Phenytoin may affect mental speed, mainly in higher dosing and polytherapy. Moderate monotherapy doses do not seem to induce much effect. Valproate does not seem to impair cognition if sufficiently controlled for hyperammonemia. For carbamazepine, there are conflicting reports, which may be due to selection bias or dosing. For oxcarbazepine, there is no evidence for any detrimental change compared to valproate but mild improvements on attentional tests. For topiramate, there is clear evidence for topiramate-induced cognitive impairment (attention, memory, and language function) in adults and children. Although data is sketchy, levetiracetam does not seem to have a negative impact on cognition. For lamotrigine, there is evidence of a cognitive-enhancing effect on attention. No evidence for cognitive side-effects has been found for vigabatrin. Ethosuximide is not associated with cognitive impairment although the evidence is sketchy. For gabapentin, tiagabine, zonisamide, and rufinamide no studies in children are available. PMID:23622218

  8. Ocular Side Effect of Tinidazole: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  9. [Toxicity of cyproheptadine. Side effects and accidental overdosage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    von Mühlendahl, K E; Krienke, E G

    1978-03-01

    113 cases of accidental ingestion of cyproheptadine (Nuran) by children have been evaluated. Life threatening alterations have not been observed after doses ranging from 0.3-6.15 (x:1.89) mg per kg of body weight. Somnolence, excitation, hallucinations, ataxia, tachycardia, and muscle twitchings were observed frequently, and occasionally gastric pain, dry mucuous surfaces, mydriasis, and rubeosis of the face were present. Symptoms appeared rapidly after ingestion and generally did not last longer than 6-12 h. When given in therapeutic doses, cyproheptadine reduces the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone, lowers blood glucose concentrations, and raises the levels of unesterified free fatty acids. Parents frequently complain about unsatisfactory eating habits of their children, but chronic lack of appetite needing therapeutical attention, in healthy children, is the rare exception. Cyproheptadine is an agent with considerable side effects, and it should be prescribed to children only after very careful deliberation.

  10. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  11. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  12. Peripheral oedema as a side-effect of fluticasone

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Alice; Godden, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl had experienced gross peripheral oedema for nearly 2 years. She was under review by several paediatric specialists for a variety of problems. Her local paediatric team were unable to find the cause of her oedema, despite extensive investigations. Eventually, her mother discovered the cause was inhaled fluticasone, prescribed at normal dosage for asthma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first reported case of peripheral oedema associated with the use of fluticasone. Peripheral oedema is a rare side-effect of fluticasone in the form of either seretide or flixotide. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in cases of resistant peripheral oedema with no other identified cause. PMID:22752833

  13. Drug cutaneous side effect: focus on skin ulceration.

    PubMed

    D'Epiro, S; Salvi, M; Luzi, A; Mattozzi, C; Luci, C; Macaluso, L; Marzocca, F; Salvo, V; Cantisani, C; Paolino, G; Calvieri, S; Richetta, A G

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulcers are defined as tissue loss interesting the deeper layers of the dermis and hypodermis, with low tendency to spontaneous healing. They cause disability related to pain, risk of infection and amputation, chronic management, requiring working absence with notably economic burden. The major cause is often related to underlying vascular disease, infections, tumors, autoimmunity, trauma, even if literature occasionally reported several cases of drug inducing skin ulceration. Most of drugs involved are chemotherapy agents and more recently molecular target therapies. Evidences supporting these drugs as the major cause of skin ulcers include delay of onset after therapy initiation, improvement after withdrawal of the drug, recurrence after its reintroduction and, sometimes, simultaneous occurrence of other skin lesions that have previously been reported to be associated with these agents. Attention should be reserved to patients undergoing antineoplastic agents, especially if previously affected by predisposing comorbidities, considering such side effect as possible differential diagnosis for skin ulceration in neoplastic patients. PMID:25203350

  14. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use. PMID:22409453

  15. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard

  16. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  17. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  18. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20-50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  19. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique

    PubMed Central

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20–50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  20. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  1. Transient anabolic effects accompany epidermal growth factor receptor signal activation in articular cartilage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Methods Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. Results The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than normal articular cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Mig-6-cko articular cartilage contained a population of chondrocytes in which EGFR signaling was activated, and which were three to four times more proliferative than normal Mig-6-flox articular chondrocytes. These cells expressed high levels of the master chondrogenic regulatory factor Sox9, as well as high levels of putative progenitor cell markers including superficial zone protein (SZP), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and Notch1. Expression levels were also high for activated β-catenin and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediators phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3). Anabolic effects of EGFR activation in articular cartilage were followed by catabolic events, including matrix degradation, as determined by accumulation of aggrecan cleavage fragments, and onset of hypertrophy as determined by type × collagen expression. By 16 weeks of age, the articular cartilage of

  2. The effects of Raman scattering accompanied by the soliton excitation occurring in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, X. F.

    2001-06-01

    A theoretical research is made for the effects of Raman scattering caused by the soliton excitation occurring in the organic molecular crystals, e.g., acetanilide, on the basis of vibration model of amide-I. The energy gap between the soliton state and the vibron state have been found by partial diagonalized method in second quantized representation, which is 18.1-33 cm -1. This result is approximately consistent with the red shift value obtained from the experiments, 16 cm -1. The differential cross-section of the Raman scattering, arising from the soliton excitation, has also been obtained. Finally, we derive some properties of the Raman scattering in such a case. This result establishes spectral signatures of the soliton in the molecular crystals, which may be observed in the experiment.

  3. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  4. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  5. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug.

  6. Case role filling as a side effect of visual search

    SciTech Connect

    Marburger, H.; Wahlster, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generating communicatively adequate extended responses in the absence of specific knowledge concerning the intentions of the questioner. The authors formulate and justify a heuristic for the selection of optional deep case slots not contained in the question as candidates for the additional information contained in an extended response. It is shown that, in a visually present domain of discourse, case role filling for the construction of an extended response can be regarded as a side effect of the visual search necessary to answer a question containing a locomotion verb. The paper describes the various representation constructions used in the German language dialog system HAM-ANS for dealing with the semantics of locomotion verbs and illustrates their use in generating extended responses. In particular, it outlines the structure of the geometrical scene description, the representation of events in a logic-oriented semantic representation language, the case-frame lexicon and the representation of the referential semantics based on the flavor system. The emphasis is on a detailed presentation of the application of object-oriented programming methods for coping with the semantics of locomotion verbs. The process of generating an extended response is illustrated by an extensively annotated trace. 13 references.

  7. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators. PMID:25802141

  8. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators.

  9. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  10. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  11. Transversus abdominis block: clinical uses, side effects, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Sinclair, Alexander; Raffa, Robert B; Aldington, Dominic; Plavin, Stanford; Apfel, Christian C

    2013-04-01

    Poorly controlled acute pain during the postoperative setting after abdominal surgery can be detrimental to the patient. Current pain management practices for the postoperative abdominal surgery patient rely heavily on opioids, which are associated with many unwanted side effects. Recently, interest surrounding regional anesthesia has been growing owing to its demonstrated efficacy and safety outcomes. More specifically, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block procedure has attracted attention owing to its ability to successfully block peripheral pain signaling in the abdomen, its ease of use, few complications, and its greater acceptability. A majority of the studies published has demonstrated the successful reduction in pain in many abdominal surgical procedures using local anesthetics during the TAP block. However, the short duration of the pain block causes the patient to still rely on other analgesics throughout the additional postoperative days. Preliminary studies using continuous infusion catheters placed in the TAP has been one of the ways to prolong the nerve block in the abdomen; however, technical and operational issues currently limit the widespread adoption of this method. In this review, current studies will be presented and summarized to update the field on the potential benefits of the TAP block procedure, in addition to providing insight into the future direction of the drugs that could be used for TAP block.

  12. Contraceptive led to hysterectomy. Drug maker liable for side effects.

    PubMed

    Hladky, M

    1989-01-12

    Having previously suffered side effects with an IUD device and the contraceptive pill, Anne Marie MacMurdo sought an alternate method of contraception. She received her first injection of Depo-Provera in 1974 from a New Orleans gynecologist. Three months later, MacMurdo received a second injection from a gynecologist in Miami. Following this second injection, she experienced continuous menstrual bleeding and reported her condition to the gynecologist in New Orleans. He advised MacMurdo to undergo an hysterectomy to stop the painful bleeding and the operation was performed five months after the second injection. MacMurdo filed a product liability suit three years later against Upjohn Inc., the manufacturer of Depo-Provera. The fourth District Court of Appeals (DCA) in Broward County, Florida, in December 1988 ruled Upjohn negligent and awarded MacMurdo $370,000 in damages. Upjohn plans to contest the ruling. This case is already one of the longest running court fights in Broward County history, already going before the fourth DCA in West Palm Beach three times before this most recent ruling. Depo-Provera's uses, the MacMurdo case, and Upjohn's defense are reviewed.

  13. Anti-Arrhythmic Effect of Verapamil Is Accompanied by Preservation of Cx43 Protein in Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu-Lin; Wu, Qi; Chen, Mai; Pei, Jian-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The present study was to test the hypothesis that anti-arrhythmic properties of verapamil may be accompanied by preserving connexin43 (Cx43) protein via calcium influx inhibition. In an in vivo study, myocardial ischemic arrhythmia was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery for 45 min in Sprague-Dawley rats. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, was injected i.v. into a femoral vein prior to ischemia. Effects of verapamil on arrhythmias induced by Bay K8644 (a calcium channel agonist) were also determined. In an ex vivo study, the isolated heart underwent an initial 10 min of baseline normal perfusion and was subjected to high calcium perfusion in the absence or presence of verapamil. Cardiac arrhythmia was measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) and Cx43 protein was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Administration of verapamil prior to myocardial ischemia significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and total arrhythmia scores, with the reductions in heat rate, mean arterial pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure. Verapamil also inhibited arrhythmias induced by Bay K8644 and high calcium perfusion. Effect of verapamil on ischemic arrhythmia scores was abolished by heptanol, a Cx43 protein uncoupler and Gap 26, a Cx43 channels inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry data showed that ischemia-induced redistribution and reduced immunostaining of Cx43 were prevented by verapamil. In addition, diminished expression of Cx43 protein determined by western blotting was observed following myocardial ischemia in vivo or following high calcium perfusion ex vivo and was preserved after verapamil administration. Our data suggest that verapamil may confer an anti-arrhythmic effect via calcium influx inhibition, inhibition of oxygen consumption and accompanied by preservation of Cx43 protein. PMID:23951191

  14. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  15. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Mo, Monica L.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies. PMID:26055627

  16. Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: the experience of Australian mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom; Stomski, Norman Jay

    2015-06-01

    The present study explores people's experience of living with antipsychotic medication side-effects. Qualitative data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 10 mental health consumers in a community care setting in Australia. The interview transcriptions were content analysed, and enhanced by combining manifest and latent content. Important contextual cues were identified through replaying the audio-recordings. Several main themes emerged from the analysis, including the impact of side-effects, attitudes to the use of medication and side-effects, and coping strategies to manage medication side-effects. Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a 'zombie'-like state. Most participants expressed an attitude of acceptance about the side-effects. The participants' most common strategy to manage side-effects was to change the dosage of the medication. Other common side-effect management strategies involved using other medications to control side-effects, and diverse self-help techniques, the most common of which was relaxation/distraction techniques. PMID:25529392

  17. The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients’ balance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Kyou Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients’ balance ability. [Methods] For six weeks beginning in April 2015, 22 stroke patients receiving physical therapy at K Hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided into a functional electrical stimulation (FES), ankle proprioceptive exercise and ankle joint muscle strengthening exercise group (FPS group) of 11 patients and an FES and stretching exercise group (FS group) of 11 patients. The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30 min per day, five days per week for six weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue and the Berg balance scale, functional reach test, and the timed up-and-go test were also used as clinical evaluation indices. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between before the exercises and at three and six weeks after beginning the exercises within each group, and the amounts of change between the two groups were compared. [Results] In the comparison within each group, both groups showed significant differences between before and after the experiment in all the tests and comparison between the groups showed that greater improvement was seen in all values in the FPS group. [Conclusion] In the present study, implementing FES and stretching exercises plus ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises was more effective at improving stroke patients balance ability than implementing only FES and stretching exercises. PMID:26504337

  18. The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients' balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Kyou Sik

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients' balance ability. [Methods] For six weeks beginning in April 2015, 22 stroke patients receiving physical therapy at K Hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided into a functional electrical stimulation (FES), ankle proprioceptive exercise and ankle joint muscle strengthening exercise group (FPS group) of 11 patients and an FES and stretching exercise group (FS group) of 11 patients. The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30 min per day, five days per week for six weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue and the Berg balance scale, functional reach test, and the timed up-and-go test were also used as clinical evaluation indices. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between before the exercises and at three and six weeks after beginning the exercises within each group, and the amounts of change between the two groups were compared. [Results] In the comparison within each group, both groups showed significant differences between before and after the experiment in all the tests and comparison between the groups showed that greater improvement was seen in all values in the FPS group. [Conclusion] In the present study, implementing FES and stretching exercises plus ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises was more effective at improving stroke patients balance ability than implementing only FES and stretching exercises.

  19. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  20. Exploring the relationship between drug side-effects and therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html. PMID:24551427

  1. Exploring the Relationship Between Drug Side-Effects and Therapeutic Indications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html. PMID:24551427

  2. Exploring the relationship between drug side-effects and therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html.

  3. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  4. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO3) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO3 as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO3 thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W5+ ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO3 could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, σ increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO3 after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, σphoto) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, Sphoto)) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO3 thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, σphoto and the absolute value of Sphoto increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W5+ state) to the conduction band of WO3. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO3 thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  5. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, σ increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, σ{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  6. Metabolic Disturbances, Side Effect Profile and Effectiveness of Clozapine in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13) patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward) 46.2% (6/13) had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100%) followed by sedation (69%). Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population. PMID:27335518

  7. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  8. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  9. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  10. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  11. The use of the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P; Gaskill, D; Meehan, T; Lunney, P; Lawrence, G; Collings, P

    2000-12-01

    Forty-four mental health clients completed the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS)--a self-rating scale to assess the prevalence and intensity of neuroleptic side-effects. In the month prior to the study, 50% of the clients surveyed had experienced more than half of the side-effects outlined on the 41-item scale. A prevalence profile allowed us to rank the frequency of individual side-effects across the sample. Some side-effects such as 'difficulty concentrating', 'difficulty remembering', 'tiredness' and 'restlessness' were experienced by most of the clients in the study while 'unusual skin marks', 'difficulty passing water', 'rashes' were experienced by a few. A prevalence profile may be a useful guide in developing strategies for managing side-effects more effectively in small groups of clients. In addition, the use of the LUNSERS in clinical practice would enable case managers to establish baseline measures for individual clients and evaluate changes in medication and other non-medical strategies for reducing unwanted side-effects. The identification and assessment of antipsychotic side-effects is an important area for client and professional carer education.

  12. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Mika; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Kusunoki, Maho; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Sayaka; Uno, Goichi; Ikuma, Isao; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Background Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. Methods After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT. Before beginning the treatment, 4 patients (40%) had a diagnosis of SIBO based on a positive glucose breath test result. In both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, bowel movement frequency and stool form remained unchanged after DKT treatment. Results For all patients, median total Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score and the median Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale indigestion and constipation subscales were significantly decreased, whereas the median visual analog score for decreased abdominal bloating was significantly increased. Improvements of those symptoms were the same in both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, indicating that DKT does not have effects on small intestine bacteria. No serious side effects were reported. Conclusions DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070. PMID:27069528

  13. Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Storelvmo, T; Boos, W R; Herger, N

    2014-12-28

    Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example, the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. We find that seeding of mid- and high-latitude cirrus clouds has the potential to cool the planet by about 1.4 K, and that this cooling is accompanied by only a modest reduction in rainfall. Intriguingly, seeding of the 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time yields the same global mean cooling as a seeding strategy that involves 45% of the globe. In either case, the cooling is strongest at high latitudes, and could therefore serve to prevent Arctic sea ice loss. With the caveat that there are still significant uncertainties associated with ice nucleation in cirrus clouds and its representation in climate models, cirrus seeding appears to represent a powerful CEM with reduced side effects.

  14. Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Storelvmo, T; Boos, W R; Herger, N

    2014-12-28

    Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example, the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. We find that seeding of mid- and high-latitude cirrus clouds has the potential to cool the planet by about 1.4 K, and that this cooling is accompanied by only a modest reduction in rainfall. Intriguingly, seeding of the 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time yields the same global mean cooling as a seeding strategy that involves 45% of the globe. In either case, the cooling is strongest at high latitudes, and could therefore serve to prevent Arctic sea ice loss. With the caveat that there are still significant uncertainties associated with ice nucleation in cirrus clouds and its representation in climate models, cirrus seeding appears to represent a powerful CEM with reduced side effects. PMID:25404685

  15. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  16. The effective theory of quintessence: the w < -1 side unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; D'Amico, Guido; Norena, Jorge E-mail: damico@sissa.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2009-02-15

    We study generic single-field dark energy models, by a parametrization of the most general theory of their perturbations around a given background, including higher derivative terms. In appropriate limits this approach reproduces standard quintessence, k-essence and ghost condensation. We find no general pathology associated to an equation of state w{sub Q} < -1 or in crossing the phantom divide w{sub Q} = -1. Stability requires that the w{sub Q} < -1 side of dark energy behaves, on cosmological scales, as a k-essence fluid with a virtually zero speed of sound. This implies that one should set the speed of sound to zero when comparing with data models with w{sub Q} < -1 or crossing the phantom divide. We summarize the theoretical and stability constraints on the quintessential plane (1+w{sub Q}) vs. speed of sound squared.

  17. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  18. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  19. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-25

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  20. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  1. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  2. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells. PMID:26754772

  3. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  4. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  5. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  6. Treatment strategy: Role of enfuvirtide in managing treatment-limiting side effects.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Side effects can limit the options available to physicians for the treatment of HIV infection. Management of these side effects is essential, to avoid cessation of treatment. The entry inhibitor enfuvirtide can be useful as one of three active agents in an HIV treatment regimen as a way to both reduce treatment-limiting side effects and provide an efficacious agent for viral control. In the present case, the patient had a problematic and lengthy treatment history, with numerous concomitant conditions. His latest regimen, which includes an agent in a new drug class (enfuvirtide), has maintained HIV suppression while minimizing toxicity.

  7. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis.

  8. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Different types of cancer treatment can affect your sexuality and fertility in different ways. Surgery for cancer: ... Effects: What Women Can Do About Changes in Sexuality and Fertility. April 2007. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  9. Antimalarials in dermatology: mechanism of action, indications, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caruncho, C; Bielsa Marsol, I

    2014-04-01

    Antimalarial drugs have been in common use in dermatology since the 1950s. Their mechanism of action is complex, and it is now known that they act through various pathways. We review the indications for antimalarials in dermatology, their adverse effects, and some less well-known effects, such as their antithrombotic and hypolipidemic action. The most recent recommendations concerning ophthalmological screening in patients on antimalarials are also reviewed.

  10. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin". PMID:26887117

  11. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance.

  12. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  13. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. PMID:25293550

  14. Toxic side effects of local anaesthetics on the human cornea.

    PubMed Central

    Boljka, M; Kolar, G; Vidensek, J

    1994-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 0.5% amethocaine (tetracaine) on the human cornea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructural examination of epithelial cells showed damage of the cell membrane, rare-faction and loss of microvilli, deposits of amethocaine on the corneal surface and accelerated desquamation of superficial epithelial cells. Images PMID:8025073

  15. A weighty matter: heaviness influences the evaluation of disease severity, drug effectiveness, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Peoples' perception of diseases and pharmaceutical drugs is a critical issue in health research. Beliefs about disease severity influence the compliance with recommendations for convalescence and the motivation to perform proper health-behavior. The estimated effectiveness of drugs and severity of side effects influence medication adherence and contribute to placebo effects. The present paper closes the gap between these effects and the concept of embodied cognition from a metaphor-enriched perspective. In five studies, we demonstrate that the bodily sensation of weight influences our evaluations of diseases and drugs. The experience of heaviness enhanced the estimated seriousness of diseases and the estimated effectiveness of drugs. The perceived seriousness of drug side effects was also affected by weight but only when drug effectiveness was not attended to. Moreover, the incidental sensation of weight shows a novel effect when evaluating weight-related drugs. The results are in line with the idea of embodied metaphors and reveal important boundary conditions which contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  16. A Weighty Matter: Heaviness Influences the Evaluation of Disease Severity, Drug Effectiveness, and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Peoples' perception of diseases and pharmaceutical drugs is a critical issue in health research. Beliefs about disease severity influence the compliance with recommendations for convalescence and the motivation to perform proper health-behavior. The estimated effectiveness of drugs and severity of side effects influence medication adherence and contribute to placebo effects. The present paper closes the gap between these effects and the concept of embodied cognition from a metaphor-enriched perspective. In five studies, we demonstrate that the bodily sensation of weight influences our evaluations of diseases and drugs. The experience of heaviness enhanced the estimated seriousness of diseases and the estimated effectiveness of drugs. The perceived seriousness of drug side effects was also affected by weight but only when drug effectiveness was not attended to. Moreover, the incidental sensation of weight shows a novel effect when evaluating weight-related drugs. The results are in line with the idea of embodied metaphors and reveal important boundary conditions which contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24244302

  17. Thalidomide: dermatological indications, mechanisms of action and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, J J; Huang, D B; Pang, K R; Hsu, S; Tyring, S K

    2005-08-01

    Thalidomide was first introduced in the 1950s as a sedative but was quickly removed from the market after it was linked to cases of severe birth defects. However, it has since made a remarkable comeback for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved use in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Further, it has shown its effectiveness in unresponsive dermatological conditions such as actinic prurigo, adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis, aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, erythema multiforme, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Kaposi sarcoma, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, melanoma, prurigo nodularis, pyoderma gangrenosum and uraemic pruritus. This article reviews the history, pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical uses and adverse effects of thalidomide.

  18. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT. PMID:27644905

  19. A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Razia; Truter, Ilse; Grobler, Christoffel; Kotze, Theunis; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including those in South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients with psychoses were excluded. Most commonly reported side effects were a reduction in sleep quality, depression, dizziness and anxiety. These were generally mild and not warranting discontinuation of efavirenz. It is difficult to directly compare the studies. Standardised methods need to be introduced and all patient groups represented including the elderly, children, patients with active symptomatic illness and more women especially among the African population.

  20. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  1. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  2. Nitric oxide releasing plasma polymer coating with bacteriostatic properties and no cytotoxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Michl, Thomas D; Coad, Bryan R; Doran, Michael; Osiecki, Michael; Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Hüsler, Amanda; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-04-25

    We report a stable plasma polymer coating, using isopentyl nitrite as a volatile precursor, which releases nitric oxide at bacteriostatic concentrations when contacted with water, inhibiting bacterial growth without cytotoxic side effects to human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

  3. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27339142

  4. The dark side of the light: Phototherapy adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Valejo Coelho, Margarida Moura; Apetato, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a valuable therapeutic tool in Dermatology, but there may be drawbacks. Acute and long-term adverse effects, of variable severity, include skin erythema, xerosis, pruritus, blistering, altered pigmentation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Despite concerns over the carcinogenic potential of ultraviolet radiation, most studies have not found an increased risk of non-melanoma or melanoma skin cancer in patients treated with ultraviolet B (broadband and narrowband) and ultraviolet A1 phototherapy. These are therefore considered reasonably safe treatment modalities concerning the development of skin neoplasms, although caution and further investigation are warranted. Photoprotective measures, such as avoidance of concurrent sunlight exposure and covering skin areas not afflicted with disease, or more modern strategies, including phytochemical antioxidants and exogenous DNA repair enzymes, can minimize the hazards of phototherapy. Patients submitted to phototherapeutic regimens should undergo complete, careful dermatologic examination regularly and lifelong. PMID:27638433

  5. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  6. Body–drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of ‘assemblage’. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27435229

  7. A review of self-report medication side effect questionnaires for mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Ashoorian, Deena; Davidson, Rowan; Rock, Daniel; Gudka, Sajni; Clifford, Rhonda

    2014-11-30

    Side effects of psychotropic medications are important determinants of adherence to treatment. Discussion between the patient and clinician facilitated through the use of a side effect self-report questionnaire (SRQ) could lead to improved communications and treatment adherence. The aim of this review was to 1) identify all currently available side effect SRQs used in the assessment of mental health patients' subjective experiences, 2) evaluate the characteristics of the studies and 3) assess the psychometric properties of each of the questionnaires. Eight electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed published articles. Six side effect SRQs were identified. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of the study designs and psychometric properties of the identified SRQs. All questionnaires consisted of closed questions relating to antipsychotic side effects and completion times ranged from 5 to 20 min. Five questionnaires had undergone some form of psychometric testing, ranging from basic to comprehensive. There is a need in everyday clinical practice for a side effect communication tool applicable to all psychotropic medications, which allows the patient to express their subjective beliefs about their medications. This could provide an important contribution to the working relationship between patients and clinicians leading to informed decision-making and improved adherence.

  8. Comprehensive prediction of drug-protein interactions and side effects for the human proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyi; Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Identifying unexpected drug-protein interactions is crucial for drug repurposing. We develop a comprehensive proteome scale approach that predicts human protein targets and side effects of drugs. For drug-protein interaction prediction, FINDSITEcomb, whose average precision is ~30% and recall ~27%, is employed. For side effect prediction, a new method is developed with a precision of ~57% and a recall of ~24%. Our predictions show that drugs are quite promiscuous, with the average (median) number of human targets per drug of 329 (38), while a given protein interacts with 57 drugs. The result implies that drug side effects are inevitable and existing drugs may be useful for repurposing, with only ~1,000 human proteins likely causing serious side effects. A killing index derived from serious side effects has a strong correlation with FDA approved drugs being withdrawn. Therefore, it provides a pre-filter for new drug development. The methodology is free to the academic community on the DR. PRODIS (DRugome, PROteome, and DISeasome) webserver at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/dr.prodis/. DR. PRODIS provides protein targets of drugs, drugs for a given protein target, associated diseases and side effects of drugs, as well as an interface for the virtual target screening of new compounds. PMID:26057345

  9. [Protective effects of d-chlorpheniramine maleate pre-treatment against acute side effects of Irinotecan(CPT- 11)].

    PubMed

    Misumi, Nobuhiro; Hiraike, Mikako; Nawata, Fusako; Hashimoto, Mirai; Tanigawa, Kayoko; Takase, Izumi; Nabeshima, Aya; Honda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    It is wellknown that cholinomimetic side effects, such as sedation, abdominal pain, nasal flow and watery eyes, may develop in patients in the early stage of Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration; however, there have been no investigations concerning methods for preventing the development of these side effects. To assess the protective effects of pre-treatment with d-CM on cholinomimetic side effects in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration, we prescribed d- Chlorpheniramine maleate (d-CM) to a group of patients prior to Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration. Twenty members from the group of non-d-CM-treated patients (n=39) and 4 members from the group of treated patients (n=20) complained of side effects. The pre-administration of d-CM significantly reduced the number of patients with side effects (p<0.05). The relative risk (RR) for the frequency of side effects was 0.39 (95% CI; 0.15-0.98), demonstrating that the frequency of side effects was significantly reduced. Based on theses findings, we concluded that the pre-administration of d-CM had protective effects against side effects that might develop in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration.

  10. [Stapotomy with ultrasound? Animal experiment study of possible side effects].

