Science.gov

Sample records for accorded high priority

  1. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  2. Defining conservation priorities for freshwater fishes according to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strecker, A.L.; Olden, J.D.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    To date, the predominant use of systematic conservation planning has been to evaluate and conserve areas of high terrestrial biodiversity. Although studies in freshwater ecosystems have received recent attention, research has rarely considered the potential tradeoffs between protecting different dimensions of biodiversity and the ecological processes that maintain diversity. We provide the first systematic prioritization for freshwaters (focusing on the highly threatened and globally distinct fish fauna of the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA) simultaneously considering scenarios of: taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity;contemporary threats to biodiversity (including interactions with nonnative species);and future climate change and human population growth. There was 75% congruence between areas of highest conservation priority for different aspects of biodiversity, suggesting that conservation efforts can concurrently achieve strong complementarity among all types of diversity. However, sizable fractions of the landscape were incongruent across conservation priorities for different diversity scenarios, underscoring the importance of considering multiple dimensions of biodiversity and highlighting catchments that contribute disproportionately to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in the region. Regions of projected human population growth were not concordant with conservation priorities;however, higher human population abundance will likely have indirect effects on native biodiversity by increasing demand for water. This will come in direct conflict with projected reductions in precipitation and warmer temperatures, which have substantial overlap with regions of high contemporary diversity. Native and endemic fishes in arid ecosystems are critically endangered by both current and future threats, but our results highlight the use of systematic conservation planning for the optimal allocation of limited resources that incorporates multiple

  3. Defining conservation priorities for freshwater fishes according to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strecker, Angela; Olden, Julian D.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2011-01-01

    To date, the predominant use of systematic conservation planning has been to evaluate and conserve areas of high terrestrial biodiversity. Although studies in freshwater ecosystems have received recent attention, research has rarely considered the potential trade-offs between protecting different dimensions of biodiversity and the ecological processes that maintain diversity. We provide the first systematic prioritization for freshwaters (focusing on the highly threatened and globally distinct fish fauna of the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA) simultaneously considering scenarios of: taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity; contemporary threats to biodiversity (including interactions with nonnative species); and future climate change and human population growth. There was 75% congruence between areas of highest conservation priority for different aspects of biodiversity, suggesting that conservation efforts can concurrently achieve strong complementarity among all types of diversity. However, sizable fractions of the landscape were incongruent across conservation priorities for different diversity scenarios, underscoring the importance of considering multiple dimensions of biodiversity and highlighting catchments that contribute disproportionately to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in the region. Regions of projected human population growth were not concordant with conservation priorities; however, higher human population abundance will likely have indirect effects on native biodiversity by increasing demand for water. This will come in direct conflict with projected reductions in precipitation and warmer temperatures, which have substantial overlap with regions of high contemporary diversity. Native and endemic fishes in arid ecosystems are critically endangered by both current and future threats, but our results highlight the use of systematic conservation planning for the optimal allocation of limited resources that incorporates

  4. Homelessness: HUD Funds Eligible Projects According to Communities' Priorities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office studied the process that the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) uses to select projects for the homeless for funding, whether this process is consistent with statutes and community priorities, whether communities face any common problems when applying for HUD…

  5. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  6. Case studies of six high priority DOD installations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This is a supplement to the report entitled Environmental Cleanup: Too Many High Priority Sites Impede DOD`s Program. It provides six installation case studies addressing issues including the status of the restoration program, the cost of cleanup to date and projected costs, the cleanup options considered, the option selected, expected completion, and the applicable cleanup standards. The case studies also provide installation specific information on reasons installation was listed on the NPL, the regulatory process, cooperation between the installation and the regulatory agencies, staffing at the installations and the regulatory agencies, and the process for funding the cleanup.

  7. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  8. High Priority of Nanocrystalline Diamond as a Biosensing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianfen; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Masataka; Rahim Ruslinda, A.; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Here we report the performance of surface functionalized diamond surfaces as biosensing platform for human immunodeficiency virus trans-activator of transcription (HIV-Tat) peptide detection. Comparative investigations were conducted on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the morphology differences between NCD and PCD films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data showed that functional components and corresponding coverages, demonstrating denser carboxyl acid groups and fluorinated groups on NCD than that PCD films after UV/ozone and fluorine plasma treatment respectively. Contact angle results showed the differences in surface wettability and free energy between functionalized NCD and PCD biosensors. Fluorescence observations confirmed that higher biosensing performance can be obtained on NCD biosensors with high sensitivity selectivity, and stability. The NCD films with denser surface coverages of functionalizations made NCD films much more priority as an effective biosensing candidate than PCD films.

  9. 25 CFR 170.205 - What is an IRR High Priority Project (IRRHPP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Irr High Priority Project (irrhpp) § 170... applications. (c) IRRHPP funds cannot be used for transportation planning, research, routine...

  10. [An analysis of financial flows from the Brazilian Ministry of Health for research and development in 2003-2005 according to the National Agenda for Health Research Priorities].

    PubMed

    Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Caetano, Rosangela

    2011-04-01

    This study mapped the application of financing in research and development in health (R&D/H) by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2003-2005, according to the National Agenda for Health Research Priorities, created in 2004. The analysis was based on data from a study aimed primarily at measuring these investment flows during the same period. The calculations included only direct financing with actual outlays in research, including payroll expenditures. The studies were categorized according to the 24 sub-agendas of the national priority agenda by two independent researchers, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Research and development expenditures in health totaled 409.7 million reais, concentrated mainly in the following sub-agendas: transmissible diseases, the health industry complex, clinical research, pharmaceutical care, and non-communicable diseases (79% of the total). All 24 sub-agendas received some financing during the period. The study established a baseline for subsequent evaluations of this financing instrument's inductive capacity and the relationship between R&D/H investments and the population's health needs. PMID:21603752

  11. DRD4 long allele carriers show heightened attention to high-priority items relative to low-priority items.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Worthy, Darrell A; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a "risk" gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here, selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span (OSPAN) task, a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a "plasticity" gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context.

  12. DRD4 long allele carriers show heightened attention to high-priority items relative to low-priority items.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Worthy, Darrell A; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a "risk" gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here, selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span (OSPAN) task, a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a "plasticity" gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context. PMID:25244120

  13. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are permissible uses of High Priority... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support... safety regulations. (3) Increase public awareness about CMV safety. (4) Provide education on CMV...

  14. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C - IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix A Appendix A to Subpart C Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION...—IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix Score 10 5 3 1 0 Accident and fatality rate for...

  15. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C - IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix A Appendix A to Subpart C Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION...—IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix Score 10 5 3 1 0 Accident and fatality rate for...

  16. Fluvial processes in Ma'adim Vallis and the potential of Gusev crater as a high priority site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie; Landheim, Ragnild; Greeley, Ronald; Farmer, Jack

    1994-01-01

    According to exobiology site selection criteria for Mars, the search for potential extinct/extant water dependent life should focus on sites were water flowed and ponded. The Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater system is of high priority for exobiology research, because it appears to have involved long term flooding, different periods and rates of sedimentation, and probable episodic ponding. The topics covered include the following: evidence of nonuniform fluvial processes and early overflooding of the plateau and ponding.

  17. College Advising in the High School: Priority and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; De Masi, Mary E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the findings from a national survey of high school counselors on college advising. Some findings indicate that more attention to how counselors undertake the college advising role may be warranted. Includes five tables. (MD)

  18. Why Bariatric surgery should be given high priority: an argument from law and morality.

    PubMed

    Persson, Karl

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, bariatric surgery has become an increasingly popular treatment of obesity. The amount of resources spent on this kind of surgery has led to a heated debate among health care professionals and the general public, as each procedure costs at minimum $14,500 and thousands of patients undergo surgery every year. So far, no substantial argument for or against giving this treatment a high priority has, however, been presented. In this article, I argue that regardless which moral perspective we consider--greatest need, utility or personal responsibility--the conclusion is that we should give bariatric surgery a high priority when allocating scarce resources in health care.

  19. State Strategies to Improve Low-Performing Schools: California's High Priority School Grants Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas; Rodriguez, Gloria; Simon, Virginia Adams; Ferrario, Kim; Kim, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Central to California's school accountability system are programs to engage low-performing schools in improvement efforts. One of these is the High Priority Schools Program (HPSGP), created by Assembly Bill 961 (Chapter 747, "Statutes of 2001") to provide funds to the lowest performing schools in the state. To be eligible for funding, schools must…

  20. 78 FR 75571 - Independent Assessment of the Process for the Review of Device Submissions; High Priority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amber Sligar, Office of Planning, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Independent Assessment of the Process for the Review of Device Submissions; High Priority Recommendations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  1. 49 CFR 350.329 - How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds? 350.329 Section 350.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds? (a) States...

  2. 49 CFR 350.329 - How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds? 350.329 Section 350.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... How may a State or local agency qualify for High Priority or Border Activity Funds? (a) States...

  3. Priority interventions to improve the management of chronic non-cancer pain in primary care: a participatory research of the ACCORD program

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Lyne; Choinière, Manon; Martin, Elisabeth; Lévesque, Lise; Hudon, Eveline; Bélanger, Danielle; Perreault, Sylvie; Lacasse, Anaïs; Laliberté, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6), pharmacists (n=6), nurses (n=6), physiotherapists (n=6), psychologists (n=6), pain specialists (n=6), patients (n=3), family members (n=3), decision makers and managers (n=4), and pain researchers (n=7) took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem, difficulties in access to health professionals and services, and patient empowerment needs. Based on the nominal group discussions, the following priority interventions were identified: interdisciplinary continuing education, interdisciplinary treatment approach, regional expert leadership, creation and definition of care paths, and patient education programs. Conclusion Barriers to optimal management of CNCP in primary care are numerous. Improving its management cannot be envisioned without considering multifaceted interventions targeting several dimensions of the Chronic Care Model and focusing on both clinicians and patients. PMID:25995648

  4. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  5. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Priority arbitration mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Garmire, Derrick L.; Herring, Jay R.; Stunkel, Craig B.

    2007-03-06

    A method is provided for selecting a data source for transmission on one of several logical (virtual) lanes embodied in a single physical connection. Lanes are assigned to either a high priority class or to a low priority class. One of six conditions is employed to determine when re-arbitration of lane priorities is desired. When this occurs a next source for transmission is selected based on a the specification of the maximum number of high priority packets that can be sent after a lower priority transmission has been interrupted. Alternatively, a next source for transmission is selected based on a the specification of the maximum number of high priority packets that can be sent while a lower priority packet is waiting. If initialized correctly, the arbiter keeps all of the packets of a high priority packet contiguous, while allowing lower priority packets to be interrupted by the higher priority packets, but not to the point of starvation of the lower priority packets.

  7. Screening of high phytotoxicity priority pollutants and their ecological risk assessment in China's surface waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenguang; Wang, Weili; Zhou, Junli; Yi, Xianliang; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    The protection of aquatic plants has received less attention in ecological risk assessment of pollutants compared with animals. Some pollutants like herbicide, however, are more toxic to aquatic plants than to animals. Aquatic toxicity data of 126 priority pollutants were screened and analyzed in this study. Through data analysis, five priority pollutants namely 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were identified to have high phytotoxicity effect. The most sensitive aquatic plants to these five pollutants are all alage, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Gymnodinium breve. The water quality criteria concentration of the five pollutants were derived by the species sensitivity distribution method. The acute criteria concentration for the five pollutants were derived to be 1474, 2180, 54.41, 98.52 and 520.4 μg L(-1), and the chronic criteria concentration for them were 147.4, 218.0, 5.441, 9.852 and 52.04 μg L(-1), respectively. For China's freshwater bodies, the results of ecological risk assessment based on the derived criteria showed that, for the selected pollutants except DBP, there were basically no significant risk in most of the studied water bodies. DBP showed apparent ecological risks in all of the studied water bodies, particularly in the middle Yellow River, the Xuanwu Lake, the Yuehu Lake, etc. Field monitoring data of the Liao River and the Taihu Lake showed that DBP had moderate risks in some of the sampling sites of both the watersheds, while BBP posed moderate risks only on a few sites of the Liao River. PMID:25655815

  8. High-Throughput Screening of a Diversity Collection Using Biodefense Category A and B Priority Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Esther W.; Clinkenbeard, Patricia A.; Duncan-Decocq, Rebecca A.; Perteet, Rachel F.; Hill, Kimberly D.; Bourne, Philip C.; Valderas, Michelle W.; Bourne, Christina R.; Clarkson, Nicole L.; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Barrow, William W.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Biodefense Program is to identify or develop broad-spectrum antimicrobials for use against bioterrorism pathogens and emerging infectious agents. As a part of that program, our institution has screened the 10 000-compound MyriaScreen Diversity Collection of high-purity druglike compounds against three NIAID category A and one category B priority pathogens in an effort to identify potential compound classes for further drug development. The effective use of a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute–based high-throughput screening (HTS) 96-well–based format allowed for the identification of 49 compounds that had in vitro activity against all four pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration values of ≤16 μg/mL. Adaptation of the HTS process was necessary to conduct the work in higher-level containment, in this case, biosafety level 3. Examination of chemical scaffolds shared by some of the 49 compounds and assessment of available chemical databases indicates that several may represent broad-spectrum antimicrobials whose activity is based on novel mechanisms of action. PMID:22653912

  9. Camera Trapping: A Contemporary Approach to Monitoring Invasive Rodents in High Conservation Priority Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Anthony R.; Sutherland, Duncan R.; Cooke, Raylene; White, John

    2014-01-01

    Invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. Insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. Few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species persist. This study investigates the effectiveness of camera trapping for monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation areas, and the influence of habitat features and density of colonial-nesting seabirds on rodent relative activity levels to provide insights into their potential impacts. A total of 276 camera sites were established and left in situ for 8 days. Identified species were recorded in discrete 15 min intervals, referred to as ‘events’. In total, 19 804 events were recorded. From these, 31 species were identified comprising 25 native species and six introduced. Two introduced rodent species were detected: the black rat (90% of sites), and house mouse Mus musculus (56% of sites). Rodent activity of both black rats and house mice were positively associated with the structural density of habitats. Density of seabird burrows was not strongly associated with relative activity levels of rodents, yet rodents were still present in these areas. Camera trapping enabled a large number of rodents to be detected with confidence in site-specific absences and high resolution to quantify relative activity levels. This method enables detection of multiple species simultaneously with low impact (for both target and non-target individuals); an ideal strategy for monitoring trap-adverse invasive rodents in high conservation areas. PMID:24599307

  10. High-Rank Stakeholders' Perspectives on High-Stakes University Entrance Examinations Reform: Priorities and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh; Samar, Reza Ghafar; Akbari, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    A steady stream of studies on high-stakes tests such as University Entrance Examinations (UEEs) suggests that high-stakes tests reforms serve as the leverage for promoting quality of learning, standards of teaching, and credible forms of accountability. However, such remediation is often not as effective as hoped and success is not necessarily…

  11. Recommendations for high-priority research on cancer-related fatigue in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Barsevick, Andrea M; Irwin, Michael R; Hinds, Pamela; Miller, Andrew; Berger, Ann; Jacobsen, Paul; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Reeve, Bryce B; Mustian, Karen; O'Mara, Ann; Lai, Jin-Shei; Fisch, Michael; Cella, David

    2013-10-01

    Over the past decades, some scientific progress has been made in understanding and treating cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, three major problems have limited further progress: lack of agreement about measurement, inadequate understanding of the underlying biology, and problems in the conduct of clinical trials for CRF. This commentary reports the recommendations of a National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Planning Meeting and an ongoing National Cancer Institute working group to address these problems so that high-priority research and clinical trials can be conducted to advance the science of CRF and its treatment. Recommendations to address measurement issues included revising the current case definition to reflect more rigorous criteria, adopting the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System fatigue scales as standard measures of CRF, and linking legacy measures to the scales. With regard to the biology of CRF, the group identified the need for longitudinal research to examine biobehavioral mechanisms underlying CRF and testing mechanistic hypotheses within the context of intervention research. To address clinical trial issues, recommendations included using only placebo-controlled trial designs. setting eligibility to minimize sample heterogeneity or enable subgroup analysis, establishing a CRF severity threshold for participation in clinical trials, conducting dissemination trials of efficacious interventions (such as exercise), and combining nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions to exploit the potential synergy between these approaches. Accomplishing these goals has the potential to advance the science of CRF and improve the clinical management of this troubling symptom.

  12. Imaging exoplanets with the WFIRST Coronagraph: A background check of high priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Turnbull, Margaret C.; Gallagher, John S.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Merrelli, Aronne; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Hu, Renyu

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph is envisioned to achieve a limiting contrast for exoplanet detection of 10e-9. This revolutionary mission will enable the direct detection of known and newly discovered exoplanets amongst the nearest stars, from super-Earths to giants. However, at this contrast the coronagraph will essentially see a Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) in every image. For targets near the Galactic Plane on the sky, distant stars with varying levels of extinction and reddening will dominate the background. Away from the plane, we then expect extragalactic sources to dominate. What impact will these background sources have on the WFIRST exoplanet imaging program? How can we efficiently distinguish background sources from exoplanet targets in a single image? To have a comprehensive understanding of the distribution of background sources across the sky, we have used the HUDF to model extragalactic faint sources, and "Trilegal" simulations to model galactic background sources. Through some preliminary color and point source analysis, we offer a statistical estimation of expected background contamination and the probability of false positive background sources. In this poster we show plots relating number of extragalactic sources versus magnitude in HUDF and "Trilegal" simulation. We present a table of high priority WFIRST exoplanet imaging targets, with an assessment of the "background threat" due to background stars, galaxies, and binary companions.

  13. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  14. Choosing priorities.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J A

    1979-01-01

    Dr Gray leaves us with a question at the conclusion of his article--how should we choose priorities? He says that the debate so far has been mainly on what we should choose, but perhaps we should consider how to choose even more. Under the various subheadings of Criteria, Principles and Persons Dr Gray sets out the pros and cons of the arguments in the priority debates and tries to offer some more specific guidelines to offset the criticism that the government's priority discussions have been too generalised. Yet this is a difficult task when everyone's priorities are so different. PMID:112252

  15. Priority in Process Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  16. Disseminating evidence-based treatments for PTSD in organizational settings: A high priority focus area.