    PubMed

    Böhmer, A

    1993-12-01

    Stapedectomy by ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative method for perforating the stapes footplate in surgery for otosclerosis. Possible functional adverse effects of ultrasound perforation of the otic capsule in guinea pigs were investigated in the present study by means of vestibular evoked potentials (VsEP). VsEP were elicited by pulsed linear accelerations applied to the animal's head following surgical removal of the middle ear, following intense ultrasound drilling around the otic capsule and after drilling a small hole in the anterior bony wall of the vestibule. All manipulations did not affect amplitudes and latencies of the early potential N1 (less than 1 msec after onset of acceleration). Significant alterations of N1 occurred following direct mechanical damage of the otolithic organs, indicating that VsEP can be used to detect lesions of these receptors and therefore may be used as a parameter of vestibular function in experimental animals. Findings indicate that perforation of the otic capsule by ultrasound is possible without inducing functional lesions of the otolithic organs. PMID:8125798

  11. Oral vanadate and Tiron in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats: improvement of glucose homeostasis and negative side-effects.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Sanchez, D J; Gomez, M; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-12-01

    It has been shown that improvement of glucose homeostasis by oral vanadate or vanadyl treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is accompanied by severe negative side effects (some deaths, decreased weight gain, alteration in renal function as well as tissue vanadium accumulation) which argue against the use of vanadium compounds in diabetes treatment. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness in alleviating some signs of diabetes in streptozotocin-treated rats with oral therapy with sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) and sodium 4,5 dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron), a chelating agent effective in mobilizing vanadium. In a preliminary experiment, diabetic rats were given aqueous solutions of 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml for 4 days. Vanadium-treated rats which showed blood glucose levels significantly lower (p < 0.001) than vanadate-untreated diabetic rats were selected for subsequent experiments. These animals were given 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml in drinking water and 0, 125.6, 314 or 628 mg Tiron/kg/d by gavage for 2 w. Although most of the animals did not become normoglycemic, several characteristic signs of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hyperphagia and polydipsia) were alleviated by the NaVO3 treatment. The administration of 314 mg Tiron/kg/d (approximately 1 NaVO3: 5 Tiron, mole ratio) did not diminish the ameliorative effects of NaVO3 with respect to diabetes, but significantly decreased the level of vanadium accumulation in target organs. These results show that some of the beneficial effects of NaVO3 are maintained in diabetic animals given Tiron, while the administration of the chelator results in a significant decrease in tissue vanadium accumulation. Accordingly, this would diminish the possibility of toxic side effects derived from prolonged oral vanadium administration.

  12. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  13. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  14. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    PubMed

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  15. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  16. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  17. Drug Side Effect Profiles as Molecular Descriptors for Predictive Modeling of Target Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy C; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We have explored the potential of using side effect profiles of drugs to predict their bioactivities at the receptor level. Serotonin 5-HT6 binding and dopamine antagonism were investigated in separate studies. A set of 5-HT6 binders and non-binders was retrieved from the PDSP Ki database, whereas dopamine antagonists were retrieved from the MeSH Pharmaceutical Action file. The side effect data was extracted from ChemoText, a data repository containing MeSH annotations pulled from MEDLINE records. These side effects profiles were treated as molecular descriptors enabling a QSAR-like approach to build models that could reliably discriminate different classes of molecules, e.g., binders versus non-binders, and dopamine antagonists versus non-antagonists. Selected models with the best external prediction performances were applied to a library of ca. 1000 chemicals with known side effects profiles in order to predict their potential 5-HT6 binding and/or dopamine antagonism. In each case the virtual screening process was able to identify putatively active compounds that through subsequent literature-based validation were found to be likely or known 5-HT6 binders or dopamine antagonists. These results demonstrate that side effect profiles can be utilized to predict a drug's unknown molecular activity, thus representing a valuable opportunity in repositioning the drug for a new indications.

  18. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  19. Fish oil increases raft size and membrane order of B cells accompanied by differential effects on function.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Melton, Mark; Williams, Justin; Wassall, Stephen R; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2012-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control. Biochemical analysis revealed more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into phosphatidylcholines than phosphatidylethanolamines of detergent-resistant membranes, consistent with supporting studies with model membranes. Subsequent imaging experiments demonstrated that FO increased raft size, GM1 expression, and membrane order upon cross-linking GM1 relative to no cross-linking. Comparative in vitro studies showed some biochemical differences from in vivo measurements but overall revealed that DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), increased membrane order. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that disrupting rafts with FO would suppress B-cell responses ex vivo. FO enhanced LPS-induced B-cell activation but suppressed B-cell stimulation of transgenic naive CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, our studies with B cells support an emerging model that FO increases raft size and membrane order accompanied by functional changes; furthermore, the results highlight differences in EPA and DHA bioactivity.

  20. Fish oil increases raft size and membrane order of B cells accompanied by differential effects on function[S

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Melton, Mark; Williams, Justin; Wassall, Stephen R.; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control. Biochemical analysis revealed more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into phosphatidylcholines than phosphatidylethanolamines of detergent-resistant membranes, consistent with supporting studies with model membranes. Subsequent imaging experiments demonstrated that FO increased raft size, GM1 expression, and membrane order upon cross-linking GM1 relative to no cross-linking. Comparative in vitro studies showed some biochemical differences from in vivo measurements but overall revealed that DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), increased membrane order. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that disrupting rafts with FO would suppress B-cell responses ex vivo. FO enhanced LPS-induced B-cell activation but suppressed B-cell stimulation of transgenic naive CD4+ T cells. Altogether, our studies with B cells support an emerging model that FO increases raft size and membrane order accompanied by functional changes; furthermore, the results highlight differences in EPA and DHA bioactivity. PMID:22315394

  1. Teaching Tacting of Private Events Based on Public Accompaniments: Effects of Contingencies, Audience Control, and Stimulus Complexity.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Hart, John M

    2014-06-01

    Our current understanding of the role of private events in the science of behavior is based largely on Skinner's natural science interpretation of private events. Skinner described public accompaniments as one source of control for a verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal behavior regarding private events. In this study, we developed an experimental analogue to study variables influencing tacting of private events. The participant had exclusive access to one set of stimuli (the private stimuli), and the experimenter attempted to teach tacts for private stimuli based on their correspondence with public stimuli accessible to both the experimenter and participant. Results of experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that reports of private stimuli were a function of degree of public-private correspondence, reinforcement contingency, and audience control. In some cases, we encountered reports controlled exclusively by public stimuli. Results of experiment 3 showed that public control was less likely when public stimuli were more complex and the experimenter had a unique behavioral history with respect to those stimuli that was not shared by the learner. The orderly patterns of data obtained suggest that analogue arrangements might be a useful, and even necessary, starting point for experimental investigations of how private events may enter into the analysis of behavior.

  2. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  3. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level <2.0nmol/L was considered a hypersensitive response. The neurobehavioral endpoints consisted of questionnaires regarding psychosocial and sleeping problems administered before and during the course of dexamethasone (6mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone trough levels were measured during dexamethasone treatment. Patients with a hypersensitive response to dexamethasone had more behavioral problems (N=11), sleeping problems, and/or somnolence (N=12) (P<0.05 for all three endpoints). The positive predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  4. Preference weights for chemotherapy side effects from the perspective of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, I; Bouganim, N; Beusterien, K; Grinspan, J; Vandermeer, L; Gertler, S; Dent, S F; Song, X; Segal, R; Mazzarello, S; Crawley, F; Dranitsaris, G; Clemons, M

    2013-11-01

    Perceptions among women with breast cancer about the relative importance of different potential chemotherapy side effects is not well understood. A survey was performed by women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Grade I/II (mild to moderate) and III/IV (moderate to severe) descriptions of nine common chemotherapy side effects were assigned preference weights using the standard gamble technique. For each hypothetical side effect, patients could choose to stay in the respective side effect state or take a gamble between full health (probability p) or being dead (1 - p). For each side effect, p was varied until the patient was indifferent between these options. The survey also included questions about the importance of survival, slowing cancer growth, and quality of life. This analysis included 69 patients; mean age 54 years (range 35-84), representing all cancer stages. Standard gamble preferences were lowest (i.e., least preferred) for grade III/IV nausea/vomiting (0.621), indicating that patients would, on average, risk a 38 % chance of being dead to avoid having grade III/IV nausea/vomiting for the rest of their lives. The next least preferred side effects were grade III/IV diarrhea (0.677) and grade III/IV sensory neuropathy (0.694). Survival appeared more important than slowing cancer growth and maintaining quality of life across cancer stages. Nevertheless, patients with advanced disease placed less importance on survival (p = 0.09) and higher importance on quality of life (p = 0.05). These standard gamble utilities provide unique insights into chemotherapy toxicities from the patient perspective. Differences in the relative importance of overall survival and quality of life with treatment existed between patients with different stages of disease. These studies should be expanded as the data may also be used to calculate quality-adjusted life expectancy in cost-effectiveness evaluations of breast cancer chemotherapies.

  5. Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how developing countries can maximize access to essential medicines and minimize unwanted side-effects within the legal environment of a compulsory license regime. While compulsory licensing can play a role in improving public health, external social and political conditions must be considered in order to make licensing an effective practice.

  6. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  7. Side effects of antibiotics during bacterial infection: mitochondria, the main target in host cell.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rochika; Sripada, Lakshmi; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are frontline therapy against microbial infectious diseases. Many antibiotics are known to cause several side effects in humans. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the main target of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. According to the endosymbiont theory, mitochondrion is of bacterial origin and their molecular and structural components of the protein expression system are almost similar. It has been observed that the rate of mutations in mitochondrial rRNA is higher as compared to that of nuclear rRNA. The presence of these mutations may mimic prokaryotic rRNA structure and bind to antibiotics targeted to ribosomes of bacteria. Mitochondrial functions are compromised hence may be one of the major causes of side effects observed during antibiotic therapy. The current review had summarized the studies on the role of antibiotics on mitochondrial functions and its relevance to the observed side effects in physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  9. Effect of side by side interactions on the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed CO molecules on the Ni(111) surface: a cluster model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamkhali, Amir N.; Parsafar, Gholamabbas

    2010-05-01

    The effect of electrostatic interactions on vibrational frequencies and thermodynamic properties of CO adsorbate on the Ni(111) surface is calculated by taking the first and second nearest-neighbour interactions into account. In order to obtain reasonable results, the cluster model of various surface adsorption sites with CO adsorbate is partially optimized, using Density Functional Theory and also the MP2 method for the hcp site. Comparison between DFT and MP2 results shows that DFT results are more reliable for this system. The stretching and bending frequencies of CO adsorbate are calculated using both Partial Hessian Analysis and Cluster-Adsorbate Coupling methods. Stretching and bending frequencies are both shifted by the side by side interactions. The coupling of surface phonons and adsorbate vibrations reduces the side effects. The largest side effects on the vibrational internal energy, isochoric heat capacity, entropy and total Helmholtz free energy of adsorbed CO molecule calculated using the CAC method are found for 0.5 ML coverage. The results of the CAC method are better, but the PHA method can be used as a simple upper bound estimation. The adsorptive phase acts as an intelligent material in such a way that it changes its configuration in order to reduce the side effects.

  10. Focused study on the quiet side effect in dwellings highly exposed to road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-12-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high L(den)-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade L(den)). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers.

  11. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S L; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  12. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  13. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    PubMed

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  14. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  15. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  16. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives. PMID:26535966

  17. Left- and right-sided video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy exhibit similar effects on myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuan; Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Huizhong; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy features less operative trauma, improved cosmesis, and similar efficiency compared with transsternal (TS) thymectomy for treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Unilateral VATS thymectomy can be easily performed from either side of the thorax, because thymus is located in the middle of mediastinum. Nevertheless, the side that provides better outcomes remains controversial. This study presents our experience on treatments for MG and reveals the differences between the unilateral VATS thymectomy performed on each side. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with MG who underwent TS or VATS thymectomy on either side between January 2003 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study. Clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared among different surgical approaches. Results TS thymectomy was administered in 50 patients, whereas unilateral VATS approaches were performed on the remaining 31 patients, 15 on the left side and 16 on the right side. The VATS group exhibited a significantly shorter surgery duration (P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.009), shorter postoperative hospital stay (P=0.025), smaller thoracic drainage volume (P=0.033), shorter thoracic drainage duration (P=0.006), and less postoperative complications (P<0.001) compared with the TS group. However, disease remission rates did not significantly differ among the groups (P=0.988). The left-sided group exhibited considerably longer thoracic drainage duration than the right-sided group (P=0.041). Moreover, surgical time (P=0.736), intraoperative blood loss (P=0.281), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.599), thoracic drainage volume (P=0.571), postoperative complications (P=0.742) and therapeutic effect (P=1.000) did not significantly differ among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ocular type of MG is the only independent factor for clinical remission (P=0

  18. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  19. Multivariate Analysis of Side Effects of Drug Molecules Based on Knowledge of Protein Bindings and ProteinProtein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examined the relationships between 969 side effects associated with 658 drugs and their 1368 human protein targets using our hybrid approaches. Firstly, L-shaped PLS (LPLS) was used to construct a multivariate model of side effects and protein bindings of drug molecules. LPLS is an extension of standard PLS regression, where, in addition to the response matrix Y and the regressor matrix X, an extra data matrix Z is constructed that summarizes the background information of X. X and Y are matrices comprising drugs-target proteins, and drugs-side effects, respectively. The Z matrix is the proteinprotein interaction data. From the loading plot of Y, we could identify two remarkable side effects (urinary incontinence and increased salivation) From the corresponding loading plot of X, the responsible protein targets causing each side effect could be estimated (sodium channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors). The loading plot of the Z matrix indicated that the GABA receptors interact with each other and they heavily influence the side effect of increased salivation. Secondly, Bayesian classifier methods were separately applied to the cases of the two side effects. That is, the Bayesian classifier method was used to classify drug molecules as binding or not binding to the responsible protein targets associated with each side effect. Using atom-coloring techniques, it was possible to estimate which fragments on the drug molecule might cause the specific side effects. This information is valuable for drug design to avoid specific side effects.

  20. Psychotropic Drug Efficacy and Side Effects for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy is a frequently employed treatment option in the area of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A considerable literature base has developed indicating when these medications should or could be administered. However, research on the potential side effects and cost benefit analysis of these treatments is not well understood at this time.…

  1. Complement activation plays a key role in the side-effects of rituximab treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, L E; Grillo-López, A J; Baars, J W; Hack, C E; van Oers, M H

    2001-12-01

    Treatment with rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can be associated with moderate to severe first-dose side-effects, notably in patients with high numbers of circulating tumour cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of these side-effects. At multiple early time points during the first infusion of rituximab, complement activation products (C3b/c and C4b/c) and cytokines [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8] were measured in five relapsed low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Infusion of rituximab induced rapid complement activation, preceding the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8. Although the study group was small, the level of complement activation appeared to be correlated both with the number of circulating B cells prior to the infusion (r = 0.85; P = 0.07) and with the severity of the side-effects. We conclude that complement plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of side-effects of rituximab treatment. As complement activation can not be prevented by corticosteroids, it might be relevant to study the possible role of complement inhibitors during the first administration of rituximab.

  2. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  3. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  4. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  5. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  6. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  7. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  8. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  9. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  10. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: side effects and quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, B V; Walsh, G A; McKinna, J A; Greening, W P

    1980-01-01

    In a trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy women with primary breast cancer and spread to one or more axillary nodes were randomised to receive a six-month course of either the single agent chlorambucil or the five-drug combination of chlorambucil, methotrexate, fluorouracil, vincristine, and adriamycin. On completing the treatment 47 patients were asked to fill in questionnaires at home on the side effects of treatment and its influence on the quality of their life. Side effects including nausea, vomiting, malaise, and alopecia had been severe enough to interfere with their lifestyle in 9 (42%) of the patients who had received the single agent and 19 (79%) of those who had received multiple-drug treatment. Various other side effects were reported by a few patients. Seven (29%) of the patients who had received the multiple-drug schedule voluntarily added that the treatment had been "unbearable" or "could never be gone though again." The proportion of patients who had experienced severe side effects while receiving the treatment was considerable; hence such adjuvant chemotherapy is justifiable only if it will substantially improve a patient's prognosis. PMID:7004560

  12. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  13. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  14. Analgesia and central side-effects: two separate dimensions of morphine response

    PubMed Central

    Droney, Joanne M; Gretton, Sophy K; Sato, Hiroe; Ross, Joy R; Branford, Ruth; Welsh, Kenneth I; Cookson, William; Riley, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Aims To present a statistical model for defining interindividual variation in response to morphine and to use this model in a preliminary hypothesis-generating multivariate genetic association study. Methods Two hundred and sixty-four cancer patients taking oral morphine were included in a prospective observational study. Pain and morphine side-effect scores were examined using principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were used in an exploratory genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genes coding for the three opioid receptors, OPRM1, OPRK1 and OPRD1. Associations in multivariate models, including potential clinical confounders, were explored. Results Two principal components corresponding to residual pain and central side-effects were identified. These components accounted for 42 and 18% of the variability in morphine response, respectively, were independent of each other and only mildly correlated. The genetic and clinical factors associated with these components were markedly different. Multivariate regression modelling, including clinical and genetic factors, accounted for only 12% of variability in residual pain on morphine and 3% of variability in central side-effects. Conclusions Although replication is required, this data-driven analysis suggests that pain and central side-effects on morphine may be two separate dimensions of morphine response. Larger study samples are necessary to investigate potential genetic and clinical associations comprehensively. PMID:23072578

  15. Putting a finger on potential predictors of oral contraceptive side effects: 2D:4D and middle-phalangeal hair.

    PubMed

    Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2009-06-01

    Many women experience emotional or physical side effects when taking oral contraceptives (OCs). Despite the potential impact on women's health and well-being, there are no valid methods to screen women for their risk of OC side effects. The present paper presents the results of two studies where anthropometric indicators of androgen exposure, 2D:4D and middle-phalangeal hair, were examined for their potential as predictors of OC side effects. In study 1, 2D:4D was associated with women's reports of a history of: (a) negative mood side effects; (b) discontinuation due to negative mood side effects; (c) specific mood side effects (i.e., crying, sadness, and altered trust in one's partners) and (d) specific physical side effects (i.e., headaches, fatigue, and decreased sex drive). In study 2, 2D:4D and/or middle-phalangeal hair was/were associated with a reported history of: (a) discontinuation due to negative mood side effects; (b) specific mood-related side effects (i.e., negative mood, disrupted sleep, increased aggression, and altered trust in one's partner) and (c) specific physical side effects (i.e., headaches, decreased menstrual cramps, and increased sex drive/arousal). The general pattern was that adverse OC side effects were experienced by women with lower 2D:4D and fewer middle-phalangeal hairs. Almost all relationships remained significant when response bias was controlled. These results suggest a possible role for prenatal testosterone exposure and both androgen action and sensitivity in women's experience of OC side effects. Furthermore, these two digit measures may be useful predictors of hormonal contraceptive side effects in women. PMID:19131172

  16. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    PubMed

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented. PMID:26952500

  17. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    PubMed

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented.

  18. Effects and side effects of DRO as treatment for self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Cowdery, G E; Iwata, B A; Pace, G M

    1990-01-01

    A three-part controlled case study is presented in which severe and longstanding self-injurious behavior exhibited by a 9-year-old-boy was treated successfully with differential reinforcement of other behavior. In Phase 1, an experimental analysis demonstrated that the boy's scratching was not maintained by environmental contingencies; instead, it appeared that the self-injurious behavior was a stereotypic (automatically reinforced) response. In Phase 2, the effects of an escalating differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule mediated through token reinforcement (pennies) were evaluated in a reversal design. Results showed that differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior eliminated self-injurious behavior very quickly and for periods of time as long as 30 min. A noteworthy side effect observed during Phase 2 was the occurrence of crying behavior following the nondelivery of reinforcement. In Phase 3, the token program was gradually extended in 30-min increments throughout the day. Additionally, results of a brief multielement manipulation showed that the effects of token reinforcement were superior to those of a more easily administered differential reinforcement of other behavior based on social reinforcement, which differed little from baseline. PMID:2074238

  19. Sunitinib therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: recommendations for management of side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsberger, C; Soulieres, D; Wong, R; Scalera, A; Gaspo, R; Bjarnason, G

    2007-01-01

    Sunitinib, a new vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, has demonstrated high activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is now widely used for patients with metastatic disease. Although generally well tolerated and associated with a low incidence of common toxicity criteria grade 3 or 4 toxicities, sunitinib exhibits a distinct pattern of novel side effects that require monitoring and management. This article summarizes the most important side effects and proposes recommendations for their monitoring, prevention and treatment, based on the existing literature and on suggestions made by an expert group of Canadian oncologists. Fatigue, diarrhea, anorexia, oral changes, skin toxicity and hypertension seem to be the most clinically relevant toxicities of sunitinib. Fatigue may be partly related to the development of hypothyroidism during sunitinib therapy for which patients should be observed and, if necessary, treated. Hypertension can be treated with standard antihypertensive therapy and rarely requires treatment discontinuation. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia usually do not require intervention, in particular no episodes of neutropenic fever have been reported to date. A decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening side effect. Because of its metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 a number of drugs can potentially interact with sunitinib. Clinical response and toxicity should be carefully observed when sunitinib is combined with either a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer or inhibitor and doses adjusted as necessary. Knowledge about side effects, as well as the proactive assessment and consistent management of sunitinib-related side effects, is critical to ensure optimal benefit from sunitinib treatment. PMID:18542784

  20. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only. PMID:23907603

  1. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  2. Effectiveness of the Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Maps about Students' Understanding of the Molecules Carrying Genetical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tastan, Ibrahim; Dikmenli, Musa; Cardak, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of concept maps, together with conceptual change texts, given to 11th grade students' on the subject of molecules carrying genetical information. The semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 5 upper class students to find misconceptions related to the subject. A success test was developed…

  3. Biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Schönbeck, G; Hatzinger, R; Langer, G; Sieghart, W; Aschauer, H N

    1997-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) induced by neuroleptics such as haloperidol. The effects of biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels on EPS were studied in 29 chronically ill schizophrenics. The results show relationships between biperiden dose and biperiden plasma levels (BPL), and between BPL and haloperidol plasma levels (HPL). Neither BPL nor HPL seem to influence EPS.

  4. [Secondary side effects of corticosteroids and the management of corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Peillon, F

    1975-01-01

    The side effects of glucocorticoids are the result of their biological effects and closely related to the dose administered and the duration of treatment. Whilst excessive amounts may result in the development of a clinical and biological Cushings syndrome, there exists also the problem of avoiding acute adrenal insufficiency when corticosteroids are stopped after a prolonged period of administration or during substitutive therapy for adrenal insufficiency. Aspects requiring surveillance are discussed.

  5. Alterations in blood lipids and side effects induced by depo-provera in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Fajumi, J O

    1983-02-01

    A fasting plasma lipid profile investigation was undertaken in 63 women who were on contraception with the 3-monthly intramuscular depo-provera injection for periods ranging from 3 to 30 months. Fifty nulliparous women, with no previous history of contraceptive therapy, matched for age, parity, height and socio-economic status, served as controls. History of clinico-physiological side effects was recorded. The results show reduced levels of fasting plasma cholesterol in patients on depo-provera compared to the control group but there was no significant change in fasting plasma phospholipid levels. Contrary to expectations, the patients on depo-provera had higher fasting plasma triglyceride levels than controls. Excessive weight gain and irregular heavy bleeding represent major reasons for withdrawal from depo-provera therapy. The findings suggest that the alterations in the plasma lipid profile, body weight and side effects experienced by women on depo-provera may be inversely related to the duration of effective therapy.

  6. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method. PMID:10454658

  7. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method.

  8. Corrosion Embrittlement of Duralumin VI The Effect of Corrosion Accompanied by Stress on the Tensile Properties of Sheet Duralumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Henry S

    1929-01-01

    The effect of corrosion on the tensile properties of duralumin while stressed is shown in graphical form. According to the test results, duralumin sheet, coated with aluminum, maintains its initial properties unimpaired for corrosion periods as long as 60 days with an applied tensile stress as high as 20,000 lb/sq.in., which is approximately one-half the stress corresponding to the yield point as defined here. In these tests, that material which had been heat-treated by being quenched in cold water, though far inferior to similar material having the aluminum coating, was superior to the sheet material which was heat treated by being quenched in hot water. These results are in excellent agreement with the results of previous laboratory and exposure tests.

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy Accompanied by Pharmacotherapy With Pharmacotherapy Alone in Treating Dysthymic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamidian, Sajedeh; Omidi, Abdollah; Mousavinasab, Seyyed Masoud; Naziri, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysthimia in adults is a chronic depression disorder which is characterized by a mild depression for at least 2 years. Remarkable psycho-social involvements, greater disturbances in psycho-social functions compared to other forms of depression and lack of definite findings about preferred treatment for this disorder led us to evaluate the effectiveness of Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) method adjunct to pharmacotherapy compared with pharmachothrapy alone in treating dysthymia in this thesis. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on a chronic type of depression disorder called dysthymia Patients and Methods This study is a clinical trial of an interventional method which was carried out on dysthymic and double depressed patients who had referred to psychiatric clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In doing so, 50 patients above the age of 18 were selected through convenience sampling and assigned into intervention and control groups. The control group only received medications while the intervention group in addition to receiving medication, participated in 8 sessions of a mindfulness based cognitive therapy course which was held once a week and each session lasted for 2 to 2.5 hours. All the participants filled out Beck Depression Inventory II and five facet mindfulness questionnaire. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (version 16) and univariate covariance and independent t test statistical methods. Results In this study, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups regarding the demographic characteristics. The mean difference between the two groups was statistically significant for the variables in post-test considering the pre-test. The experimental group participants showed significant improvement in terms of the defined variables; a trend which was not observed in the control group participants

  10. The acute antinociceptive effect of hyperbaric oxygen is not accompanied by an increase in markers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shulin; Shirachi, Donald Y.; Quock, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) causes an antinociceptive response in mice. However, breathing oxygen (O2) at an elevated pressure can potentially cause oxygen toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of HBO2 antinociception and the toxicity profile of HBO2. Main methods Male NIH Swiss mice were assessed for acute antinociceptive responsiveness under room air or 100% O2 at 1.0 or 3.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. For the oxygen toxicity test, mice were exposed to 3.5 ATA oxygen for 11 min, 60 min, 60 min daily for 2 days (120 min) or 60 min daily for 4 days (240 min), then assessed by analyzing the levels of two oxidative stress markers, MDA (malondialdehyde) and protein carbonyl in brain, spinal cord and lung. Key Findings Only the combination of 100% O2 and 3.5 ATA caused significant antinociception. The antinociceptive effect of 100% O2 was pressure-dependent up to 3.5 ATA. In the oxygen toxicity test, mice exposed to HBO2 for different time intervals had levels of brain, spinal cord and lung MDA and protein carbonyl that were comparable to that of control animals exposed to room air. Significance Treatment with 100% O2 evokes a pressure-dependent antinociceptive effect. Since there was no significant increase in levels of the oxidative stress markers in the tested tissues, it is concluded HBO2 at 3.5 ATA produces antinociception in the absence of oxidative stress in mice. PMID:24418003

  11. Alpha-lipoic acid effects on brain glial functions accompanying double-stranded RNA antiviral and inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Scumpia, Philip O; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Stevens, Bruce R

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) serve as viral ligands that trigger innate immunity in astrocytes and microglial, as mediated through Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Beneficial transient TLR3 and PKR anti-viral signaling can become deleterious when events devolve into inflammation and cytotoxicity. Viral products in the brain cause glial cell dysfunction, and are a putative etiologic factor in neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's, and autism spectrum. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has been proposed as a possible therapeutic neuroprotectant. The objective of this study was to test our hypothesis that LA can control untoward antiviral mechanisms associated with neural dysfunction. Utilizing rat brain glial cultures (91% astrocytes:9% microglia) treated with PKR- and TLR3-ligand/viral mimetic dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C), we report in vitro glial antiviral signaling and LA reduction of the effects of this signaling. LA blunted the dsRNA-stimulated expression of IFNα/β-inducible genes Mx1, PKR, and TLR3. And in polyI:C treated cells, LA promoted gene expression of rate-limiting steps that benefit healthy neural redox status in glutamateric systems. To this end, LA decreased dsRNA-induced inflammatory signaling by downregulating IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and CAT2 transcripts. In the presence of polyI:C, LA prevented cultured glial cytotoxicity which was correlated with increased expression of factors known to cooperatively control glutamate/cystine/glutathione redox cycling, namely glutamate uptake transporter GLAST/EAAT1, γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic and regulatory subunits, and IL-10. Glutamate exporting transporter subunits 4F2hc and xCT were downregulated by LA in dsRNA-stimulated glia. l-Glutamate net uptake was inhibited by dsRNA, and this was relieved by LA. Glutathione synthetase mRNA levels were unchanged by dsRNA or LA. This study demonstrates the protective

  12. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways.