    PubMed

    Ruzek, Josef I; Rosen, Raymond C

    2009-11-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD has become an important focus of activity in the aftermath of recent terrorist attacks (e.g., London underground and U.S. 9/11 attacks), natural disasters (e.g., Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina), and wars (e.g., in Iraq and Afghanistan). This has become a high priority need for all mental health training and service delivery organizations. Researchers and educators have begun to examine clinician and client perceptions and preferences regarding PTSD treatment processes, and health care systems are organizing more comprehensive efforts at training and system change. As this evolution of services moves forward, effective dissemination should be a major focus of health policy research for the next decade or more. This review critically evaluates the PTSD-related research and emerging theory related to four major sets of variables that affect dissemination: (1) Practitioner factors, (2) Training methods, (3) The practice innovation(s) being disseminated; and (4) Organization or system factors. We evaluate findings from recent studies in light of emerging models of dissemination, and in the final section of the paper, we consider five broad topics with particular implications for dissemination of PTSD-specific treatments. They are: (1) The content of dissemination (i.e., which treatment protocols or intervention methods should be prioritized); (2) Strict adherence versus flexibility in the use of treatment manuals and the role of fidelity assessment; (3) The need for collaboration with user audiences; (4) The potential role of web-based technologies in increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of dissemination; and (5) Development of dissemination infrastructures within organizations.

  17. Meteorological predictions for Mars 2020 Exploration Rover high-priority landing sites throug MRAMS Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) is used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 Exploration Rover at several proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The meteorology during the EDL window at most of the sites is dynamic. The intense heating of the lower atmosphere drives intense thermals and mesoscale thermal circulations. Moderate mean winds, wind shear, turbulence, and vertical air currents associated with convection are present and potentially hazardous to EDL [1]. Nine areas with specific high-priority landing ellipses of the 2020 Rover, are investigated: NE Syrtis, Nili Fossae, Nili Fossae Carbonates, Jezero Crater Delta, Holden Crater, McLaughlin Crater, Southwest Melas Basin, Mawrth Vallis and East Margaritifer Chloride. MRAMS was applied to the landing site regions using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over each landing site. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' atmospheric thermal circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [2, 3]. Horizontal wind speeds, both vertical profiles and vertical cross-sections wind speeds, are studied. For some landing sites simulations, two example configurations -including and not including Hellas basin in the mother domain- were generated, in order to study how the basin affects the innermost grids circulations. Afternoon circulations at all sites pose some risk entry, descent, and landing. Most of the atmospheric hazards are not evident in current observational data and general circulation model simulations and can only be ascertained through mesoscale modeling of the region. Decide where to go first and then design a system that can tolerate the environment would greatly minimize risk. References: [1] Rafkin, S. C. R., and T. I. Michaels (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12

  18. Environmental research should be high priority at National Science Foundation, Board says

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Stating that the environment is a critical element of the knowledge base needed to live in a safe and prosperous world, the National Science Board (NSB) on July 29 said that environmental research, education, and scientific assessments should be one of the highest priorities of the National Science Foundation (NSF). To back up this effort, NSB, which is the governing body of NSR called for $1 billion in new federal funding over the next 5 years to supplement the approximately $600 million the foundation spends annually in these areas out of its $4 billion budget. Total federal investment in environmental research and development is approximately $5.3 billion annually

  19. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS) enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26688828

  20. High altitude atmospheric discharges according to the runaway air breakdown mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Symbalisty, E.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Yukhimuk, V.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01

    High altitude optical transients - red sprites, blue jets, and elves - are modeled in the context of the relativistic electron runaway air breakdown mechanism. These emissions are usually associated with large mesoscale convective systems (hereafter MCS). In thunderstorms cloud electrification proceeds over a time scale long enough to permit the conducting atmosphere above the cloud to polarize and short out the thunderstorm electric field. When a lightning strike rapidly neutralizes a cloud charge layer runaway driving fields can develop in the stratosphere and mesosphere. According to present simulations of the full runaway process the variety of observed optical emissions are due to the nature of the normal lightning event in the MCS that kick starts the runaway avalanche. In this paper the authors describe some details of the model, present the results of the evolution of the primary electron population, and summarize the initial conditions necessary for different types of discharges. Two companion papers present (a) the predicted optical, gamma ray, and radio emissions caused by these electrical discharges, and (b) the time evolution of the secondary electron population and its implications in terms of observables.

  1. Examining Problems in Project Work Executed in High Schools According to Student and Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Guner; Yigit, Nevzat; Alev, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    Project work is the primary method which enables practicing the activities that contemporary learning theories suggest. The aim of this study is to determine the issues encountered during project work in accordance with students' and teachers' views in secondary schools physics courses in the city of Trabzon, Turkey where project work has been…

  2. Cardiovascular health in the Americas: facts, priorities and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Ordúñez, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Population aging, smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, in the context of globalization and unregulated urbanization, explain the high prevalences of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in the Americas, making cardiovascular diseases the main cause of death. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors disproportionately affect the poorest people, obstructing antipoverty efforts and further deepening health and other inequities. The global crisis of chronic non-communicable diseases has reached such proportions that the UN General Assembly called a high-level meeting in September 2011 to address the issue as one of human development, aiming to stimulate political commitment to a concerted global effort to stem the pandemic. In reference to the Americas, this article reviews the burden of cardiovascular diseases and describes priorities for strategies and action in the region and their relation to the results of the UN meeting.

  3. Analysis of road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles using system dynamics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, W.

    1992-01-01

    Transportation Systems Management (TSM) employs various techniques such as road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles (HOVs) in an effort to make more efficient use of existing transportation facilities. Efficiency is improved in terms of moving more people through the facility while simultaneously reducing the number of vehicles using the facility. This report uses a hypothetical toll facility and examines four computer modeling approaches to determine which of the approaches are valid in terms of predicting the behavior of trip makers seeking to use the facility in response to various combinations of TSM techniques. Once an approach has been determined to be valid, seven different combination of TSM techniques, or strategies, are compared to a base strategy to determine what strategy or strategies are most affective in achieving the goals of TSM.

  4. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J; Aw, T; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia.
METHODS—Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked in industry or were from government organisations.
RESULTS—The participation rate of 71% (55 of 78) was obtained for the first questionnaire and 76% (72 of 95) for the second questionnaire. The participants identified occupational health problems for specific groups and industries as the top research priority area (ranked as top priority by 25% of participants). Ministry of Health participants placed emphasis on healthcare workers (52% ranking it as top priority), whereas those from industry identified construction and plantation workers as groups, which should be accorded the highest priority. Evaluation of research and services was given a low priority.
CONCLUSIONS—The priorities for occupational health determined with the Delphi approach showed differences between Malaysia, a developing country, and findings from similar European studies. This may be expected, as differences exist in stages of economic development, types of industries, occupational activities, and cultural attitudes to occupational health and safety. Chemical poisonings and workplace accidents were accorded a high priority. By contrast with findings from western countries, workplace psychosocial problems and musculoskeletal injuries were deemed less important. There also seemed to be greater emphasis on adopting interventions for identified problems based on experience in other countries rather than the need to evaluate local occupational health provisions.


Keywords: occupational

  5. Sex Education in Connecticut High Schools: Teachers' Reports of Content and Importance Ratings According to the SIECUS Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obloj, Wallace; Lynn, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Connecticut teachers' reports of the sex education content taught to high school students as well as teachers' reports of the degree of importance for Connecticut high school students to understand according to the SIECUS Guidelines. The data revealed that participants (N=125) reported teaching 72% of the…

  6. Investigation of High School Students' Reading Compherension Levels According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceran, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of reading comprehension of high school students in their fields of study and learning strategies to explain the relationship between the level of reading comprehension. This working group is composed of 11th grade high school students. In this study, relational model was used. In the study…

  7. Home advantage in high-level volleyball varies according to set number.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao Andrés, José Manuel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away). Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss), game location (home, away), set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth) and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block) were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chisquare(18)=660.97, p<0.01). Analyses of log-odds of winning a set demonstrate that home teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set) and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets), probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition. Key pointsHome teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams.Home teams have higher performance in reception, set and attack in the total of the sets.The advantage of home teams is more pronounced at the beginning of the game (first set) and in two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets) suggesting intra-game variation in home advantage.Analysis by sets

  8. Home advantage in high-level volleyball varies according to set number.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao Andrés, José Manuel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away). Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss), game location (home, away), set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth) and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block) were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chisquare(18)=660.97, p<0.01). Analyses of log-odds of winning a set demonstrate that home teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set) and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets), probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition. Key pointsHome teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams.Home teams have higher performance in reception, set and attack in the total of the sets.The advantage of home teams is more pronounced at the beginning of the game (first set) and in two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets) suggesting intra-game variation in home advantage.Analysis by sets

  9. Priorities and Barriers in High School Leadership: A Survey of Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Tamara

    At the heart of every good school is a good principal who provides the necessary leadership to create an effective learning environment. Measuring the condition of high school leadership is an important part of the agenda of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP). This survey is designed to add to a knowledge base about…

  10. A Study of Supervisory Priorities of First-Time High School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lance V.

    The supervisory tasks that a novice principal emphasizes upon school entry make a major difference in developing the principal's professional identity as one who leads the improvement of instruction. Over the course of 2 years (1987-89), 12 first-time high school principals (7 male and 5 female, 10 white and 2 black) were studied. To ensure…

  11. Washington State High Priority Infant Tracking Project. Pilot Project Update, October 1982 to April 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Patricia J.; Bell, Michelle A.

    Results are reported of a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of a tracking program to maintain high risk infants in continuing health care, determine health and developmental outcomes, and survey the use of community resources in this population. Subjects were 766 infants from six participating hospitals in two Washington counties, one of…

  12. The High School Economics Text: An Examination of Priorities and Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radner, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes high school economics textbooks through an examination of the questions that textbooks traditionally address about economic production: What, how much, and how will something be produced, and who gets the product? Considers teachers' relationships to economic textbooks and courses. Concludes that textbooks should be more relevant to…

  13. High-Priority Professional Development Needs Identified by ASCA Presidents/Presidents-Elect (1986-87).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas, Robert E.; And Others

    The 1986-1987 American School Counselor Association (ASCA) Research Committee identified as one of six goals the identification of two topics of high professional development need for school counselors and distribution of bibliographic information on these two topics. To achieve this goal, ASCA presidents and presidents-elect (N=31) completed…

  14. High-priority drug–drug interactions for use in electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amrita A; Bell, Douglas; Yoshida, Eileen; Doole, John; Czochanski, Melissa; Middleton, Blackford; Bates, David W

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of high-severity, clinically significant drug–drug interactions (DDIs) for use in electronic health records (EHRs). Methods A panel of experts was convened with the goal of identifying critical DDIs that should be used for generating medication-related decision support alerts in all EHRs. Panelists included medication knowledge base vendors, EHR vendors, in-house knowledge base developers from academic medical centers, and both federal and private agencies involved in the regulation of medication use. Candidate DDIs were assessed by the panel based on the consequence of the interaction, severity levels assigned to them across various medication knowledge bases, availability of therapeutic alternatives, monitoring/management options, predisposing factors, and the probability of the interaction based on the strength of evidence available in the literature. Results Of 31 DDIs considered to be high risk, the panel approved a final list of 15 interactions. Panelists agreed that this list represented drugs that are contraindicated for concurrent use, though it does not necessarily represent a complete list of all such interacting drug pairs. For other drug interactions, severity may depend on additional factors, such as patient conditions or timing of co-administration. Discussion The panel provided recommendations on the creation, maintenance, and implementation of a central repository of high severity interactions. Conclusions A set of highly clinically significant drug-drug interactions was identified, for which warnings should be generated in all EHRs. The panel highlighted the complexity of issues surrounding development and implementation of such a list. PMID:22539083

  15. Requirements of High-Quality Kindergarten Programs According to Jordanian Parents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore what Jordanian parents of children attending "traditional" kindergartens recognize as high-quality education programs. The sample consisted of 509 families ("N"?=?509) of kindergarten-age children. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire: curriculum domains, teacher…

  16. Roadmap for the international collaborative epidemiologic monitoring of safety and effectiveness of new high priority vaccines.

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Hector S; Zuber, Patrick; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Chen, Robert T; Sankohg, Osman; Laserson, Kayla F; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Loucq, Christian; Weibel, Daniel; Dodd, Caitlin; Black, Steve

    2013-08-01

    With the advent of new vaccines targeted to highly endemic diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and with the expansion of vaccine manufacturing globally, there is an urgent need to establish an infrastructure to evaluate the benefit-risk profiles of vaccines in LMIC. Fortunately the usual decade(s)-long time gap between introduction of new vaccines in high and low income countries is being significantly reduced or eliminated due to initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) and the Decade of Vaccines for the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. While hoping for more rapid disease control, this time shift may potentially add risk, unless appropriate capacity for reliable and timely evaluation of vaccine benefit-risk profiles in some LMIC's are developed with external assistance from regional or global level. An ideal vaccine safety and effectiveness monitoring system should be flexible and sustainable, able to quickly detect possible vaccine-associated events, distinguish them from programmatic errors, reliably and quickly evaluate the suspected event and its association with vaccination and, if associated, determine the benefit-risk of vaccines to inform appropriate action. Based upon the demonstrated feasibility of active surveillance in LMIC as shown by the Burkina Faso assessment of meningococcal A conjugate vaccine or that of rotavirus vaccine in Mexico and Brazil, and upon the proof of concept international GBS study, we suggest a sustainable, flexible, affordable and timely international collaborative vaccine safety monitoring approach for vaccines being newly introduced. While this paper discusses only the vaccine component, the same system could also be eventually used for monitoring drug effectiveness (including the use of substandard drugs) and drug safety. PMID:23707171

  17. High priority needs for range-wide monitoring of North American landbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, E.H.; Altman, B.L.; Bart, J.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dettmers, R.; Hunter, W.C.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Ralph, C.J.; Rich, T.D.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Ruth, J.M.; Will, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    This document is an extension of work done for the Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan (Rich et al. 2004). The Continental Plan reviewed conservation status of the 448 native landbird species that regularly breed in the United States and Canada. Two groups of species were identified as having high conservation importance: the PIF Watch List, made up of species for which there is conservation concern, and Stewardship Spices that are particularly characteristic of regional avifaunas. In addition, continental scale monitoring needs were identified for all species. Here we extend the monitoring needs aspect of the Plan, providing additional detail and suggesting the best means of filling the gaps in broad-scale, long-term trend monitoring. This analysis and report was compiled by the Partners in Flight (PIF) Science Committee as a contribution to current work by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative to assess the status of bird population monitoring in North America and to make recommendations for improvements.

  18. Challenges in Mentoring Software Development Projects in the High School: Analysis According to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on challenges in mentoring software development projects in the high school and analyzes difficulties encountered by Computer Science teachers in the mentoring process according to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model. The main difficulties that emerged from the data analysis belong to the following knowledge sources of…

  19. Changing priorities.

    PubMed

    Sperry, R W

    1981-01-01

    In the context of today's mounting global problems the relative demand for medical, educational, and related social benefits that derive from the neurosciences is diminished. At the same time the human value spin-offs of brain research are thrust into a strategic position of top concern because of their key role as criteria or policy priorities and decision-making guidelines. Recent conceptual developments in the mind-brain sciences rejecting reductionism and mechanistic determinism on the one side, and dualisms on the other, clear the way for a rational approach to the theory and prescription of values and to natural fusion of science and religion. Science can be upheld as the best route to an increased understanding and report with the forces that made and move the universe and created man. The outlines of the value-belief system emerge that include an ultimate respect for nature and the evolving quality of the biosphere, which, if implemented, would set in motion the kind of social change needed to lead us out of the viscious spirals of increasing population, pollution, poverty, energy demands, etc. The strategic importance of neuroscience and the central role of prevailing concepts of the mind-brain relation to all of the foregoing remain evident throughout, as does also the direct relevance of efforts to bring added insight and substantiation of these mind-brain concepts through further advances in brain research.

  20. Changing priorities.

    PubMed

    Sperry, R W

    1981-01-01

    In the context of today's mounting global problems the relative demand for medical, educational, and related social benefits that derive from the neurosciences is diminished. At the same time the human value spin-offs of brain research are thrust into a strategic position of top concern because of their key role as criteria or policy priorities and decision-making guidelines. Recent conceptual developments in the mind-brain sciences rejecting reductionism and mechanistic determinism on the one side, and dualisms on the other, clear the way for a rational approach to the theory and prescription of values and to natural fusion of science and religion. Science can be upheld as the best route to an increased understanding and report with the forces that made and move the universe and created man. The outlines of the value-belief system emerge that include an ultimate respect for nature and the evolving quality of the biosphere, which, if implemented, would set in motion the kind of social change needed to lead us out of the viscious spirals of increasing population, pollution, poverty, energy demands, etc. The strategic importance of neuroscience and the central role of prevailing concepts of the mind-brain relation to all of the foregoing remain evident throughout, as does also the direct relevance of efforts to bring added insight and substantiation of these mind-brain concepts through further advances in brain research. PMID:7224577

  1. Forecasting High-Priority Infectious Disease Surveillance Regions: A Socioeconomic Model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily H.; Scales, David A.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Hoen, Anne G.; Choden, Tenzin; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few researchers have assessed the relationships between socioeconomic inequality and infectious disease outbreaks at the population level globally. We use a socioeconomic model to forecast national annual rates of infectious disease outbreaks. Methods. We constructed a multivariate mixed-effects Poisson model of the number of times a given country was the origin of an outbreak in a given year. The dataset included 389 outbreaks of international concern reported in the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News from 1996 to 2008. The initial full model included 9 socioeconomic variables related to education, poverty, population health, urbanization, health infrastructure, gender equality, communication, transportation, and democracy, and 1 composite index. Population, latitude, and elevation were included as potential confounders. The initial model was pared down to a final model by a backwards elimination procedure. The dependent and independent variables were lagged by 2 years to allow for forecasting future rates. Results. Among the socioeconomic variables tested, the final model included child measles immunization rate and telephone line density. The Democratic Republic of Congo, China, and Brazil were predicted to be at the highest risk for outbreaks in 2010, and Colombia and Indonesia were predicted to have the highest percentage of increase in their risk compared to their average over 1996–2008. Conclusions. Understanding socioeconomic factors could help improve the understanding of outbreak risk. The inclusion of the measles immunization variable suggests that there is a fundamental basis in ensuring adequate public health capacity. Increased vigilance and expanding public health capacity should be prioritized in the projected high-risk regions. PMID:23118271

  2. Stellar evolution at high mass with semiconvective mixing according to the Ledoux criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of semiconvective mixing are investigated in evolutionary sequences of models for stars of 10, 15, and 30 solar masses with four different initial chemical compositions. The models are constructed using the Ledoux criterion for both the definition of convective instability and the state of convective neutrality assumed to be attained in regions with a gradient of mean molecular weight. It is shown that semiconvection is nonexistent at 10 solar masses, of minor importance at 15 solar masses, but covers most of the intermediate zone at 30 solar masses, developing into full convection if the initial hydrogen and metals abundances are high. The effects of low initial hydrogen and metals abundances are examined, and the critical importance is demonstrated of the depths of the semiconvective zone and the outer convective envelope in promoting a blue loop and determining the maximum effective temperature on the loop. The extent of the thermally stable stages of the blue-loop phase is determined.

  3. Priorities for Federal Education Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Richard J.

    The paper suggests priorities for the federal government's elementary and secondary education data collection efforts. Sections on outputs, inputs, and private schools describe what data is needed, what is already available, and what is recommended for data collection. Recommendations include a high priority for federal funding for the National…

  4. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  5. 7 CFR 1777.13 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... advised of their appeal rights in accordance with 7 CFR part 11. (b) State Office review. All applications... are not available and advised of their appeal rights as set forth in 7 CFR part 11. (c) National...) Selection priorities. The priorities described below will be used to rate applications and in...

  6. 7 CFR 1777.13 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ineligible will be advised of their appeal rights in accordance with 7 CFR part 11. (b) State Office review... not available and advised of their appeal rights as set forth in 7 CFR part 11. (c) National Office..., etc. (d) Selection priorities. The priorities described below will be used to rate preapplications...

  7. [High-priority research directions in genetics, and the breeding of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, A V; Podvigina, O A; Zhuzhzhalova, T P; Fedulova, T P; Bogomolov, M A; Oshevnev, V P; Butorina, A K

    2014-11-01

    High-priority research directions for the genetics and breeding of the sugar beet in the 21st century were developed with consideration of the available scientific achievements of domestic and foreign scholars. These directions unite the classical and molecular approaches to solving the problems of increasing the effectiveness of sugar beet breeding carried out on a genetic basis, and they correspond to the contemporary level of scientific research. Seven such directions are proposed.

  8. Mineral Mapping of High Priority Landing Sites for MSL and Beyond Using Mars Express OMEGA and HRSC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Bibring, J.; Poulet, F.; Mangold, N.; Loizeau, D.; Hauber, E.; Altieri, F.; Carrozzo, G.

    2008-12-01

    High priority candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission have been proposed by various researchers, their significance based largely on spectroscopic and geomorphic evidence for aqueous processes. Specifically, seven candidate landing sites are under consideration for MSL at the time of this writing: Mawrth Vallis, Nili Fossae, southern Meridiani Planum, Eberswalde Crater, Holden Crater, Gale Crater, and Miyamoto Crater. While only one of these sites can be visited by MSL, the other sites remain among the most compelling localities on Mars for future in-situ exploration by ESA's ExoMars mission or an international Mars sample return mission. We have produced regional scale mineral maps of these sites using data from the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA). Visible images from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) are used as a map base. OMEGA infrared band parameters are used to identify and map pyroxene, olivine, oxides, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and other hydrated phases. OMEGA visible channel data also provide color information, which gives an estimate of dust cover and additional insights into the mineralogy of altered deposits. The dustiest site is Gale Crater and the least dusty is Nili Fossae. The strongest signature of phyllosilicates occurs in Mawrth Vallis, followed by Nili Fossae. However, Nili Fossae also has some of the strongest olivine signatures on the planet. One fundamental difference between the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis sites is that in Mawrth Vallis, phyllosilicate-bearing, light-toned rocks contain no evidence for primary phases in OMEGA data, but in the Nili Fossae area, phyllosilicates, olivine, and pyroxene are mixed at the subpixel level. South Meridiani Planum shows hydrated plains in contact with ancient, pyroxene-bearing, slightly altered, older bedrock. Patchy deposits of phyllosilicates are found in Miyamoto Crater, but their geologic context is

  9. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  10. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  11. Suicidal-related behaviors and quality of life according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San

    2015-11-01

    The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates.

  12. High resolution computed tomography findings in smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients according to their culture status

    PubMed Central

    Caliskan, Tayfun; Ozkisa, Tuncer; Aribal, Serkan; Kaya, Hatice; Incedayi, Mehmet; Ulcay, Asim; Ciftci, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the clinical features and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters and the culture results. Methods We retrospectively studied 78 active smear-negative PTB patients. They were divided into two groups according to their culture results. The HRCT findings and clinical features at the beginning of the antituberculosis treatment were reviewed. Results The mean age was 22.48±3.18 years. Micronodules (87%), large nodules (63%) and centrilobular nodules (62%) were the most common HRCT findings. HRCT findings were observed in the right upper (72%), left upper (56%), right lower (32%), and left lower lobes (29%). Cough (37%) and chest pain (32%) were the most frequent symptoms at presentation. Conclusions There were no significant differences in the HRCT findings and clinical features between the two groups. Thus, in cases of smear-negative and culture-negative PTB, the patient with compatible clinical and radiological features should be considered for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:24976993

  13. Suicidal-related behaviors and quality of life according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San

    2015-11-01

    The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates. PMID:26602721

  14. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation priority areas. 1410.8 Section 1410.8... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.8 Conservation priority areas. (a) CCC may designate National conservation priority areas according to...

  15. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation priority areas. 1410.8 Section 1410.8... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.8 Conservation priority areas. (a) CCC may designate National conservation priority areas according to...

  16. 7 CFR 4279.155 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for the following: (A) Business that offers high value, specialized products and services that command... the maximum allowable for a loan of its size (5 points). (5) High impact business investment priorities. The priority score for high impact business investment will be the total score for the...

  17. 7 CFR 4279.155 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for the following: (A) Business that offers high value, specialized products and services that command... the maximum allowable for a loan of its size (5 points). (5) High impact business investment priorities. The priority score for high impact business investment will be the total score for the...

  18. 7 CFR 4279.155 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for the following: (A) Business that offers high value, specialized products and services that command... the maximum allowable for a loan of its size (5 points). (5) High impact business investment priorities. The priority score for high impact business investment will be the total score for the...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.155 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for the following: (A) Business that offers high value, specialized products and services that command... the maximum allowable for a loan of its size (5 points). (5) High impact business investment priorities. The priority score for high impact business investment will be the total score for the...

  20. Global health priorities - priorities of the wealthy?

    PubMed

    Ollila, Eeva

    2005-04-22

    Health has gained importance on the global agenda. It has become recognized in forums where it was once not addressed. In this article three issues are considered: global health policy actors, global health priorities and the means of addressing the identified health priorities. I argue that the arenas for global health policy-making have shifted from the public spheres towards arenas that include the transnational for-profit sector. Global health policy has become increasingly fragmented and verticalized. Infectious diseases have gained ground as global health priorities, while non-communicable diseases and the broader issues of health systems development have been neglected. Approaches to tackling the health problems are increasingly influenced by trade and industrial interests with the emphasis on technological solutions. PMID:15847685

  1. Analysis of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance liquid chromatography-oxidized diamond film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrette, Pierre; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Male, Keith B; Luong, John H T

    2006-01-27

    The capabilities of using boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films as electrode materials for analysis of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after a liquid chromatographic separation were evaluated. The BDD electrode was able to detect all 16 PAHs with high sensitivity due to the low background current and wide potential window. The method provided detection limits ranging from 12-40 nM (3-10 ppb) and repeatable results over consecutive analysis. Calibration curves were linear up to at least 10 microM for all PAHs. The work shows the promising use of diamond as an amperometric detector in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially for PAHs and other hydrophobic aromatic compounds.

  2. A primer on potential impacts, management priorities, and future directions for Elodea spp. in high latitude systems: learning from the Alaskan experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, Michael P.; Sethi, Suresh A; Larsen, Sabrina J; Rich, Cecil F

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species introductions in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are growing as climate change manifests and human activity increases in high latitudes. The aquatic plants of the genus Elodea are potential invaders to Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems circumpolar and at least one species is already established in Alaska, USA. To illustrate the problems of preventing, eradicating, containing, and mitigating aquatic, invasive plants in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems, we review the invasion dynamics of Elodea and provide recommendations for research and management efforts in Alaska. Foremost, we conclude the remoteness of Arctic and Subarctic systems such as Alaska is no longer a protective attribute against invasions, as transportation pathways now reach throughout these regions. Rather, high costs of operating in remote Arctic and Subarctic systems hinders detection of infestations and limits eradication or mitigation, emphasizing management priorities of prevention and containment of aquatic plant invaders in Alaska and other Arctic and Subarctic systems.

  3. Priorities for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Peter A. W.; D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Gargett, Caroline E.; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Rombauts, Luk; Salamonsen, Lois A.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2009-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder where endometrial tissue forms lesions outside the uterus. Endometriosis affects an estimated 10% of women in the reproductive-age group, rising to 30% to 50% in patients with infertility and/or pain, with significant impact on their physical, mental, and social well-being. There is no known cure, and most current medical treatments are not suitable long term due to their side-effect profiles. Endometriosis has an estimated annual cost in the United States of $18.8 to $22 billion (2002 figures). Although endometriosis was first described more than 100 years ago, current knowledge of its pathogenesis, spontaneous evolution, and the pathophysiology of the related infertility and pelvic pain, remain unclear. A consensus workshop was convened following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis to establish recommendations for priorities in endometriosis research. One major issue identified as impacting on the capacity to undertake endometriosis research is the need for multidisciplinary expertise. A total of 25 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 5 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) treatment and outcome, (4) epidemiology, and (5) pathophysiology. Endometriosis research is underfunded relative to other diseases with high health care burdens. This may be due to the practical difficulties of developing competitive research proposals on a complex and poorly understood disease, which affects only women. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:19196878

  4. The Big Rocks: Priority Management for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    How can a dedicated principal work really, really hard but fail to get significant gains in student achievement? The answer is obvious: by spending too much time on the wrong things and not enough on the right things. The principal's number-one priority is zeroing in on the highest-priority activities for bringing all students to high levels of…

  5. Highly sensitive determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface water by GC coupled to high-resolution MS according to the EU Water Directive 2008/105/EC.

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Tarifa, Noelia Ma Valera; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has received increased interest because of their toxicity and ubiquity. According to European Union Directive 2008/105/EC, the development of highly sensitive and selective methods capable of determining PBDEs at low concentration levels (<0.5 ng/L) is necessary. In this work, an SPE method was developed for the analysis of the six PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154) specified by the aforementioned directive in surface waters. The analyses were performed by GC coupled to magnetic sector high-resolution MS. The conditions were also optimized to detect the target compounds in water samples at concentrations below the environmental quality standards established by European legislation. The validated method provided adequate linearity (determination coefficient, R(2) ≥ 0.9960), recovery (101-120%, except for BDE-47 at 5 ng/L, 127%), and precision values (RSD < 20%) at two fortification levels (0.2 and 5 ng/L). The method showed LODs and LOQs ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.05 to 0.1 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied in surface water samples, allowing the determination of these compounds at the limits established by current legislation. PMID:24302622

  6. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage.

    PubMed

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Arenas, Francisco; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    "Lane Late" sweet orange grafted on six different citrus rootstocks and grown in the Guadalquivir valley (Seville, Spain) were picked at different ripening stages in two consecutive seasons to characterize their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and quantify their main antioxidant compounds (vitamin E and vitamin C). Linear discriminant analysis and 2-way ANOVA were applied to compare the effects induced by citrus rootstock and ripening stage. The results showed that differences in antioxidant activity and related compounds are mainly dependent on the citrus rootstock, despite ripening stage had also some particular effects. Changes observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the citrus rootstock. Nevertheless, Cleopatra rootstock showed the highest antioxidant activity in both years, indicating that an increase in its cultivation might be a good solution to sweet orange farmers. Concerning the ripening stage, samples collected in January presented higher vitamin contents, while those collected in April showed higher antioxidant activity. This result allows deciding the harvesting period according to the desired effect.

  7. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  8. High-throughput vector-borne disease environmental surveillance by polymerase chain reaction according to international accreditation requirements.

    PubMed

    Soehnlen, Marty K; Crimmins, Stephen L; Clugston, Andrew S; Gruhn, Nina; Gomez, Carlos J; Cross, Michael E; Statham, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are specific to the region of the host, there is a necessity for surveillance or reference laboratories to perform standardized, high-throughput testing capable of meeting the needs of a changing military environment and response efforts. The development of standardized, high-throughput, semiquantitative real-time and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods allows for the timely dissemination of data to interested parties while providing a platform in which long-term sample storage is possible for the testing of new pathogens of interest using a historical perspective. PCR testing allows for the analysis of multiple pathogens from the same sample, thus reducing the workload of entomologists in the field and increasing the ability to determine if a pathogen has spread beyond traditionally defined locations. US Army Public Health Command Region-Europe (USAPHCR-Europe) Laboratory Sciences (LS) has standardized tests for 9 pathogens at multiple life stages. All tests are currently under international accreditation standards. Using these PCR methods and laboratory model, which have universal Department of Defense application, the USAPHCR-Europe LS will generate quality data that is scientifically sound and legally defensible to support force health protection for the US military in both deployed and garrison environments.

  9. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  10. Solid waste treatment as a high-priority and low-cost alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, O; Avnimelech, Y; Shechter, M

    2001-05-01

    The increased concern about environmental problems caused by inadequate waste management, as well as the concern about global warming, promotes actions toward a sustainable management of the organic fraction of the waste. Landfills, the most common means to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW), lead to the conversion of the organic waste to biogas, containing about 50% methane, a very active greenhouse gas (GHG). One unit of methane has a global warming potential of 21 computed for a 100-year horizon or 56 computed for 20 years. The waste sector in Israel contributes 13% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions for a time horizon of 100 years (for a time horizon of 20 years, the waste sector contribution equals to more than 25% of total GHG emissions). The ultimate goal is to minimize the amount of methane (CH4) by converting it to CO2. This can be achieved by physicochemical means (e.g., landfill gas flare, incineration) or by biological processes (e.g., composting, anaerobic digestion). Since the waste in Israel has a high organic material content, it was found that the most cost-effective means to treat the degradable organic components is by aerobic composting (investment of less than US$ 10 to reduce emission of one ton CO2 equivalent per year). Another benefit of this technology is the ability to implement it within a short period. The suggested approach, which should be implemented especially in developing countries, could reduce a significant amount of GHG at relatively low cost and short time. The development of a national policy for proper waste treatment can be a significant means to abate GHG emissions in the short term, enabling a gain in time to develop other means for the long run. In addition, the use of CO2 quotas will credit the waste sector and will promote profitable proper waste management.

  11. 7 CFR 1777.13 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ineligible will be advised of their appeal rights in accordance with 7 CFR part 11. (b) State Office review... not available and advised of their appeal rights as set forth in 7 CFR part 11. (c) National Office... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project priority. 1777.13 Section 1777.13...

  12. 7 CFR 1778.7 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shortage. Grants made in accordance with § 1778.11(b) of this part to assist an established water system remedy an acute shortage of quality water or correct a significant decline in the quantity or quality of... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.7 Project priority. Paragraph...

  13. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA.

  14. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA. PMID:27367899

  15. Solid Earth: The priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, P.

    1991-10-01

    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  16. 46 CFR 340.8 - Priorities for materials and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator, in accordance with the Defense Priorities and Allocation System (15 CFR part 330 et seq. (49 FR... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priorities for materials and production. 340.8 Section... production. (a) Vessel operators, port authorities and container and chassis suppliers may request...

  17. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-05-11

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes.

  18. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-01-01

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes. PMID:27170046

  19. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  20. Priorities for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, David F.

    Twelve priority areas for health education in the 1980s are identified, based on the magnitude and seriousness of the problems addressed; the solidity of the research base; and the likelihood that health education may facilitate improvement in the area. The twelve areas are: (1) cigarette smoking; (2) aging and the aged; (3) mental health; (4)…

  1. [Priority conservation regions of threatened plants in Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Wu, Yu-Yang; Li, Yan; Cong, Xin-Xin

    2013-02-01

    Based on the identification of the threatened plants in Northeast China and the priority conservation value of plants, the priority conservation regions of the threatened plants in Northeast China were determined. In the 219 counties (or cities) of Northeast China, 119 counties (or cities) had the distribution of threatened plants. The Antu County in Jilin Province had the most species (42) of threatened plants. A total of 16 counties (cities) such as the Antu County of Jilin Province and the Huanren Manchu Autonomous County of Liaoning Provice, etc. were identified as the priority conservation regions of the threatened plants in Northeast China. According to the priority conservation value, five priority conservation regions of threatened plants in Northoast China were divided, including Changbai Mountain conservation region, East Liaoning conservation region, South Liaoning conservation region, Zhangguangcai Mountain conservation region, and Xiaoxing' an Mountain conservation region. The main threatened plants in each priority conservation region were also analyzed.

  2. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  3. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a “conservation priorities portfolio” system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  4. Keyworth urges setting priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A strong advocate of scientists setting priorities within their disciplines, George A. Keyworth, II, President Reagan's science advisor and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, recently offered three possible consequences if such priorities are not set.‘I'm especially worried about the continued inability—or unwillingness—of the science community to agree among themselves about priorities—or to abide by their decisions when they can agree,’ he said [emphasis his]. ‘I wouldn't think it necessary that I remind them that these are tough times. I'll add that for anyone depending on federal funding, they're going to remain tough, times for quite a while,’ Keyworth told the American Physical Society at its mid-April meeting in Baltimore, Md.

  5. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority pollutants polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Suan; Syage, Jack A; Hanold, Karl A; Balogh, Michael P

    2009-03-15

    In this work, we demonstrate the utility of ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Analyses were performed on a Waters Acquity-TQD equipped with Syagen's PhotoMate APPI source. All 16 PAHs were analyzed on column in approximately 3.5 min with excellent chromatographic separation for all PAH isomers and with low picogram detection limits on column for all analytes using chlorobenzene as a dopant. Dynamic linear ranges were evaluated and found to cover at least 3-4 orders of magnitude. In comparison with the existing U.S. EPA methods, this approach improves instrument sample throughput by at least 10-fold.

  6. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    PubMed

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  7. 15 CFR 700.11 - Priority ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.11 Priority ratings. (a) Levels...

  8. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  9. Establishing regulatory priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-12-01

    Statutory deadlines for setting regulations under the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) have not been met. Faced with limited resources, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically set regulatory priorities based on perceived need, politics, and legal deadlines. This has resulted in a fragmented regulatory program and confusion on the part of the regulated community and on the part of other stakeholders. Even though the agency has been subject to court-imposed deadlines for most new regulations, resource limitations have caused these deadlines to be missed, resulting in new court-imposed deadlines. In 1994, the agency began considering a new approach for determining how many regulations can be developed and in what order. A draft strategic plan was prepared in December 1994. Based on discussion of this plan, USEPA requested the US District Court for Oregon to extend certain regulatory deadlines so that new priorities could be set for the highest-risk substances. An extension was granted until Aug. 1, 1995, and was subsequently extended to Dec. 15, 1995.