  13. Exploring the Effects of Glycosylation and Etherification of the Side Chains of the Anticancer Drug Mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Pazit; Steinbuch, Kfir B; Blacher, Eran; Stein, Reuven; Fridman, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of symmetric and asymmetric analogues of the DNA intercalating drug mitoxantrone (MTX) in which the side chains of the parent drug were modified through glycosylation or methyl etherification. Several analogues with glycosylated side chains exhibited higher DNA affinity than the parent MTX. The most potent in vitro cytotoxicity was observed for MTX analogue 8 (1,4-dimethoxy-5,8-bis[2-(2-methoxyethylamino)ethylamino]anthracene-9,10-dione) with methoxy ether containing side chains. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with MTX or analogue 8 decreased the intraperitoneal tumor burden relative to untreated mice; the effect of 8 was less pronounced than that of MTX. In vitro metabolism assays of MTX with rabbit liver S9 fraction gave rise to several metabolites; almost no metabolites were detected for MTX analogue 8. The results presented indicate that derivatization of the MTX side chain primary hydroxy groups may result in a significant improvement in DNA affinity and lower susceptibility to the formation of potentially toxic metabolites.

  14. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  15. The effect of audio and video modeling on beginning guitar students' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of audio and visual modeling on music and nonmusic majors' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear. Two studies were run to investigate the impact of musical training on the ability to play by ear. All participants were student volunteers enrolled in sections of a beginning class guitar course and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, audio modeling only, or audio and visual modeling. All participants were asked to sing the same familiar song in the same key and accompany on guitar. Study 1 compared music majors with nonmusic majors and showed no significant difference between treatment conditions, however, there was a significant difference between music majors and nonmusic majors across all conditions. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Study 2 investigated the operational definition of "musically trained" and compared musically trained with nonmusically trained participants across the same three conditions. Results of Study 2 showed no significant difference between musically trained and nonmusically trained participants; however, there was a significant difference between treatment conditions with the audio-visual group completing the task in the shortest amount of time. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Results of these analyses support the use of instructor modeling for beginning guitar students and suggest that previous musical knowledge does not play a role in guitar skills acquisition at the beginning level.

  16. The effect of audio and video modeling on beginning guitar students' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of audio and visual modeling on music and nonmusic majors' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear. Two studies were run to investigate the impact of musical training on the ability to play by ear. All participants were student volunteers enrolled in sections of a beginning class guitar course and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, audio modeling only, or audio and visual modeling. All participants were asked to sing the same familiar song in the same key and accompany on guitar. Study 1 compared music majors with nonmusic majors and showed no significant difference between treatment conditions, however, there was a significant difference between music majors and nonmusic majors across all conditions. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Study 2 investigated the operational definition of "musically trained" and compared musically trained with nonmusically trained participants across the same three conditions. Results of Study 2 showed no significant difference between musically trained and nonmusically trained participants; however, there was a significant difference between treatment conditions with the audio-visual group completing the task in the shortest amount of time. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Results of these analyses support the use of instructor modeling for beginning guitar students and suggest that previous musical knowledge does not play a role in guitar skills acquisition at the beginning level. PMID:21141772

  17. One rare side effect of zolpidem--sleepwalking: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibin; Dollear, Mary; Muthukrishnan, Sri Ranjini

    2005-06-01

    Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine agent indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Sleepwalking is a rare side effect of zolpidem. A review of the literature produced only 2 cases. We report a case of a male rehabilitation inpatient in his mid fifties with a history of alcoholism and traumatic brain injury who had undergone a right hip hemiarthroplasty. He had no history of somnambulism or insomnia but walked in his sleep on 2 nonconsecutive nights after taking zolpidem. He had exhibited no such behavior before taking zolpidem, on the intervening night that was he was not given medication, and after the medication was discontinued. We conclude that zolpidem can cause sleepwalking, and patients who have suffered a brain injury may be more susceptible to this side effect. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on zolpidem and sleepwalking.

  18. A detailed insight into drug delivery from PEDOT based on analytical methods: Effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian; Asplund, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to release drugs from conducting polymers, like polypyrrole or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), has been described and investigated for a variety of different substances during the last years, showing a wide interest in these release systems. A point that has not been looked at so far however is the possibility of other substances, next to the intended ones, leaving the polymer film under the high voltage excursions during redox sweeping. In this study we target this weakness of commonly used detection methods by implementing a high precision analytical method (high-performance liquid chromatography) that allows a separation and subsequently a detailed quantification of all possible release products. We could identify a significantly more complex release behavior for a PEDOT:Dex system than has been assumed so far, revealing the active release of the monomer upon redox activation. The released EDOT could thereby be shown to result from the bulk material, causing a considerable loss of polymer (>10% during six release events) that could partly account for the observed degradation or delamination effects of drug-eluting coatings. The monomer leakage was found to be substantially higher for a PEDOT:Dex film compared to a PEDOT:PSS sample. This finding indicates an overestimation of drug release if side products are mistaken for the actual drug mass. Moreover the full picture of released substances implements the need for further studies to reduce the monomer leakage and identify possible adverse effects, especially in the perspective of releasing an anti-inflammatory substance for attenuation of the foreign body reaction toward implanted electrodes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1200–1207, 2015. PMID:24912825

  19. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Y; Okazaki, T; Okamura, S; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

    1989-07-01

    We concomitantly administered a large dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to gynecological malignant tumor patients undergoing CAP therapy (CAP). Hematological changes in the peripheral blood were compared between concomitant MPA patients and those not receiving MPA to examine the effect of MPA in reducing the marrow depression which is the major side effect of CAP. 1) Leukocyte count reached minimum at the second week of CAP in both groups. There was no significant difference in the count between the two groups. At the third week of CAP, the count improved to 84% of the pre-CAP level in patients receiving MPA and to 68% in those not receiving MPA, a significant difference (p less than 0.01). At the fourth week, leukocyte counts were 105% and 96% of pre-CAP levels, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups, but the leukocyte count returned to the pre-CAP level in the patients receiving MPA. 2) Platelet count showed changes similar to those in the leukocyte count. In patients receiving MPA, the count improved more rapidly within three weeks (118%, p less than 0.01), and was significantly higher at the fourth week (107%, p less than 0.05) than in patients not receiving MPA. 3) Reticulocyte count reached minimum in the first week, thereafter improving rapidly in both groups. No differences were noted between the two groups. 4) The periods needed for one course of CAP were 27.7 +/- 3.3 days in the patients receiving MPA and 29.5 +/- 3.7 days in the patients not receiving MPA, making for a significant difference between the two groups (p less than 0.05). These results show that MPA accelerates recovery from marrow depression caused by CAP. It is anticipated, therefore, that MPA will be helpful in the application of various chemotherapies which are expected to be frequently conducted in the future. PMID:2526618

  20. Multiple side effects of penicillamine therapy in one patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Essigman, W K

    1982-01-01

    Skin rashes, proteinuria, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and myasthenia gravis have all been recorded as complications of penicillamine therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A patient who had developed all 5 is now described. The skin lesion resembled elastosis perforans serpiginosa, which has been reported as a rare side effect in patients with Wilson's disease but not in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with penicillamine. Images PMID:6216862

  1. [Myoclonus as a side effect to citalopram treatment in a patient with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Forsberg-Gillving, Mimmi; Bode, Matthias; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2015-09-21

    Side effects such as myoclonus and tremor are rare when treating with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We present a case where a patient with known liver cirrho-sis and in treatment with citalopram developed myoclonus, tremor and gait difficulties. The symptoms were reduced when the SSRI dose was decreased. In patients with unexplained movement disorders the usage of SSRIs should be considered as a cause. Furthermore, treatment with SSRIs should be carefully assessed in patients with reduced liver function. PMID:26418639

  2. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  3. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  4. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2–3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future. PMID:18458927

  5. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  6. Managing cancer side effects to improve quality of life: a cancer psychoeducation program.

    PubMed

    Golant, Mitch; Altman, Tamara; Martin, Chloe

    2003-02-01

    This study aimed to develop and pilot test a community-based education program that addresses the prevention and management of the major side effects of cancer and its treatment according to a Patient Active Empowerment Model. This piloted program evaluated the health and quality of life outcomes for patients with cancer. The program was implemented through a half-day patient education conference. This conference included clinical information concerning disease and treatment-related side effects, an overview of treatment methods, information to help improve communication between the patient and healthcare team, education materials and experiences to empower patients and caregivers, and integration of specific mind-body techniques to strengthen key educational messages and reinforce the importance of side effect management. A total of 32 patients completed both the program and psychometric assessments on the day of the intervention and 30 days later. The participants were primarily white women with an average age of 57 years. Breast cancer was the most prevalent type of cancer experienced by the participants. The pilot results for this small sample showed that from baseline to follow-up evaluation, patients reported significant decreases in depressive symptoms and problems with work or other daily activities that resulted from emotional distress. Some improvements in health and well-being were greater for those who had not experienced fever or infection, those who had no children, and those who were working. Participants indicated that the program was useful in its ability to help them manage treatment side effects. Although the findings presented in this article are based only on a pilot program evaluation and a small sample, they do suggest that the program may be effective in educating patients about specific cancer side effects and empowering them to cope more effectively with their illness. Results showing that subgroups of individuals may have benefited more

  7. Effect of side-chain substituents on self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules: morphology control.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Datar, Aniket; Naddo, Tammene; Huang, Jialing; Oitker, Randy; Yen, Max; Zhao, Jincai; Zang, Ling

    2006-06-01

    Effect of side-chain substitutions on the morphology of self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules has been studied with two derivatives modified with distinctly different side-chains, N,N'-di(dodecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (DD-PTCDI) and N,N'-di(nonyldecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (ND-PTCDI). Due to the different side-chain interference, the self-assembly of the two molecules results in totally different morphologies in aggregate: one-dimensional (1D) nanobelt vs zero-dimensional (0D) nanoparticle. The size, shape, and topography of the self-assemblies were extensively characterized by a variety of microscopies including SEM, TEM, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy. The distinct morphologies of self-assembly have been obtained from both the solution-based processing and surface-supported solvent-vapor annealing. The nanobelts of DD-PTCDI fabricated in solution can feasibly be transferred to both polar (e.g., glass) and nonpolar (e.g., carbon) surfaces, implying the high stability of the molecular assembly (due to the strong pi-pi stacking). The side-chain-dependent molecular interaction was comparatively investigated using various spectrometries including UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the emission of ND-PTCDI aggregate, the emission of DD-PTCDI aggregate was significantly red-shifted (ca. 30 nm) and the emission quantum yield decreased about three times, primarily due to the more favorable molecular stacking for DD-PTCID. Moreover, the aggregate of DD-PTCDI shows a pronounced absorption band at the longer wavelength, whereas the absorption of ND-PTCDI aggregate is not significant in the same wavelength region. These optical spectral observations are reminiscent of the previous theoretical investigation on the side-chain-modulated electronic properties of PTCDI assembly.

  8. Long term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jessica J; Visvanathan, Kala; Wolff, Antonio C

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy along with screening has been key to the observed improvements in disease-free and overall survival (DFS/OS) in breast cancer. Improvements in overall survival already take into account therapy related toxicities that can result in death. However, this measure alone does not adequately capture the impact on health-related quality of life. Therefore, it is important to examine the prevalence, frequency and short/long-term impact of therapy-related toxicities, identify patients who might be at greatest risk. Ultimately decisions regarding expected therapy benefits (relative and absolute percentage improvements in DFS/OS) must be made against a background of known potential harms. For many patients with early breast cancer (EBC), their risk of recurrence is not zero but is small. At the same time, for many therapies for early stage breast cancer, the risk of serious side effects is small but is not zero. As we better understand the long-term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and targeted therapy, it becomes critical to integrate our growing understanding of breast cancer biology with standard high-quality histopathologic measures to better identify the patients most likely to benefit from the various options for combined multimodality therapy. Hence, we must strive against the notion of recommending adjuvant systemic chemotherapy "just in case." This article focuses on the long-term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with EBC.

  9. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions. PMID:26252576

  10. Electro-rheological effects of liquid crystalline polymer on one-sided pattern electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, Naoyuki; Furusho, Junji; Inoue, Akio

    2002-02-01

    In most industrial robots, serious problems of vibratory behavior are caused because of elasticity in the drive systems. An electro-rheological (ER) fluid is a substance that can change its apparent viscosity by the application of an electric field, and homogeneous ER fluids are effective in reducing vibration in robots. Conventional research into ER fluids is based on parallel electrodes with ER fluids between them. Since a high voltage is required for use of ER fluids with parallel electrodes, problems of cost, safety and wiring for practical applications are of concern. In this article, we propose one-sided pattern electrodes that solve some of the above problems. A one-sided pattern electrode is an electrode in a pattern arranged on only one of the two surfaces of a pair of electrodes, with an insulator arranged on the other surface. We developed two kinds of one-sided pattern electrodes: a concentric circle form and a radial form, experimentally verifying the manifestation of ER effects in a liquid crystalline polymer (a homogeneous ER fluid). In addition, the effect of disk gap upon viscosity change was investigated.

  11. The impact of nalmefene on side effects due to intrathecal morphine at cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, J E; Bailey, S L; Graves, J; Paice, J A; Shott, S; Faut-Callahan, M

    2001-06-01

    Nalmefene is a long-acting opioid antagonist that provides long-term relief from side effects of intrathecal morphine sulfate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether prophylactic nalmefene could decrease side effects of intrathecal morphine given during cesarean section, without affecting analgesia. Sixty parturients were given 0.25 mg of intrathecal morphine, 12.5 micrograms of fentanyl, and 11.25 to 15 mg of bupivacaine. A dose of 0.25 microgram/kg of nalmefene or placebo was given by intravenous piggyback immediately after delivery of the neonate. Nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and level of sedation were assessed for a 24-hour period using a 4-point ordinal scoring system. Pain was assessed by using a 0- to 10-point verbal analogue scale. A 5-point analgesic satisfaction survey also was completed. Subjects who received nalmefene required supplemental analgesia at a median of 6.00 hours after intrathecal morphine, compared with 14.12 hours in the placebo group (P = .037). No differences were found between the groups in the incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, level of sedation, or analgesic satisfaction. We concluded that nalmefene at a dose of 0.25 microgram/kg does not decrease the incidence of side effects but increases the need for supplemental analgesics.

  12. Tacrolimus whole blood concentrations correlate closely to side-effects in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Böttiger, Y; Brattström, C; Tydén, G; Säwe, J; Groth, C-G

    1999-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the relationship between tacrolimus whole blood concentrations and side-effects and rejections in 14 renal transplant recipients. Methods Tacrolimus was measured by MEIA in whole blood in samples collected repeatedly during the first year after transplantation. Retrospectively, tacrolimus trough concentrations on the days with adverse events (n = 172) or rejection (n = 28) were related to the total distribution of the concentration values (n = 656). Results Side-effects (one or more) were noted in connection with 76% of tacrolimus concentrations above 30 ng ml−1, with 41% of concentrations within the interval of 20–30 ng ml−1, with 26% of the concentrations within the interval of 10–20 ng ml−1 and with only 5.3% on the concentrations lower than 10 ng ml−1. No relation to the tacrolimus concentration was seen for rejection episodes. Conclusions We conclude that therapeutic drug monitoring may be helpful in the management of tacrolimus therapy and that tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations (MEIA) should preferably be kept below 20 ng ml−1 to avoid side-effects, such as nephro-and neurotoxicity and infections. The lower limit of the therapeutic range has yet to be defined. PMID:10510159

  13. [Predicting side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A with ribaverin].

    PubMed

    Sarkisiants, N K; Grigorian, É G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the commonest side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A (PEG-IFN) and ribaverin (RBV) and the influence of various factors on their development. The work was done in the Department of Infectious Disease, Erevan State Medical University. Monitoring 16 adverse reactions was carried out with the use of special tables within 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the onset of therapy in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 and in addition after 8, 10 and 12 months in patients with genotype 1. The influence of independent prognostic factors was estimated by logistic regression analysis. The commonest side effects of PEG-IFN plus RBV therapy were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, depression, fatigue, and insomnia that occurred at one time or another in more than half of the patients. Weight loss during therapy amounted to 8.36 kg (95% CI 6.7-10) (maximum 21 kg). Myalgia, anorexia, arthralgia, headache, alopecia, and vomiting were documented in 20-50% of the cases. Anemia, pruritis, eruption, erythema, and hair shedding at injection sites occurred in 1/4 of the patients. It is concluded that logistic regression analysis with matching selected prognostic factors permits to estimate the probability of such side effects as weight loss, flu-like syndrome, and myalgia. PMID:24159787

  14. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Russo, S.; Unal, S.; Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO2/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  15. The Zero-vision: potential side effects of communicating health perfection and zero risk.

    PubMed

    Fugelli, Per

    2006-03-01

    Public health education may have harmful side effects: generate fear, give rise to healthism and contribute to a medical sorting society. To prevent these adverse reactions a new deal for public health communication is presented. It is commended to move public health from omnipotence to moderation, from life style to living conditions, from risk to the bright sides of health, from statistical clone to the holy individual. Furthermore public health communication ought to include uncertainty as authoritarian truth mongering erodes trust. The public health educator must convey compassion and dedication. Rational techno-info is not sufficient. The last golden rule for a new public health is to respect the people. The people are not an inferior mass subjected to basic instincts and irrational fears. Common sense and lay experiences may contribute to the wise management of risk. Therefore public health should develop a people-centered method, recognizing people's own values, perceptions and potentials for preventing disease and promoting health.

  16. Comparing the Effect of Metformin and Acarbose Accompanying Clomiphene on the Successful Ovulation Induction in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Masomeh; Jamshidi, Mohmmad; Mohammadbeigi, Robabeh; Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Mohammadipour, Somaye; Moradi, Ghobad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Metformin and Acarbose accompanying Clomiphene on the successful ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This randomized double blind clinical trial study was performed on 60 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Women were selected and randomly divided in two control and intervention groups. Intervention group received Acarbose 100 mg/day for 3 months. In the first, second, and third weeks, they received 1 tablet, 2 tablets, and 3 tablets per day respectively. In addition, they received 100 mg Clomiphene from third to seventh day of menstruation, during the 3 month treatment period. The control group received Metformin 500 mg/day for 3 months. In the first, second, and third weeks, they received 1 tablet, 2 tablets, and 3 tablets per day respectively. In addition, they received 100 mg Clomiphene from third to seventh day of menstruation, during the 3 month treatment period. All the subjects in both groups before and after the treatment were examined for hirsutism, acne, oral glucose tolerance test, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL. Also, induction of ovulation was assessed by vaginal ultrasound. The Mean of BMI and fasting glucose tolerance test in Acarbose group was less than Metformin group (P = 0.05). The mean of triglycerides, LDL and HDL levels did not differ between the two groups after the intervention (P > 0.05). The mean of cholesterol levels were different in the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.04). Frequency of ovulation induction in those who received Acarbose (78.5%) was more than those who received Metformin (46.6) (P = 0.012). Comparing with Metformin, Acarbose accompanying Clomiphene was more effective in ovulation induction and decreasing body mass index in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:27157179

  17. Comparing the Effect of Metformin and Acarbose Accompanying Clomiphene on the Successful Ovulation Induction in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Masomeh; Jamshidi, Mohmmad; Mohammadbeigi, Robabeh; Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Mohammadipour, Somaye; Moradi, Ghobad

    2016-02-02

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Metformin and Acarbose accompanying Clomiphene on the successful ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.This randomized double blind clinical trial study was performed on 60 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Women were selected and randomly divided in two control and intervention groups. Intervention group received Acarbose 100 mg/day for 3 months. In the first, second, and third weeks, they received 1 tablet, 2 tablets, and 3 tablets per day respectively. In addition, they received 100 mg Clomiphene from third to seventh day of menstruation, during the 3 month treatment period. The control group received Metformin 500 mg/day for 3 months. In the first, second, and third weeks, they received 1 tablet, 2 tablets, and 3 tablets per day respectively. In addition, they received 100 mg Clomiphene from third to seventh day of menstruation, during the 3 month treatment period. All the subjects in both groups before and after the treatment were examined for hirsutism, acne, oral glucose tolerance test, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL. Also, induction of ovulation was assessed by vaginal ultrasound. The Mean of BMI and fasting glucose tolerance test in Acarbose group was less than Metformin group (P = 0.05). The mean of triglycerides, LDL and HDL levels did not differ between the two groups after the intervention (P > 0.05). The mean of cholesterol levels were different in the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.04). Frequency of ovulation induction in those who received Acarbose (78.5%) was more than those who received Metformin (46.6) (P = 0.012). Comparing with Metformin, Acarbose accompanying Clomiphene was more effective in ovulation induction and decreasing body mass index in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Muhammad Asim; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Rehman, Basheer Abdel; Alharthy, Abdulrahman; Huwait, Basim; Riaz, Asim; Aletreby, Waleed Tharwat

    2015-01-01

    Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol) is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient's physicians is suggested. PMID:26347135

  19. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  20. Refractive and Relativistic Effects on ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Budny, R. V.

    2010-06-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3- D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected RF waves returning to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna size, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-modes using proposed antennas are reported.

  1. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  2. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Refractive and relativistic effects on ITER low field side reflectometer design.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; Harvey, R W; Budny, R V

    2010-10-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected millimeter waves after return to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna diameter, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-mode polarizations using proposed antennas are reported.

  4. GLYX-13, an NMDA receptor glycine site functional partial agonist enhances cognition and produces antidepressant effects without the psychotomimetic side effects of NMDA receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Joseph R; Burch, Ronald; Burgdorf, Jeffrey S; Kroes, Roger A; Stanton, Patric K; Disterhoft, John F; Leander, J David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-ionophore complex plays a key role in learning and memory and has efficacy in animals and humans with affective disorders. GLYX-13 is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine-site functional partial agonist and cognitive enhancer that also shows rapid antidepressant activity without psychotomimetic side effects. Areas covered The authors review the mechanism of action of GLYX-13 that was investigated in preclinical studies and evaluated in clinical studies. Specifically, the authors review its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and drug safety that were demonstrated in clinical studies. Expert opinion NMDAR full antagonists can produce rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant subjects; however, they are often accompanied by psychotomimetic effects that make chronic use outside of a clinical trial inpatient setting problematic. GLYX-13 appears to exert its antidepressant effects in the frontal cortex via NMDAR-triggered synaptic plasticity. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of GLYX-13’s antidepressant action should provide both novel insights into the role of the glutamatergic system in depression and identify new targets for therapeutic development. PMID:24251380

  5. Acceptor side effects on the electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures in intact photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Bao, Han; Zhang, Chunxi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Ren, Yanan; Shen, Jian-Ren; Zhao, Jingquan

    2008-09-01

    In intact PSII, both the secondary electron donor (Tyr(Z)) and side-path electron donors (Car/Chl(Z)/Cyt(b)(559)) can be oxidized by P(680)(+)* at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, the effects of acceptor side, especially the redox state of the non-heme iron, on the donor side electron transfer induced by visible light at cryogenic temperatures were studied by EPR spectroscopy. We found that the formation and decay of the S(1)Tyr(Z) EPR signal were independent of the treatment of K(3)Fe(CN)(6), whereas formation and decay of the Car(+)/Chl(Z)(+) EPR signal correlated with the reduction and recovery of the Fe(3+) EPR signal of the non-heme iron in K(3)Fe(CN)(6) pre-treated PSII, respectively. Based on the observed correlation between Car/Chl(Z) oxidation and Fe(3+) reduction, the oxidation of non-heme iron by K(3)Fe(CN)(6) at 0 degrees C was quantified, which showed that around 50-60% fractions of the reaction centers gave rise to the Fe(3+) EPR signal. In addition, we found that the presence of phenyl-p-benzoquinone significantly enhanced the yield of Tyr(Z) oxidation. These results indicate that the electron transfer at the donor side can be significantly modified by changes at the acceptor side, and indicate that two types of reaction centers are present in intact PSII, namely, one contains unoxidizable non-heme iron and another one contains oxidizable non-heme iron. Tyr(Z) oxidation and side-path reaction occur separately in these two types of reaction centers, instead of competition with each other in the same reaction centers. In addition, our results show that the non-heme iron has different properties in active and inactive PSII. The oxidation of non-heme iron by K(3)Fe(CN)(6) takes place only in inactive PSII, which implies that the Fe(3+) state is probably not the intermediate species for the turnover of quinone reduction.

  6. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  7. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  8. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  9. Can we predict short-term side effects of methylphenidate immediate-release?

    PubMed

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Yazgan, Yanki M; Dedeoglu, Ceyda

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In children and adolescents who were prescribed immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the first time, we aimed to investigate the effect of gender, psychiatric co-morbidity and the baseline severity of clinical symptoms on the short-term side-effects of the medication. Method. In a clinical sample, over a period of 6 months, all MPH-naive patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N=90; male, n=73; female, n=17) age: 9.0±2.2 years (5-16 years)) were included. Patients were prescribed MPH-IR 10-30 mg/day (17.6±4.95). The assessment included structured measurements, including the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) (parents and teachers), Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for ADHD-Short version (teachers). Parents also completed the "Barkley Stimulants' Side Effects Rating Scale" (BSSERS) at baseline and on the third, seventh and 15th days of medication. Results. Repeated measures multiple ANOVA revealed an overall significant difference in BSSERS between the baseline measures and the 15th day (P<0.01). On the 15th day, only the "loss of appetite" item severity scores increased (P=0.001), whereas the scores of "irritability", "proneness to cry", "anxiety", "nail biting" and "euphoria" items decreased significantly. In post hoc analyses, when subjects whose side effects increased and did not increase were compared, chi-square tests revealed a significant difference (P=0.029) only for the presence of co-morbidity, and no difference for the gender, age, dosage of MPH, and the baseline severity of inattentiveness and/or hyperactivity. Discussion. The only significant increase during MPH treatment was for the "loss of appetite" item on BSSERS. Our results suggest that some of the BSSERS items may represent both the ADHD symptoms and the side effects. When overall BSSERS item severity is considered

  10. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  11. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  12. Effects of short splitter plates on vortex shedding and sound generation in flow past two side-by-side square cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octavianty, Ressa; Asai, Masahito

    2016-09-01

    Effects of short splitter plates on vortex shedding and sound generation in a low subsonic flow past two side-by-side square cylinders were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers {{{Re}}} = 1.0 - 3.3 × 10^4. The experiment was mainly conducted with the center-to-center distance between the two cylinders of 3.6 d ( d is the side length of a square cylinder) where vortex shedding from the two cylinders was synchronized with anti-phase relation, generating a quadrupole-like sound source that radiated in-phase sound in the far field. The results showed that the attachment of short splitter plates whose length ( c) was ≤0.5 d could reduce the sound pressure level of Aeolian tone significantly. Even with the shortest splitter plates of c{/}d=0.1, SPL was reduced by 6 dB at Mach number M_{∞ }=0.15. This was in contrast to the case of a single square cylinder, for which the attachment of a short splitter plate <0.2 d led to no noticeable noise reduction. It was also shown that even when short splitter plates with a spanwise length as long as or less than the correlation length of shed vortices were attached on the two cylinders in a staggered array, the anti-phase vortex shedding and the corresponding in-phase sound radiation were still dominant.

  13. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liyan; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  14. Lipophilicity, hydrophilicity, and the central nervous system side effects of beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Drayer, D E

    1987-01-01

    One of the attributes of beta-adrenergic blocking agents that has distinguished these drugs from each other is degree of lipophilicity. While this feature may play a role in facilitating passage across the blood-brain barrier, it is essential to realize that crossing the barrier is not necessarily synonymous with the ability to cause central nervous system (CNS) effects. Several studies have found some degree of CNS side effects, particularly tiredness and fatigue, with atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker. Pindolol, a moderately lipophilic beta blocker, has been reported to cause greater disturbances on electroencephalogram (EEG) than propranolol, the most highly lipophilic beta blocker. The investigational agent bevantolol exhibits a moderate degree of lipophilicity and a low frequency of CNS side effects. Drug-induced increases in plasma catecholamine levels, the possible saturation of CNS receptor sites at relatively low drug levels, and the specific structural details of beta-blocker molecules have been suggested as possible contributory factors in determining the degree of CNS effects.