  10. Overuse and Underuse of Antiosteoporotic Treatments According to Highly Influential Osteoporosis Guidelines: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L.; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate prescribing of antiosteoporotic medications has been observed; however, the joint study of both overuse and underuse has barely been attempted. Spain, with its high utilization rates, constitutes a good example to assess differences in over and under use according to diverse highly-influential osteoporosis guidelines (HIOG) worldwide. We used data of a population-based cross-sectional study including 824 post-menopausal women ≥50 years old living in the city of Valencia, Spain and aimed to estimate the percentage of women eligible for treatment, and the proportion of overuse and underuse of antiosteoporotic treatment according to HIOG. The prevalence of antiosteoporotic treatment in postmenopausal women ≥ 50 in Valencia was 20.9% (95%CI:17.6–24.4). The type of antiosteoporotic drugs prescribed varied greatly depending on the medical specialty responsible of the initial prescription. When applying the HIOG, the percentage of women 50 and over who should be treated varied from less than 9% to over 44%. In real terms, from the approximately eight million women of 50 years old and over in Spain, the number eligible for treatment would range from 0.7 to 3.8 million, depending on the guideline used. A huge proportion of inappropriate treatments was found when applying these guidelines to the Spanish population, combining a high overuse (42–78% depending on the guideline used) and underuse (7–41%). In conclusion, we found that the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in women of 50 and over in this population combines an important overuse and, to a lesser extent, underuse, although the level of inappropriateness varied strikingly depending on the CPG used. It seems urgent to reduce treatment overuse without neglecting underuse, as is urgent an attempt to reach wider agreement worldwide regarding osteoporosis management, in order to facilitate appropriate treatment and development of policies to reduce effectively treatment inappropriateness

  11. The Predictive Role of Serum Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio According to Renal Function in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyoon; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective A high serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been reported as an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. However, the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with renal dysfunction is unclear. We examined the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. Of 13,897 patients who were diagnosed with AMI, the study population included the 7,016 patients with available TG/HDL-C ratio data. Patients were stratified into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the TG/HDL-C ratio was categorized into tertiles. We investigated 12-month MACEs, which included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results During the 12-month follow up period, 593 patients experienced MACEs. There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and MACEs (p<0.001) in the entire study cohort. Having a TG/HDL-C ratio value in the highest tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent factor associated with increased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.93; p<0.001). Then we performed subgroup analyses according to renal function. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2) and mild renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90ml/min/1.73m2), a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04–2.60; p = 0.035; and HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.12; p = 0.005, respectively). However, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), TG/HDL-C ratio lost its predictive value on the risk of MACEs (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.82–1.83; p = 0.317). Conclusions In

  12. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  13. Social Priorities as Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers' responses to local risks and expected changes to a community from circumstances like natural hazards, human developments, and demographic changes can greatly affect social and environmental outcomes in a community. Translating physical data based in disciplines like engineering and geosciences into positive outcomes for communities can be challenging and often results in conflict that appears to pit "science" against "the public." Scientists can be reluctant to offer recommendations for action based on their work, often (and often correctly) noting that their role is not to make value judgments for a community - particularly for a community that is not their own. Conversely, decision makers can be frustrated by the lack of guidance they receive to help translate data into effective and acceptable action. The solution posed by this submission, given the goal of co-production of knowledge by scientists and decision makers to foster better community outcomes, is to involve the community directly by integrating social scientific methods that address decision making and community engagement to the scientist-decision maker interaction. Specifically, the missing dataset in many scientist-decision maker interactions is the nature of community priorities. Using scientifically valid methods to rigorously collect and characterize community priorities to help recommend tradeoffs between different outcomes indicated by the work of physical and natural scientists can bridge the gap between science and action by involving the community in the process. This submission presents early work on US preferences for different types of social and environmental outcomes designed to integrate directly with engineering and physical science frameworks like Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact Statements. Cardinal preference data are based on surveys of US adults using tools like the Analytical Hierarchy Process, budget allocation, and ranking.

  14. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness. PMID:12284666

  15. Priority Queues for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in new priority queue data structures for event list management of computer simulations, and includes a new priority queue data structure and an improved event horizon applied to priority queue data structures. ne new priority queue data structure is a Qheap and is made out of linked lists for robust, fast, reliable, and stable event list management and uses a temporary unsorted list to store all items until one of the items is needed. Then the list is sorted, next, the highest priority item is removed, and then the rest of the list is inserted in the Qheap. Also, an event horizon is applied to binary tree and splay tree priority queue data structures to form the improved event horizon for event management.

  16. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  17. Rethinking funding priorities in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Betts, Virginia Trotter; Greenman, Lisa; Essock, Susan M; Escobar, Javier I; Barch, Deanna; Hogan, Michael F; Areán, Patricia A; Druss, Benjamin G; DiClemente, Ralph J; McGlashan, Thomas H; Jeste, Dilip V; Proctor, Enola K; Ruiz, Pedro; Rush, A John; Canino, Glorisa J; Bell, Carl C; Henry, Renata; Iversen, Portia

    2016-06-01

    Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio. PMID:27251688

  18. Rethinking funding priorities in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Betts, Virginia Trotter; Greenman, Lisa; Essock, Susan M; Escobar, Javier I; Barch, Deanna; Hogan, Michael F; Areán, Patricia A; Druss, Benjamin G; DiClemente, Ralph J; McGlashan, Thomas H; Jeste, Dilip V; Proctor, Enola K; Ruiz, Pedro; Rush, A John; Canino, Glorisa J; Bell, Carl C; Henry, Renata; Iversen, Portia

    2016-06-01

    Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio.

  19. School Discipline Inequities Become a Federal Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Federal officials are getting the word out that addressing racial disparities in school discipline is a high priority, and they plan to use "disparate-impact analysis" in enforcing school discipline cases--a legal course of action that some civil rights lawyers contend was neglected under the administration of President George W. Bush. In…

  20. Priorities Statements of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    In response to recommendations in the Illinois Board of Higher Education's Priorities, Quality, and Productivity report of November 1994, the 52 community colleges in the state prepared priority statements detailing specific college objectives for the current fiscal year (FY). This report provides the second update of the colleges' statements,…

  1. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    On November 4-5, 2015, a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative occurred at Portland State University. The purpose of the workshop was to update research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan in light of the westward expansion of mussels in the United States and Canada.

  2. Management Priorities of College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Cathleen; Caruthers, J. Kent

    1980-01-01

    Based on 900 returns from a survey of all U.S. college and university presidents, priorities were found to reflect needs to deal with retrenchment. Priorities included: communicating institutional strengths to students, parents, public, and state legislatures; integrating program review results; resource allocation; faculty vitality and renewal;…

  3. Discrepancies among Teachers' Priorities for and Knowledge of Freshwater Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Meyer, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Teachers were asked to examine a list of water topics, assign a level of priority for their students to know about each topic, then report on their own knowledge level and the amount of teaching they do on the topics. Indicates that topics such as basic water properties and wetlands that had high priorities among teachers were not accompanied by…

  4. 32 CFR 245.21 - ESCAT air traffic priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forces. (5) Anchor annex flights. (b) Priority Two. (1) Forces being deployed or in direct support of U.S... identified as high threat targets. (c) Priority Three. (1) Forces being deployed or performing pre-deployment training/workups (e.g., Navy Field Carrier Landing Practice) in support of the emergency condition....

  5. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-07-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved.

  6. 49 CFR 33.31 - Priority ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority ratings. 33.31 Section 33.31 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Placement of Rated Orders § 33.31 Priority ratings. (a) Levels of priority. (1) There are two levels of priority established by the Transportation...

  7. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Selig, Elizabeth R; Turner, Will R; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G; Carpenter, Kent E; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

  8. Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

  9. Phylogenetically-informed priorities for amphibian conservation.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Nick J B; Redding, David W; Meredith, Helen M; Safi, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian decline and extinction crisis demands urgent action to prevent further large numbers of species extinctions. Lists of priority species for conservation, based on a combination of species' threat status and unique contribution to phylogenetic diversity, are one tool for the direction and catalyzation of conservation action. We describe the construction of a near-complete species-level phylogeny of 5713 amphibian species, which we use to create a list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE list) for the entire class Amphibia. We present sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our priority list to uncertainty in species' phylogenetic position and threat status. We find that both sources of uncertainty have only minor impacts on our 'top 100' list of priority species, indicating the robustness of the approach. By contrast, our analyses suggest that a large number of Data Deficient species are likely to be high priorities for conservation action from the perspective of their contribution to the evolutionary history.

  10. Use of observed wild bird activity on poultry farms and a literature review to target species as high priority for avian influenza testing in 2 regions of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Theresa E.; Ribble, Carl; Stephen, Craig; Kelton, David; Toews, Lorraine; Osterhold, Jason; Wheeler, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    The risk of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry is partially dependent on the probability of contact between domestic poultry and wild birds shedding avian influenza (AI) virus. The major objective of this study was to document wild bird activity on poultry farms to determine which wild bird species should be targeted for AI surveillance in Canada. We collected data in 2 major poultry producing regions of Canada, southwestern Ontario and the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, on the relative abundance of various wild bird species found on poultry farms and on how these species utilized habitat around poultry farms. We reviewed the published literature to determine what was known about AI pathobiology in the species we observed. From these results we created a list of 10 wild bird species that are a priority for further study. These species are the European starling, barn swallow, rock dove, American crow, northwestern crow, American robin, dark-eyed junco, song sparrow, horned lark, and common grackle. Abundance of these and other species varied between provinces and seasons. PMID:22851777

  11. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity analysis of US Environmental Protection Agency sixteen priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Suan; Stevens, Joan; Syage, Jack A

    2012-03-01

    In response to Gulf of Mexico deepwater horizon oil spill, we have developed an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) based ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for high-sensitivity analysis of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 16 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oysters. Analyses were performed on an Agilent's Infinity 1290 UHPLC system coupled with a G6140A single quadrupole MS detector with Syagen's PhotoMate® APPI® source. Column separation was achieved using Zorbax Eclipse PAH column. Chlorobenzene was used as an APPI dopant for maximum overall sensitivity. Dynamic linear ranges were evaluated and found to cover 3.6-5.1 (Ave. 4.4) orders of magnitude with R² of at least 0.995. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and cleanup procedure was used. The spike recoveries ranged from 77% to 110% with %RSD of 0.6-6.7 at spike concentrations below or substantially below the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) level of concern in oysters. The on-column instrument detection limits (IDLs, 6σ S/N=3) ranged from 8 to 106 pg with an average of 23 pg for 16 PAHs. The method detection limits (MDLs, 6σ S/N=3) ranged from 0.013 to 0.129 ppm with an average of 0.040 ppm for all analytes. These MDLs were about 5 times to over 4 orders of magnitude lower than US FDA levels of concern in oysters.

  12. A priority agenda for energy-related indoor environmental quality research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Brook, M.; Burge, H.; Cole, J.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Logee, T.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.

    2002-05-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers is working together to define a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed, ten high priority broad research and development (R&D) goals, and 34 high priority R&D project areas linked to these goals.

  13. Global health prioritiespriorities of the wealthy?

    PubMed Central

    Ollila, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    Health has gained importance on the global agenda. It has become recognized in forums where it was once not addressed. In this article three issues are considered: global health policy actors, global health priorities and the means of addressing the identified health priorities. I argue that the arenas for global health policy-making have shifted from the public spheres towards arenas that include the transnational for-profit sector. Global health policy has become increasingly fragmented and verticalized. Infectious diseases have gained ground as global health priorities, while non-communicable diseases and the broader issues of health systems development have been neglected. Approaches to tackling the health problems are increasingly influenced by trade and industrial interests with the emphasis on technological solutions. PMID:15847685

  14. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) [1] provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  15. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; Guasch, J.; Guchait, M.; Hahn, T.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hugonie, C.; Hurth, T.; Kraml, S.; Kreiss, S.; Lykken, J.; Moortgat, F.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U. /Tata Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Montpellier U. /CERN /SLAC /Edinburgh U. /Fermilab /Zurich, ETH /Southampton U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  16. Priority worksheet brings order to information systems projects.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T; Luecke, R W

    1993-02-01

    "Eeeny, meeny, miny, moe, and the first priority is ..." maybe the CEO's pet project or nursing's necessity. Putting aside "gut feel" for an objective method promises to streamline the process of prioritizing I/S projects, according to Saint Alexis Hospital Medical Center leadership.

  17. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities. PMID:23248661

  18. Evolving Perspectives on Monopolization and Priority Effects.

    PubMed

    De Meester, Luc; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Kilsdonk, Laurens J; Urban, Mark C

    2016-02-01

    Biologists are often confronted with high levels of unexplained variation when studying the processes that determine genetic and species diversity. Here, we argue that eco-evolutionary interactions might often play an important role during colonization and have longstanding effects on populations and communities. Adaptation following colonization can produce a strong positive feedback loop that promotes priority effects and context-dependent trajectories of population or species assembly. We establish how monopolization, and more generally evolution-mediated priority effects, influence ecological patterns at multiple scales of space, time, and biological organization. We then highlight the underappreciated implications for our understanding of population and landscape genetics, adaptive evolution, community diversity, biogeography, and conservation biology. We indicate multiple future directions for research, including extending theory beyond competition. PMID:26778169

  19. 47 CFR 211.5 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priorities. 211.5 Section 211.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.5 Priorities. There are hereby established four levels of restoration priority. Within each...

  20. 47 CFR 211.5 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priorities. 211.5 Section 211.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.5 Priorities. There are hereby established four levels of restoration priority. Within each...

  1. Accounting and Financial Planning--Top Priorities for School Business Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald L.

    Success for the business administrator depends largely on ability to identify priorities and to direct time, energy, and know-how accordingly. This study attempted to find out the priorities of the tasks of accounting and financial planning for school business administrators and the precise nature of the school business administrator's…

  2. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  3. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  4. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  5. Systemwide Communications Plan and Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Ann

    The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges has repeatedly identified the strengthening of communications as a key component to developing the California Community Colleges (CCC) as a system. The genesis of communications planning, activities and priorities took place in 1989 with the Burson-Marsteller Communications Action Plan,…

  6. Priorities Statements of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Each year since 1994, the 52 community colleges in Illinois prepare priority statements detailing specific college objectives for the current fiscal year (FY). This report provides the third update of the colleges' statements, covering FY 1998. Brief statements, from one to four pages, are provided for the following colleges: Belleville Area…

  7. Enrollees Choose Priorities for Medicare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Marion; Biddle, Andrea K.; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and results of ascertaining Medicare enrollees' priorities for insured medical benefits. Design and Methods: Structured group exercises were conducted with Medicare enrollees from clinical and community settings in central North Carolina. By participating in a decision exercise,…

  8. Science Indicators and Science Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

  9. Reexamining competitive priorities: Empirical study in service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.

  10. Teaching High School Physical Education According to National Standards: The 6 Verbs of Success--Demonstrate, Understand, Participate, Achieve, Exhibit and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The six national content standards from NASPE define what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a high quality physical education program. The "NASPE SIX" serve as a North Star to guide teachers as they prepare and implement programs. Simply stated, the NASPE Standards for Physical Education are all about six simple verbs: (1)…

  11. Physics Teachers' Behavioral, Control and Normative Beliefs about Teaching Physics According to the National High School Physics Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapucu, Serkan; Yildirim, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey, a new Turkish High School Physics Curriculum (THSPC) was put into practice, starting initially with the Grade 9 in the 2008-2009 education-year. When compared with the previous ones, this curriculum emphasized the importance of students' active involvement in learning, use of real-life contexts and development of new skills. Even…

  12. Clinical validation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay according to the guidelines for human papillomavirus DNA test requirements for cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Hesselink, A T; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M; Berkhof, J; van Kemenade, F J; van der Salm, M L; Bogaarts, M; Snijders, P J F; Heideman, D A M

    2013-07-01

    This study showed that the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay fulfilled cross-sectional clinical equivalence and reproducibility criteria of international consensus guidelines, which indicates that this assay can be considered clinically validated for cervical cancer screening purposes.

  13. Community Priority Index: Utility, Applicability and Validation for Priority Setting in Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Wang, Wei; Turner, DeAnne; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Zoorob, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR), the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI) that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00), lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00). For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00), and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00). For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94), and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94). Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR. Significance for public health Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been credited to be a promising approach for the reduction of health disparities and as an effective way to create sustainable community outcomes. Priority

  14. State mental health directors' priorities for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Ahr, P R; Holcomb, W R

    1985-01-01

    The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors surveyed all state mental health directors, through a series of mail questionnaires, to determine their national priorities for mental health care in the 1980s. In a ranking of 62 issues, the directors considered the top two priorities to be providing services and support programs in the community for the chronically mentally ill. Other highly ranked priorities included developing community residential programs, assuring continuation and funding of programs in a period of financial retrenchment, and developing a continuum of services for children and adolescents. A cluster analysis showed that within the overall group four different patterns of priorities emerged: issues related to certification and accreditation, to expansion of community programs both with and without a decrease in institution-based care, and to financial accountability.

  15. Priority effects in a planktonic bloom-forming marine diatom

    PubMed Central

    Sefbom, Josefin; Sassenhagen, Ingrid; Rengefors, Karin; Godhe, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Priority effects occur when a species or genotype with earlier arrival has an advantage such that its relative abundance in the community or population is increased compared with later-arriving species. Few studies have dealt with this concept in the context of within-species competition. Skeletonema marinoi is a marine diatom that shows a high degree of genetic differentiation between populations over small geographical distances. To test whether historical events such as priority effects may have been important in inducing these patterns of population differentiation, we performed microcosm experiments with successive inoculation of different S. marinoi strains. Our results show that even in the absence of a numerical advantage, significant priority effects were evident. We propose that priority effects may be an important mechanism in initiating population genetic differentiation. PMID:25948569

  16. Effects of solar proton events in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region according to the data of meteo radar wind measurements at high and middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, A. N.; Makarov, N. A.; Merzlyakov, E. G.

    2016-03-01

    Data from meteo radar measurements of the wind in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region at high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (Molodezhnaya station, 68° S, 45° E) and at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (Obninsk station, 55° N, 37° E) during solar proton events that took place in 1989, 1991, 2000, 2005, and 2012 are analyzed in the paper. In 1989 and 1991, we succeeded in observing the response to solar proton evens at both stations simultaneously. The results show that solar proton events lead to a change in the wind regime of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. At high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, significant changes are observed in the values of the velocities of the meridional and zonal components of the prevailing wind. In the case of powerful solar proton events, the amplitude of the semidiurnal tide grows in the vicinity of the proton flux maximum. The response to these events depends on the season. The reaction of the prevailing wind at middle latitudes shows the same features as the reaction of the wind at high latitudes. However no unambiguous response of the tide amplitude is observed. In the summer season, even powerful events (for example, in July 2000) cause no changes in the wind regime parameters in the midlatitude region of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere.

  17. [Features of food priorities in urban population of Kazakhstan in regard of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat].

    PubMed

    Akhmetova, S V; Terekhin, S P

    2015-01-01

    The diseases, associated with metabolism disorders, are now considered as the most common in the world, their prevalence has reached epidemic indicator values in both developed and developing countries. One of the most important methods of treatment and correction of dyslipidemic disorders and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is the changing of eating behavior, including the literacy of consumers when choosing foods. The most significant indicators of the value of products for patients with metabolic disorders are the glycemic index and fat content. The frequency of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat in urban population of Kazakhstan has been investigated. A random, stratified by sex and age sampling from the number of residents (n=8219) of large cities of Kazakhstan at the age of 18-73 years has been covered. The study was performed using a specially designed questionnaire, including detailed questions on assessment of eating behavior, eating habits and diet. It has been revealed that foods with a high glycemic index and significant fat content are the predominant in frequency of consumption by the urban population of Kazakhstan. About 90% of the citizens consumed bread and bakery products daily or several times a week. Pies, cakes and cookies are consumed daily or several times per week by 35% of the surveyed, pasta products--57%, cereals--68% of the urban population. Average daily diet of fruit and vegetable set of urban residents of Kazakhstan represented 80% of the potatoes, carrots and beets. Tea and coffee admission is traditionally combined with the intake of sugar and sweets. More than 70% of surveyed population consume butter daily or several times a week. The excessive intake of foods with a large amount of fat and high glycemic index against the background of the deficiency of complete protein remains an urgent problem for several years. The obtained results dictate the need of development and implementation

  18. [Features of food priorities in urban population of Kazakhstan in regard of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat].

    PubMed

    Akhmetova, S V; Terekhin, S P

    2015-01-01

    The diseases, associated with metabolism disorders, are now considered as the most common in the world, their prevalence has reached epidemic indicator values in both developed and developing countries. One of the most important methods of treatment and correction of dyslipidemic disorders and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is the changing of eating behavior, including the literacy of consumers when choosing foods. The most significant indicators of the value of products for patients with metabolic disorders are the glycemic index and fat content. The frequency of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat in urban population of Kazakhstan has been investigated. A random, stratified by sex and age sampling from the number of residents (n=8219) of large cities of Kazakhstan at the age of 18-73 years has been covered. The study was performed using a specially designed questionnaire, including detailed questions on assessment of eating behavior, eating habits and diet. It has been revealed that foods with a high glycemic index and significant fat content are the predominant in frequency of consumption by the urban population of Kazakhstan. About 90% of the citizens consumed bread and bakery products daily or several times a week. Pies, cakes and cookies are consumed daily or several times per week by 35% of the surveyed, pasta products--57%, cereals--68% of the urban population. Average daily diet of fruit and vegetable set of urban residents of Kazakhstan represented 80% of the potatoes, carrots and beets. Tea and coffee admission is traditionally combined with the intake of sugar and sweets. More than 70% of surveyed population consume butter daily or several times a week. The excessive intake of foods with a large amount of fat and high glycemic index against the background of the deficiency of complete protein remains an urgent problem for several years. The obtained results dictate the need of development and implementation

  19. Signs of interaction of the NGC 1275 nucleus with the high-velocity system according to 0.7 sec seeing observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudinov, V. N.; Tsvetkova, V. S.; Novikov, S. B.; Pronik, I. I.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 was observed in the B system on 1 December 1989 with seeing 0, 7 seconds using the Zeiss-1000 telescope on Mount Majdanak in Central Asia. Special methods of processing reveal low-contrast details. The nucleus and circumnucleus are stretched in NW-SE direction. There are two narrow filaments near the nucleus in position angles roughly 340 degrees and 320 degrees. The first is directed near the radio jet of the nucleus, the second has broken details curved to the NW or toward the high-velocity system of NGC 1275.

  20. Validation of an analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals in soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was the validation of a new analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil after microwave assisted digestion in aqua regia. Determinations were performed on the ContrAA 300 (Analytik Jena) air-acetylene flame spectrometer equipped with xenon short-arc lamp as a continuum radiation source for all elements, double monochromator consisting of a prism pre-monocromator and an echelle grating monochromator, and charge coupled device as detector. For validation a method-performance study was conducted involving the establishment of the analytical performance of the new method (limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy). Moreover, the Bland and Altman statistical method was used in analyzing the agreement between the proposed assay and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry as standardized method for the multielemental determination in soil. Results The limits of detection in soil sample (3σ criterion) in the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry method were (mg/kg): 0.18 (Ag), 0.14 (Cd), 0.36 (Co), 0.25 (Cr), 0.09 (Cu), 1.0 (Ni), 1.4 (Pb) and 0.18 (Zn), close to those in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry: 0.12 (Ag), 0.05 (Cd), 0.15 (Co), 1.4 (Cr), 0.15 (Cu), 2.5 (Ni), 2.5 (Pb) and 0.04 (Zn). Accuracy was checked by analyzing 4 certified reference materials and a good agreement for 95% confidence interval was found in both methods, with recoveries in the range of 94–106% in atomic absorption and 97–103% in optical emission. Repeatability found by analyzing real soil samples was in the range 1.6–5.2% in atomic absorption, similar with that of 1.9–6.1% in optical emission spectrometry. The Bland and Altman method showed no statistical significant difference

  1. Public High School Assistant Principals' Reports of Self-Efficacy in Performing Their Professional Job Responsibilities in Accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe public high school assistant principals' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) in performing their professional job responsibilities in accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's (ELCC) Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership (National Policy Board…

  2. 76 FR 54244 - Telecommunications Service Priority System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Communications System (NCS... Communications, National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...

  3. Priority Pollutants: I. A Perspective View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Larry H.; Telliard, William A.

    1979-01-01

    This article relates the historical origins of the EPA's Priority Pollutants list and the development of the Priority Pollutant Protocol. Then, it summarizes the status of the current analytical procedures in their present and still-developing forms. (BB)

  4. Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2012-04-01

    the graben in areas with temperatures as high as 140 C (284 F). In conclusion, all of the field data collected during 2011 and documented in the Appendices of this report indicate that there is reasonable potential for a viable geothermal resource along faults that bound the Wendover graben. Prospects for a system capable of binary electrical generation are especially good, and the possibility of a flash steam system is also within reason. The next steps should focus on securing the necessary funding for detailed geophysical surveys and for drilling a set of temperature gradient wells to further evaluate the resource, and to focus deep exploration efforts in the most promising areas.

  5. Metabolic profiling of plant extracts using direct-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allows for high-throughput phenotypic characterization according to genetic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Martín; Juárez-Colunga, Sheila; García-Casarrubias, Adrián; Trachsel, Samuel; Winkler, Robert; Tiessen, Axel

    2015-01-28

    In comparison to the exponential increase of genotyping methods, phenotyping strategies are lagging behind in agricultural sciences. Genetic improvement depends upon the abundance of quantitative phenotypic data and the statistical partitioning of variance into environmental, genetic, and random effects. A metabolic phenotyping strategy was adapted to increase sample throughput while saving reagents, reducing cost, and simplifying data analysis. The chemical profiles of stem extracts from maize plants grown under low nitrogen (LN) or control trial (CT) were analyzed using optimized protocols for direct-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DIESI-MS). Specific ions significantly decreased or increased because of environmental (LN versus CT) or genotypic effects. Biochemical profiling with DIESI-MS had a superior cost-benefit compared to other standard analytical technologies (e.g., ultraviolet, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection) routinely used for plant breeding. The method can be successfully applied in maize, strawberry, coffee, and other crop species. PMID:25588121

  6. Prostitutes and AIDS: a health department priority?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M J; Weiner, J M

    1988-01-01

    With increasing competition for resources, health departments are faced with the question of whether to target female prostitutes as a high priority component of AIDS prevention strategy. Prostitutes are considered to be a reservoir for transmission of certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, a variety of studies suggest that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in prostitutes follows a different pattern than that for STDs: HIV infection in non-drug using prostitutes tends to be low or absent, implying that sexual activity alone does not place them at high risk, while prostitutes who use intravenous drugs are far more likely to be infected with HIV. Emerging data from heterosexual groups similarly suggest a low rate of heterosexual transmission, particularly from women to men. Prostitutes who do not use intravenous drugs probably face their highest risk from steady partners who may be infected with HIV and other STDs and with whom barrier protection is generally not used. Nevertheless, there are good reasons for health departments to place high priority on prevention efforts directed to prostitutes: 1) prostitutes often have other risky behaviors such as drug use; and 2) prostitutes are reachable, being a group which is already in the health care system administered by health departments. PMID:3279838

  7. 7 CFR 1778.7 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Project priority. 1778.7 Section 1778.7 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.7 Project priority. Paragraph (d... to determine the proposed project's priority for available funds. (b) State Office review....

  8. 7 CFR 1778.7 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project priority. 1778.7 Section 1778.7 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.7 Project priority. Paragraph (d... to determine the proposed project's priority for available funds. (b) State Office review....

  9. 48 CFR 873.103 - Priority sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority sources. 873.103... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.103 Priority sources.... 46-48c) and FAR Subpart 8.7, there are no priority sources for the acquisition of...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.7 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project priority. 1778.7 Section 1778.7 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.7 Project priority. Paragraph (d... to determine the proposed project's priority for available funds. (b) State Office review....

  11. 25 CFR 286.8 - Priority criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Priority criteria. 286.8 Section 286.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.8 Priority criteria. The following priority will be used in selecting economic enterprises for...

  12. 25 CFR 286.8 - Priority criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Priority criteria. 286.8 Section 286.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.8 Priority criteria. The following priority will be used in selecting economic enterprises for...

  13. 7 CFR 632.12 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding priorities. 632.12 Section 632.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Qualifications § 632.12 Funding priorities. (a) All eligible applications within a State are to be assigned a funding priority and...

  14. 7 CFR 632.12 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding priorities. 632.12 Section 632.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Qualifications § 632.12 Funding priorities. (a) All eligible applications within a State are to be assigned a funding priority and...

  15. 7 CFR 632.12 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual, joint, or special projects (See § 632.18) for areas of different priorities or subpriorities are... resources, and agricultural productivity. First consideration in this priority is to be the reduction of... within each priority category (§ 632.12(a)) are to be funded in the following order: (1)...

  16. Cost analysis of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens for managing human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients according to clinical practice in a hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Castagna, Antonella; Di Matteo, Sergio; Galli, Laura; Bruno, Giacomo; Poli, Andrea; Salpietro, Stefania; Carbone, Alessia; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the study reported here, single-tablet regimen (STR) versus (vs) multi-tablet regimen (MTR) strategies were evaluated through a cost analysis in a large cohort of patients starting their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1-naïve patients, followed at the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, starting their first-line regimen from June 2008 to April 2012 were included in the analysis. Methods The most frequently used first-line HAART regimens (>10%) were grouped into two classes: 1) STR of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) and 2) MTR including TDF + FTC + EFV, TDF + FTC + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), TDF + FTC + darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), and TDF + FTC + lopinavir/ritoavir (LPV/r). Data were analyzed from the point of view of the Lombardy Regional Health Service. HAART, hospitalizations, visits, medical examinations, and other concomitant non-HAART drug costs were evaluated and price variations included. Descriptive statistics were calculated for baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; associations between categorical variables and type of antiretroviral strategy (STR vs MTR) were examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. At multivariate analysis, the generalized linear model was used to identify the predictive factors of the overall costs of the first-line HAART regimens. Results A total of 474 naïve patients (90% male, mean age 42.2 years, mean baseline HIV-RNA 4.50 log 10 copies/mL, and cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4+] count of 310 cells/μL, with a mean follow-up of 28 months) were included. Patients starting an STR treatment were less frequently antibody-hepatitis C virus positive (4% vs 11%, P=0.040), and had higher mean CD4+ values (351 vs 297 cells/μL, P=0.004) than MTR patients. The mean annual cost per patient in the STR group was €9,213.00 (range: €6,574.71–€33,570.00) and €14,277.00 (range

  17. Final priority; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program--rehabilitation specialty areas. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-07-23

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years in order to fund any of the rehabilitation specialty areas listed in this notice. The specific rehabilitation specialty areas to be funded in a given year will be listed in a notice inviting applications. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality rehabilitation programs in the following nine rehabilitation specialty areas of national need: Rehabilitation Administration (84.129C); Rehabilitation Technology (84.129E); Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment (84.129F); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill (84.129H); Rehabilitation Psychology (84.129J); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Blind or Have Vision Impairments (84.129P); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (84.129Q); Job Development and Job Placement Services (84.129R); and Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (84.129W). These programs must meet rigorous standards in order to provide rehabilitation professionals the training and qualifications necessary to meet the current challenges facing State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies and related agencies and assist individuals with disabilities in achieving high-quality employment outcomes.

  18. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  19. Analysis of conservation priorities of Iberoamerican cattle based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the value of livestock breeds is essential to define conservation priorities, manage genetic diversity and allocate funds. Within- and between-breed genetic diversity need to be assessed to preserve the highest intra-specific variability. Information on genetic diversity and risk status is still lacking for many Creole cattle breeds from the Americas, despite their distinct evolutionary trajectories and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Methods A comprehensive genetic analysis of 67 Iberoamerican cattle breeds was carried out with 19 FAO-recommended microsatellites to assess conservation priorities. Contributions to global diversity were investigated using alternative methods, with different weights given to the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. Information on Iberoamerican plus 15 worldwide cattle breeds was used to investigate the contribution of geographical breed groups to global genetic diversity. Results Overall, Creole cattle breeds showed a high level of genetic diversity with the highest level found in breeds admixed with zebu cattle, which were clearly differentiated from all other breeds. Within-breed kinships revealed seven highly inbred Creole breeds for which measures are needed to avoid further genetic erosion. However, if contribution to heterozygosity was the only criterion considered, some of these breeds had the lowest priority for conservation decisions. The Weitzman approach prioritized highly differentiated breeds, such as Guabalá, Romosinuano, Cr. Patagonico, Siboney and Caracú, while kinship-based methods prioritized mainly zebu-related breeds. With the combined approaches, breed ranking depended on the weights given to the within- and between-breed components of diversity. Overall, the Creole groups of breeds were generally assigned a higher priority for conservation than the European groups of breeds. Conclusions Conservation priorities differed significantly according to the

  20. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  1. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  2. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  3. Research priorities in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Geocadin, R G; Bleck, T P; Koroshetz, W J; Robertson, C S; Zaidat, O O; LeRoux, P D; Wijman, C A C; Suarez, J I

    2012-02-01

    This summary of the last session of the First Neurocritical Care Research Conference reviews the discussions about research priorities in neurocritical care. The first presentation reviewed current projects funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health and potential models to follow including an independent Neurocritical Care Network or the creation of such a network with the goal of collaborating with already existing ones. Experienced neurointensivists then presented their views on the most common and important research questions that need to be answered and investigated in the field. Finally, utility of clinical registries was discussed emphasizing their importance as hypothesis generators. During the group discussion, interests in comparative effectiveness research, the use of physiological endpoints from monitoring and alternate trial design were expressed.

  4. Research priorities in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Geocadin, R G; Bleck, T P; Koroshetz, W J; Robertson, C S; Zaidat, O O; LeRoux, P D; Wijman, C A C; Suarez, J I

    2012-02-01

    This summary of the last session of the First Neurocritical Care Research Conference reviews the discussions about research priorities in neurocritical care. The first presentation reviewed current projects funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health and potential models to follow including an independent Neurocritical Care Network or the creation of such a network with the goal of collaborating with already existing ones. Experienced neurointensivists then presented their views on the most common and important research questions that need to be answered and investigated in the field. Finally, utility of clinical registries was discussed emphasizing their importance as hypothesis generators. During the group discussion, interests in comparative effectiveness research, the use of physiological endpoints from monitoring and alternate trial design were expressed. PMID:21792752

  5. Clinical Research Priorities in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotts, Timothy; Khairy, Paul; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; John, Anitha S.; Valente, Anne Marie; Zaidi, Ali N.; Cook, Stephen C.; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Ting, Jennifer Grando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J.; Verstappen, Amy; Kay, Joseph; Earing, Michael; Franklin, Wayne; Kogon, Brian; Broberg, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) clinicians are hampered by the paucity of data to inform clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to identify priorities for clinical research in ACHD. Methods A list of 45 research questions was developed by the Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology (AARCC), compiled into a survey, and administered to ACHD providers. Patient input was sought via the Adult Congenital Heart Association at community meetings and online forums. The 25 top questions were sent to ACHD providers worldwide via an online survey. Each question was ranked based on perceived priority and weighted based on time spent in ACHD care. The top 10 topics identified are presented and discussed. Results The final online survey yielded 139 responses. Top priority questions related to tetralogy of Fallot (timing of pulmonary valve replacement and criteria for primary prevention ICDs), patients with systemic right ventricles (determining the optimal echocardiographic techniques for measuring right ventricular function, and indications for tricuspid valve replacement and primary prevention ICDs), and single ventricle/Fontan patients (role of pulmonary vasodilators, optimal anticoagulation, medical therapy for preservation of ventricular function, treatment for protein losing enteropathy). In addition, establishing criteria to refer ACHD patients for cardiac transplantation was deemed a priority. Conclusions The ACHD field is in need of prospective research to address fundamental clinical questions. It is hoped that this methodical consultation process will inform researchers and funding organizations about clinical research topics deemed to be of high priority. PMID:24411207

  6. Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Horton, Richard; Adams, Cary; Alleyne, George; Asaria, Perviz; Baugh, Vanessa; Bekedam, Henk; Billo, Nils; Casswell, Sally; Cecchini, Michele; Colagiuri, Ruth; Colagiuri, Stephen; Collins, Tea; Ebrahim, Shah; Engelgau, Michael; Galea, Gauden; Gaziano, Thomas; Geneau, Robert; Haines, Andy; Hospedales, James; Jha, Prabhat; Keeling, Ann; Leeder, Stephen; Lincoln, Paul; McKee, Martin; Mackay, Judith; Magnusson, Roger; Moodie, Rob; Mwatsama, Modi; Nishtar, Sania; Norrving, Bo; Patterson, David; Piot, Peter; Ralston, Johanna; Rani, Manju; Reddy, K Srinath; Sassi, Franco; Sheron, Nick; Stuckler, David; Suh, Il; Torode, Julie; Varghese, Cherian; Watt, Judith

    2011-04-23

    The UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in September, 2011, is an unprecedented opportunity to create a sustained global movement against premature death and preventable morbidity and disability from NCDs, mainly heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease. The increasing global crisis in NCDs is a barrier to development goals including poverty reduction, health equity, economic stability, and human security. The Lancet NCD Action Group and the NCD Alliance propose five overarching priority actions for the response to the crisis--leadership, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, and monitoring and accountability--and the delivery of five priority interventions--tobacco control, salt reduction, improved diets and physical activity, reduction in hazardous alcohol intake, and essential drugs and technologies. The priority interventions were chosen for their health effects, cost-effectiveness, low costs of implementation, and political and financial feasibility. The most urgent and immediate priority is tobacco control. We propose as a goal for 2040, a world essentially free from tobacco where less than 5% of people use tobacco. Implementation of the priority interventions, at an estimated global commitment of about US$9 billion per year, will bring enormous benefits to social and economic development and to the health sector. If widely adopted, these interventions will achieve the global goal of reducing NCD death rates by 2% per year, averting tens of millions of premature deaths in this decade. PMID:21474174

  7. Life Priorities in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Between Ages of 45 to 65.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hasan Huseyin; Ahmadov, Asif; Cebeci, Suleyman; Binar, Murat; Karahatay, Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Diseases in head and neck cancer patients and applied therapies according to former affect life quality to a higher extent. In this paper, life priorities in 49 patients with head and neck cancer who referred to Gulhane Military Medical Academy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and the relationship between these priorities and sociodemographic properties have been studied. Following life priorities have been observed more important for the patients: to communicate with people in social places, to eat without any help by themselves, external appearance, taste and odor sense, continuing sexual life. Other priorities have been observed less important for the patients: attending social activities like cinema and theater, swimming pool and sea sports, money required for check-ups, necessities like time. Besides, these necessities do not show dissimilarities to any significant extent according to sociodemographic properties of the patients. PMID:27244211

  8. 7 CFR 3431.14 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.14 Priority. Pursuant to NVMSA, the Secretary will...