  15. In vivo characterization of the highly selective monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor KML29: antinociceptive activity without cannabimimetic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Ignatowska-Jankowska, B M; Ghosh, S; Crowe, M S; Kinsey, S G; Niphakis, M J; Abdullah, R A; Tao, Q; O' Neal, S T; Walentiny, D M; Wiley, J L; Cravatt, B F; Lichtman, A H

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeSince monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has been firmly established as the predominant catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a great need has emerged for the development of highly selective MAGL inhibitors. Here, we tested the in vivo effects of one such compound, KML29 (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl 4-(bis(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate). Experimental ApproachIn the present study, we tested KML29 in murine inflammatory (i.e. carrageenan) and sciatic nerve injury pain models, as well as the diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhage model. KML29 was also evaluated for cannabimimetic effects, including measurements of locomotor activity, body temperature, catalepsy, and cannabinoid interoceptive effects in the drug discrimination paradigm. Key ResultsKML29 attenuated carrageenan-induced paw oedema and completely reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical allodynia. These effects underwent tolerance after repeated administration of high-dose KML29, which were accompanied by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor desensitization. Acute or repeated KML29 administration increased 2-AG levels and concomitantly reduced arachidonic acid levels, but without elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in the whole brain. Furthermore, KML29 partially reversed allodynia in the sciatic nerve injury model and completely prevented diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhages. CB1 and CB2 receptors played differential roles in these pharmacological effects of KML29. In contrast, KML29 did not elicit cannabimimetic effects, including catalepsy, hypothermia and hypomotility. Although KML29 did not substitute for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in C57BL/6J mice, it fully and dose-dependantly substituted for AEA in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (−/−) mice, consistent with previous work showing that dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition produces THC-like subjective effects. Conclusions and ImplicationsThese results

  16. MRI-guided core needle biopsy of the prostate: acceptance and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Egbers, Nina; Schwenke, Carsten; Maxeiner, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf; Franiel, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to study side effects, complications, and patient acceptance of magnetic resonance imaging-guided real-time biopsy (MRI-GB) of the prostate. METHODS Fifty-four men (49–78 years) with elevated prostate-specific antigen after at least one negative systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB) were included in a prospective clinical study. Suspicious areas on images were selectively sampled by obtaining a median of four specimens (range, 1–9 specimens) using MRI-GB. In TRUS-GB, a median of 10 specimens (range, 6–14 specimens) were obtained. Telephone interviews were conducted one week after outpatient MRI-GB, asking patients about pain and side effects (hematuria, hemospermia, rectal bleeding, fever, and chills) of the two biopsy procedures and which of the two procedures they preferred. Multinomial regression analysis and Fisher’s exact test was used to test for differences. RESULTS MRI-GB was preferred by 65% (35/54), and 82% (44/54) would undergo MRI-GB again. Pain intensity (P = 0.005) and bleeding duration (P = 0.004) were significantly lower for MRI-GB compared with TRUS-GB. Hematuria was less common after MRI-GB compared with TRUS-GB (P = 0.006). A high correlation was given between bleeding intensity and bleeding duration for TRUS-GB (r=0.77) and pain intensity and pain duration for MRI-GB (r=0.65). Although hemospermia, rectal hemorrhage, fever, and chills were less common in MRI, they showed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION MRI-GB of the prostate seems to have fewer side effects and less pain intensity than TRUS-GB and was preferred by the majority of patients. PMID:25858525

  17. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  18. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    PubMed

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  19. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  20. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; p<0.001). Longer treatment duration was associated with lower HIV-RNA, higher CD4 counts, and being previously ART naive. cART modifications due to treatment failure became less frequent in recent years (adjusted HR=0.91 per year; p<0.001). Estimated (95% CI) 1 year cumulative probabilities of treatment-limiting side effects were 16.4% (12.0-21.3%), 19.3% (15.6-23.3%), 24.9% (20.3-29.7%), and 21.1% (13.4-29.9%) for the four periods, respectively, with no significant temporal trends. Risk of side effects was lower in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  1. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  2. Effects of one-sided heat input and removal on axially grooved heat pipe performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamotani, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of an axially grooved heat pipe with one-sided heat input and removal was investigated analytically. Under zero-g condition the maximum heat transport of the pipe may decrease as much as 30% depending on the liquid slug behavior in the condenser section. In one-g environment the performance depends mainly on the fluid charge. The maximum heat transport, if over-charged, is almost equal to the value for uniform heating and cooling due to puddling effect. However, for some heater-cooler combinations the temperature drop across the heat pipe becomes very large. Computed results for tilted heat pipes compare favorably with available experimental data.

  3. [ORALMEDIC® for treatment of aphthous stomatitis--possible side effects with repeated applications].

    PubMed

    Jarjoura, S; Kaplan, I

    2014-10-01

    ORALMEDIC® (HybenX, Epien Medical Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a relatively recent commercial agent designated for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). It has the potential to safely and effectively reduce pain associated with RAS. We present two patients who used ORALMEDIC® to reduce pain caused by RAS lesions. Both patients developed side effects presenting as deep ulcerations with a necrotic base at the location where ORALMEDIC® has been repeatedly applied as pain did not diminish after the first application. One patient used ORALMEDIC® several times on the same lesion. However the other patient followed the manufacturer instructions when he successively used ORALMEDIC® stick twice over the same lesion. Patients were treated with systemic antibiotics and local antiseptic agents. The healing process of the ulcers was slow and has completed its course within six weeks. It is suggested that when dental surgeons recommend ORALMEDIC®, they should emphasize the importance of using this agent according to the manufacturer's instructions in order to minimize the risk for side effects.

  4. Respiratory dyskinesia--an under-recognized side-effect of neuroleptic medications.

    PubMed

    Bhimanil, Mukesh Mohan; Bhimani, Mukesh; Khan, Murad Moosa; Khan, Muhammad Faheem Ashraf; Waris, Muhammad Shiraz

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognized side effect of neuroleptic administration. There are only few studies that have addressed the prevalence of respiratory dyskinesia in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Our case report highlights the need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature. Since RD is underrecognized and misdiagnosed, early detection can improve long term prognosis as treatment options are few and usually of only limited effect. A 62-year-old Asian male, retired civil engineer, had more than 20 years history of depressive illness, developed antidepressant induced hypomania, and was given risperidone upto 1 mg per day. He developed extrapyrmidal side effects as tremors, rigidity and later dyskinetic movements of lips with shortness of breathing, dyspnoea, grunting or gasping. He was referred to the pulmonologist who got the neccessary medical work up done, which was normal. A diagnosis of respiratory dyskinesia was made. Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognised and distressing condition that clinicians need to be aware of when treating patients with anti-psychotic medications. And also there is a need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature for early diagnosis and better outcome. This case report also is worth reading for professionals of other specialties also because of the presentation of this patient, it can be easily misdiagnosed and result in poor outcome.

  5. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  6. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information. PMID:26590979

  7. Non-cell Corynebacterium parvum generated by nanotechnology: a promising immunomodulator with less side effects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shangxian; Liu, Chenghu; Qu, Shoufang; Song, Jing; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Pin; Wang, Qun; Guo, Chun; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Lining

    2007-10-01

    Corynebacterium parvum (CP), a kind of immunomodulator, has been well documented in immunotherapy to tumor. However, severe side effects, such as intrahepatic granulomas and scleromas in injected areas, restrict its clinical application. To minimize side effects of CP, a non-cell Corynebacterium parvum product (NCPP) was prepared by disposing CP with Nanotechnology. In present study, we compared effect of NCPP with that of CP and found: (1) NCPP with non-formaldehyde residue was easy to be absorbed without swelling and scleroma in local injected areas; (2) NCPP caused no obvious liver injury in murine and macaques; (3) NCPP maintained powerful anti-tumor activity, increased splenic index, elevated macrophage number, phagocytosis and production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitric oxide (NO); (4) Importantly, unparallel CP, NCPP could stimulate macrophages to produce low level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) but high level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), an inhibitor to fibrosis. Our study has led to the view that NCPP will evolve into a new valuable immunomodulator for clinical application. PMID:17673148

  8. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0,0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Conclusions Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose

  9. Long-term oral administration of memory-enhancing doses of tacrine in mice: a study of potential toxicity and side effects.

    PubMed

    Fitten, L J; Flood, J F; Baxter, C F; Tachiki, K H; Perryman, K

    1987-11-01

    Recently, tacrine (1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-9-aminoacridine; THA; TAC) has received international attention as an oral agent capable of relieving some of the cognitive symptoms accompanying Alzheimer's disease (AD). When given acutely and parenterally (by injection), tacrine has also enhanced memory retention in animals and man. This study evaluates the clinical potential of this agent by assessing toxicity and major side effects of a memory-enhancing dose of tacrine in mice. Groups of mice received either tacrine or vehicle (placebo) orally for 4 to 6 months. A lack of toxicity after this prolonged treatment with TAC was indicated by: (a) no significant impairment on a battery of behavioral toxicity tests; (b) improved memory retention; (c) a significant but only slight elevation of ornithine transcarbamylase activity in blood serum; (d) no abnormality as revealed with light microscopy of liver tissue; and (e) no gross organ pathology in visceral organs.

  10. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  11. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  12. [Dermal and systemic side effects of fluocortin butylester. Comparative skin tearing experiments with active principles from commercial preparations].

    PubMed

    Kapp, J F; Gliwitzki, B; Josefiuk, P; Weishaupt, W

    1977-01-01

    Different concentrations of butyl 6alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadien-21-oate (fluocortin butylester FCB, Vaspit) and of clobetasone-17-butyrate, clobetasole-17-propionate and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate have been administered topically in order to investigate dermal and systemic side effects. It could be shown that FCB exhibits by far the least side effects. A specially devised apparatus covering the site of substance application, guaranteed an exclusive dermal absorption. Side effects, therefore, cannot be ascribed to oral ingestion of the drugs.

  13. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI.

  14. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI. PMID:27606266

  15. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Smagghe, Guy; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Mommaerts, Veerle

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids to bees including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The focus of the paper is on three different key aspects determining the risks of neonicotinoid field concentrations for bee populations: (1) the environmental neonicotinoid residue levels in plants, bees and bee products in relation to pesticide application, (2) the reported side-effects with special attention for sublethal effects, and (3) the usefulness for the evaluation of neonicotinoids of an already existing risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds. Although environmental residue levels of neonicotinoids were found to be lower than acute/chronic toxicity levels, there is still a lack of reliable data as most analyses were conducted near the detection limit and for only few crops. Many laboratory studies described lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids on the foraging behavior, and learning and memory abilities of bees, while no effects were observed in field studies at field-realistic dosages. The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Future research studies should be conducted with field-realistic concentrations, relevant exposure and evaluation durations. Molecular markers may be used to improve risk assessment by a better understanding of the mode of action (interaction with receptors) of neonicotinoids in bees leading to the identification of environmentally safer compounds.

  16. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Li, M. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Zhao, H. L.; Wang, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; EAST Team

    2013-10-01

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power.

  17. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 10(9) CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 10(9) CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  18. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E.; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S.; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 109 CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 109 CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  19. Nutritional Intervention Using Nutrition Care Process in a Malnourished Patient with Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794

  20. Nutritional intervention using nutrition care process in a malnourished patient with chemotherapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition.

  1. Exploring Motivations, Awareness of Side Effects, and Attitudes among Potential Egg Donors.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Carter, James; White, Melinda

    2016-05-01

    This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material. The majority of participants were unconcerned with potential physical and psychological side effects; however, differences emerged based on motherhood status and educational level. Although potential donors felt recipients should receive some information about the donor, they tended to value privacy regarding information giving to resultant offspring. This research study has implications for social work practice, policy, and future research. It is crucial that women receive adequate procedural and side effect information prior to engaging in egg donation. PMID:27263197

  2. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent; Stewart, Maxwell; Boyd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:18452597

  3. Complement activation during OKT3 treatment: a possible explanation for respiratory side effects.

    PubMed

    Raasveld, M H; Bemelman, F J; Schellekens, P T; van Diepen, F N; van Dongen, A; van Royen, E A; Hack, C E; ten Berge, I J

    1993-05-01

    Respiratory side effects that sometimes occur during treatment with anti-CD3 MAb OKT3 might result from pulmonary sequestration of activated neutrophils. Therefore, we studied complement activation in relation to activation and pulmonary sequestration of neutrophils during antirejection treatment with OKT3. In each of nine patients studied, plasma C3a-desarg and C4b/c levels increased compared with pretreatment values already in the first sample taken 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), with peak values at 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. Levels of neutrophil degranulation product elastase (complexed to alpha 1-antitrypsin) also increased already at 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), which is before elevated levels of the cytokines TNF alpha, IL-6 or IL-8 were detectable. In contrast, upon subsequent OKT3 administrations or in the control group treated with methylprednisolone, neither complement activation, cytokine release nor neutrophil degranulation occurred. In five studied patients treated with OKT3, pulmonary sequestration of radiolabeled granulocytes was observed from 3 until 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3, together with peripheral blood granulocytopenia, which lasted at least 30 minutes. In conclusion, we demonstrate a simultaneous activation of complement and pulmonary sequestration of activated granulocytes immediately following the first dose of OKT3. These phenomena may be involved in the development of respiratory side effects complicating this therapy.

  4. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  5. Patient-controlled inhalational analgesia in prehospital care: a study of side-effects and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Paris, P M; Stoy, W A; Cannon, G

    1983-11-01

    A clinical trial of a 50:50 mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen for pain relief was carried out to determine the feasibility of its use in a field setting and the side-effects produced by this sedative/analgesic. The gas mixture was delivered from a single-tank system using a demand-valve apparatus which was triggered by the patient's inspiratory effort. This "patient-controlled" sedation/analgesia was provided to 1243 patients over a period of 18 months. Of the 1201 patients evaluated, 20.6% reported minor side-effects consisting of nausea or vomiting (5.7%), dizziness or lightheadedness (10.3%), excitement (3.7%), and numbness (0.3%). Ninety-one (7.6%) patients became drowsy or fell into a light sleep but all were readily aroused by verbal command. All retained the ability to cough or swallow on command. No consistent or clinically adverse changes were found in BP or pulse rates. The trial supports the concept that this agent is a promising sedative/analgesic for the relief of mild to moderate pain and anxiety. Because of its safety, it is particularly suited to use in prehospital emergency care.

  6. Reducing Side Effects of Hiding Sensitive Itemsets in Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Hsu, Hung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Data mining is traditionally adopted to retrieve and analyze knowledge from large amounts of data. Private or confidential data may be sanitized or suppressed before it is shared or published in public. Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus become an important issue in recent years. The most general way of PPDM is to sanitize the database to hide the sensitive information. In this paper, a novel hiding-missing-artificial utility (HMAU) algorithm is proposed to hide sensitive itemsets through transaction deletion. The transaction with the maximal ratio of sensitive to nonsensitive one is thus selected to be entirely deleted. Three side effects of hiding failures, missing itemsets, and artificial itemsets are considered to evaluate whether the transactions are required to be deleted for hiding sensitive itemsets. Three weights are also assigned as the importance to three factors, which can be set according to the requirement of users. Experiments are then conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in execution time, number of deleted transactions, and number of side effects. PMID:24982932

  7. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  8. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed. PMID:27042173

  9. Side-effects of beta-blockers assessed using visual analogue scales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R V; Jackson, P R; Ramsay, L E

    1985-01-01

    Visual analogue scales were used in a pilot study to compare side-effects in patients receiving antihypertensive drugs either including or excluding beta-blockers. Compared with symptom scores for patients receiving antihypertensive medication other than a beta-blocker, symptom scores (when combined) for patients receiving a beta-blocker were significantly higher for tired legs (p less than 0.001), cold digits (p less than 0.005), and vivid dreams (p less than 0.01). These methods were also applied in a postal survey which was designed to compare the incidence of symptoms in patients receiving different beta-blockers with symptoms in subjects receiving no drugs. When compared with symptom scores for subjects receiving no drugs, symptom scores (when combined) for patients receiving beta-blockers were significantly higher for tired legs (p less than 0.001), cold digits (p less than 0.01), insomnia (p less than 0.01), and lack of well-being (p less than 0.01). These two studies were consistent in showing higher symptom scores for tired legs and cold digits in patients receiving beta-blockers. However, there were inconsistencies regarding sleep disturbance. Increased dreaming was apparent in the pilot study whereas increased insomnia was apparent from the postal survey. These inconsistencies cannot be explained. No significant differences in side-effects were apparent between different beta-blockers. PMID:2865155

  10. Tooth discoloration in patients with neonatal diabetes after transfer onto glibenclamide: a previously unreported side effect.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguru, Janani; Flanagan, Sarah E; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Nuboer, Roos; Støy, Julie; Philipson, Louis H; Hattersley, Andrew T; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess if tooth discoloration is a novel side effect of sulfonylurea therapy in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 67 patients with a known KCNJ11 mutation who had been successfully transferred from insulin injections onto oral sulfonylureas were contacted and asked about the development of tooth discoloration after transfer. RESULTS Altered tooth appearance was identified in 5 of the 67 patients. This was variable in severity, ranging from mild discoloration/staining (n = 4) to loss of enamel (n = 1) and was only seen in patients taking glibenclamide (glyburide). CONCLUSIONS These previously unreported side effects may relate to the developing tooth and/or to the high local concentrations in the children who frequently chewed glibenclamide tablets or took it as a concentrated solution. Given the multiple benefits of sulfonylurea treatment for patients with activating KCNJ11 mutations, this association warrants further investigation but should not preclude such treatment. PMID:19435956

  11. Recognizing and Managing Antipsychotic Drug Treatment Side Effects in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Bruce L.; Robinson, Delbert G.; Woerner, Margaret G.

    2004-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotics differ from conventional antipsychotics in their decreased ability to cause reversible drug-induced movement disorders/motor side effects such as dystonia, drug-induced parkinsonism, and akathisia and potentially persistent drug-induced movement disorders/motor side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, no antipsychotic agent completely eradicates this risk. Antipsychotic agents are frequently used in facilities for the elderly and in general hospitals to treat older patients with behavioral problems. Drug-induced movement disorders are more common and more persistent in elderly patients than in younger patients, and this problem is exacerbated by the fact that antipsychotic medications are often misused by practitioners lacking adequate psychopharmacologic training. Movement disorders can be detrimental to an elderly patient's quality of life and may transform what were otherwise routine activities into difficult tasks. Educational programs are needed to teach primary care physicians, specialists, and patients and their families how to identify and manage drug-induced movement disorders in order to achieve safer and more efficacious care for elderly patients. PMID:16001096

  12. Effect of side chain length on intrahelical interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Yang, Po-An; Wang, Wei-Ren; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Yu-Te; Weng, Ming-Huei; Kuo, Li-Hung; Cheng, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    The charge-containing hydrophilic functionalities of encoded charged amino acids are linked to the backbone via different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes, despite the apparent electrostatic nature of protein ion pairing interactions. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on ion pairing interactions, α-helical peptides containing Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3), (i, i + 4) and (i, i + 5) (Zbb = carboxylate-containing residues Aad, Glu, Asp in decreasing length; Xaa = guanidinium residues Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The helicity of Aad- and Glu-containing peptides was similar and mostly pH independent, whereas the helicity of Asp-containing peptides was mostly pH dependent. Furthermore, the Arg-containing peptides consistently exhibited higher helicity compared to the corresponding Agp-, Agb-, and Agh-containing peptides. Side chain conformational analysis by molecular mechanics calculations showed that the Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3) and (i, i + 4) interactions mainly involved the χ 1 dihedral combinations (g+, g+) and (g-, g+), respectively. These low energy conformations were also observed in intrahelical Asp-Arg and Glu-Arg salt bridges of natural proteins. Accordingly, Asp and Glu provides variation in helix characteristics associated with Arg, but Aad does not provide features beyond those already delivered by Glu. Importantly, nature may have chosen the side chain length of Arg to support helical conformations through inherent high helix propensity coupled with stabilizing intrahelical ion pairing interactions with the carboxylate-containing residues.

  13. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  14. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26830953

  15. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  16. Therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on coagulation disorder and accompanying intractable jaundice in hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-Mei; Yang, Hong-Zhi; Guan, Wei-Bing; Ke, Qian-Shan; Dai, Min; Xie, He-Ping; Zhang, Shi-Jun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of new traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy on coagulation disorder and accompanying intractable jaundice in HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients. METHODS: Using stratified random sampling according to fibrinogen (Fib) levels, 145 liver cirrhosis patients due to hepatitis B complicated by coagulation disorder were treated. Of them, 70 in research group were treated with TCM by “nourishing yin, cooling blood and invigorating blood circulation” and Western medicine, 75 in control group were treated with conventional Western medicine. The indexes of liver function, coagulation function and bleeding events were observed and compared. RESULTS: The prothrombin time (PT) was shorter and the fibrinogen (Fib) level was higher in the research group than in the control group (Fib = 1.6-2.0 g/L, 1.1-1.5 g/L, and ≤ 1.0 g/L). The total bilirubin (TBIL) level was significantly lower in the research group than in the control group, except for the subgroup of FIB ≤ 1.0 g/L. CONCLUSION: TCM therapy can improve coagulation function and decrease TBIL. PMID:18932286

  17. Cation alkyl side chain length and symmetry effects on the surface tension of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Fernandes, Ana M; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Morgado, Pedro; Shimizu, Karina; Filipe, Eduardo J M; Lopes, José N Canongia; Santos, Luís M N B F; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-06-10

    Aiming at providing a comprehensive study of the influence of the cation symmetry and alkyl side chain length on the surface tension and surface organization of ionic liquids (ILs), this work addresses the experimental measurements of the surface tension of two extended series of ILs, namely R,R'-dialkylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(n)im][NTf2]) and R-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(1)im][NTf2]), and their dependence with temperature (from 298 to 343 K). For both series of ILs the surface tension decreases with an increase in the cation side alkyl chain length up to aliphatic chains no longer than hexyl, here labeled as critical alkyl chain length (CACL). For ILs with aliphatic moieties longer than CACL the surface tension displays an almost constant value up to [C12C12im][NTf2] or [C16C1im][NTf2]. These constant values further converge to the surface tension of long chain n-alkanes, indicating that, for sufficiently long alkyl side chains, the surface ordering is strongly dominated by the aliphatic tails present in the IL. The enthalpies and entropies of surface were also derived and the critical temperatures were estimated from the experimental data. The trend of the derived thermodynamic properties highlights the effect of the structural organization of the IL at the surface with visible trend shifts occurring at a well-defined CACL in both symmetric and asymmetric series of ILs. Finally, the structure of a long-alkyl side chain IL at the vacuum-liquid interface was also explored using Molecular Dynamics simulations. In general, it was found that for the symmetric series of ILs, at the outermost polar layers, more cations point one of their aliphatic tails outward and the other inward, relative to the surface, than cations pointing both tails outward. The number of the former, while being the preferred conformation, exceeds the latter by around 75%.

  18. Beneficial and side effects of arginine vasopressin and terlipressin for septic shock.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao

    2015-05-15

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP.

  19. Anti-arrhythmic effects of atrial ganglionated plexi stimulation is accompanied by preservation of connexin43 protein in ischemia-reperfusion canine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyun; Li, Hewei; Yu, Lilei; Chen, Mingxian; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Bing; Zhou, Liping; Zhou, Xiaoya; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to provide a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-related arrhythmias by preventing the loss of Connexin43 (Cx43). Our previous studies showed that atrial epicardial ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) might exert a VNS-like effect on ventricular electrophysiology. Objectives: To investigate whether GPS could preserve Cx43 and reduce I/R induced ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Sixteen dogs were randomly divided into GPS group (N = 8, receiving GPS) and Sham group (N = 8, receiving sham GPS). Ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured at baseline and 1 h after GPS. Myocardial I/R was then performed. Ventricular arrhythmia occurred during the first hour after reperfusion was measured and myocardial tissue from the peri-infarct zone was excised for immunohistological analysis. In another 4 dogs (Control group, receiving sham GPS and sham I/R), myocardial tissue from the corresponding area was also excised. Results: Compared with the Sham group, GPS caused a significant increase in ventricular ERP and HRV, and a significant decrease in I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Western blotting revealed a marked reduction in the amount of phosphorylated Cx43 and total Cx43 in the Sham group, whereas no significant change was observed in the GPS group compared with the Control group. Immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the myocardial I/R-induced loss of phosphorylated Cx43 from the intercellular junctions was prevented by GPS. Conclusion: GPS protects against I/R induced ventricular arrhythmias, accompanied by preserving Cx43. PMID:26885184

  20. Cation Effects on the Electron-Acceptor Side of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sahr; Sun, Jennifer S; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-06-18

    The normal pathway of electron transfer on the electron-acceptor side of photosystem II (PSII) involves electron transfer from quinone A, QA, to quinone B, QB. It is possible to redirect electrons from QA(-) to water-soluble Co(III) complexes, which opens a new avenue for harvesting electrons from water oxidation by immobilization of PSII on electrode surfaces. Herein, the kinetics of electron transfer from QA(-) to [Co(III)(terpy)2](3+) (terpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine) are investigated with a spectrophotometric assay revealing that the reaction follows Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, is inhibited by cations, and is not affected by variation of the QA reduction potential. A negatively charged site on the stromal surface of the PSII protein complex, composed of glutamic acid residues near QA, is hypothesized to bind cations, especially divalent cations. The cations are proposed to tune the redox properties of QA through electrostatic interactions. These observations may thus explain the molecular basis of the effect of divalent cations like Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+) on the redox properties of the quinones in PSII, which has previously been attributed to long-range conformational changes propagated from divalent cations binding to the Ca(II)-binding site in the oxygen-evolving complex on the lumenal side of the PSII complex.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin for treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Ataru; Akazawa, Manabu; Murata, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Sadosky, Alesia; Ebata, Nozomi; Willke, Richard; Fujii, Koichi; Doherty, Jim; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP) from the health care payer and societal perspectives. Methods The cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care for treatment of CLBP-NeP was evaluated over a 12-month time horizon using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), derived from the five-dimension, five-level EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, was the measure of effectiveness. Medical costs and productivity losses were both calculated. Expected costs and outcomes were estimated via cohort simulation using a state-transition model, which mimics pain state transitions among mild, moderate, and severe pain. Distributions of pain severity were obtained from an 8-week noninterventional study. Health care resource consumption for estimation of direct medical costs for pain severity levels was derived from a physician survey. The ICER per additional QALY gained was calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the assumptions across a range of values. Results Direct medical costs and hospitalization costs were both lower in the pregabalin arm compared with usual care. The estimated ICERs in the base case scenarios were approximately ¥2,025,000 and ¥1,435,000 per QALY gained with pregabalin from the payer and societal perspectives, respectively; the latter included indirect costs related to lost productivity. Sensitivity analyses using alternate values for postsurgical pain scores (0 and 5), initial pain severity levels (either all moderate or all severe), and the actual EQ-5D-5L scores from the noninterventional study showed robustness of results, with ICERs that were similar to the base case. Development of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed high probability (≥75%) of pregabalin being cost-effective. Conclusion Using data and assumptions from routine clinical

  2. NEW INSIGHTS OF SIDE-EFFECTS OF TAU-FLUVALINATE ON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND POLLINATORS.