  9. Communicable Diseases Prioritized According to Their Public Health Relevance, Sweden, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Viktor; Tegnell, Anders; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To establish strategic priorities for the Public Health Agency of Sweden we prioritized pathogens according to their public health relevance in Sweden in order to guide resource allocation. We then compared the outcome to ongoing surveillance. We used a modified prioritization method developed at the Robert Koch Institute in Germany. In a Delphi process experts scored pathogens according to ten variables. We ranked the pathogens according to the total score and divided them into four priority groups. We then compared the priority groups to self-reported time spent on surveillance by epidemiologists and ongoing programmes for surveillance through mandatory and/or voluntary notifications and for surveillance of typing results. 106 pathogens were scored. The result of the prioritization process was similar to the outcome of the prioritization in Germany. Common pathogens such as calicivirus and Influenza virus as well as blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus, gastro-intestinal infections such as Campylobacter and Salmonella and vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia were all in the highest priority group. 63% of time spent by epidemiologists on surveillance was spent on pathogens in the highest priority group and all pathogens in the highest priority group, except for Borrelia and varicella-zoster virus, were under surveillance through notifications. Ten pathogens in the highest priority group (Borrelia, calicivirus, Campylobacter, Echinococcus multilocularis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS- and MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and varicella-zoster virus) did not have any surveillance of typing results. We will evaluate the possibilities of surveillance for the pathogens in the highest priority group where we currently do not have any ongoing surveillance and evaluate the need of surveillance for the pathogens from the low priority group where there is ongoing surveillance in

  10. Communicable Diseases Prioritized According to Their Public Health Relevance, Sweden, 2013.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Viktor; Tegnell, Anders; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To establish strategic priorities for the Public Health Agency of Sweden we prioritized pathogens according to their public health relevance in Sweden in order to guide resource allocation. We then compared the outcome to ongoing surveillance. We used a modified prioritization method developed at the Robert Koch Institute in Germany. In a Delphi process experts scored pathogens according to ten variables. We ranked the pathogens according to the total score and divided them into four priority groups. We then compared the priority groups to self-reported time spent on surveillance by epidemiologists and ongoing programmes for surveillance through mandatory and/or voluntary notifications and for surveillance of typing results. 106 pathogens were scored. The result of the prioritization process was similar to the outcome of the prioritization in Germany. Common pathogens such as calicivirus and Influenza virus as well as blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus, gastro-intestinal infections such as Campylobacter and Salmonella and vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia were all in the highest priority group. 63% of time spent by epidemiologists on surveillance was spent on pathogens in the highest priority group and all pathogens in the highest priority group, except for Borrelia and varicella-zoster virus, were under surveillance through notifications. Ten pathogens in the highest priority group (Borrelia, calicivirus, Campylobacter, Echinococcus multilocularis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS- and MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and varicella-zoster virus) did not have any surveillance of typing results. We will evaluate the possibilities of surveillance for the pathogens in the highest priority group where we currently do not have any ongoing surveillance and evaluate the need of surveillance for the pathogens from the low priority group where there is ongoing surveillance in

  11. Perioperative leadership: managing change with insights, priorities, and tools.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L

    2014-07-01

    The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors.

  12. Roseoloviruses: unmet needs and research priorities: perspective.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Mary T; Krug, Laurie T; Pellett, Philip E

    2014-12-01

    The human roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7, are highly prevalent viruses that typically cause fever/rash illnesses such as roseola during early life primary infections. They also cause significant neurologic disease and complications following stem cell and solid organ transplantation, and have suggestive but less certain etiologic associations with other neurologic diseases and immunologic disorders. The US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored a workshop (Roseoloviruses: Clinical Impact, Interventions, and Research Needs) to discuss disease associations, novel biology, and the many unmet research needs related to Roseoloviruses. This perspective is a distillation of the workshop's presentations and discussions, with a focus on the more general research priorities that emerged. PMID:25462450

  13. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas

  14. The Dropout Problem: Superintendent's Priorities by School Locale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyle, Adrienne E.; And Others

    A national stratified random sample of superintendents (N=432) responded to a 42-item questionnaire listing probable causes of students dropping out. They were asked to identify causes that they believe should be given high priority as well as those that had the necessary research foundation from which to develop significant intervention programs.…

  15. Distilling Stakeholder Input for Program Evaluation Priority Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describe the role of an expert panel in setting priorities for evaluative work. An expert panel with high credibility inside and outside the organization that is at arms length to both the organization and external stakeholders can bypass many communications filters and provide a distilled and clear reading of stakeholder concerns. (SLD)

  16. Incentives a Priority for New Secretary of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. Duncan's comments came in an interview in which he named as priorities reauthorization of the federal No…

  17. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Program. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2013-06-11

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training (ARRT) program under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to ensure that NIDRR's resources are appropriately allocated across the three outcome domains--community living and participation, employment, and health and function. We intend this priority to (1) strengthen the capacity of the disability and rehabilitation field to train qualified individuals, including individuals with disabilities, to conduct high-quality, advanced multidisciplinary rehabilitation research; and (2) improve outcomes for individuals with disabilities across the domains of community living and participation, employment, and health and function.

  18. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State priority system and project priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND..., needs and priorities set forth in areawide water quality management plans, and any other...

  19. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  20. 48 CFR 8.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.603... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.603 Purchase... shall purchase supplies and services in the following priorities: (a) Supplies. (1) Federal...

  1. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.704 Purchase priorities. (a) The Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act requires the Government to purchase supplies or services on the Procurement List, at prices established by the...

  2. 48 CFR 808.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 808.603 Section 808.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION... Industries, Inc. (FPI) 808.603 Purchase priorities. Contracting officers may purchase supplies and...

  3. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) CURTAILMENT PRIORITIES FOR ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other than section 401(b) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, or any other rule, regulation, or order...

  4. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) CURTAILMENT PRIORITIES FOR ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other than section 401(b) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, or any other rule, regulation, or order...

  5. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  6. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  7. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  8. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  9. Reframing Recreation as a Public Policy Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Issues pertaining to children often struggle to become public policy priorities. A clear demonstration of this phenomenon is the degree to which children are supported in the federal budget in comparison to other priorities. If issues pertaining to children struggle for the policy spotlight, subissues pertaining to them face an even greater…

  10. 45 CFR 1620.3 - Establishing priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IN USE OF RESOURCES § 1620.3 Establishing priorities. (a) The governing body of a recipient must... resources and must adopt a written statement of priorities, pursuant to those procedures, that determines... recipient, and their relative importance, based on information received from potential or current...

  11. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) CURTAILMENT PRIORITIES FOR ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other than section 401(b) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, or any other rule, regulation, or order...

  12. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) CURTAILMENT PRIORITIES FOR ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other than section 401(b) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, or any other rule, regulation, or order...

  13. 7 CFR 632.12 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding priorities. 632.12 Section 632.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Qualifications § 632.12 Funding priorities....

  14. 7 CFR 632.12 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding priorities. 632.12 Section 632.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Qualifications § 632.12 Funding priorities....

  15. 48 CFR 808.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 808.603 Section 808.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION... Industries, Inc. (FPI) 808.603 Purchase priorities. Contracting officers may purchase supplies and...

  16. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.704 Purchase priorities. (a) The Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act requires the Government to purchase supplies or services on the Procurement List, at prices established by the...

  17. 48 CFR 8.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.603... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.603 Purchase... shall purchase supplies and services in the following priorities: (a) Supplies. (1) Federal...

  18. Adlerian Personality Priorities: Psychological and Attitudinal Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Kottman, Terry; Rice, Kenneth G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between personality priorities (pleasing, achieving, outdoing, detaching, avoiding) and selected psychological and attitudinal variables theoretically linked to those priorities. Undergraduates (N=262) completed four personality measures, which resulted in significant differences. Findings lend support for the use of…

  19. 32 CFR 644.315 - Disposal priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal priorities. 644.315 Section 644.315 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.315 Disposal priorities. Consistent with the best interest of the...

  20. 32 CFR 644.315 - Disposal priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal priorities. 644.315 Section 644.315 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.315 Disposal priorities. Consistent with the best interest of the...

  1. Research Priorities in Networking and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A workshop focused on major research issues in networking and communications. This report defines the context for research priorities and initiatives and deals with issues in networking and communications. Fifteen major research priorities and four research specific initiatives were identified by participants as areas that should be pursued over…

  2. Learning Spaces as a Strategic Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Gene; Erwin, Tom; Barnes, Briony

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007 Butler Community College made learning spaces one of its five strategic priorities. The college had just completed a major renovation of the work spaces for the IT division and had started a project to build a student union and create informal learning spaces at the Andover campus. With learning spaces becoming a strategic priority,…

  3. Research priorities: women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, A P

    1979-01-01

    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women.

  4. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  5. Research priorities: seating and positioning.

    PubMed

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The Mobility Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology held its State of the Science Conference to address challenges in studying the health, activity and participation of wheelchair users. This article summarizes the discussions of four seating and positioning research topics. Attendees were divided into Breakout Groups and assigned specific research topics that were deemed priorities by the attendees. Breakout Groups were charged with configuring the research topic into a research project and were asked to identify research questions, specific aims or hypotheses, significance, study design possibilities, recruitment considerations, measurement variables and tools, analysis considerations, and anticipated challenges. The four research topics selected for discussion were: Impact of a seating and mobility intervention, Defining a systematic clinical approach to cushion selection, Functional impact of wheelchair cushions, and Long term impact of sitting. Group synopses presented in this paper were compiled from Group notes and presentation. They are presented in sequence and reflect variability in discussion, presentation and content. Some research topics were more amenable to the suggested guidelines than others.

  6. Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

  7. Research priorities: women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, A P

    1979-01-01

    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women. PMID:538796

  8. The 50 Constellation Priority Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S.; Joosten, K.; Eppler, D.; Gruener, J.; Mendell, W.; French, R.; Plescia, J.; Spudis, P.; Wargo, M.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation program (CxP) has developed a list of 50 sites of interest on the Moon which will be targeted by the LRO narrow angle camera. The list has also been provided to the M team to supplement their targeting list. This list does not represent a "site selection" process; rather the goal was to find "representative" sites and terrains to understand the range of possible surface conditions for human lunar exploration to aid engineering design and operational planning. The list compilers leveraged heavily on past site selection work (e.g. Geoscience and a Lunar Base Workshop - 1988, Site Selection Strategy for a Lunar Outpost - 1990, Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) - 2005). Considerations included scientific, resource utilization, and operational merits, and a desire to span lunar terrain types. The targets have been organized into two "tiers" of 25 sites each to provide a relative priority ranking in the event of mutual interference. A LEAG SAT (special action team) was established to validate and recommend modifications to the list. This SAT was chaired by Dr. Paul Lucey. They provided their final results to CxP in May. Dr. Wendell Mendell will organize an on-going analysis of the data as they come down to ensure data quality and determine if and when a site has sufficient data to be retired from the list. The list was compiled using the best available data, however, it is understood that with the flood of new lunar data, minor modifications or adjustments may be required.

  9. The priorities of the ICPD.

    PubMed

    Mahran, M

    1994-06-01

    For the first time in world history, governments around the world are united to address population growth and sustainable development. More than one hundred heads of states and prime ministers have signed a population stabilization declaration. The three preparatory meetings, six expert group meetings, five regional meetings, three roundtable meetings, national meetings, parliamentary meetings, and NGO forum meetings which took place in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) attest to the commitment of participants and planners to have the most serious and fruitful conference and resolution possible. During these preparatory meetings, the ICPD has created a sense of awareness about the population problem, erased population illiteracy among a very difficult group of policymakers and parliamentarians, and created an international population club. The ICPD is different because it will transform the heightened awareness of current population issues into operative strategies for effective and comprehensive programs. The priorities are different from those of the Bucharest and Mexico conferences. The Cairo conference will focus upon the development of human resources through education and health; the complex relationship among population, resources, environment, and development; the serious problem of consumption; the status of women in regard to socioeconomic development; the rapid increase in urbanization and migration; the increasing number of international migrants and refugees; population aging; and human sexuality, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases. Egypt will join donors in helping to train in the fields of demography, statistics, family planning, and rural development.

  10. Preventing HIV transmission in "priority" countries.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1993-05-01

    A recent $168 million 5-year cooperative agreement funded by the US Agency for International Development combines elements of its earlier AIDSTECH and AIDSCOM projects under the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). Instead of working to effect broad-scale behavior change toward the prevention of HIV transmission, AIDSCAP strategically targets locations for condom distribution, behavior change messages, and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In Lagos and the states of Cross River and Jigawa where the AIDS epidemic is firmly established, for example, AIDSCAP is intervening to increase condom demand and accessibility; alter sexual behaviors which carry a high risk for HIV transmission; and reduce the prevalence of STDs which enhance the transmission of HIV. The project began in fall of 1991 and has expanded to include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica, India, and Thailand; limited assistance is also provided to 7 other African countries, 4 Latin America countries, and 1 in Asia. 4 more countries are in the final stages of negotiations to be included in the project. The USAID mission in the host country and the government must invite AIDSCAP involvement in order for the country to attain priority status. Countries are selected based on the HIV prevalence rate, population size and distribution, level of commitment to HIV prevention/control, capacity to respond to the AIDSCAP plan of action, level of other donor support, the USAID Mission's development priorities, and the Mission's commitment of substantial funds from its own budget. Once involved, AIDSCAP is mandated to implement interventions through in-country agencies. PMID:12344871

  11. Donor funding priorities for communicable disease control in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2006-11-01

    Prior research has considered donor funding for developing world health by recipient and donor country but not by disease. Examining funding by disease is critical since diseases may be in competition with one another for priority and donors may be making allocation decisions in ways that do not correspond to developing world need. In this study I calculate donor funding for 20 historically high-burden communicable diseases for the years 1996 to 2003 and examine factors that may explain variance in priority levels among diseases. I consider funding for developing world health from 42 major donors, classifying grants according to the communicable disease targeted. Data show that funding does not correspond closely with burden. Acute respiratory infections comprise more than a quarter of the burden among these diseases but receive less than 3% of direct aid. Malaria also stands out as a high-burden neglected disease. The evidence indicates that neither developing world need nor industrialized world interests explain all funding patterns, and that donors may be imitating one another in ways that do not take into account problems in the developing world. There is an urgent need for a major increase in funding for communicable disease control in the developing world, and for more balanced allocation of the resources already provided.

  12. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran. PMID:27239863

  13. The Role of Value Priorities in Paternal and Maternal Involvement in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study used the theory of human values to explore parents' involvement with their children. The relationships between maternal and paternal value priorities and various forms of involvement in child care were examined in a sample of 209 couples with 1 child between 6 and 36 months of age. As predicted, giving high priority to…

  14. New priorities and developments at NAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, J. L.; Botha, A. H.; Celliers, P. J.; Cronje, P. M.; Delsink, J. L. G.; de Villiers, J. G.; du Plessis, H.; du Toit, J. S.; Fourie, D. T.; Hogan, M. E.; Jungwirth, H. N.; Kohler, I. H.; Müller, A.; Rohwer, P. F.; Smit, H. A.; Theron, P. J.; van Niekerk, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    The facilities at the National Accelerator Center (NAC) are utilized for proton and neutron therapy, the production of radioisotopes and for nuclear physics experiments. This implies an operating schedule with nine energy changes per week. Mainly due to this the reliability of beam delivery deteriorated to such an extent that we recently had to revert to a beam schedule with only four energy changes per week. This necessitated redefinition of the priorities for our proton therapy program. The request for higher proton beam currents at 66 MeV, for radioisotope production, stimulated the design of dedicated flat-top systems for both the light-ion injector cyclotron (SPC1) and the separated-sector cyclotron (SSC). We also investigated the feasibility of accelerating high-intensity proton beams (500 μA) in the SSC by using the high-intensity space-charge mode developed at PSI. The design of a vertical beamline and modifications to the existing beam transport system for the new high-intensity target station are in progress. Further developments include an additional septum magnet for the SSC extraction system and a new Local Area Network computer-control system for the RF systems. The progress with these projects will be presented and the status of the facilities discussed.

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information.

  17. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information. PMID:25240420

  18. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  19. A new proposal for priority setting in Norway: Open and fair.

    PubMed

    Ottersen, Trygve; Førde, Reidun; Kakad, Meetali; Kjellevold, Alice; Melberg, Hans Olav; Moen, Atle; Ringard, Ånen; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-03-01

    Health systems worldwide struggle to meet increasing demands for health care, and Norway is no exception. This paper discusses the new, comprehensive framework for priority setting recently laid out by the third Norwegian Committee on Priority Setting in the Health Sector. The framework posits that priority setting should pursue the goal of "the greatest number of healthy life years for all, fairly distributed" and centres on three criteria: 1) The health-benefit criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected health benefit (and other relevant welfare benefits) from the intervention; 2) The resource criterion: The priority of an intervention increases, the less resources it requires; and 3) The health-loss criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected lifetime health loss of the beneficiary in the absence of such an intervention. Cost-effectiveness plays a central role in this framework, but only alongside the health-loss criterion which incorporates a special concern for the worse off and promotes fairness. In line with this, cost-effectiveness thresholds are differentiated according to health loss. Concrete implementation tools and open processes with user participation complement the three criteria. Informed by the proposal, the Ministry of Health and Care Services is preparing a report to the Parliament, with the aim of reaching political consensus on a new priority-setting framework for Norway.

  20. A new proposal for priority setting in Norway: Open and fair.

    PubMed

    Ottersen, Trygve; Førde, Reidun; Kakad, Meetali; Kjellevold, Alice; Melberg, Hans Olav; Moen, Atle; Ringard, Ånen; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-03-01

    Health systems worldwide struggle to meet increasing demands for health care, and Norway is no exception. This paper discusses the new, comprehensive framework for priority setting recently laid out by the third Norwegian Committee on Priority Setting in the Health Sector. The framework posits that priority setting should pursue the goal of "the greatest number of healthy life years for all, fairly distributed" and centres on three criteria: 1) The health-benefit criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected health benefit (and other relevant welfare benefits) from the intervention; 2) The resource criterion: The priority of an intervention increases, the less resources it requires; and 3) The health-loss criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected lifetime health loss of the beneficiary in the absence of such an intervention. Cost-effectiveness plays a central role in this framework, but only alongside the health-loss criterion which incorporates a special concern for the worse off and promotes fairness. In line with this, cost-effectiveness thresholds are differentiated according to health loss. Concrete implementation tools and open processes with user participation complement the three criteria. Informed by the proposal, the Ministry of Health and Care Services is preparing a report to the Parliament, with the aim of reaching political consensus on a new priority-setting framework for Norway. PMID:26851991

  1. Cairo conference affirms CEDPA priorities.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that was held in Cairo during September adopted a 20-year Programme of Action endorsing the empowerment of women as the foundation of sustainable development. 178 countries and more than a 1000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), from 100 countries attended the conference and the parallel NGO forum. The final document sets out specific steps for achievement of universal access to a full range of voluntary, quality family planning and reproductive health services for women and men; provision of services for the special needs of adolescents; closure of the gender gap in education; and empowerment of women via education, health care, and economic options. The CEDPA network of alumnae from 30 countries had worked over the 3 years prior to the conference for the inclusion of women's priorities in policies and to achieve consensus among the government and NGO caucuses. 14 alumnae, including Peggy Curlin (CEDPA President and US delegate), were appointed to their countries' delegations and directly influenced the Programme of Action. The NGO Forum provided a place to exchange experiences and expertise; CEDPA mounted an exhibit, "Empowering Women." The network's theme was "Access, Choice, and Participation." With support from the United Nations Population Fund, CEDPA developed a manual, "After Cairo: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders," which has been distributed at training sessions and workshops and was translated into French (with support from the US Agency for International Development in Mali) for distribution at the Dakar conference in November in preparation for the World Conference on Women. CEDPA and The Global Committee for Cairo honored the secretary-general of the conference, Dr. Nafis Sadik, for her leadership of the ICPD and UNFPA, and Aziza Hussein, co-chair of the NGO steering committee, at a luncheon; Dr. Sadik

  2. Social factors and private benefits influence landholders' riverine restoration priorities in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie Renee; Moon, Katie; Stoeckl, Natalie; Gray, Sally

    2012-11-15

    Private land conservation is an essential component of conservation that requires organizing both protection and restoration actions accordingly. Yet private land conservation programs are often formulated to generate public benefits, with inadequate consideration of costs or benefits to private landholders. Landholders' willingness to participate in conservation programs depends on a complex set of social factors, and the benefits they expect from participation. However, these two attributes are commonly evaluated independent of one another. We addressed this limitation through interviews aimed at determining landholders': 1) willingness to participate in restoration programs; 2) barriers to participation; 3) prioritization of proposed riverine restoration actions; 4) expected public or private benefits for undertaking proposed riverine restoration actions; and 5) most preferred incentive for undertaking proposed restoration actions on their land. Our results revealed four main findings. First, landholders stated that biases towards ecological rather than production outcomes, impractical programs, and government mistrust (structural factors) were the major barriers that prevented them from participating in riverine restoration on their land. Second, private benefits influenced landholders' willingness to engage riverine restoration. Third, 'a sense of stewardship and improved landscape aesthetics' (an internal factor) was the most commonly reported private benefit. Fourth, the most preferred incentives for high priority restoration actions were cash for on-ground works, extension and community recognition. We highlight the importance of designing private land conservation programs that align with landholders' priorities and deliver public benefits.

  3. Social factors and private benefits influence landholders' riverine restoration priorities in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie Renee; Moon, Katie; Stoeckl, Natalie; Gray, Sally

    2012-11-15

    Private land conservation is an essential component of conservation that requires organizing both protection and restoration actions accordingly. Yet private land conservation programs are often formulated to generate public benefits, with inadequate consideration of costs or benefits to private landholders. Landholders' willingness to participate in conservation programs depends on a complex set of social factors, and the benefits they expect from participation. However, these two attributes are commonly evaluated independent of one another. We addressed this limitation through interviews aimed at determining landholders': 1) willingness to participate in restoration programs; 2) barriers to participation; 3) prioritization of proposed riverine restoration actions; 4) expected public or private benefits for undertaking proposed riverine restoration actions; and 5) most preferred incentive for undertaking proposed restoration actions on their land. Our results revealed four main findings. First, landholders stated that biases towards ecological rather than production outcomes, impractical programs, and government mistrust (structural factors) were the major barriers that prevented them from participating in riverine restoration on their land. Second, private benefits influenced landholders' willingness to engage riverine restoration. Third, 'a sense of stewardship and improved landscape aesthetics' (an internal factor) was the most commonly reported private benefit. Fourth, the most preferred incentives for high priority restoration actions were cash for on-ground works, extension and community recognition. We highlight the importance of designing private land conservation programs that align with landholders' priorities and deliver public benefits. PMID:22705856

  4. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  5. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  6. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Research Fellowships Program (also known as the Mary E. Switzer Research Fellowships). Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-07-28

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Research Fellowships Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, this notice announces a priority for a Distinguished Residential Disability and Rehabilitation Policy Fellowship. We take this action to focus attention on an area of national need. We intend the priority to build research capacity by providing support to highly qualified, experienced researchers, including those who are individuals with disabilities, to conduct policy research in the areas of disability and rehabilitation.

  7. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume II. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, J S; Roessner, D

    1980-01-01

    Priorities for basic research important to the future developments of solar energy are idenified, described, and recommended. SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas-and, within each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the description of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  8. 10 CFR 217.31 - Priority ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 700. For example, DO-F3 identifies a domestic energy construction program. Additional... resolution of conflicts among rated orders of equal priority, see § 217.34(c).) (3) In addition, a...

  9. 77 FR 65912 - Priority Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 19. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other administrative...

  10. Needs Assessment: A Problem of Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimpston, Richard D.; Stockton, William S.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines a technique for setting priorities among competing needs, and examines the strengths and weaknesses of several popular needs assessment models. Relevance of goal attainability and force field analysis to curriculum decision-making is also discussed. (RAO)

  11. 7 CFR 1775.11 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... program. (a) Projects proposing to give priority for available services to rural communities having a... demonstrate sustainability of project without Federal financial support....

  12. 38 CFR 59.50 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that replaces an existing facility; (B) Nursing home renovation (e.g., patient privacy) and...) All other projects (e.g., nurse call systems, patient lifts). (ii) Priority group 1—subpriority 2....

  13. 38 CFR 59.50 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that replaces an existing facility; (B) Nursing home renovation (e.g., patient privacy) and...) All other projects (e.g., nurse call systems, patient lifts). (ii) Priority group 1—subpriority 2....

  14. 42 CFR 57.1506 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING... to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1506 Priority... will begin its teaching program....

  15. 42 CFR 57.1506 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING... to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1506 Priority... will begin its teaching program....

  16. 42 CFR 57.1506 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING... to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1506 Priority... will begin its teaching program....

  17. 42 CFR 57.1506 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING... to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1506 Priority... will begin its teaching program....

  18. Formal priority setting in health care: the Swedish experience.

    PubMed

    Garpenby, Peter; Bäckman, Karin

    2016-09-19

    Purpose From the late 1980s and onwards health care in Sweden has come under increasing financial pressure, forcing policy makers to consider restrictions. The purpose of this paper is to review experiences and to establish lessons of formal priority setting in four Swedish regional health authorities during the period 2003-2012. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on a variety of sources, and evidence is organised according to three broad aspects: design and implementation of models and processes, application of evidence and decision analysis tools and decision making and implementation of decisions. Findings The processes accounted for here have resulted in useful experiences concerning technical arrangements as well as political and public strategies. All four sites used a particular model for priority setting that combined top-down- and bottom-up-driven elements. Although the process was authorised from the top it was clearly bottom-up driven and the template followed a professional rationale. New meeting grounds were introduced between politicians and clinical leaders. Overall a limited group of stakeholders were involved. By defusing political conflicts the likelihood that clinical leaders would regard this undertaking as important increased. Originality/value One tendency today is to unburden regional authorities of the hard decisions by introducing arrangements at national level. This study suggests that regional health authorities, in spite of being politically governed organisations, have the potential to execute a formal priority-setting process. Still, to make priority-setting processes more robust to internal as well as external threat remains a challenge. PMID:27681023

  19. Differential Clinical Implications of High-Degree Atrioventricular Block Complicating ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction according to the Location of Infarction in the Era of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The clinical implication of high-degree (second- and third-degree) atrioventricular block (HAVB) complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is ripe for investigation in this era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to address the incidence, predictors and prognosis of HAVB according to the location of infarct in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Subjects and Methods A total of 16536 STEMI patients (anterior infarction: n=9354, inferior infarction: n=7692) treated with primary PCI were enrolled from a multicenter registry. We compared in-hospital mortality between patients with HAVB and those without HAVB with anterior or inferior infarction, separately. Multivariate analyses were performed to unearth predictors of HAVB and to identify whether HAVB is independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Results STEMI patients with HAVB showed higher in-hospital mortality than those without HAVB in both anterior (hazard ratio [HR]=9.821, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.946-19.503, p<0.001) and inferior infarction (HR=2.819, 95% CI: 2.076-3.827, p<0.001). In multivariate analyses, HAVB was associated with increased in-hospital mortality in anterior myocardial infarction (HR=19.264, 95% CI: 5.804-63.936, p<0.001). However, HAVB in inferior infarction was not an independent predictor of increased in-hospital mortality (HR=1.014, 95% CI: 0.547-1.985, p=0.901). Conclusion In this era of primary PCI, the prognostic impact of HAVB is different according to the location of infarction. Because of recent improvements in reperfusion strategy, the negative prognostic impact of HAVB in inferior STEMI is no longer prominent. PMID:27275168

  20. Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In healthcare today, decisions are made in the face of serious resource constraints. Healthcare managers are struggling to provide high quality care, manage resources effectively, and meet changing patient needs. Healthcare managers who are constantly making difficult resource decisions desire a way to improve their priority setting processes. Despite the wealth of existing priority setting literature (for example, program budgeting and marginal analysis, accountability for reasonableness, the 'describe-evaluate-improve' strategy) there are still no tools to evaluate how healthcare resources are prioritised. This paper describes the development and piloting of a process to evaluate priority setting in health institutions. The evaluation process was designed to examine the procedural and substantive dimensions of priority setting using a multi-methods approach, including a staff survey, decision-maker interviews, and document analysis. Methods The evaluation process was piloted in a mid-size community hospital in Ontario, Canada while its leaders worked through their annual budgeting process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results The evaluation process was both applicable to the context and it captured the budgeting process. In general, the pilot test provided support for our evaluation process and our definition of success, (i.e., our conceptual framework). Conclusions The purpose of the evaluation process is to provide a simple, practical way for an organization to better understand what it means to achieve success in its priority setting activities and identify areas for improvement. In order for the process to be used by healthcare managers today, modification and contextualization of the process are anticipated. As the evaluation process is applied in more health care organizations or applied repeatedly in an organization, it may become more streamlined. PMID:20482843

  1. Conservation priority of global Galliformes species based on phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua

    2014-06-01

    In this study, based on phylogenetic diversity (PD), I develop a conservation strategy for Galliformes species around the world. A cladogram of 197 Galliformes species derived from a previous study was used for calculating PD metrics. Branch length is an important aspect of the phylogenetic information a tree can convey, but 2 traditionally-used metrics, the number of phylogenetic groups to which a taxon belongs (I) and the proportion that each taxon contributes to the total diversity of the group (W), are fully node-based and do not take branch length into account. Therefore, to measure PD more appropriately, I combined a branch-related metric, pendant edge (P), in addition to I and W. A final combined rank for Galliformes species was obtained by summing the ranks of the 3 metrics. My results showed that the 5% top priority species for conserving evolutionary potential were Galloperdix lunulata, Haematortyx sanguiniceps, Margaroperdix madagarensis, Syrmaticus soemmerringii, Coturnix pectoralis, Polyplectron napoleonis, Alectoris melanocephala, Xenoperdix udzungwensis, Afropavo congensis and Syrmaticus reevesii. The current species priority ranking based on pylogenetic diversity and the official International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ranking of Galliformes species was significantly correlated when considering the 5 categories of IUCN (critical endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and least concern). This indicated the feasibility of introducing the PD index into the network of IUCN regional Red List assessment. The 5% top priority countries selected using the complementarity principle possessing diversified Galliformes genetic resources were China, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Colombia, Australia, Brazil, Angola, Congo and Japan (in descending order). China, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, India and Colombia are consistently selected among the 4 top priority sets of richness, rarity, endemicity and PD. This result indicated that the priority

  2. Competing priorities in treatment decision-making: a US national survey of individuals with depression and clinicians who treat depression

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Paul J; Forcino, Rachel C; Mishra, Manish; Blitzer, Rachel; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify information priorities for consumers and clinicians making depression treatment decisions and assess shared decision-making (SDM) in routine depression care. Design 20 questions related to common features of depression treatments were provided. Participants were initially asked to select which features were important, and in a second stage they were asked to rank their top 5 ‘important features’ in order of importance. Clinicians were asked to provide rankings according to both consumer and clinician perspectives. Consumers completed CollaboRATE, a measure of SDM. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified consumer characteristics associated with CollaboRATE scores. Setting Online cross-sectional surveys fielded in September to December 2014. Participants We administered surveys to convenience samples of US adults with depression and clinicians who treat depression. Consumer sampling was targeted to reflect age, gender and educational attainment of adults with depression in the USA. Primary outcome measures Information priority rankings; CollaboRATE, a 3-item consumer-reported measure of SDM. Results 972 consumers and 244 clinicians completed the surveys. The highest ranked question for both consumers and clinicians was ‘Will the treatment work?’ Clinicians were aware of consumers’ priorities, yet did not always prioritise that information themselves, particularly insurance coverage and cost of treatment. Only 18% of consumers reported high levels of SDM. Working with a psychiatrist (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.26) and female gender (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.25 to 3.34) were associated with top CollaboRATE scores. Conclusions While clinicians know what information is important to consumers making depression treatment decisions, they do not always address these concerns. This mismatch, coupled with low SDM, adversely affects the quality of depression care. Development of a decision support intervention based on our findings can improve

  3. Political strategies in difficult times - The "backstage" experience of Swedish politicians on formal priority setting in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Garpenby, Peter; Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to the knowledge on the governing of healthcare in a democratic context in times of austerity. Resource allocation in healthcare is a highly political issue but the political nature of healthcare is not always made clear and the role of politicians is often obscure. The absence of politicians in rationing/disinvestment arrangements is usually explained with blame-shifting arguments; they prefer to delegate "the burden of responsibility" to administrative agencies or professionals. Drawing on a case where Swedish regional politicians involved themselves in setting priorities at a more detailed level than previously, the findings suggest that the subject of "blame avoidance" is more complicated than usually assumed. A qualitative case study was designed, involving semi-structured interviews with 14 regionally elected politicians in one Swedish health authority, conducted in June 2011. The interviews were analysed through a thematic analysis in accordance with the "framework approach" by Ritchie and Lewis. Findings show that an overarching strategy among the politicians was to appear united and to suppress conflict, which served to underpin the vital strategy of bringing the medical profession into the process. A key finding is the importance that politicians, when appearing "backstage", attach to the prevention of blame from the medical profession. This case illustrates that one has to take into account that priority settings requires various types of skills and knowledges - not only technical but also political and social. Another important lesson points toward the need to broaden the political leadership repertoire, as leadership in the case of priority setting is not about politicians being all in or all out. The results suggest that in a priority-setting process it is of importance to have politics on-board at an early stage to secure loyalty to the process, although not necessarily being involved in all details.