    PubMed

    Sterk, G M K M; Kolokytha, P D

    2015-01-01

    A high number of side-effects trials were developed and carried out on beneficial insects and mites by the 'Side-effects on beneficial organisms' IOBC working group and subsequently published in the IOBC bulletins over a number of years. In general, these tests were mainly carried out under laboratory and/or semi-field conditions following the very worst case scenario applications, leading to an IOBC classification of 3 (moderately toxic) and 4 (harmful) for many of the tested compounds However, feedback from applications under practical conditions, often indicated that the published results were far from realism for a number of compounds. Due to the fact that some of these active ingredients are still regularly used, or even growing in importance, a number of them were tested on many beneficial arthropods and pollinators and the upcoming results were compared with the registered IOBC data. Among these compounds, Tau-fluvalinate (Mavrik), a widely used synthetic pyrethroid against aphids, caterpillars and beetles in a large number of crops, was tested in the facilities of IPM Impact. While this compound was often considered as being very toxic for all beneficial organisms, slightly toxicity was shown on adults of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), and larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). However, the moderately toxicity or toxicity appeared on adults of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as well as larvae of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae), was moderated by short persistence of less than 3 days. Concerning large earth bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the compound was characterized as completely safe, even when being sprayed in the full flight phase of the bumblebees. This indicates that for a high number of pollinator species and some of the most important beneficial insects, tau

  3. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  4. Heteropterys tomentosa (A. Juss.) infusion counteracts Cyclosporin a side effects on the ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in treatment of auto-immune diseases or after organ transplants. However, several side effects are commonly associated with CsA long term intake, some regarding to loss of reproductive organ function due to oxidative damage. Considering that phytotherapy is an important tool often used against oxidative stress, we would like to describe the beneficial effects of Heteropterys tomentosa intake to minimize the damage caused by CsA to the ventral prostate tissue of Wistar rats under laboratorial conditions. Methods Thirty adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into: control group (water); CsA group (Cyclosporin A); Ht group (H. tomentosa infusion) and CsA + Ht group (CsA and H. tomentosa infusion). Plasmic levels of hepatotoxicity markers, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose were quantified. The ventral prostate tissue was analyzed under light microscopy, using stereological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical techniques. Results H. tomentosa did not cause any alterations either of the plasmic parameters or of the ventral prostate structure. CsA caused alterations of GOT, total and indirect bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in the plasma; CsA-treated rats showed alterations of the ventral prostate tissue. There were no alterations regarding the plasma levels of GOT, triglycerides and glucose of CsA + Ht animals. The same group also showed normalization of most of the parameters analyzed on the ventral prostate tissue when compared to the CsA group. The treatments did not alter the pattern of AR expression or the apoptotic index of the ventral prostate epithelium. Conclusions The results suggest a protective action of the H. tomentosa infusion against the side effects of CsA on the ventral prostate tissue, which could also be observed with plasmic biochemical parameters. PMID:23406403

  5. Use of the vapor permeable membrane for cutaneous ulcers: details of application and side effects.

    PubMed

    Alper, J C; Welch, E A; Maguire, P

    1984-11-01

    Vapor permeable membranes (VPM) are commonly being used to treat cutaneous wounds where partial or full thickness skin is lost. Five years of experience with one particular VPM has taught a great deal concerning its proper use. Correct preparation of the treatment site to allow adhesion followed by application of the VPM with the right amount of tension and border are of paramount importance or aggravation rather than improvement of the cutaneous defect may occur. Initially, the membrane should be changed frequently, once or twice a day in heavily contaminated or necrotic wounds. Side effects are usually related to improper application, with resultant leaking of fluid and irritation of normal skin. Recent success has been achieved by weekly application of VPM in the office, removal at home after several days, and subsequent use of 10% benzoyl peroxide lotion until the next office visit. Extreme caution must be exercised if VPM is used to treat patients who are severely leukopenic or malnourished.

  6. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  7. Transposable element proliferation as a possible side effect of endosymbiont manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Bast, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The mode of reproduction has been predicted to affect the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs). A population that switches from sexual to asexual reproduction could either accumulate TEs because purifying selection becomes less efficient, or a decrease in TE load because the opportunity for horizontal transmission is reduced. A third possibility is that the mechanism that induces asexual reproduction affects TE dynamics as a side effect. We propose two such mechanisms that might explain recently described patterns of TE abundance in sexual and asexual lineages of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes. Asexual reproduction in this species is induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. In order to achieve parthenogenesis in its host, Wolbachia might remove methylation or interfere with Argonaute proteins. Both methylation and Argonaute proteins are known to control TE activity in other species. By interfering with either, Wolbachia might therefore secondarily hamper the control of specific TEs. PMID:23550173

  8. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  9. The Potential Side Effects of Case-Mix Reimbursement on Clinical Data Bases and Physician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simborg, Donald W.

    1981-01-01

    Current pressures to utilize a case complexity or case-mix measure of hospital output for reimbursement purposes has two sources: a) the need to control hospital costs by relating amount of resource use to clinical conditions and b) the perceived inequity of ambulatory care reimbursement limitations. Although these pressures may be relieved by a case-mix hospital output measure, certain side effects may occur. The hospital clinical data base as reflected in the discharge abstract system will become more accurate although biased toward more costly case-mix categories. It will also be more complete, particularly with respect to surgical and other procedures. Physician behavior may change in three ways: a) actual diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making, b) the manner in which patient problems are represented in the information system, and c) admitting decision criteria.

  10. [Risks and side effects of periodontitis therapy. Focus on restorative possibilities for improving esthetic defects].

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the prophylaxis and therapy of periodontitis is the establishment and the preservation of the secondary oral health. Thereby, the main expected outcomes are the reduction of inflammation and probing pocket depths. During the healing process, some tissue shrinkage during the reparative process and healing is inevitable in most cases and leads to more or less pronounced recession. The latter can cause subsequent secondary side effects due to dentin exposure, which appear - in most cases - unwanted and negative, i. e. hypersensitivity, increased caries risk, erosion and abrasion of the exposed dentin. These pathologic conditions may also encounter esthetic and functional impairments. The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss these potential clinical pitfalls and their minimal-invasive management, especially when using adhesive strategies using composite resin materials.

  11. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  12. Do SSRI Antidepressants Increase The Risk of Extrapyramidal Side Effects In Patients Taking Antipsychotics?

    PubMed Central

    Allsbrook, Matthew; Fries, Brant E.; Szafara, Kristina L.; Regal, Randolph E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs) have enjoyed great popularity among clinicians as well as generally wide acceptance and tolerance among patients. A potentially overlooked side effect of SSRIs is the occasional occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which could be a concern when SSRIs are used with antipsychotics. This study was designed to explore the possible association between SSRI antidepressant use and the incidence of EPS side effects in patients who take concomitant antipsychotic medications. Methods: The University of Michigan conducted a study at the four Michigan state mental health hospitals between May 2010 and October 2010. The Michigan Public Health Institute collected data using the InterRAI Mental Health Assessment (InterRAI MH). The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of the cross-sectional data that were collected. Within these institutions, 693 residents were using antipsychotics. We measured the observed frequency of seven EPS recorded in the InterRAI MH within three groups of patients: 1) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking an SSRI antidepressant; 2) those on antipsychotic drugs who were not taking an antidepressant; and 3) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking a non-SSRI antidepressant. Differences in the prevalence of EPS were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were no significant differences in the observed EPS frequencies among the three groups (F2,18 = 0.01; P < 0.9901). Conclusion: In this study, SSRIs did not appear to potentiate the occurrence of EPS in patients using antipsychotics. PMID:26909002

  13. Proinflammatory cytokine responses correspond with subjective side effects after influenza virus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Porter, Kyle; Karlsson, Erik; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Background Though typically mild, side effects to the influenza virus vaccine are common and may contribute to negative perceptions including the belief that the vaccine can cause the flu. However, the extent to which subjective symptoms correspond with biological response indicators is poorly understood. Methods This study examined associations among subjective side effects (soreness at the site of injection and illness-like symptoms), serum proinflammatory cytokines and body temperature a baseline, 1, 2, and 3 days following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in a sample of 56 women 18–40 years in age. Results In relation to local reactions, women reporting being very sore at the injection site at 1 day post-vaccination exhibited greater increases in serum TNF-α and MIF in the days following vaccination compared to those with no or mild soreness. In addition, higher basal body temperature was observed in this group compared to other groups (98.7°F versus 98.0°–98.1°). In relation to systemic reactions, women endorsing illness-like symptoms (headache, fatigue, nausea, sore throat, dizziness, achiness, or mild fever) exhibited marginally higher IL-6 at baseline (p = .055) and greater increases in serum MIF at 2 days post-vaccination than those reporting no systemic symptoms. Associations of systemic symptoms with inflammatory responses were not accounted for by concomitant local reactions. As expected, antibody responses to the vaccine were highly similar in women regardless of local or systemic symptoms. Conclusions These results are consistent with the notion that subjective reports of local and systemic reactions following vaccination may be predicted by and correspond with biological indicators of inflammatory status, but are not meaningful predictors of antibody responses. To improve adherence to vaccine recommendations, clinicians should provide assurance that such symptoms may be related to normal mild inflammatory responses to

  14. Changes in behavior as side effects in methylphenidate treatment: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Konrad-Bindl, Doris Susanne; Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Our review of the scientific literature focused on an analysis of studies describing instances of methylphenidate treatment leading (or not) to behavioral changes in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult populations. Materials and methods We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Medline, and Google using the keywords “methylphenidate”, “behavioral changes”, “adverse effects”, and “side effects”. A total of 44 studies were identified as reporting on the effects and adverse effects of methylphenidate administration, and were included in the analysis. Results Five studies specifically set out to study, record, and discuss changes in behavior. Eight studies did not set out to study behavioral effects, but record and discuss them. A total of 28 studies recorded behavioral effects, but failed to discuss these further. Three studies did not include behavioral effects. Conclusion This review records what data have been published in respect of changes in behavior in association with the use of methylphenidate. While there is some evidence to suggest that methylphenidate causes changes in behavior, the majority of the studies reviewed paid little or no attention to this issue. Based on the available data, it is impossible to determine the point at which such behavioral effects occur. The frequency of occurrence of behavioral effects is also impossible to determine with certainty. Based on the available data, it is not possible to rule out whether behavioral effects may persist or not persist once treatment is discontinued. In conclusion, despite countless publications and extensive administration, especially to children, we have insufficient data to judge the long-term effects and risks of methylphenidate taking. PMID:27789952

  15. [No hair loss, but colitis or pneumonitis: unique side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer].

    PubMed

    Steenbruggen, T G; van den Heuvel, M M; Blank, C U; van Dieren, J M; Haanen, J B A G; Kok, M

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is an effective strategy for several cancers. In some patients long-term remissions are seen. However, enhancement of the immune response can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These patients often present with nonspecific symptoms. The most common irAEs are dermatitis, colitis, pneumonitis, hepatitis and endocrinopathies. IrAEs can occur in every organ, even simultaneously. Furthermore, irAEs can occur weeks or months after discontinuation of checkpoint inhibitors. Most irAEs can be well managed, but life-threatening situations do occur. General management involves supportive care, glucocorticoids and sometimes immunomodulatory drugs, such as infliximab. Early diagnosis and adequate team management can improve the course of irAEs without compromising the cancer treatment. Here, we present two cases: a melanoma patient with an ipilimumab-induced colitis and a lung cancer patient with pneumonitis after anti-PD-1.We then summarise the most common toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors, emphasising the need to familiarise the practitioner with irAEs of approved and emerging immunotherapies.

  16. [No hair loss, but colitis or pneumonitis: unique side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer].

    PubMed

    Steenbruggen, T G; van den Heuvel, M M; Blank, C U; van Dieren, J M; Haanen, J B A G; Kok, M

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is an effective strategy for several cancers. In some patients long-term remissions are seen. However, enhancement of the immune response can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These patients often present with nonspecific symptoms. The most common irAEs are dermatitis, colitis, pneumonitis, hepatitis and endocrinopathies. IrAEs can occur in every organ, even simultaneously. Furthermore, irAEs can occur weeks or months after discontinuation of checkpoint inhibitors. Most irAEs can be well managed, but life-threatening situations do occur. General management involves supportive care, glucocorticoids and sometimes immunomodulatory drugs, such as infliximab. Early diagnosis and adequate team management can improve the course of irAEs without compromising the cancer treatment. Here, we present two cases: a melanoma patient with an ipilimumab-induced colitis and a lung cancer patient with pneumonitis after anti-PD-1.We then summarise the most common toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors, emphasising the need to familiarise the practitioner with irAEs of approved and emerging immunotherapies. PMID:27438388

  17. Overcoming toxicity and side-effects of lipid-lowering therapies.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Laffin, Luke J; Davidson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    Lowering serum lipid levels is part of the foundation of treating and preventing clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Recently, the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology released cholesterol guidelines which advocate for high efficacy statins rather than LDL-c goals for five patient subgroups at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is critical that clinicians have an approach for managing side-effects of statin therapy. Statins are associated with myopathy, transaminase elevations, and an increased risk of incident diabetes mellitus among some patients; connections between statins and other processes, such as renal and neurologic function, have also been studied with mixed results. Statin-related adverse effects might be minimized by careful assessment of patient risk factors. Strategies to continue statin therapy despite adverse effects include switching to another statin at a lower dose and titrating up, giving intermittent doses of statins, and adding non-statin agents. Non-statin lipid-lowering drugs have their own unique limitations. Management strategies and algorithms for statin-associated toxicities are available to help guide clinicians. Clinical practice should emphasize tailoring therapy to address each individual's cholesterol goals and risk of developing adverse effects on lipid-lowering drugs.

  18. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  19. The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Zlobinskaya, Olga; Dollinger, Günther; Schmid, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    The potential of proton microchannel radiotherapy to reduce radiation effects in the healthy tissue but to keep tumor control the same as in conventional proton therapy is further elucidated. The microchannels spread on their way to the tumor tissue resulting in different fractions of the healthy tissue covered with doses larger than the tumor dose, while the tumor gets homogeneously irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing channel width on potential side effects in the normal tissue. A rectangular 180 × 180 µm(2) and two Gaussian-type dose distributions of σ = 260 µm and σ = 520 µm with an interchannel distance of 1.8 mm have been applied by 20-MeV protons to a 3D human skin model in order to simulate the widened channels and to compare the irradiation effects at different endpoints to those of a homogeneous proton irradiation. The number of protons applied was kept constant at all irradiation modes resulting in the same average dose of 2 Gy. All kinds of proton microchannel irradiation lead to higher cell viability and produce significantly less genetic damage than homogeneous proton irradiation, but the reduction is lower for the wider channel sizes. Our findings point toward the application of microchannel irradiation for clinical proton or heavy ion therapy to further reduce damage of normal tissues while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose distribution inside the tumor.

  20. Side effects of 58 years of copper sulfate treatment of the Fairmont Lakes, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.J.; Stefan, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    The shallow Fairmont Lakes in Southern Minnesota have been treated with copper sulfate for 58 years to reduce excessive algal growth. Copper sulfate was applied to five lakes at cumulative rates up to 1647 kg/ha (1470 lb/acre), totaling 1.5 million kilograms. Data collected since treatment of the Fairmont Lakes began in 1921 provide alarming insights into lake responses to sustained chemical treatment with copper sulfate. Short-term and long-term effects have occurred. Short-term effects include: a) the intended temporary killing of algae, b) dissolved oxygen depletion by decomposition of dead algae, c) accelerated phosphorus recycling from the lake bed and recovery of the agal population within 7 to 21 days, and d) occasional fish kills due to oxygen depletion or copper toxicity or both. Long-term effects are shown to include: a) copper accumulation in the sediments, b) tolerance adjustments of certain species of algae to higher copper sulfate dosages, c) shift of species from green to blue-green algae and from game fish to rough fish, d) disappearance of macrophytes, and e) reductions in benthic macroinvertebrates. The conclusion is that while copper sulfate treatments enjoy great popularity because they kill and remove algae almost instantaneously, other immediate or cumulative side effects can be harmful to many other aquatic organisms.

  1. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  2. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B R; Sousa, Gustavo F M; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  3. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  4. Predictors and Diagnostic Significance of the Adenosine Related Side Effects on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT/CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım Poyraz, Nilüfer; Özdemir, Elif; Poyraz, Barış Mustafa; Kandemir, Zuhal; Keskin, Mutlay; Türkölmez, Şeyda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and adenosine-related side-effects during stress myocard perfusion imaging (MPI). The effect of presence of adenosine-related side-effects on the diagnostic value of MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system for coronary artery disease (CAD), was also assessed in this study. Methods: Total of 281 patients (109 M, 172 F; mean age:62.6±10) who underwent standard adenosine stress protocol for MPI, were included in this study. All symptoms during adenosine infusion were scored according to the severity and duration. For the estimation of diagnostic value of adenosine MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system, coronary angiography (CAG) or clinical follow-up were used as gold standard. Results: Total of 173 patients (61.6%) experienced adenosine-related side-effects (group 1); flushing, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most common. Other 108 patients completed pharmacologic stress (PS) test without any side-effects (group 2). Test tolerability were similar in the patients with cardiovascular or airway disease to others, however dyspnea were observed significantly more common in patients with mild airway disease. Body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 and age ≤45 years were independent predictors of side-effects. The diagnostic value of MPI was similar in both groups. Sensitivity of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT was calculated to be 86%, specificity was 94% and diagnostic accuracy was 92% for diagnosis of CAD. Conclusion: Adenosine MPI is a feasible and well tolerated method in patients who are not suitable for exercise stress test as well as patients with cardiopulmonary disease. However age ≤45 years and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 are the positive predictors of adenosine-related side-effects, the diagnostic value of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT is not affected by the presence of adenosine related side-effects. PMID:25541932

  5. Health sector demand-side financial incentives in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review on demand- and supply-side effects.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Mutasa, Ronald; Friedman, Jed; Das, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side financial incentive (DSF) is an emerging strategy to improve health seeking behavior and health status in many low- and middle-income countries. This narrative synthesis assessed the demand- and supply-side effects of DSF. Forty one electronic data bases were searched to screen relevant experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. Out of the 64 selected papers, 28 were eligible for this review and they described 19 DSF initiatives across Asia, Africa and Latin America. There were three categories of initiatives, namely long-run multi-sectoral programs or LMPs (governmental); long-run health-exclusive programs (governmental); and short-run health-exclusive initiatives (both governmental and non-governmental). Irrespective of the nature of incentives and initiatives, all DSF programs could achieve their expected behavioral outcomes on healthcare seeking and utilization substantially. However, there existed a few negative and perverse outcomes on health seeking behavior and DSF's impact on continuous health seeking choices (e.g. bed net use and routine adult health check-ups) was mixed. Their effects on maternal health status, diarrhea, malaria and out-of-pocket expenditure were under-explored; while chronic non-communicable diseases were not directly covered by any DSF programs. DSF could reduce HIV prevalence and child deaths, and enhance nutritional and growth status of children. The direction and magnitude of their effects on health status was elastic to the evaluation design employed. On health system benefits, despite prioritizing on vulnerable groups, DSF's substantial effect on the poorest of the poor was mixed compared to that on the relatively richer groups. Though DSF initiatives intended to improve service delivery status, many could not optimally do so, especially to meet the additionally generated demand for care. Causal pathways of DSF's effects should be explored in-depth for mid-course corrections and cross-country learning on their

  6. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  7. Shortening or Abolishing Shift Report as the Effect of ENR and EMR Implementation, and Its Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Asami; Nakajima, Anna; Fukuju, Yuri; Mori, Natsumi; Shimoda, Mariko; Kurihara, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the shortening or abolishing shift report as the effect of implementing electronic nursing and medical records and its side effects at 10 Japanese hospitals. The majority of staff nurses accepted this change, but both directors and staff nurses recognized the risk of insufficient collection and communication of patient information, difficulties of understanding the risks and matters of patients not under care and an increase in time to collect information from the computer before starting patient care. Directors should carefully evaluate and reduce the negative influences associated with changing or eliminating the traditional shift report. PMID:27577330

  8. Peptoid oligomers with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains: effects of chain length on secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, C W; Sanborn, T J; Zuckermann, R N; Barron, A E

    2001-04-01

    Oligomeric N-substituted glycines or "peptoids" with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains can adopt stable helices in organic or aqueous solution, despite their lack of backbone chirality and their inability to form intrachain hydrogen bonds. Helical ordering appears to be stabilized by avoidance of steric clash as well as by electrostatic repulsion between backbone carbonyls and pi clouds of aromatic rings in the side chains. Interestingly, these peptoid helices exhibit intense circular dichroism (CD) spectra that closely resemble those of peptide alpha-helices. Here, we have utilized CD to systematically study the effects of oligomer length, concentration, and temperature on the chiral secondary structure of organosoluble peptoid homooligomers ranging from 3 to 20 (R)-N-(1-phenylethyl)glycine (Nrpe) monomers in length. We find that a striking evolution in CD spectral features occurs for Nrpe oligomers between 4 and 12 residues in length, which we attribute to a chain length-dependent population of alternate structured conformers having cis versus trans amide bonds. No significant changes are observed in CD spectra of oligomers between 13 and 20 monomers in length, suggesting a minimal chain length of about 13 residues for the formation of stable poly(Nrpe) helices. Moreover, no dependence of circular dichroism on concentration is observed for an Nrpe hexamer, providing evidence that these helices remain monomeric in solution. In light of these new data, we discuss chain length-related factors that stabilize organosoluble peptoid helices of this class, which are important for the design of helical, biomimetic peptoids sharing this structural motif.

  9. An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L; del R Arellano, María; Montemayor, Karina; García, Olga P; Caamaño, María del C

    2008-01-01

    increase RTEC consumption, as a source of carbohydrate, to reduce obesity is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education. The need for education could be extrapolated to other strategies intended for treatment of obesity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clincial Trial Registry. Request no: ACTRN12608000025336 PMID:18783622

  10. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  11. Redox nanoparticle increases the chemotherapeutic efficiency of pioglitazone and suppresses its toxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells; however, its clinical use is questioned due to its associated liver toxicity caused by increased oxidative stress. We therefore employed nitroxide-radical containing nanoparticle, termed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) which is an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a drug carrier. RNP(N) encapsulation increased pioglitazone solubility, thus increasing cellular uptake of encapsulated pioglitazone which reduced the dose required to induce toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines. Investigation of in vitro molecular mechanism of pioglitazone revealed that both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were involved in tumor cell death. In addition, intravenously administered pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) produced significant tumor volume reduction in vivo due to enhanced permeation and retention effect. Most importantly, oxidative damage caused by pioglitazone in the liver was significantly suppressed by pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) due to the presence of nitroxide radicals. It is interesting to note that oral administration of encapsulated pioglitazone, and co-administration of RNP(N) and pioglitazone, i.e., no encapsulation of pioglitazone in RNP(N) also significantly contributed to suppression of the liver injury. Therefore, use of RNP(N) either as an adjuvant or as a carrier for drugs with severe side effects is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27235996

  12. Is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis an inducer of vasopressin analogue side-effects? A case report.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, F; Giorgi, A; Riggio, O; De Santis, A; Laviano, A; Rossi-Fanelli, F

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, the use of vasopressin analogues in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome has become an effective therapeutic strategy leading to improved survival and often allowing the completion of liver transplantation. Terlipressin, in particular, has proven to be safe and effective. Due to the limited number of patients treated so far, it is, however, difficult to draw any definite conclusions on the optimal dosage and on the occurrence of side-effects in these patients. The case is reported of an ascitic cirrhotic patient who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis followed by a type-I hepatorenal syndrome. Treatment with terlipressin boluses (0.5 mg/4 h) associated with albumin infusion was then started. The course of the disease was monitored by clinical and laboratory means. After 10 boluses of terlipressin, rectorrhagia and severe ischaemic complications involving the skin of the abdomen, lower limbs, scrotus, and penis, occurred. These ischaemic complications improved after terlipressin withdrawal, while renal failure evolved leading to the patient's death. This case report shows that, in patients with type-I hepatorenal syndrome, the use of terlipressin, even at low dosages, may induce life-threatening ischaemic complications and, moreover, suggests that the recent occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, even if properly treated, may significantly increase the risk of major ischaemic complications.

  13. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  14. Glucocorticoid (dexamethasone)-induced metabolome changes in healthy males suggest prediction of response and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Bordag, Natalie; Klie, Sebastian; Jürchott, Kathrin; Vierheller, Janine; Schiewe, Hajo; Albrecht, Valerie; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Schichor, Christian; Selbig, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are indispensable anti-inflammatory and decongestant drugs with high prevalence of use at ~0.9% of the adult population. Better holistic insights into glucocorticoid-induced changes are crucial for effective use as concurrent medication and management of adverse effects. The profiles of 214 metabolites from plasma of 20 male healthy volunteers were recorded prior to and after ingestion of a single dose of 4 mg dexamethasone (+20 mg pantoprazole). Samples were drawn at three predefined time points per day: seven untreated (day 1 midday - day 3 midday) and four treated (day 3 evening - day 4 evening) per volunteer. Statistical analysis revealed tremendous impact of dexamethasone on the metabolome with 150 of 214 metabolites being significantly deregulated on at least one time point after treatment (ANOVA, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected, q < 0.05). Inter-person variability was high and remained uninfluenced by treatment. The clearly visible circadian rhythm prior to treatment was almost completely suppressed and deregulated by dexamethasone. The results draw a holistic picture of the severe metabolic deregulation induced by single-dose, short-term glucocorticoid application. The observed metabolic changes suggest a potential for early detection of severe side effects, raising hope for personalized early countermeasures increasing quality of life and reducing health care costs. PMID:26526738

  15. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  16. Antiparkinson drugs used as prophylactics for nerve agents: studies of cognitive side effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Enger, Siri; Aas, Pål

    2008-06-01

    Antiparkinson agents possess excellent anticonvulsant properties against nerve agent-induced seizures by exerting both cholinergic and glutamatergic antagonisms. It is important, however, that drugs used as prophylactics not by themselves cause impairment of cognitive capability. The purpose of the present study was to make a comparative assessment of potential cognitive effects of benactyzine (0.3 mg/kg), biperiden (0.11 mg/kg), caramiphen (10 mg/kg), procyclidine (3 mg/kg), and trihexyphenidyl (0.12 mg/kg) separately and each in combination with physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg). The results showed that benactyzine, caramiphen, and trihexyphenidyl reduced rats' innate preference for novelty, whereas biperiden and procyclidine did not. When benactyzine, caramiphen, and trihexyphenidyl were combined with physostigmine the cognitive impairment disappeared. This counteracting effect, however, caused changes in locomotor and rearing activities not seen by each drug alone. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics used as prophylactics can offset each other, but exceptions are observed in a previous study when a very potent anticholinergic (scopolamine) or a high dose of procyclidine still results in cognitive deficits in spite of coadministration with physostigmine. Among the present drugs tested, procyclidine appears to be a robust anticonvulsant with few cognitive side effects.

  17. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  18. Ergogenic aids: a review of basic science, performance, side effects, and status in sports.

    PubMed

    Tokish, John M; Kocher, Mininder S; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    The use of drugs and supplements to enhance performance has become a part of mainstream athletics. Many team physicians and sports medicine practitioners are unfamiliar with the benefits and risks of these products and thus are unable to educate young athletes on this topic. In spite of numerous reports on the health risks of anabolic steroid use, 1 to 3 million Americans have used them. Human growth hormone has been tried by up to 5% of 10th graders, although no scientific study has shown that it is an effective performance-enhancing drug. Amphetamines and similar compounds may be the most widely abused drug in baseball; recently, they have come under increased scrutiny in sport. Erythropoietin is a highly effective aerobic enhancer that has been linked to multiple deaths in cyclists and other endurance athletes. The neutraceutical industry, led by supplements such as creatine, ephedra, and androstenedione, remains unregulated by the Food and Drug Administration and has serious issues with quality and side effects. An understanding of these products is essential for the sports medicine practitioner to provide sound, safe advice to the athlete.

  19. [Analysis of the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER)].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Takashi; Okumara, Yasuyuki; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka; Ito, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed the cases of side effects due to antipsychotics reported to Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012. We used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) and analyzed 136 of 216,945 cases using the defined terms. We also checked the cardiac adverse effects listed in the package inserts of the antipsychotics involved. We found cases of Ikr blockade resulting in sudden death (49 cases), electrocardiogram QT prolonged (29 cases), torsade de pointes (TdP, 19 cases), ventricular fibrillation (VF, 10 cases). M2 receptor blockade was observed in tachycardia (8 cases) and sinus tachycardia (3 cases). Calmodulin blockade was involved in reported cardiomyopathy (3 cases) and myocarditis (1 case). Multiple adverse events were reported simultaneously in 14 cases. Our search of package inserts revealed warnings regarding electrocardiogram QT prolongation (24 drugs), tachycardia (23), sudden death (18), TdP (14), VF (3), myocarditis (1) and cardiomyopathy (1). We suggest that when an antipsychotic is prescribed, the patient should be monitored regularly with ECG, blood tests, and/or biochemical tests to avoid adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25069255

  20. Sodium pump-mediated ATP:ADP exchange. The sided effects of sodium and potassium ions

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Resealed human red cell ghosts containing caged ATP (Kaplan et al., 1978) and [3H]ADP were irradiated at 340 nm. The photochemical release of free ATP initiated a rapid transphosphorylation reaction (ATP:ADP exchange), a component of which is inhibited by ouabain. The reaction rate was measured by following the rate of appearance of [3H]ATP. The sodium pump-mediated ATP:ADP exchange reaction showed high-affinity stimulation by Mg ions (less than 10 microM) and was inhibited at higher levels. At optimal [Mg], extracellular Na (Nao) had a biphasic effect. Nao progressively inhibited the reaction rate between 0 and 10 mM and stimulated at higher levels. Intracellular Na (Nai) activated the reaction; the rate was maximal when Nai was 1 mM and remained unaltered up to 115 mM Nai at constant Nao. Extracellular K ions (Ko) inhibited the reaction; at high Nao, half-maximal inhibition was observed with 0.9 mM Ko. Lio inhibited the exchange rate with a lower affinity than Ko; half-maximal inhibition was produced by approximately 50 mM Lio. Intracellular K ions were without dramatic effect on the reaction rate in the concentration range where Ko inhibited completely. The relationship between these observations and previous studies on porous preparations is discussed, as well as the extent to which these observations support the hypothesis that the sodium pump-mediated ATP:ADP exchange reaction accompanies the Na:Na exchange transport mode of the sodium pump. PMID:6294224

  1. The dysfunctional side effects of quantitative indicator production: illustration from mental health care (a message from Chicken Little).

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, P E

    1984-01-01

    In the current context of economic conservation, accountability and retrenchment from social programs, justification is required in order to maintain human service capacity. In this effort, evaluation is a key component. Yet desire to base action upon information resulting from evaluation must be tempered by increased attention to the effects of the evaluation process. All too often premature application of quantitative indicators formerly used for individual assessment and research to bureaucratic decision making produces side effects that are dysfunctional in nature. Frequently these side effects influence service delivery directly. More insidious, because they are less easily discerned, are distortions introduced into the data by evaluation pressure. These not only delay effects on service but also impair understanding of the very process they are meant to illuminate. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the author reviews a general literature and utilized examples from mental health care. Common themes are identified and a tentative theory of side effect generation proposed.

  2. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  3. Comparison of Two Doses of Elemental Iron in the Treatment of Latent Iron Deficiency: Efficacy, Side Effects and Blinding Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18–35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were no differences in side effects (p = 0.29), or compliance (p = 0.60) between iron groups. Nine (69%) participants on iron, and 11 (56%) on placebo correctly guessed their treatment allocation. Both iron doses were equally effective in normalising ferritin levels. Although reported side-effects were similar for both groups, a majority of participants correctly guessed their treatment group. PMID:24714351

  4. [The comparison of the effects and side effects of local anesthetic and opioid combinations in epidural patient controlled analgesia].

    PubMed

    Eti, Zeynep; Umuroğlu, Tümay; Takil, Arzu; Göğüş, Yilmaz

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and side effects of local anesthetic and opioid combinations in 457 patients who have received epidural patient-controlled analgesia (EPCA). Hemodynamic parameters, numeric rating scale, sedation scores, the degree of motor and sensory blockage, the presence of side effects, the parameters of PCA device were recorded from the postoperative pain records. 253 patients received 0.1 % bupivacaine + 3 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B1F3), 80 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 3 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B12F3), 43 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 4 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B12F4), 46 patients received 0.1 % bupivacaine + 0.1 mg/ml morphine (Group B1M1) and 35 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 0.1 mg/ml morphine (Group B12M1). Nausea was significantly higher in group B1M1 compared to B12F3, in group B12M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 (p<0.05), vomiting was significantly higher in group B1M1 and B12M1 (p<0.05) compared to B12F3, pruritus was significantly higher in group B12F4 compared to B12F3 and B1F3, in group B1M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 and in group B12M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 (p<0.05). As a result, in EPCA, the combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl provides as effective analgesia as the combination of bupivacaine and morphine and 3 mg/ml fentanyl admixture may be preferred with less side effects such as nausea, vomiting and pruritus.

  5. Waste feed from coastal fish farms: A trophic subsidy with compositional side-effects for wild gadoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, Damian; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Lopez Jimenez, Jose Angel; Martínez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Bjørn, Pål-Arne; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Dempster, Tim

    2011-03-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous fish species in sea-cages typically uses artificial feeds, with a proportion of these feeds lost to the surrounding environment. This lost resource may provide a trophic subsidy to wild fish in the vicinity of fish farms, yet the physiological consequences of the consumption of waste feed by wild fish remain unclear. In two regions in Norway with intensive aquaculture, we tested whether wild saithe ( Pollachius virens) and Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) associated with fish farms (F assoc), where waste feed is readily available, had modified diets, condition and fatty acid (FA) compositions in their muscle and liver tissues compared to fish unassociated (UA) with farms. Stomach content analyses revealed that both cod and saithe consumed waste feed in the vicinity of farms (6-96% of their diet was composed of food pellets). This translated into elevated body and liver condition compared to fish caught distant from farms for cod at both locations and elevated body condition for saithe at one of the locations. As a consequence of a modified diet, we detected significantly increased concentrations of terrestrial-derived fatty acids (FAs) such as linoleic (18:2ω6) and oleic (18:1ω9) acids and decreased concentrations of DHA (22:6ω3) in the muscle and/or liver of F assoc cod and saithe when compared with UA fish. In addition, the ω3:ω6 ratio clearly differed between F assoc and UA fish. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 97% of fish into F assoc or UA origin for both cod and saithe based on the FA composition of liver tissues, and 89% of cod and 86% of saithe into F assoc or UA origin based on the FA composition of muscle. Thus, LDA appears a useful tool for detecting the influence of fish farms on the FA composition of wild fish. Ready availability of waste feed with high protein and fat content provides a clear trophic subsidy to wild fish in coastal waters, yet whether the accompanying side-effect of altered fatty

  6. Cardiovascular Side Effects of New Antidepressants and Antipsychotics: New Drugs, old Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, Pal; Kecskemeti, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    The cardiovascular toxicity of older generation of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine) and neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol, droperidol, thioridazine, pimozide) is well established. These drugs inhibit cardiovascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels often leading to life-threatening arrhythmia. To overcome the toxicity of old generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, venlafaxin) and several new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) were introduced during the past decade. Although these new compounds are not more effective in treating psychiatric disorders than older medications, they gained incredible popularity since they have been reported to have fewer and more benign side effect profile (including cardiovascular) than predecessors. Surprisingly, an increasing number of case reports have demonstrated that the use of SSRIs and new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) is associated with cases of arrhythmias, prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram (ECG) and orthostatic hypotension in patients lacking cardiovascular disorders, raising new concerns about the putative cardiovascular safety of these compounds. In agreement with these clinical reports these new compounds indeed show marked cardiovascular depressant effects in different mammalian and human cardiovascular preparations by inhibiting cardiac and vascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels. Taken together, these results suggest that the new generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics also have clinically important cardiac as well as vascular effects. Clinicians should be more vigilant about these potential adverse reactions and ECG control may be suggested during therapy, especially in patients with

  7. Kondo effect in a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minchul; Lim, Jong Soo; López, Rosa

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (ɛm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (ΓmTK), on the other hand, the spin-split Kondo resonance takes place due to the MFS-induced Zeeman splitting, which is a genuine many-body effect of the strong Coulomb interaction and the topological superconductivity. We find that the original Kondo resonance is fully restored once the MFSs are strongly hybridized (ɛm>Γm). This unusual interaction between the Kondo effect and the MFS can thus serve to detect the Majorana fermions unambiguously and quantify the degree of overlap between the MFSs in the TS.

  8. Modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects by medications for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Ayaka; Shimizu, Saki; Shin, Noriyuki; Sato, Maho; Sugiuchi, Tomone; Imaki, Junta; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2012-08-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are widely used not only for schizophrenia, but also for mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and depression. To evaluate the interactions between antipsychotics and drugs for mood disorders in modulating extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), we examined the effects of antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs on haloperidol (HAL)-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in mice and rats. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine and paroxetine, and the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine, which showed no EPS by themselves, significantly potentiated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) mirtazapine failed to augment, but rather attenuated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy. Mianserin also tended to reduce the EPS induction. In addition, neither treatment with lithium, sodium valproate nor carbamazepine potentiated HAL-induced EPS. Furthermore, treatment of animals with ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), and SB-258585 (5-HT6 antagonist) significantly antagonized the EPS augmentation by fluoxetine. Intrastriatal injection of ritanserin or SB-258585, but not ondansetron, also attenuated the EPS induction. The present study suggests that NaSSAs are superior to SSRIs or TCAs in combined therapy for mood disorders with antipsychotics in terms of EPS induction. In addition, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors seem to be responsible for the augmentation of antipsychotic-induced EPS by serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:22542492

  9. Label Propagation Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Based on Clinical Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for public health, and thus attracts attention from both academia and industry. Here we hypothesize that clinical side effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile and can be translated into the development of computational models for predicting adverse DDIs. We propose an integrative label propagation framework to predict DDIs by integrating SEs extracted from package inserts of prescription drugs, SEs extracted from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, and chemical structures from PubChem. Experimental results based on hold-out validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm also ranked drug information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus not only confirming that SEs are important features for DDI prediction but also paving the way for building more reliable DDI prediction models by prioritizing multiple data sources. By applying the proposed algorithm to 1,626 small-molecule drugs which have one or more SE profiles, we obtained 145,068 predicted DDIs. The predicted DDIs will help clinicians to avoid hazardous drug interactions in their prescriptions and will aid pharmaceutical companies to design large-scale clinical trial by assessing potentially hazardous drug combinations. All data sets and predicted DDIs are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/ddi.html. PMID:26196247

  10. Label Propagation Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Based on Clinical Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for public health, and thus attracts attention from both academia and industry. Here we hypothesize that clinical side effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile and can be translated into the development of computational models for predicting adverse DDIs. We propose an integrative label propagation framework to predict DDIs by integrating SEs extracted from package inserts of prescription drugs, SEs extracted from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, and chemical structures from PubChem. Experimental results based on hold-out validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm also ranked drug information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus not only confirming that SEs are important features for DDI prediction but also paving the way for building more reliable DDI prediction models by prioritizing multiple data sources. By applying the proposed algorithm to 1,626 small-molecule drugs which have one or more SE profiles, we obtained 145,068 predicted DDIs. The predicted DDIs will help clinicians to avoid hazardous drug interactions in their prescriptions and will aid pharmaceutical companies to design large-scale clinical trial by assessing potentially hazardous drug combinations. All data sets and predicted DDIs are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/ddi.html.

  11. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  12. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  13. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-07-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study.

  14. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  15. Occurrence and current management of side effects in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated frontline with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the gold standard therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia and, after being used in imatinib resistant patients, dasatinib and nilotinib are now also used in frontline. In this article, we review data about occurrence of side effects in several trials testing imatinib or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors first line. Literature data about high-dose imatinib used front-line as single treatment or with different combinations is also examined. A literature search for relevant studies was undertaken mainly in PubMed. This review is aimed to summarize the safety of different treatments and to discuss the current management of most common side effects. Literature evidence supports the fact that side effects associated to TKIs seem to differ between agents, but most of side effects reported occur early within the treatment course. Second generation frontline TKIs reduce the incidence of most of side effects reported with imatinib and peculiar events observed are typically manageable through drug dose reduction or treatment interruption.

  16. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects. PMID:26879695

  17. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Results: Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. Conclusion: General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8. PMID:24876713

  18. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W.; Michalak, Erin E.; Bond, David J.; Tam, Edwin M.; Axler, Auby; Yatham, Lakshmi N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant) in working patients with MDD. PMID:22611491

  19. Effects of Causes and Causes of Effects: Some Remarks From the Sociological Side

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Sociology is pluralist in subject matter, theory, and method, and thus a good place to entertain ideas about causation associated with their use under the law. I focus on two themes of their article: (1) the legal lens on causation that “considers populations in order to make statements about individuals” and (2) the importance of distinguishing between effects of causes and causes of effects. PMID:25477697

  20. Modelling the glucocorticoid receptor and producing therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory effects but reduced side-effects.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Andrew; Ray, David William

    2007-03-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones exert a wide spectrum of metabolic and immunological effects. They are synthesized from a cholesterol precursor and are structurally related to the other steroid hormones, progesterone, aldosterone and oestrogen. They act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The GR is an intracellular receptor; the hydrophobic ligand accesses its receptor by diffusion across the plasma membrane. The ligand-activated GR translocates to the nucleus to regulate expression of its target genes. The GR, in common with the rest of the receptor family, can be functionally divided into an N-terminal transcription activation domain, a central DNA binding domain and a C-terminal ligand binding domain, which also includes a second transactivation domain. Although synthetic glucocorticoids are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known, their use is limited owing to the range and severity of their side-effects. The structure of the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor has now been solved, and a series of studies has shown that even subtle changes to the ligand structure alter the final conformation of the ligand-receptor complex, with consequences for further protein recruitment and for the function of the receptor. This, coupled with the successful development of selective oestrogen receptor agonists, has led to concerted efforts to find selective GR ligands, with preserved beneficial anti-inflammatory activity, but reduced side-effect profile. Current efforts have identified several useful tool compounds, and further molecules are in development in several pharmaceutical companies.

  1. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications.

  2. Effects and Side Effects of DRO as Treatment for Self-Injurious Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Glynnis Edwards; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This case study presents a 9-year-old boy who exhibited severe stereotypic self-injurious behavior. An escalating differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule, mediated through token reinforcement, eliminated self-injurious behavior quickly for up to 30-minute periods, and was more effective than social reinforcement. Crying behavior…

  3. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  4. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  5. Treatment of depression with the CRH-1-receptor antagonist R121919: endocrine changes and side effects.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Heike E; Zobel, Astrid W; Nickel, Thomas; Ackl, Nibal; Uhr, Manfred; Sonntag, Annette; Ising, Marcus; Holsboer, Florian

    2003-01-01

    A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system has been hypothesized to account for a myriad of cardinal symptoms of affective disorders. Specifically, increased CRH signalling via CRH type 1 receptors is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of major depression and anxiety disorders. Consequently, a number of drugs have been developed in order to target the postulated increase in CRH/CRH 1 receptor signalling. One of these compounds, R121919, binds with high affinity to CRH1 receptors antagonising the action of CRH. R121919 was recently tested in an open-label study conceptualized as a safety and tolerability study. As part of this study, a thorough endocrine evaluation and detailed clinical laboratory analysis were assessed several times during 30 days of treatment with two different dose regimens of R121919 (5-40 mg vs. 40-80 mg) in 24 patients with a major depressive episode. During treatment with the experimental drug no serious side effects were noted. In particular, there were no adverse effects or impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the renin-angiotensin system, prolactin or vasopressin secretion. Furthermore, no changes in the serum corticotropin and cortisol concentrations and in the responsivity of corticotropin and cortisol following a CRH stimulation test were noted. No effects of R121919 on clinical laboratory parameters including liver enzymes, EEG and ECG were observed. These results encourage the development of other CRH-1-R antagonists as a novel class of antidepressive drugs.

  6. Laser parameters, focusing optics, and side effects in femtosecond laser corneal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamann, Karsten; Nuzzo, Valeria; Peyrot, Donald A.; Deloison, Florent; Savoldelli, Michèle; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays, femtosecond lasers are routinely used in refractive eye surgery. Until recently, commercialised clinical systems were exclusively based on ytterbium or neodymium-doped solid state lasers emitting sub-picosecond pulses at a wavelength of about 1 μm and repetition rates of a few 10 kHz. These systems use pulse energies in the μJ range and focussing optics of NA = 0.3 to 0.5. Recent developments have provided a variety of alternative and equally viable approaches: systems are now available using nJ pulses at high numerical apertures and MHz repetition rates - an approach so far only used for femtosecond cell surgery - and fibre laser technology is now being used for femtosecond laser corneal surgery. Recent research has also provided more insight in side effects occurring in present systems: self focusing phenomena and so far unexplained periodical structures have been observed even at high numerical apertures (NA >> 0.5) and moderate pulse energies. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with strongly scattering tissue has been studied in view of extending the application of femtosecond lasers to keratoplasty for opaque corneas and to glaucoma surgery. The use of new laser wavelengths and adaptive optics has been proposed. Despite the reputation of femtosecond surgical systems for their precision, repeatability and the absence of secondary effects or complications, a closer examination reveals the presence of subtle phenomena which merit further investigation. We present three of these phenomena: the influence of optical aberration on the quality of the incision, the occurrence of filamentation effects, and the deposit of microscopic glass fragments when performing penetrating incisions.

  7. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Luijk, Peter Van

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for restoring functionality to the irradiated tissue bed. Recent Advances: Preclinical studies presented in this review provide encouraging proof of concept regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for treating the adverse side effects associated with radiotherapy in different organs. Early-stage clinical data for radiation-induced lung, bone, and skin complications are promising and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate stem cell type to stimulate tissue regeneration. Critical Issues: While therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a variety of animal models and human trials, a range of additional concerns regarding stem cell transplantation for ameliorating radiation-induced normal tissue sequelae remain. Safety issues regarding teratoma formation, disease progression, and genomic stability along with technical issues impacting disease targeting, immunorejection, and clinical scale-up are factors bearing on the eventual translation of stem cell therapies into routine clinical practice. Future Directions: Follow-up studies will need to identify the best possible stem cell types for the treatment of early and late radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Additional work should seek to optimize cellular dosing regimes, identify the best routes of administration, elucidate optimal transplantation windows for introducing cells into more receptive host tissues, and improve immune tolerance for longer-term engrafted cell survival into the irradiated microenvironment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 338–355. PMID:24147585

  8. Assessing clinicians' perspectives about the identification and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects: Psychometric evaluation of a survey questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Stomski, Norman J; Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Eliciting clinicians' views about antipsychotic medication side-effects may assist in understanding strategies that could enhance the identification and management of these side-effects. The present paper details the development and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire that captures clinicians' perceptions about these issues. An initial item set was derived from a literature review, and then refined by an expert content validity panel that assessed the relevance of the items. The online questionnaire was distributed to Australian mental health nurses and 140 fully completed questionnaires were returned. Principal components analysis yielded two robust scales that conceptually tapped "system responsibility" and "personal confidence". These scales may be used to advance knowledge about how mental health nurses' attitudes towards the assessment and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects influences their clinical behaviour.

  9. Side Effects Related to 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review.

    PubMed

    Seale, Lauren R; Eglini, Ariana N; McMichael, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been studied for the treatment of hair loss in men, with finasteride being the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Increasingly, in recent years, off-label use of these drugs has been employed in the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in women. Side effects with 5 α-reductase inhibitors can include changes in sexual function, and recent publications have characterized an increasing prevalence of these in men. A review of 20 peer-reviewed articles found that very few side effects, or adverse events, related to sexual function have been reported in studies in which dutasteride or finasteride has been used to treat hair loss in women. Future publications should investigate not only the efficacy of these drugs in treating FPHL and FFA, but the side effect profile in patients as well. PMID:27050696

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p < .0005). Users were younger (p = .027) and drank alcohol more frequently (p = .008) than "non-users." Forty-nine percent consumed alcohol associated with energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol. PMID:26466517

  11. Systematic prediction of drug combinations based on clinical side-effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Qu, Xiaoyan A.; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures. PMID:25418113

  12. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles. PMID:17681431

  13. Citalopram-induced hyponatraemia and parkinsonism: potentially fatal side-effects not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Damali Amiri, Negin; Wijenaike, Nishan

    2014-01-01

    The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, is on the rise and, as such, clinicians must be vigilant of rare side-effects associated with this group of medications. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented to West Suffolk Hospital with a fall, confusion and movement abnormalities, and was found to have a serum sodium of 105 on admission. He was managed with hypertonic saline, dopamine agonists and intensive physiotherapy. Despite initially deteriorating neurologically, he made a remarkable recovery, and was discharged home at his pre-admission baseline. The learning points from this report are as follows: (1) regular monitoring of electrolytes on starting an SSRI (and similarly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors-SNRIs) in SSRI/SNRIs naïve patients, (2) awareness of possible citalopram-induced parkinsonism and the potential benefits of dopamine agonists as one management strategy and (3) vigilant fluid/electrolyte monitoring in patients with profound hyponatraemia. PMID:25391825

  14. Climate change in metacommunities: dispersal gives double-sided effects on persistence.

    PubMed

    Eklöf, Anna; Kaneryd, Linda; Münger, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Climate change is increasingly affecting the structure and dynamics of ecological communities both at local and at regional scales, and this can be expected to have important consequences for their robustness and long-term persistence. The aim of the present work is to analyse how the spatial structure of the landscape and dispersal patterns of species (dispersal rate and average dispersal distance) affects metacommunity response to two disturbances: (i) increased mortality during dispersal and (ii) local species extinction. We analyse the disturbances both in isolation and in combination. Using a spatially and dynamically explicit metacommunity model, we find that the effect of dispersal on metacommunity persistence is two-sided: on the one hand, high dispersal significantly reduces the risk of bottom-up extinction cascades following the local removal of a species; on the other hand, when dispersal imposes a risk to the dispersing individuals, high dispersal increases extinction risks, especially when dispersal is global. Large-bodied species with long generation times at the highest trophic level are particularly vulnerable to extinction when dispersal involves a risk. This suggests that decreasing the mortality risk of dispersing individuals by improving the quality of the habitat matrix may greatly increase the robustness of metacommunities.

  15. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles.

  16. Side effects of bone-targeted therapies in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Domschke, Christoph; Schuetz, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In up to 75% of cases, advanced breast cancer patients eventually develop bone metastases with often debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs). Osteoclast inhibitors are commonly used as therapeutic mainstay with clinical studies showing superiority of denosumab over bisphosphonates (e.g., zoledronate) for the prevention of SREs. The present review discusses the adverse event profile of these agents, and addresses the prevention and management of untoward side effects. Adverse events associated with osteoclast inhibitors comprise osteonecrosis of the jaw and hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is more common with denosumab, particularly in severe renal dysfunction. During therapy, the appropriate prevention of these adverse events includes close attention to dental health, avoidance of invasive dental procedures, supplementation with calcium and vitamin D unless patients are hypercalcemic, and regular monitoring of relevant serum values. Relating to the risk of nephrotoxicity, bisphosphonates but not denosumab have been incriminated. Therefore, serum creatinine levels should be checked prior to each dose of zoledronate, and in severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) zoledronate is contraindicated anyway. Acute-phase reactions are particularly linked to bisphosphonates. Consequently, if these adverse events predominate, switching to denosumab is recommended. PMID:25759613

  17. Apoptosis in snowflake yeast: novel trait, or side effect of toxic waste?

    PubMed

    Pentz, Jennifer T; Taylor, Bradford P; Ratcliff, William C

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments evolving de novo multicellularity in yeast have found that large cluster-forming genotypes also exhibit higher rates of programmed cell death (apoptosis). This was previously interpreted as the evolution of a simple form of cellular division of labour: apoptosis results in the scission of cell-cell connections, allowing snowflake yeast to produce proportionally smaller, faster-growing propagules. Through spatial simulations, Duran-Nebreda and Solé (J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20140982 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1115323109)) develop the novel null hypothesis that apoptosis is not an adaptation, per se, but is instead caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolites in large clusters. Here we test this hypothesis by synthetically creating unicellular derivatives of snowflake yeast through functional complementation with the ancestral ACE2 allele. We find that multicellular snowflake yeast with elevated apoptosis exhibit a similar rate of apoptosis when cultured as single cells. We also show that larger snowflake yeast clusters tend to contain a greater fraction of older, senescent cells, which may explain why larger clusters of a given genotype are more apoptotic. Our results show that apoptosis is not caused by side effects of spatial structure, such as starvation or waste product accumulation, and are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated apoptosis is a trait that co-evolves with large cluster size. PMID:27146690

  18. Systematic prediction of drug combinations based on clinical side-effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Qu, Xiaoyan A; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures. PMID:25418113

  19. Antipsychotic Cardiometabolic Side Effect Monitoring in a State Community Mental Health System.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Robert O; de Nesnera, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Orsini, Karen; Xie, Haiyi; McHugo, Greg; Bartels, Stephen; Brunette, Mary F

    2015-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications can cause serious cardiometabolic side effects. No recent research has broadly evaluated monitoring and strategies to improve monitoring in U.S. public mental health systems. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated education with audit and feedback to leaders to improve cardiometabolic monitoring in a state mental health system. We used Chi square statistics and logistic regressions to explore changes in monitoring recorded in randomly sampled records over 2 years. In 2009, assessment of patients on antipsychotics was 29.6 % for cholesterol, 40.4 % for glucose, 29.1 % for triglycerides, 54.3 % for weight, 33.6 % for blood pressure, and 5.7 % for abdominal girth. In 2010, four of ten mental health centers improved their rate of adult laboratory monitoring. Overall monitoring in the state did not increase. Education for prescribers with audit and feedback to leaders can improve monitoring in some settings, but more intensive and/or prolonged interventions may be required.

  20. From both sides now: crossover effects influence navigation in patients with unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Punt, T D; Kitadono, K; Hulleman, J; Humphreys, G W; Riddoch, M J

    2008-04-01

    Unilateral neglect is a challenging disorder that pervades a range of behaviours following stroke and hampers recovery. Although a preponderance of clinical studies measure performance on a range of bedside assessments, including line bisection and cancellation tasks, there have been calls for studies to embrace more relevant functional measures. Here, for the first time, we present data from two separate tasks that characterise the performance of seven patients with unilateral neglect when navigating a power wheelchair. The tasks involved negotiating an obstacle course and steering a central path between gaps of different sizes. Results from the obstacle course confirmed the clinical observation and predicted bias of contralesional errors. However, the second task revealed a robust "crossover" effect. Patients deviated to the ipsilesional side for large gaps but deviated increasingly contralesionally when steering through small gaps in behaviour that was analogous to that previously shown on line bisection tasks. Contrary to being seen as an unintuitive finding, further analysis of these errors suggests that patients are giving disproportionate weight to the location of the ipsilesional object when plotting a midline course between two objects. Our results provide a platform for further studies to investigate the modulation and rehabilitation of this important skill. PMID:18032453

  1. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  2. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    PubMed

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment.

  3. A Multi-Lingual Web Service for Drug Side-Effect Data

    PubMed Central

    Bedrick, Steven D.; Mauro, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a system that provides drug side-effect data for use as a component in service-oriented architectures. Our system uses “Web 2.0” techniques to collect data from a variety of public sources, and can provide its output in a variety of human languages (e.g. Spanish and Arabic). To demonstrate our tool’s versatility and the ease with which it may be integrated into larger systems, we present several front-ends that use our system, including SMS (“text message”), “instant messenger”, and iPhone interfaces. We enlisted a panel of Argentinean clinicians to review and rate the quality of our system’s Spanish-language output in order to investigate whether freely-available general-purpose machine translation technology (Google’s translation API) is adequate for consumer medical applications. Our raters found that Google’s translation quality varied greatly among drugs, and we conclude that it is better used as a starting point than as a complete translation solution. PMID:20351818

  4. Systematic prediction of drug combinations based on clinical side-effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Qu, Xiaoyan A; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Lun

    2014-11-24

    Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures.

  5. Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-07-01

    Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries.

  6. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    PubMed

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  7. A multi-lingual web service for drug side-effect data.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Steven D; Mauro, Alejandro

    2009-11-14

    In this paper, we describe a system that provides drug side-effect data for use as a component in service-oriented architectures. Our system uses "Web 2.0" techniques to collect data from a variety of public sources, and can provide its output in a variety of human languages (e.g. Spanish and Arabic). To demonstrate our tool's versatility and the ease with which it may be integrated into larger systems, we present several front-ends that use our system, including SMS ("text message"), "instant messenger", and iPhone interfaces. We enlisted a panel of Argentinean clinicians to review and rate the quality of our system's Spanish-language output in order to investigate whether freely-available general-purpose machine translation technology (Google's translation API) is adequate for consumer medical applications. Our raters found that Google's translation quality varied greatly among drugs, and we conclude that it is better used as a starting point than as a complete translation solution.

  8. Antipsychotic Cardiometabolic Side Effect Monitoring in a State Community Mental Health System.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Robert O; de Nesnera, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Orsini, Karen; Xie, Haiyi; McHugo, Greg; Bartels, Stephen; Brunette, Mary F

    2015-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications can cause serious cardiometabolic side effects. No recent research has broadly evaluated monitoring and strategies to improve monitoring in U.S. public mental health systems. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated education with audit and feedback to leaders to improve cardiometabolic monitoring in a state mental health system. We used Chi square statistics and logistic regressions to explore changes in monitoring recorded in randomly sampled records over 2 years. In 2009, assessment of patients on antipsychotics was 29.6 % for cholesterol, 40.4 % for glucose, 29.1 % for triglycerides, 54.3 % for weight, 33.6 % for blood pressure, and 5.7 % for abdominal girth. In 2010, four of ten mental health centers improved their rate of adult laboratory monitoring. Overall monitoring in the state did not increase. Education for prescribers with audit and feedback to leaders can improve monitoring in some settings, but more intensive and/or prolonged interventions may be required. PMID:25645893

  9. Serious cardiovascular side effects of large doses of anabolic steroids in weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M S; Rämö, M P; Viitasalo, M; Heikkilä, P; Karjalainen, J; Mäntysaari, M; Heikkilä, J

    1996-10-01

    Pathological cardiovascular manifestations are reported in four male patients, who had taken massive amounts of anabolic steroids while undergoing many years of strength training. One patient was referred because of ventricular fibrillation during exercise, one because of clinically manifest heart failure, and one because of arterial thrombus in his lower left leg. The fourth patient was persuaded to attend for a check-up because of a long history of massive use of anabolic steroids. All four patients had cardiac hypertrophy. Two of the patients had symptoms and signs of heart failure, and one of these two had a massive thrombosis in both right and left ventricles of his heart. After cessation of the use of anabolic steroids in the other patient with heart failure, left ventricular wall thickness reduced quickly from 12 to 10.5 mm, and fractional shortening increased from 14% to 27%. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed increased fibrosis in the myocardium in two of the three cases. HDL-cholesterol was 0.58 mmol.l-1 and 0.35 mmol.l-1 in the two patients still using multiple anabolic steroids at the time of investigation. The cardiovascular findings described in the present paper should warn all physicians and athletes about the possible serious acute and long-term side effects of the massive use of anabolic steroids.

  10. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Kabbani, Ahmad A; Chhabra, Akansha

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals. PMID:26170677

  11. MAVEN remote sensing observations of Comet Siding Spring and its effects on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft enters Mars orbit four weeks before Comet Siding Spring's passage by the planet. If orbit insertion and commissioning go according to plan, MAVEN is poised to make once-in-a-lifetime remote sensing observations of the comet and its effects on Mars. MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) was designed to map emissions from common solar system gases and is therefore well suited to obtaining multispectral images of the comet at close range. IUVS's 115-340nm spectral range includes emissions from H, O, C, S, CO, CO2, and OH. The instrument includes the first interplanetary UV echelle which may be capable of measuring the D/H ratio given sufficient time on target. During IUVS's campaign on 17 October 2014, the comet's apparent size will increase 50% as it approaches. MAVEN's truly unique opportunity is the search for potential changes in the atmosphere due to the comet. Since MAVEN was conceived to measure the atmosphere's response to changing solar influences, it is perfectly situated to detect atmospheric changes due to the deposition of gas, dust, energy and momentum from the comet. MAVEN will obtain the "before" picture by observing Mars for approximately two days pre-comet, and the "after" picture starting soon after its closest approach. IUVS's multiple observing modes each present an opportunity to detect atmospheric changes. First, limb scans of atmospheric emissions from 70 to 225 km altitude could detect new species, including metal ions from the dust, as well as detect changes in the atmospheric scale height due to heating by incoming cometary gas and dust. Second, scans of the extended atmospheric corona up to 4500 km altitude will be sensitive to atoms and molecules ejected or rebounding from atmospheric collisions, especially H, O and OH. Finally, multispectral imaging of the planet's disk might even detect "auroral"-type influences on the segment of the nightside directed into the comet flow. The primary limitation on MAVEN

  12. The prevalence and management of side effects of lithium and anticonvulsants as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder from a clinical perspective: a review.

    PubMed

    Dols, Annemiek; Sienaert, Pascal; van Gerven, Heleen; Schouws, Sigfried; Stevens, Anja; Kupka, Ralph; Stek, Max L

    2013-11-01

    Side effects are among the most frequent reasons preventing patients from taking their medication. Although the management of side effects is an important issue in clinical practice, particularly in patients with physical comorbidities, research on clinical management of side effects is rather scattered. The aim of this article was to provide an overview on the prevalence and management of various side effects of mood-stabilizing drugs. In December 2012, we carried out a PubMed search for publications reporting side effects in patients with bipolar disorder. Naturalistic studies describing the prevalence of side effects in treatment with mood stabilizers are sparse. We describe the prevalence of neurological, gastrointestinal, metabolic, thyroid, dermatological, nephrogenic, cognitive, sexual, hematological, hepatogenic, and teratogenic side effects of lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine and discuss their clinical management. There are specific strategies that aim at reducing side effects, but, to date, studies on the efficacy of these interventions are lacking. With age, the renal elimination and hepatic metabolism of drugs reduce and comedication and somatic comorbidity increase, making elderly patients particularly susceptible to side effects. Most side effects can be managed by striving for the lowest possible dose without losing efficacy by lowering the dose below the therapeutic window. Specific measurements to limit certain side effects are available and may ameliorate treatment adherence.

  13. Cholesterol Analogs with Degradation-resistant Alkyl Side Chains Are Effective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel J; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Siew Hoon; Basudhar, Debashree; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one, whether added exogenously or generated intracellularly from cholesterol, inhibits the growth ofMycobacterium tuberculosiswhen CYP125A1 and CYP142A1, the cytochrome P450 enzymes that initiate degradation of the sterol side chain, are disabled. Here we demonstrate that a 16-hydroxy derivative of cholesterol, which was previously reported to inhibit growth ofM. tuberculosis, acts by preventing the oxidation of the sterol side chain even in the presence of the relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The finding that (25R)-cholest-5-en-3β,16β,26-triol (1) (and its 3-keto metabolite) inhibit growth suggests that cholesterol analogs with non-degradable side chains represent a novel class of anti-mycobacterial agents. In accord with this, two cholesterol analogs with truncated, fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and shown to similarly block the growth in culture ofM. tuberculosis.

  14. [Effects and side effects of estrogens and gestagens in pediatric and adolescent gynecology].

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, C

    1990-10-01

    An overview is given on the indications and possibilities of estrogen-progestagen medication in girls during childhood and adolescence. The physiological effects of estrogen and progestagen treatment are described, and practical advice is given for the management with estrogens-progestagens of labial adhesions, lichen sclerosus, vulvovaginitis, breast anomalies, the different forms of amenorrhoeas, pubertas tarda, anorexia-bulimia, bleeding anomalies and high stature. PMID:2079940

  15. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq. PMID:27651737

  16. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription.

    PubMed

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-09-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq. PMID:27651737

  17. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq.

  18. Crystallographic studies of V44 mutants of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: Effects of side-chain size on reduction potential

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Il Yeong; Eidsness, Marly K.; Lin, I-Jin; Gebel, Erika B.; Youn, Buhyun; Harley, Jill L.; Machonkin, Timothy E.; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Markley, John L.; Smith, Eugene T.; Ichiye, Toshiko; Kang, ChulHee

    2010-11-16

    Understanding the structural origins of differences in reduction potentials is crucial to understanding how various electron transfer proteins modulate their reduction potentials and how they evolve for diverse functional roles. Here, the high-resolution structures of several Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin (Cp Rd) variants with changes in the vicinity of the redox site are reported in order to increase this understanding. Our crystal structures of [V44L] (at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution), [V44A] (1.6 {angstrom}), [V44G] (2.0 {angstrom}) and [V44A, G45P] (1.5 {angstrom}) Rd (all in their oxidized states) show that there is a gradual decrease in the distance between Fe and the amide nitrogen of residue 44 upon reduction in the size of the side chain of residue 44; the decrease occurs from leucine to valine, alanine or glycine and is accompanied by a gradual increase in their reduction potentials. Mutation of Cp Rd at position 44 also changes the hydrogen-bond distance between the amide nitrogen of residue 44 and the sulfur of cysteine 42 in a size-dependent manner. Our results suggest that residue 44 is an important determinant of Rd reduction potential in a manner dictated by side-chain size. Along with the electric dipole moment of the 43-44 peptide bond and the 44-42 NHS type hydrogen bond, a modulation mechanism for solvent accessibility through residue 41 might regulate the redox reaction of the Rds. Proteins 2004.

  19. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    SciTech Connect

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-14

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  20. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-01

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ˜0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  1. [A double-blind study on the effect of dexetimide in the control of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y

    1991-08-01

    A double-blind study was carried out on the therapeutic effects of dexetimide and artane in the control of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects in 261 cases of schizophrenia. The authors found that therapeutic effects of two drugs for the control of extrapyramidal signs were equal. Dexetimidal had the advantages of less side-effects, less dosage and long-action. PMID:1683277

  2. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions. PMID:26928336

  3. Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae

  4. Clinical features and drug induced side effects in early versus late antidepressant responders.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Chiara; Marsano, Agnese; Balestri, Martina; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    Early antidepressant response (2nd week) has been reported as the result of a true antidepressant effect and a predictor of subsequent stable response. With the purpose to study the clinical profile of early response/remission (2nd week) compared to late response/remission (4th-6th weeks), two independent major depressive disorder (MDD) samples (the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression or STAR*D n=1922 and an Italian sample n=171) were investigated. Patients were treated with citalopram in the STAR*D while in a naturalistic setting in the Italian sample. Depressive symptomatology was assessed by the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale weekly in the Italian sample and biweekly by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Clinician Rated in the STAR*D. Logistic regression was used to investigate possible predictors of early response and the Bonferroni correction was applied. In the STAR*D, higher levels of baseline core depressive symptoms (Bech subscale) were associated with early response (p=0.00017), as well as lower baseline insomnia (p=0.003) and higher work and social functioning (p=0.001). In the Italian sample none of these variables were associated with the phenotype, but a non significant trend of lower baseline quality of life (p=0.078) was observed in late remitters. In the STAR*D late responders reported higher levels of antidepressant induced side effects, especially difficulty in sleeping (p=5.68e-13), with a non significant trend in the same direction in the Italian sample (p=0.09). The identification of late versus early antidepressant responders at the beginning of the treatment may be useful to guide therapeutic choices in clinical settings. PMID:23800418

  5. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD) and left hemisphere damage (LHD). Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple) were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test) and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test). Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite cerebral hemispheres. PMID

  6. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions.

  7. A novel insulin sensitizer drug candidate-BGP-15-can prevent metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Literati-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Tory, Kálmán; Literáti-Nagy, Botond; Kolonics, Attila; Vígh, László; Vígh, László; Mandl, József; Szilvássy, Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD) are widely used to treat severe psychiatric disorders, have well documented metabolic side effects such as disturbances in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and weight gain. It has been shown that BGP-15, a hydroxylamine derivative with insulin sensitizing activity can prevent AAPD provoked fat accumulation in adipocyte cultures, and insulin resistance in animal experiments and in healthy volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effect of BGP-15 with conventional oral antidiabetics on metabolic side effects of AAPDs. We found that BGP-15 that does not belong to either conventional insulin sensitizers or oral antidiabetics, is able to counteract insulin resistance and weight gain provoked by antipsychotic agents in rats while rosiglitazone and metformin were not effective in the applied doses. Our results confirm that BGP-15 is a promising new drug candidate to control the metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics. Data indicate that this rat model is suitable to analyze the metabolic side effects of AAPDs and the protective mechanism of BGP-15.

  8. The effects of the application of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Kim, Shingyun; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients' paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group's posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis.

  9. The effects of the application of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Kim, Shingyun; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients’ paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group’s posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis. PMID:26696737

  10. The effects of the application of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Kim, Shingyun; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients' paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group's posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis. PMID:26696737

  11. Long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium treatment has distinct effects in CD1 and DBA/2 mice on animal behavior accompanied by opposite effects on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Rossana; Crupi, Rosalia; Leo, Antonio; Chimirri, Serafina; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Marra, Rosario; Citraro, Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    One of the most peculiar characteristics of the stress response is the pronounced inter-individual and inter-strain variability both in behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. Several studies confirm that rodents belonging to the same or different strain and/or gender, when exposed to a stressor, may show behavioral and cognitive differences. We compared the effects of long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (BTM), a widely clinically used corticosteroid, on animal behavior and neurogenesis in CD1 and DBA/2 mice. BTM treatment, in CD1 mice, increased body weight gain and anxiety parameters while having pro-depressant effects. Furthermore, BTM significantly reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Finally, BTM treatment induced a significant impairment in memory and learning performance in the Morris water maze. At odds, BTM administration, in DBA/2 mice, caused a significant reduction in the body weight while not modifying anxiety parameters. In addition, both an increased synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were found. Similarly to CD1 mice, also in DBA/2 mice, memory and learning were impaired. Our data confirm that long-term exposure to corticosteroids can generate or aggravate psychiatric/neurologic disorders such as depression, anxiety, memory and learning. Our study did not reveal significant differences between corticosterone and BTM treatment in CD1 mice. In contrast, BTM treatment in mice with an anxious phenotype (DBA/2 mice) revealed some contrasting results indicating that genetic factors can influence corticosteroids dependent effects. Finally, our data further underline the need for a re-evaluation of neurogenesis role; the increased neurogenesis observed in DBA/2 mice and behavioral effects might be distinguished phenomena.

  12. Efficacy, effectiveness and side effects of medications used to prevent fractures.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing number of effective therapies for fracture prevention in adults at risk of osteoporosis. However, shortcomings in the evidence underpinning our management of osteoporosis still exist. Evidence of antifracture efficacy in the groups of patients who most commonly use calcium and vitamin D supplements is lacking, the safety of calcium supplements is in doubt, and the safety and efficacy of high doses of vitamin D give cause for concern. Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronate and denosumab have been shown to prevent spine, nonspine and hip fractures; in addition, teriparatide and strontium ranelate prevent both spine and nonspine fractures, and raloxifene and ibandronate prevent spine fractures. However, most trials provide little information regarding long-term efficacy or safety. A particular concern at present is the possibility that oral bisphosphonates might cause atypical femoral fractures. Observational data suggest that the incidence of this type of fracture increases steeply with duration of bisphosphonate use, resulting in concern that the benefit-risk balance may become negative in the long term, particularly in patients in whom the osteoporotic fracture risk is not high. Therefore, reappraisal of ongoing use of bisphosphonates after about 5 years is endorsed by expert consensus, and 'drug holidays' should be considered at this time. Further studies are needed to guide clinical practice in this area. PMID:25495429

  13. A side effect of decreased fertility associated with vaccination against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Seegers, Henri; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François; Fourichon, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Inactivated virus vaccines have been widely used to control bluetongue after introduction of serotype 8 of the bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe in 2006. To evaluate vaccination, quantitative knowledge of its possible side effects is needed. One current adverse reaction with inactivated vaccines is a rise in body temperature, which could reduce cow reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to quantify a possible side effect of vaccination on fertility before the implantation of the embryo of dairy cows under field conditions. The study was performed on herds that were not exposed to BTV. Fertility was assessed by return-to-service following artificial insemination (AI). Biological assumptions for a possible side effect of vaccination were conception failure and embryonic death. Associations between return-to-service rates and vaccine injections were assessed using mixed-logistic regression models and survival analysis. Two models were considered: a 3-week-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 16 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure or early embryonic death), and a 90-day-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 42 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure, early or late embryonic death). Only cows receiving a second vaccine injection between 2 and 7 days after AI had a significantly higher risk of 3-week-return-to-service (RR=1.19 [1.07-1.33]). This corresponds to an increase of return-to-service by 4 percentage points. A side effect of vaccination could be due to early embryonic death. The slight side effect on fertility associated with vaccination was low compared to effects of BTV-8 exposure on fertility.

  14. Differential scanning calorimetric study of the effect of sterol side chain length and structure on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine thermotropic phase behavior.

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, T. P.; Vilchèze, C.; McElhaney, R. N.; Bittman, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers containing a series of cholesterol analogues varying in the length and structure of their alkyl side chains. We find that upon the incorporation of up to approximately 25 mol % of any of the side chain analogues, the DPPC main transition endotherm consists of superimposed sharp and broad components representing the hydrocarbon chain melting of sterol-poor and sterol-rich phospholipid domains, respectively. Moreover, the behavior of these components is dependent on sterol side chain length. Specifically, for all sterol/DPPC mixtures, the sharp component enthalpy decreases linearly to zero by 25 mol % sterol while the cooperativity is only moderately reduced from that observed in the pure phospholipid. In addition, the sharp component transition temperature decreases for all sterol/DPPC mixtures; however, the magnitude of the decrease is dependent on the sterol side chain length. With respect to the broad component, the enthalpy initially increases to a maximum around 25 mol % sterol, thereafter decreasing toward zero by 50 mol % sterol with the exception of the sterols with very short alkyl side chains. Both the transition temperature and cooperativity of the broad component clearly exhibit alkyl chain length-dependent effects, with both the transition temperature and cooperativity decreasing more dramatically for sterols with progressively shorter side chains. We ascribe the chain length-dependent effects on transition temperature and cooperativity to the hydrophobic mismatch between the sterol and the host DPPC bilayer (see McMullen, T. P. W., Lewis, R. N. A. H., and McElhaney, R. N. (1993) Biochemistry 32:516-522). Moreover, the effective stoichiometry of sterol/DPPC interactions is altered by a significantly large degree of hydrophobic mismatch between the sterol and the DPPC bilayer. Thus the short chain sterols appear to exhibit considerable immiscibility in

  15. Wettability, polarity, and water absorption of holm oak leaves: effect of leaf side and age.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Victoria; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Guzmán, Paula; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil, Luis; Karabourniotis, George; Khayet, Mohamed; Fasseas, Costas; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Heredia, Antonio; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-09-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition, and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of holm oak (Quercus ilex) as a model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops onto abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper leaf side was gained in young and mature leaves. The structure and chemical composition of the abaxial (always present) and adaxial (occurring only in young leaves) trichomes were analyzed by various microscopic and analytical procedures. The adaxial surfaces were wettable and had a high degree of water drop adhesion in contrast to the highly unwettable and water-repellent abaxial holm oak leaf sides. The surface free energy and solubility parameter decreased with leaf age, with higher values determined for the adaxial sides. All holm oak leaf trichomes were covered with a cuticle. The abaxial trichomes were composed of 8% soluble waxes, 49% cutin, and 43% polysaccharides. For the adaxial side, it is concluded that trichomes and the scars after trichome shedding contribute to water uptake, while the abaxial leaf side is highly hydrophobic due to its high degree of pubescence and different trichome structure, composition, and density. Results are interpreted in terms of water-plant surface interactions, plant surface physical chemistry, and plant ecophysiology.

  16. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male), with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78) were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43), followed by emotional (mean 30), and functioning (mean 26) scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales. PMID:20398332

  17. Effective Energy Simulation and Optimal Design of Side-lit Buildings with Venetian Blinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tian

    Venetian blinds are popularly used in buildings to control the amount of incoming daylight for improving visual comfort and reducing heat gains in air-conditioning systems. Studies have shown that the proper design and operation of window systems could result in significant energy savings in both lighting and cooling. However, there is no convenient computer tool that allows effective and efficient optimization of the envelope of side-lit buildings with blinds now. Three computer tools, Adeline, DOE2 and EnergyPlus widely used for the above-mentioned purpose have been experimentally examined in this study. Results indicate that the two former tools give unacceptable accuracy due to unrealistic assumptions adopted while the last one may generate large errors in certain conditions. Moreover, current computer tools have to conduct hourly energy simulations, which are not necessary for life-cycle energy analysis and optimal design, to provide annual cooling loads. This is not computationally efficient, particularly not suitable for optimal designing a building at initial stage because the impacts of many design variations and optional features have to be evaluated. A methodology is therefore developed for efficient and effective thermal and daylighting simulations and optimal design of buildings with blinds. Based on geometric optics and radiosity method, a mathematical model is developed to reasonably simulate the daylighting behaviors of venetian blinds. Indoor illuminance at any reference point can be directly and efficiently computed. They have been validated with both experiments and simulations with Radiance. Validation results show that indoor illuminances computed by the new models agree well with the measured data, and the accuracy provided by them is equivalent to that of Radiance. The computational efficiency of the new models is much higher than that of Radiance as well as EnergyPlus. Two new methods are developed for the thermal simulation of buildings. A

  18. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  19. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  20. Testicular germ cell tumor: Short and long-term side effects of treatment among survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Thierry; Sideris, Spyridon; Aoun, Fouad; van Velthoven, Roland; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Ameye, Lieveke; Awada, Ahmad; Devriendt, Daniel; Peltier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Long-term prognosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) types is excellent, however, treatment is associated with non-negligible complication rates and a negative impact on quality of life. The present study described treatment results in terms of survival, both short and long-term toxicity, and paternity rates in a cohort of patients treated at Jules Bordet Institute, University ULB of Brussels (Brussels, Belgium). The present study analyzed the data of a cohort of patients with GCT types. Pre-operative patient and tumor characteristics were described. Performance status, pulmonary function tests and renal clearance prior to chemotherapy were noted. Chemotherapeutic regimens and their associated toxicities were analyzed. The duration to event-free, cancer-specific and overall survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 115 patients (median age, 31-years-old) were treated for a GCT at Jules Bordet Institute. At a median follow-up of 6-years, 11 (10%) patients had relapsed and 2 (2%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. At the final follow-up, 97 (89%) and 6 (5.5%) patients exhibited complete and partial remission, respectively. A total of 6% of patients exhibited a progressive disease. In terms of short-term toxicity, 11% of patients presented with febrile neutropenia. The 10-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 93.4 and 89.8%, respectively. The paternity rate post-treatment was 27%. Testicular GCT survivors suffered from short- and long-term treatment-associated side effects on both a physical and psychological level. A long-term close follow-up is necessary in order to assist the patient with these treatment-induced complications. PMID:27588190

  1. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults.

    PubMed

    al-Mefty, O; Kersh, J E; Routh, A; Smith, R R

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors (two of these also had pituitary dysfunction). One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered "safe" treatment for benign brain tumors.

  2. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  3. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  4. Synthesis of cyclic polyesters: effects of alkoxy side chains in salicylaldiminato tin(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Wongmahasirikun, Phonpimon; Prom-on, Paweenuch; Sangtrirutnugul, Preeyanuch; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Phomphrai, Khamphee

    2015-07-21

    A new class of salicylaldiminato tin(II) catalysts having different alkoxy side chains has been developed. The ligands were modified to have different lengths and flexibilities such as –(CH2)2– (2a), –(CH2)3– (2b), –(ortho-C6H4)CH2– (2c) and –(CH2)2–O–(CH2)2– (2d). Complexes 2a, b were characterized crystallographically revealing a more constrained environment around the metal in complex 2a. These catalysts are active for the solvent-free polymerization of L-lactide and ε-caprolactone. Complex 2a having a shorter side chain was shown to better promote intramolecular transesterification affording cyclic polylactides and cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone). Complexes 2b and 2d having longer side chains produced cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone) as a major product but failed to give cyclic polylactides.

  5. Effects of doubling the portion size of fruit and vegetable side dishes on children's intake at a meal.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Kabay, April C; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-03-01

    Increasing the portion size of energy-dense entrées has been shown to increase children's energy intake during a meal. It remains to be investigated whether serving larger portions to children can be used to promote intake of more healthful foods, such as fruits and vegetables (F&V). The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of increasing the portion size of F&V side dishes on children's intake. Forty-three children (22 boys, 21 girls), aged 5-6 years, were served dinner once a week for 2 weeks. Each dinner consisted of pasta with tomato sauce, three F&V side dishes (broccoli, carrots, and applesauce), and milk. The portion size of the F&V was doubled between experimental conditions whereas the size of the pasta remained constant. Doubling the portion size of the side dishes resulted in a 43% increase in children's intake of the fruit side dish (P = 0.001), but did not affect children's intake of the two vegetable side dishes (P > 0.60). Further, when the portion size of F&V side dishes was doubled, children ate significantly less of the pasta (P = 0.04). The difference in meal energy intake between portion size conditions (19.5 +/- 16.3 kcal) was not significant (P = 0.24). Although more studies are needed to understand whether increases in portion size can influence vegetable intake, children did eat more in response to a large quantity of a preferred low energy-dense fruit side dish at meals. Thus variations in portion size can be used strategically to help children achieve the recommended intake of fruits.

  6. Resisted side-stepping: the effect of posture on hip abductor muscle activation

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Justin W.; Lee, Theresa S.; Foley, Hanna D.; Lewis, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Objectives To compare hip abductor muscle activity and hip and knee joint kinematics in the moving limb to the stance limb during resisted side-stepping and also to determine if muscle activity was affected by the posture (upright standing versus squat) used to perform the exercise. Background Hip abductor weakness has been associated with a variety of lower extremity injuries. Resisted side-stepping is often used as an exercise to increase strength and endurance of the hip abductors. Exercise prescription would benefit from knowing the relative muscle activity level generated in each limb and for different postures during the side-stepping exercise. Methods Twenty-four healthy adults participated in this study. Kinematics and surface electromyographic (EMG) data from the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and tensor fascia lata (TFL) were collected as participants performed side-stepping with a resistive band around the ankle while maintaining each of 2 postures: 1) upright standing and 2) squat. Results Mean normalized EMG signal amplitude of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and TFL was higher in the stance limb than the moving limb (P≤.001). Gluteal muscle activity was higher, while TFL muscle activity was lower, in the squat posture compared to the upright standing posture (P<.001). Hip abduction excursion was greater in the stance limb than in the moving limb (P<.001). Conclusions The 3 hip abductor muscles respond differently to the posture variations of side-stepping exercise in healthy individuals. When prescribing resisted side-stepping exercises, therapists should consider the differences in hip abductor activation across limbs and variations in trunk posture. PMID:26161629

  7. Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Late Side Effects in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, Petra; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Doerr, Wolfgang; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Georg, Dietmar; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive value of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for late side effects of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and bladder in image-guided brachytherapy for cervix cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 141 patients received external-beam radiotherapy and image-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. The DVH parameters for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, and D{sub 0.1cc}) of the rectum, sigmoid, and bladder, as well as International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements point doses (D{sub ICRU}) were computed. Total doses were converted to equivalent doses in 2 Gy by applying the linear-quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed using the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic score. The following patient groups were defined: Group 1: no side effects (Grade 0); Group 2: side effects (Grade 1-4); Group 3: minor side effects (Grade 0-1); and Group 4: major side effects (Grade 2-4). Results: The median follow-up was 51 months. The overall 5-year actuarial side effect rates were 12% for rectum, 3% for sigmoid, and 23% for bladder. The mean total D{sub 2cc} were 65 {+-} 12 Gy for rectum, 62 {+-} 12 Gy for sigmoid, and 95 {+-} 22 Gy for bladder. For rectum, statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2 in all DVH parameters and D{sub ICRU}. Between Groups 3 and 4, no difference was observed for D{sub 0.1cc.} For sigmoid, significant differences were observed for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc}, but not for D{sub 0.1cc} in all groups. For bladder, significant differences were observed for all DVH parameters only comparing Groups 3 and 4. No differences were observed for D{sub ICRU}. Conclusions: The parameters D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} have a good predictive value for rectal toxicity. For sigmoid, no prediction could be postulated because of limited data. In bladder, DVH

  8. The Lack of Side Effects of an Ineffective Treatment Facilitates the Development of a Belief in Its Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Fernando; Barberia, Itxaso; Matute, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Some alternative medicines enjoy widespread use, and in certain situations are preferred over conventional, validated treatments in spite of the fact that they fail to prove effective when tested scientifically. We propose that the causal illusion, a basic cognitive bias, underlies the belief in the effectiveness of bogus treatments. Therefore, the variables that modulate the former might affect the latter. For example, it is well known that the illusion is boosted when a potential cause occurs with high probability. In this study, we examined the effect of this variable in a fictitious medical scenario. First, we showed that people used a fictitious medicine (i.e., a potential cause of remission) more often when they thought it caused no side effects. Second, the more often they used the medicine, the more likely they were to develop an illusory belief in its effectiveness, despite the fact that it was actually useless. This behavior may be parallel to actual pseudomedicine usage; that because a treatment is thought to be harmless, it is used with high frequency, hence the overestimation of its effectiveness in treating diseases with a high rate of spontaneous relief. This study helps shed light on the motivations spurring the widespread preference of pseudomedicines over scientific medicines. This is a valuable first step toward the development of scientifically validated strategies to counteract the impact of pseudomedicine on society. PMID:24416194

  9. A Comparison of Psychotropic Drug Side Effect Profiles in Adults Diagnosed with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Julie; Matson, Johnny; Neal, Daniene; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill; Bamburg, Jay; Holloway, Jodie

    2010-01-01

    Forty-eight adults diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified were examined with regard to psychotropic medication side effects. Participants were divided into 4 groups: no psychotropic medication group (n = 9); atypical antipsychotic medication group (n = 13);…

  10. Trastuzumab and target-therapy side effects: Is still valid to differentiate anthracycline Type I from Type II cardiomyopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Gennaro; Coppola, Carmela; Piscopo, Giovanna; Capasso, Immacolata; Maurea, Carlo; Esposito, Emanuela; De Lorenzo, Claudia; Maurea, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The improvement in cancer therapy and the increasing number of long term survivors unearth the issue of cardiovascular side effects of anticancer treatments. As a paradox in cancer survivors, delayed cardiotoxicity has emerged as a significant problem. Two categories of cardiotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs have been previously proposed: Type I cardiotoxicity, defined as permanent cardiotoxicity, is usually caused by anthracyclines; Type II cardiotoxicity, considered as reversible cardiotoxicity, has been mainly related to monoclonal antibodies. The cardiotoxicity of antibodies has been associated to trastuzumab, a humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical use for the therapy of breast carcinomas, which induces cardiac dysfunction when used in monotherapy, or in combination with anthracyclines. Furthermore, recent retrospective studies have shown an increased incidence of heart failure and/or cardiomyopathy in patients treated with trastuzumab, that can persist many years after the conclusion of the therapy, thus suggesting that the side toxic effects are not always reversible as it was initially proposed. On the other hand, early detection and prompt therapy of anthracycline associated cardiotoxicity can lead to substantial recovery of cardiac function. On the basis of these observations, we propose to find a new different classification for cardiotoxic side effects of drugs used in cancer therapy. PMID:26836985

  11. The Reliability of the Scale for the Evaluation and Identification of Seizures, Epilepsy, and Anticonvulsant Side Effects-B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Laud, Rinita B.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Malone, Carrie J.; Swender, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    The use of anti-epileptic medications (AEDs) is much higher in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As many of these individuals rely on such medications, clinicians should consider psychometrically sound instruments for assessing adverse side effects of these medications as one aspect of routine clinical…

  12. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates.

  13. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Cássio Braga e; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Cayotopa, Athaid David Escalante; Klein, Wagner Werner; Schlosser, Andreus Roberto; da Silva, Aline Ferreira; de Souza, Mardelson Nery; Andrade, Breno Wilson Benevides; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Pinto, Wagner de Jesus; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Side effects of antimalarial drug can overlap with malaria symptoms. We evaluated 50 patients with vivax malaria in Mâncio Lima, Acre, treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Patients were evaluated for the presence of 21 symptoms before and after treatment and for reported side effects of these drugs after treatment was started. The most frequent symptoms before medication were headache, fever, chills, sweating, arthralgia, back pain, and weakness, which were present in between 40% and 76% of respondents. The treatment reduced the occurrence of these symptoms and reduced the lack of appetite, but gastrointestinal symptoms and choluria increased in frequency. There were no reports of pale stools before medication, but 12% reported the occurrence of this symptom after treatment started. Other symptoms such as blurred vision (54%), pruritus (22%), paresthesia (6%), insomnia (46%), and “stings” into the skin (22%) were reported after chloroquine was taken. The antimalarial drugs used to treat P. vivax malaria reduce much of the systemic and algic symptoms but cause mainly gastrointestinal side effects that may lead to lack of adherence to drug treatment. It is important to guide the patient for the appearance and the transience of such side effects in order to avoid abandoning treatment. PMID:26357512

  14. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates. PMID:25960144

  15. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  16. Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Blom, Jason D.; Thompson, David C.

    2010-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03-0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01-0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT

  17. The effect of disgust-related side-effects on symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Powell, Philip A; Azlan, Haffiezhah A; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    As maladaptive disgust responses are linked to mental health problems, and cancer patients may experience heightened disgust as a result of treatments they receive, we explored the associations between disgust-related side-effects and symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer. One hundred and thirty two (83 women, M age = 57.48 years) participants answered questions about their treatments, side-effects, disgust responding, and mental health. Experiencing bowel and/or bladder problems, sickness and/or nausea (referred to here as "core" disgust-related side-effects) was significantly related to greater symptoms of depression and borderline increased anxiety. Further, these links were explained by a moderated mediation model, whereby the effects of core disgust side-effects on depression and anxiety were mediated by (physical and behavioural) self-directed disgust, and disgust propensity moderated the effect of core disgust side-effects on self-disgust. These findings stress the importance of emotional responses, like disgust, in psychological adaptation to the side-effects of cancer treatments. PMID:26951481

  18. Self-reported side-effects associated with use of dietary supplements in an armed forces population.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60-70% of Armed Forces personnel consume a dietary supplement (DS) at least once a week and there have been numerous reports of severe adverse events among DS users. This study assessed patterns of DS use and self-reported side-effects among 4400 Armed Forces personnel using a paper-and-pencil survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between patterns of DS use and self-reported side-effects. Sixty-nine percent of personnel surveyed reported using a DS. Seven percent of DS users reported experiencing abnormal heart beats, 6% tremors, 5% stomach pain, 3% dizziness, and 3% numbness/tingling and they believed these symptoms were associated with the use of DS. After adjustment for use of other DS classes, total supplement use, and demographic characteristics, protein supplement users were more likely than non-users to report numbness/tingling; combination product users were more likely to report experiencing abnormal heart beats, stomach pain, dizziness, tremors, and numbness/tingling; and users of purported steroid analogues were more likely to report dizziness. Use of more than one DS per week was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting side-effects. Respondents with a higher body mass index were more likely to report side-effects. Further research is necessary to determine whether self-reported side-effects associated with multiple DS use and some DS classes impact the long-term health or performance of service members. Surveillance of military populations using surveys like this one may provide a method for detecting adverse health events of DS before they are apparent in the civilian population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Incidence of Antihypertensive Drug-induced Side Effects in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Asceric, Mensura; Loga-Andrijic, Natasa; Kapetanovic, Berina; Zerem, Enver

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine types and frequency of side effects of antihypertensive drugs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and hypertension. Subjects and Methods: We performed a prospective study of 79 patients with DM type 2 and hypertension, randomly selected by systematic sampling, who were followed over a period of six months. Patients were assessed at baseline and once a month measuring following parameters: types of used antihypertensive drugs and frequency of side effects, the values (mmHg) of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results: Out of 79 patients, 48/79 (60.8%) were males and 31/79 (39.2%) were females. The median age in males was 53 years (IQR=48 to 55 years), in females was 53 years (IQR=49 to 56 years). There was no statistically significant difference in median age between males and females (P=0.368). There is a statistically significant difference in the values of SBP [χ2(5)=312.296, P<0.001] and DBP [χ2(5)=216.051, P<0.001] over a period of six months follow-up. The drug side effects were noted in 9/79 (11.4%) patients between 1-2 months, in 6/79 (7.6%) between 2-3 months, in 1/79 (1,3%) between 3-4 months. The most common side effect was cough (11/79 or 13.9%) associated with the combination of ACE inhibitor and thiazide diuretics. In 5/79 (6.3%) patients there were reports of: flushing, palpitations, headache, dizziness and leg edema associated with Ca blockers. Conclusion: The most common side effect of antihypertensive treatment was cough (13.9%) associated with the combination of ACE inhibitor and thiazide diuretic. PMID:25648509

  20. EFFECTS OF GREEN MACROALGAE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SEAGRASS IN SIDE SCAN SONAR IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    High resolution maps of seagrass beds are useful for monitoring estuarine condition, managing fish habitats, and modeling estuarine processes. Side scan sonar (SSS) is one method for producing spatially accurate seagrass maps, although it has not been used widely. Our team rece...

  1. Side-by-side comparison of disposable microchips with commercial capillary cartridges for application in capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ou, Junjie; Samy, Razim; Glawdel, Tomasz; Huang, Tiemin; Ren, Carolyn L; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-10-01

    Simple-structured, well-functioned disposable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips were developed for capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection (CIEF-WCID). Side-by-side comparison of the developed microchips with well-established commercial capillary cartridges demonstrated that the disposable microchips have comparable performance as well as advantages such as absence of lens effect and possibility of high-aspect-ratio accompanied with a dramatic reduction in cost.

  2. Evaluation of Ocular Side Effects in the Patients on Topiramate Therapy for Control of Migrainous Headache

    PubMed Central

    Hesami, Omid; Hosseini, Seyedeh Simindokht; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa; Moghaddam, Nahid Beladi; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Mokhtari, Sara; Fakhraee, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Topiramate, a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide, is an antiepileptic drug which is administered in the control of migraine. It is reported to cause various ocular side effects such as visual field defect and myopic shift. To investigate the alterations in refractive error, properties of the cornea and changes in the anterior chamber in patients that receive Topiramate for migraine control. Materials and Methods This is a hospital-based, non-interventional, observational study that is conducted at Imam Hossein Hospital, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, in collaboration with the department of Ophthalmology. Thirty three consecutive patients with the diagnosis of migraine that were candidate for Topiramate therapy were recruited. Patients with history of ocular trauma or surgery, keratoconus, glaucoma, congenital ocular malformations and any history of unexplained visual loss were excluded. After thorough ophthalmic examination, all the patients underwent central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement, and Pentacam imaging (Scheimpflug camera) at the baseline. Various parameters were extracted and used for analysis. Anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurement was performed. These measurements were repeated on day 30th and 90th after the initiation of Topiramate therapy. According to the normality tests, parameters with normal distribution were analysed using the repeated measures test and the remaining parameters (with non-normal distribution) were analysed using the non-parametric k-sample test. A p-value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant, according to Bonferroni post hoc correction. Results There were 66 eyes of 33 patients under the diagnosis of migrainous headache, that Topiramate was initiated for headache control, included in the study. The mean value of refractive error had a statistically significant myopic change, from −0

  3. Side effects of the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicide, propiconazole, on a beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Calonne, M; Fontaine, J; Debiane, D; Laruelle, F; Grandmougin, A; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A

    2011-01-01

    The Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor (SBI) fungicide, propiconazole, is extensively used in modern agriculture to control fungal diseases. Unfortunately, little is known about its potential side effects on non-target plant-beneficial soil organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The direct impact of increasing propiconazole concentrations (0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg x L(-1)) on the lipid metabolism of the AMF Glomus irregulare in relation with its development, was studied by using axenic cultures. The propiconazole impact on G. irregulare was investigated, firstly, through sterol (the target-metabolism of SBI fungicides), phospholipids (PL) and their associated fatty acids (PLFA) analysis (the main membrane components) and secondly by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation) formation. Finally, the storage lipid quantity, triacylglycerol (TAG), was quantified. Our results demonstrated that the drastic reduction of G. irregulare development (germination, germ tube elongation, colonization, extraradical hyphae growth and sporulation) could be explained not only by the decreases of the total sterol end-products (24-methylcholesterol and 24-ethylcholesterol) and by 24-methylene dihydrolanosterol (a sterol precursor) accumulation, suggesting an inhibition of a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis pathway (14alpha-demethylase), but also by the increases in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PLFA (C16:0; C18:0 and C18:3) quantities as well as by MDA accumulation. Moreover, TAG quantity was found to be reduced in the presence of propiconazole, suggesting their use by G. irregulare in a response to propiconazole toxicity. In conclusion, taken together, the findings of the current study highlighted a relationship between the SBI fungicide toxicity against the beneficial AMF G. irregulare and (1) the disturbance in the sterol metabolism, (2) the membrane alteration (PC decrease, lipid peroxidation) as well as (3) the reduction in storage lipids, TAG. More

  4. Excited-state dynamics of water-soluble polythiophene derivatives: temperature and side-chain length effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying-Zhong; Shaw, Robert W; Yu, Xiang; O'Neill, Hugh M; Hong, Kunlun

    2012-12-13

    We report synthesis and detailed spectroscopic study of three water-soluble polythiophene derivatives with distinct homologous oligo(ethylene oxide) side-chain lengths and lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs). The linear absorption spectra exhibit reversible shifts and broadening with the variation of their aqueous solution temperature, whereas the corresponding steady-state fluorescence emission spectra were found to show negligible shifts and only minor changes in their line shape. Measurements of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence at chosen emission wavelengths reveal a strong dependence of the isotropic decays on both side-chain length and aqueous solution temperature. With lengthening of the side chain, the isotropic decays become not only remarkably slow but also increasingly complex. Except for the polymer with the shortest side chain, significant acceleration of the isotropic decays was found when the solution temperature was raised to the corresponding LCSTs and beyond, which further causes formation of large aggregates as evident by the physical appearance change from clear solutions to turbid suspensions. Direct evidence for a temperature-induced change of polymer chain conformation was obtained through measurements of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies, which are characterized by a substantial increase of the initial values from ~0.2 to 0.4 and the appearance of a pronounced fast decay component with an estimated lifetime of 36 ps. The high initial anisotropy of ~0.4 observed for the two polymers with longer side-chains above their LCSTs suggests that the polymer chains are highly ordered in the aggregates. The observed effects of side-chain length and solution temperature are discussed by considering the conformational relaxation of the polymer backbones and occurrence of interchain energy transfer.

  5. Analysis of pregnant occupant crash exposure and the potential effectiveness of four-point seatbelts in far side crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Gabler, Hampton C; Manoogian, Sarah M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion.

  6. Effect of He-Ar ratio of side assisting gas on plasma 3D formation during CO2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dawei; Cai, Yan; Wang, Yonggui; Wu, Yue; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-05-01

    Side assisting gas plays a very important role in the laser-induced plasma suppression and the gas mixture ratio directly influences the formation and behavior of the laser-induced plasma during the laser welding process. In this paper, a photography system was set up with three synchronous CCD cameras to record the plasma plume during CO2 laser welding under different He-Ar ratios for helium-argon mixed side assisting gas. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the laser-induced plasma based on the computed tomography (CT) technology was achieved from the images shot by the cameras. Four characteristics, including the volume, uniformity, parameter PA associated with plasma absorption and parameter PR associated with laser refraction, were extracted from the 3D plasma and analyzed to investigate the effect on the plasma plume morphology as well as the laser energy attenuation. The results indicated that the He-Ar ratio of the side assisting gas has a considerable influence on some characteristics while some other characteristics are not sensitive to the mixture ratio. In addition, the effect of He-Ar ratio on the laser-induced plasma varies a lot with the flow rate of the side assisting gas.

  7. Risk factors for developing oral 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced side effects in patients undergoing fluorescence guided resection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ivan Wong Hin; Eljamel, Sam

    2013-12-01

    Oral 5 aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is used to assist surgical resection of malignant tumours in the brain and other locations. Hypotension and alteration of liver functions have been reported as potential adverse effects. This study was designed to assess the incidence and contributing factors that cause 5-ALA induced side effects in a cohort of 90 patients. Hypotension occurred in 11% of patients irrespective of 5-ALA dose. The only contributing factor was the presence of cardiovascular disease and antihypertensive drug therapy with an odd ratio of 17.7. Liver function were disturbed in 2% in patients who received 20mg or less/kg body weight compared to 4% in those who received a dose of >20mg/kg 5-ALA. The liver dysfunction was minor and was not clinically significant. We concluded that 5-ALA induced side effects were minimal and hypotension more likely to occur in patients receiving antihypertensive drug therapy.

  8. Tramadol hydrochloride: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse side effects, co-administration of drugs and new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, M; Andreani, T; Fangueiro, J; Faggio, C; Silva, C; Santini, A; Garcia, M L; Silva, A M; Souto, E B

    2015-03-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride (TrHC) is a synthetic analgesic drug exhibiting opioid and non-opioid properties, acting mainly on the central nervous system. It has been mostly used to treat pain, although its use to treat anxiety and depression has also been documented. These properties arise from the fact that they inhibit serotonin (5-HT) reuptake augmenting 5-HT concentration on the synaptic cleft. Despite this, TrHC has also been described to have several side effects which are mainly due to its fast metabolization and excretion which in turn requires multiple doses per day. To surpass this limitation, new pharmaceutical formulations are being developed intending the protection, target and sustained delivery as well as a reduction on daily dose aiming a reduction on the side effects. In the present work we have revised the efficacy, safety, biological and adverse effects of TrHC, and the added value of developing a novel drug delivery system for topical administration.

  9. Effect of relative humidity cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches on performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly components in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yanling; Zhong, Hexiang; Wang, Meiri; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-06-01

    The performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied by designing relative humidity (RH) cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches. Cathode catalyst activity, permeability and resistance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) as well as cell performance are monitored during the test procedure. The interfaces of MEA, the catalyst particle distribution near the cathode inlet are characterized by SEM and TEM, respectively. The results demonstrate both the overall H2 permeability and crossover current of PEM are doubled compared with its initial properties. Signs of PEM degradation, including periodical thinning, cracks and pinholes formation, are observed after 300 RH cycles and 40 times of start/stop switches. The average Pt particle size increases by more than 75%, and the cathode electrochemical surface area decreases by 48% after the test procedure. Meanwhile, the cathode catalyst layer becomes looser due to the dissolution of some smaller Pt particles and catalyst agglomeration in the RH cycles and the high potential during the intermittent start/stop switches. The membrane resistance demonstrates downshift variation during the RH cycles. PEMFC performance, however, decays due to the chemical and electrochemical attack as well as the mechanical stresses.

  10. [Wernicke encephalopathy accompanying linitis plastica].

    PubMed

    Soós, Zsuzsanna; Salamon, Mónika; Oláh, Roland; Czégeni, Anna; Salamon, Ferenc; Folyovich, András; Winkler, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy (or Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy) is a rarely diagnosed neurological disorder, which is caused by vitamin B1 deficiency. In the classical form it is characterized by a typical triad (confusion, oculomotor disturbance and ataxia), however, in the majority of the cases only confusion is present. It can be frequently observed in subjects with chronic alcohol consumption, but it may accompany different pathological states of which end stage malignant diseases are the most importants, where confusion may have different backgrounds. The authors present the case of an old male patient with advanced gastric cancer recognised and treated vitamin B1 deficiency, and they draw attention to difficulties of the diagnosis of Wernicke's disease. PMID:24379094

  11. Side effects of extinction: prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Wallace, M D

    1999-01-01

    Findings from basic and applied research suggest that treatment with operant extinction may produce adverse side effects; two of these commonly noted are an increase in the frequency of the target response (extinction burst) and an increase in aggression (extinction-induced aggression). Although extinction is often used to treat problem behavior in clinical settings, few applied studies have examined the prevalence of these side effects or their possible attenuation with other operant procedures. An analysis of 41 data sets for individuals who received treatment for self-injurious behavior indicated that extinction bursts or increases in aggression occurred in nearly one half of the cases. The prevalence of bursting and aggression was substantially lower when extinction was implemented as part of a treatment package rather than as the sole intervention. PMID:10201100

  12. The differential effects of acute right- vs. left-sided vestibular failure on brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Bense, Sandra; Dieterich, Marianne; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bartenstein, Peter; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers. To determine if acute right- or left-sided unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN) is associated with differential patterns of brain metabolism in areas representing the vestibular network and the visual-vestibular interaction, patients with acute VN (right n = 9; left n = 13) underwent resting state (18)F-FDG PET once in the acute phase and once 3 months later after central vestibular compensation. The contrast acute vs. chronic phase showed signal differences in contralateral vestibular areas and the inverse contrast in visual cortex areas, both more pronounced in VN right. In VN left additional regions were found in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis bilaterally, accentuated in severe cases. In general, signal changes appeared more pronounced in patients with more severe vestibular deficits. Acute phase PET data of patients compared to that of age-matched healthy controls disclosed similarities to these patterns, thus permitting the interpretation that the signal changes in vestibular temporo-parietal areas reflect signal increases, and in visual areas, signal decreases. These data imply that brain activity in the acute phase of right- and left-sided VN exhibits different compensatory patterns, i.e., the dominant ascending input is shifted from the ipsilateral to the contralateral pathways, presumably due to the missing ipsilateral vestibular input. The visual-vestibular interaction patterns were preserved, but were of different prominence in each hemisphere and more pronounced in patients with right-sided failure and more severe vestibular deficits.

  13. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  14. The impact of side effects from outpatient chemotherapy on presenteeism in breast cancer patients: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Hori, Akiyo; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the field of occupational health services, productivity loss can be expressed by absenteeism (i.e., employees being absent from work and taking leave due to health problems) and presenteeism (i.e., a reduction in the ability to perform one's tasks at work). Similar to absenteeism, it is important to assess presenteeism because it can severely reduce productivity. Despite numerous reports about the impact of disease and medical treatments on presenteeism, there is a lack of data regarding the influence of medication side effects. In this study, a prospective analysis was conducted via questionnaire survey to clarify the influence of the side effects of anticancer drugs on presenteeism in workers receiving outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer. Between December 2012 and November 2013, the influence of side effects on the quality of life, absenteeism, and presenteeism was investigated via a questionnaire conducted before and after 1 course of chemotherapy in 19 currently employed breast cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy for the first time at Gifu Municipal Hospital, Japan. The rate of absenteeism was 24.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 2002 yen/day (national statistical data) and 881 yen/day (our questionnaire data). The rate of presenteeism was 33.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 1354 yen/day (national statistical data) and 1263 yen/day (our questionnaire data). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between absenteeism and presenteeism (r = 0.687, p = 0.001), suggesting that the productivity losses associated with presenteeism due to the side effects of anticancer drugs in breast cancer patients are large and similar to that associated with absenteeism in these patients. Our results may be useful for improving the occupational health of workers receiving chemotherapy for cancer.

  15. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer.

  16. The impact of side effects from outpatient chemotherapy on presenteeism in breast cancer patients: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Hori, Akiyo; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the field of occupational health services, productivity loss can be expressed by absenteeism (i.e., employees being absent from work and taking leave due to health problems) and presenteeism (i.e., a reduction in the ability to perform one's tasks at work). Similar to absenteeism, it is important to assess presenteeism because it can severely reduce productivity. Despite numerous reports about the impact of disease and medical treatments on presenteeism, there is a lack of data regarding the influence of medication side effects. In this study, a prospective analysis was conducted via questionnaire survey to clarify the influence of the side effects of anticancer drugs on presenteeism in workers receiving outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer. Between December 2012 and November 2013, the influence of side effects on the quality of life, absenteeism, and presenteeism was investigated via a questionnaire conducted before and after 1 course of chemotherapy in 19 currently employed breast cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy for the first time at Gifu Municipal Hospital, Japan. The rate of absenteeism was 24.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 2002 yen/day (national statistical data) and 881 yen/day (our questionnaire data). The rate of presenteeism was 33.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 1354 yen/day (national statistical data) and 1263 yen/day (our questionnaire data). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between absenteeism and presenteeism (r = 0.687, p = 0.001), suggesting that the productivity losses associated with presenteeism due to the side effects of anticancer drugs in breast cancer patients are large and similar to that associated with absenteeism in these patients. Our results may be useful for improving the occupational health of workers receiving chemotherapy for cancer. PMID:27064454

  17. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26826460

  18. [Long-term effects after surgery for hand sweating and facial blushing. Patients are satisfied in spite of troublesome side-effects].

    PubMed

    Drott, C; Claes, G; Rex, L; Dalman, P; Göthberg, G; Fahlén, T

    2001-04-11

    The thoracoscopic technique has simplified surgery on the upper thoracic chain. This comparatively minimally traumatic approach has resulted in a pronounced increase in the number of procedures. The effect of ETS on severe palmar hyperhidrosis and facial blushing is very good. These conditions often cause social, professional and emotional handicaps. Side-effects, especially compensatory sweating (increased sweating on the trunk and legs), can, however, be severe. The procedure should be used only when the hyperhidrosis or facial blushing is severely detrimental to the quality of life. The expected effects, side-effects and risks for complications must be made clear before patients are accepted for ETS. PMID:11374002

  19. Side effects of high-energy shockwaves in the human kidney: first experience with model comparing two shockwave sources.

    PubMed

    Roessler, W; Wieland, W F; Steinbach, P; Hofstaedter, F; Thüroff, S; Chaussy, C

    1996-12-01

    The side effects of high-energy shockwaves (HESW) from two different sources on kidney parenchyma obtained from 10 patients treated by radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma were examined. Immediately after nephrectomy, the kidneys were perfused with cold HTK solution and kept in hypothermia (8 degrees C) for a maximum of 4 hours. In five cases, the tumor-free parenchyma was treated at the upper or lower renal pole with 2000 shocks, energy output 21 kV, in an experimental electromagnetic shockwave system (Siemens Co., Erlangen). In the other five cases, the upper or lower poles were treated with 2000 shocks, energy output 24 kV, in an electrohydraulic spark gap system (MFL 5000; Dornier Medizintechnik, Germering). The resulting tissue defects were analyzed by histologic examinations. Changes after treatment with the electromagnetic system were found mainly in the tubules and midsized blood vessels in a well-defined focal area. Treatment with the electrohydraulic system was followed by tubular and glomerular lesions combined with vessel defects in a patchy pattern. The model is able to define the side effects of HESW in the human kidney and to test the side effects of different lithotripters.

  20. [Results of a French nationwide survey of cutaneous side effects of ketoprofen gel reported between September 1996 and August 2000].

    PubMed

    Veyrac, G; Paulin, M; Milpied, B; Bourin, M; Jolliet, P

    2002-01-01

    A French nation-wide pharmacovigilance survey of ketoprofen topic collated, from September 1996 to August 2000, 770 cutaneous side-effects. The frequency varies from 0.013@1000 to 0.028@1000 according to the commercial gel. Analysis concerns spontaneous notifications of French nation-wide pharmacovigilance. Sex ratio is well distributed, population is young. Treatment lasted about 12 days, the side-effects appearing after about 13 days, 25 per cent of cases are delayed to discontinuance of treatment, mainly after exposure to sunlight. Co-administered drugs are in most cases systemic or topical NSAIDs and/or fibrates and then increase the seriousness of the iatrogenic pathology. 75 per cent of cutaneous side-effects appear in summer, 50 per cent have been reported as "photosensitivity". Reactions are severe in 30 per cent of the cases. More than 80 per cent of cases present an extension beyond the site of application. The course is usually favourable and neither topical nor systemic corticosteroid treatment influence the duration of evolution. Photopatchtests testing in 23 per cent of cases show evidence of photoallergy to ketoprofen and crossed photoallergy with tiaprofenic acid, fenofibrate, oxybenzone and benzophenone. These results confirm that photoallergy is due to the common benzoylketone structure but not to their arylpropionic function. Some cases of persistent or recurrent photosensitivity must be more explored. The results lead to request a modification of marketing authorizations.