  4. Political strategies in difficult times - The "backstage" experience of Swedish politicians on formal priority setting in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Garpenby, Peter; Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to the knowledge on the governing of healthcare in a democratic context in times of austerity. Resource allocation in healthcare is a highly political issue but the political nature of healthcare is not always made clear and the role of politicians is often obscure. The absence of politicians in rationing/disinvestment arrangements is usually explained with blame-shifting arguments; they prefer to delegate "the burden of responsibility" to administrative agencies or professionals. Drawing on a case where Swedish regional politicians involved themselves in setting priorities at a more detailed level than previously, the findings suggest that the subject of "blame avoidance" is more complicated than usually assumed. A qualitative case study was designed, involving semi-structured interviews with 14 regionally elected politicians in one Swedish health authority, conducted in June 2011. The interviews were analysed through a thematic analysis in accordance with the "framework approach" by Ritchie and Lewis. Findings show that an overarching strategy among the politicians was to appear united and to suppress conflict, which served to underpin the vital strategy of bringing the medical profession into the process. A key finding is the importance that politicians, when appearing "backstage", attach to the prevention of blame from the medical profession. This case illustrates that one has to take into account that priority settings requires various types of skills and knowledges - not only technical but also political and social. Another important lesson points toward the need to broaden the political leadership repertoire, as leadership in the case of priority setting is not about politicians being all in or all out. The results suggest that in a priority-setting process it is of importance to have politics on-board at an early stage to secure loyalty to the process, although not necessarily being involved in all details. PMID:27404909

  5. Validation of the Omron HEM-7201 upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement in a high altitude environment, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cho, KaWing; Tian, Maoyi; Lan, Yonghao; Zhao, Xingshan; Yan, Lijing L.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on blood pressure monitors and their use at high altitude. This study is the first to evaluate an automated blood pressure device at high altitude following a standard validation protocol. The Omron HEM-7201 upper arm automatic blood pressure monitor was tested for accuracy in Lhasa, Tibet, China (3650 m above sea level) according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2). Thirty-three participants received 9–10 sequential blood pressure measurements alternating from a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The mean device-observer measurement difference was 1.0 ± 5.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and −3.1 ± 4.6 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Of the 99 measurement pairs analyzed, 72, 90, and 97 device readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, of the observer measurements for SBP, and 68, 92, and 99 readings for DBP. The number of participants with at least two out of three measurements within 5mmHg was 27 for SBP and 25 for DBP. Three participants had no measurements within 5 mmHg for SBP or DBP. The Omron HEM-7201 passes the ESH-IP2 validation criteria and can therefore be recommended for use in adults in this setting. PMID:23466876

  6. Final Priority--Training of Interpreters for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Individuals Who Are Deaf-Blind Program. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a final priority under the Training of Interpreters for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Individuals Who Are Deaf-Blind Program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year 2016 and later years. We take this action to provide training and technical assistance to better prepare novice interpreters to become highly qualified, nationally certified sign language interpreters. PMID:27529904

  7. Final Priority--Training of Interpreters for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Individuals Who Are Deaf-Blind Program. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2016-07-25

    Rehabilitative Services announces a final priority under the Training of Interpreters for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Individuals Who Are Deaf-Blind program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year 2016 and later years. We take this action to provide training and technical assistance to better prepare novice interpreters to become highly qualified nationally certified sign language interpreters. PMID:27459750

  8. Analyzing a priority pollutant in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Frederick, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (2-EHP), a priority pollutant, is used extensively in plastic products as a plasticizer. Because of the wide-spread use of plastics, 2-EHP is found in almost all solid wastes. A rapid extraction and screening procedure for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from soil has been developed. In a recent exploratory study involving remediation of contaminated soil using an ultrasonic process, a large number of chemical analyses were required to monitor the effect of several process variables on the residual concentration of 2-EHP in the test soil. The analyses did not require a high degree of accuracy, but needed to be fairly rapid and reproducible. The conventional chromatographic procedures, if used for this study, would be both time-intensive and costly and would seriously restrict the amount of data obtained from this small-scale investigative effort. In this study, a large number of samples were being screened to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic process and identify critical process variables. Therefore, a rapid and reproducible analytical procedure for 2-EHP was needed. An alternative analytical procedure using methanol extraction and UV-visible spectroscopy was employed for the bulk of the samples. However, the conventional chromatographic procedure also was used to verify selected data points and provide a measure of comparability between the two techniques.

  9. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  10. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding. PMID:27249561

  11. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-03-21

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding.

  12. Priority setting: what constitutes success? A conceptual framework for successful priority setting

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Singer, Peter A; Upshur, Ross; Martin, Douglas K

    2009-01-01

    Background The sustainability of healthcare systems worldwide is threatened by a growing demand for services and expensive innovative technologies. Decision makers struggle in this environment to set priorities appropriately, particularly because they lack consensus about which values should guide their decisions. One way to approach this problem is to determine what all relevant stakeholders understand successful priority setting to mean. The goal of this research was to develop a conceptual framework for successful priority setting. Methods Three separate empirical studies were completed using qualitative data collection methods (one-on-one interviews with healthcare decision makers from across Canada; focus groups with representation of patients, caregivers and policy makers; and Delphi study including scholars and decision makers from five countries). Results This paper synthesizes the findings from three studies into a framework of ten separate but interconnected elements germane to successful priority setting: stakeholder understanding, shifted priorities/reallocation of resources, decision making quality, stakeholder acceptance and satisfaction, positive externalities, stakeholder engagement, use of explicit process, information management, consideration of values and context, and revision or appeals mechanism. Conclusion The ten elements specify both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of priority setting and relate to both process and outcome components. To our knowledge, this is the first framework that describes successful priority setting. The ten elements identified in this research provide guidance for decision makers and a common language to discuss priority setting success and work toward improving priority setting efforts. PMID:19265518

  13. Community-Based Decision Making and Priority Setting Using the R Software: The Community Priority Index

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Paothong, Arnut; Wang, Wei; King, Lindsey M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines how to compute community priority indices in the context of multicriteria decision making in community settings. A simple R function was developed and validated with community needs assessment data. Particularly, the first part of this paper briefly overviews the existing methods for priority setting and reviews the utility of a multicriteria decision-making approach for community-based prioritization. The second part illustrates how community priority indices can be calculated using the freely available R program to handle community data by showing the computational and mathematical steps of CPI (Community Priority Index) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals. PMID:25815045

  14. Reading in High School. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The workers of the 21st Century will be expected to do more reading and writing than has been done in the past. In order to be successful, one author, Langer, stated that students need to possess "high literacy." According to the literature, it is evident when reading is truly a priority and supported by all stakeholders because there are high…

  15. Recommended Priorities for NASA's Gamma Ray Astronomy Program 1999-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carol, Ladd

    1999-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program Working Group (GRAPWG) recommends priorities for the NASA Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program. The highest priority science topic is nuclear astrophysics and sites of gamma ray line emission. Other high priority topics are gamma ray bursts, hard x-ray emission from accreting black holes and neutron stars, the Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the High-resolution Spectroscopic Imager (HSI), and the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The recommendations include special consideration for technology development, TeV astronomy, the ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) program, the International Space Station, optical telescope support, and data analysis and theory.

  16. Applicants' Self-Reported Priorities in Selecting a Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Macklin, E. A.; Goldsmith, J.; Weinstein, Debra F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Residency recruitment is a high-stakes activity for all participants, yet there is limited information about how applicants choose among programs. Objective This study evaluated the importance applicants place on various residency program attributes; whether applicant priorities vary by sex, race/ethnicity, or specialty choice; and whether the importance of these factors changes over time. Methods Highly ranked applicants to residency programs at 2 academic medical centers were surveyed annually from 2004 to 2012 regarding the importance of 26 characteristics in selecting a program. Mean ratings of importance for each factor were analyzed to assess priority for the overall applicant group, and whether priorities differed for subgroups (by sex, race/ethnicity, and specialty). Results Of 9669 applicants surveyed, 6285 (65%) responded. The 5 factors with highest rating of importance (overall and across all subgroups) were the program's ability to prepare residents for future training or position, resident esprit de corps, faculty availability and involvement in teaching, depth and breadth of faculty, and variety of patients and clinical resources. Small but significant differences in the ratings of some factors by sex and/or specialty group were identified. Institution-level characteristics, such as call rooms, salary, and benefits, were relatively unimportant. Applicant priorities were stable over the 9-year study period. Conclusions Highly ranked applicants to competitive residency programs value educational aspects of the program most highly, along with resident morale. Top factors were consistent across subgroups and over the 9 years of the study. These findings have implications for resident recruitment strategies. PMID:26217417

  17. 40 CFR 47.125 - Eligible and priority projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental pollution problems; (3) Projects to understand and assess a specific environmental issue or a... foster international cooperation in addressing environmental issues and problems involving the United... environmental issue which, in the judgment of EPA, is of a high priority....

  18. 40 CFR 47.125 - Eligible and priority projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental pollution problems; (3) Projects to understand and assess a specific environmental issue or a... foster international cooperation in addressing environmental issues and problems involving the United... environmental issue which, in the judgment of EPA, is of a high priority....

  19. Top 40 Priorities for Science to Inform US Conservation and Management Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a list of America's "Top 40" high-priority questions that, if answered, would help inform some of the most important current and future decisions about resource management in the United States

  20. Multiresidue Screening Method for Detection of Benzimidazoles and their Metabolites in Liver and Muscle by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Method Development and Validation According to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC

    PubMed Central

    Prearo, Marino; Stella, Paola; Ostorero, Federica; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2014-01-01

    The use of veterinary drugs may cause the presence of residues in food of animal origin if appropriate withdrawal periods are not respected. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of 11 benzimidazole residues, including metabolites – albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, albendazole sulphone, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide (oxfendazole), fenbendazole sulphone, flubendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, thiabendazole, 5-hydroxythiabendazole – in bovine, ovine, equine, swine, rabbit and poultry liver and in bovine, swine and fish muscle. After extraction with a dicloromethane/acetonitrile solution (35/65 v/v) containing 5% ammonium hydroxide, the solvent was evaporated to dryness, the residue was dissolved in HCl 0.1 M, defatted with hexane, purified on a strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge and analysed in HPLC with diode array and fluorescence detectors. The method was validated as screening qualitative method evaluating, according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, specificity, CCβ and β error at cut off level of 25 μg/kg and ruggedness. PMID:27800310

  1. Collaborating on Global Priorities: Science Education for Everyone--Any Time and Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such…

  2. The Top Priority: Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassissieh, Julia; Barton, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Although practitioners have been asked to make fundamental shifts in their beliefs about reaching all students, the structures of high schools to support that work have not changed appreciably. Teachers teach in isolation, departmental silos lack curricular and instructional coherence across core subject areas, and few teachers share students in…

  3. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  4. 32 CFR 245.21 - ESCAT air traffic priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ESCAT air traffic priority list. 245.21 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) ESCAT Air Traffic Priority List (EATPL) § 245.21 ESCAT air traffic priority list. (a) Priority One. (1) The President of...

  5. Reframing recreation as a public policy priority.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Recreation has the potential to be an important public policy priority; however, it must be reframed to address critical policy priorities. Few policymakers understand the value and benefits of recreation, requiring practitioners and advocates to closely connect recreation to issues of concern to policymakers. A significant policy opportunity to expand recreational opportunities for children and youth lies in the area of education, including the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. By educating policymakers on the myriad outcomes that can result from quality recreational experiences, including the ways in which recreation can support the education of children and youth, solid,incremental progress can be made in positioning recreation as a public policy priority.

  6. Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting.

    PubMed

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-06-01

    A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors' intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations.

  7. Priority of discovery in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D; Hyman, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The job of a scientist is to make a discovery and then communicate this new knowledge to others. For a scientist to be successful, he or she needs to be able to claim credit or priority for discoveries throughout their career. However, despite being fundamental to the reward system of science, the principles for establishing the "priority of discovery" are rarely discussed. Here we break down priority into two steps: disclosure, in which the discovery is released to the world-wide community; and validation, in which other scientists assess the accuracy, quality and importance of the work. Currently, in biology, disclosure and an initial validation are combined in a journal publication. Here, we discuss the advantages of separating these steps into disclosure via a preprint, and validation via a combination of peer review at a journal and additional evaluation by the wider scientific community. PMID:27310529

  8. Priority of discovery in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ronald D; Hyman, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The job of a scientist is to make a discovery and then communicate this new knowledge to others. For a scientist to be successful, he or she needs to be able to claim credit or priority for discoveries throughout their career. However, despite being fundamental to the reward system of science, the principles for establishing the "priority of discovery" are rarely discussed. Here we break down priority into two steps: disclosure, in which the discovery is released to the world-wide community; and validation, in which other scientists assess the accuracy, quality and importance of the work. Currently, in biology, disclosure and an initial validation are combined in a journal publication. Here, we discuss the advantages of separating these steps into disclosure via a preprint, and validation via a combination of peer review at a journal and additional evaluation by the wider scientific community. PMID:27310529

  9. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  10. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  11. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  12. A novel measure to determine viewing priority and its neural correlates in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Cornelissen, Frans W; Dorr, Michael; Vig, Eleonora; Barth, Erhardt; Renken, Remco J

    2016-01-01

    A key property of human visual behavior is the very frequent movement of our eyes to potentially relevant information in the environment. Observers thus continuously have to prioritize information for directing their eyes to. Research in this field has been hampered by a lack of appropriate measures and tools. Here, we propose and validate a novel measure of priority that takes advantage of the variability in the natural viewing behavior of individual observers. In short, our measure assumes that priority is low when observers' gaze behavior is inconsistent and high when it is very consistent. We calculated priority for gaze data obtained during an experiment in which participants viewed dynamic natural scenes while we simultaneously recorded their gaze position and brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our priority measure shows only limited correlation with various saliency, surprise, and motion measures, indicating it is assessing a distinct property of visual behavior. Finally, we correlated our priority measure with the BOLD signal, thereby revealing activity in a select number of human occipital and parietal areas. This suggests the presence of a cortical network involved in computing and representing viewing priority. We conclude that our new analysis method allows for empirically establishing the priority of events in near-natural vision paradigms. PMID:27058271

  13. Priorities for treatment research from different professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, William E; Wald, Arnold; Norton, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    The consensus conference "Advancing the Treatment of Fecal and Urinary Incontinence Through Research" had as one of its goals the development of a comprehensive list of research priorities. Experts from all disciplines that treat incontinence-gastroenterology, pediatric gastroenterology, urology, urogynecology, colorectal surgery, geriatrics, neurology, nursing, and psychology-and patient advocates were asked to identify their highest priorities for treatment-related research. Meeting participants were shown the aggregated list and invited to propose additional priorities. Treatments for fecal incontinence (biofeedback, sphincteroplasty, antidiarrheal and laxative medications, and sacral nerve stimulation) require validation by randomized, controlled trials. For urinary incontinence, the greatest need is to compare pharmacological, behavioral, and surgical treatments. Trials assessing combined treatments (e.g., biofeedback plus surgery vs. surgery alone or biofeedback alone) are also needed. New drugs are needed that target anal canal resting pressure in fecal incontinence and hypersensitivity to distention in urge urinary incontinence. It may be possible to substantially reduce the incidence of incontinence through modification of obstetric practices (e.g., avoiding episiotomies or offering elective cesarean delivery to high-risk patients), providing pelvic floor exercises before childbirth, and educating patients to avoid straining during defecation. For the elderly, practical behavioral and pharmacological treatments are needed that can postpone or avoid institutionalization. Social science research may identify ways to counteract the social stigma of fecal incontinence and assist physicians in providing patients with more comprehensive and understandable information on the risks associated with different treatment options. PMID:14978659

  14. [Health personnel research: analysis of priorities and political orientations].

    PubMed

    Stulhman, L; Codina, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors endeavor to determine the right priorities for research on health personnel in the framework of the policies on science and technology of the countries in the Region. Although it is difficult to work out a common systematic approach for the analysis, definition and location of the infinity of variables that make up a health system, it is clear that the Region's ever evolving manpower situation has three effects that are ineluctably bound up with the socioeconomic development of the society served: the planning, education and training, and utilization of those resources. The article considers the lack of definite policies on just these three key elements in the development of health personnel and services in relation to both the supply of and demand for them. The authors point out that a genuine solution to the problems requires imperatively the satisfaction of the great need for high priority to serious and thorough research on the health care system, on mutual responsiveness between care services and training systems, and the economic, political and social aspects of the health field itself. The paper also considers the policy guidelines required by the research priorities, and identifies possible activities in the short and middle run for carrying forward programs and projects of social research in those subjects. PMID:3996280

  15. Identification of priority organic compounds in groundwater recharge of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Miao; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Yeping; Wu, Miaomiao

    2014-09-15

    Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion, especially in arid areas. Traditional water treatment systems are inefficient to remove all the types of contaminants that would pose risks to groundwater, so it is crucial to establish a priority list of organic compounds (OCs) that deserve the preferential treatment. In this study, a comprehensive ranking system was developed to determine the list and then applied to China. 151 OCs, for which occurrence data in the wastewater treatment plants were available, were selected as candidate OCs. Based on their occurrence, exposure potential and ecological effects, two different rankings of OCs were established respectively for groundwater recharge by surface infiltration and direct aquifer injection. Thirty-four OCs were regarded as having no risks while the remaining 117 OCs were divided into three groups: high, moderate and low priority OCs. Regardless of the recharge way, nonylphenol, erythromycin and ibuprofen were the highest priority OCs; their removal should be prioritized. Also the database should be updated as detecting technology is developed.

  16. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other... curtailment of deliveries of natural gas for any essential agricultural use, unless: (1) Such curtailment does... practicable and that the fuel is reasonably available as an alternative for such essential agricultural...

  17. 45 CFR 1620.3 - Establishing priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIORITIES... include an effective appraisal of the needs of eligible clients in the geographic area served by the... clients that is solicited in a manner reasonably calculated to obtain the views of all...

  18. 40 CFR 93.103 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority. 93.103 Section 93.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DETERMINING... Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title...

  19. 40 CFR 93.103 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority. 93.103 Section 93.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DETERMINING... Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title...

  20. 47 CFR 211.5 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priorities. 211.5 Section 211.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION... intelligence; (4) Distribute essential food and other supplies critical to health; (5) Provide for...

  1. Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    In "Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership," Charles A. Bonnici addresses several issues facing school leaders through strategies supported by real-life examples and anecdotes. The issues addressed include questions such as: (1) What is the most urgent issue faced by a new school leader?; (2) How can this leader address the…

  2. State Priorities in Higher Education: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenth, Charles S.

    The report provides information on the current issues, financial priorities, and legislative concerns faced by higher education at the state level, based upon observations of State Higher Education Executive Officers in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The most important tasks facing higher education were identified as…

  3. 7 CFR 1778.7 - Project priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.7 Project priority. Paragraph (d... and by the Assistant Administrator of Water and Environmental Programs to select projects for funding...) Quantity of water available from private individually owned wells or other individual sources of...

  4. Future Priorities for Asian American Studies Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    Priorities for Asian American Studies (AAS) programs for the future are discussed, along with the early history of these programs, changes they have undergone, and four impacts of the programs. Major impacts include: increased ethnic consciousness of Asian American students, increased sensitivity of colleges to Asian American curriculum and…

  5. 7 CFR 4279.255 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan priorities. 4279.255 Section 4279.255 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.255 - Loan priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan priorities. 4279.255 Section 4279.255 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance...

  7. National Adult Student Priorities Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Group Noel-Levitz, Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents the results of the fourth annual National Adult Student Priorities Study (ASPS) conducted to determine the areas of highest importance to students 25 years and older, the areas of greatest and least satisfaction to these college students, and the greatest performance gaps between levels of importance and levels of…

  8. National Adult Student Priorities Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Group Noel-Levitz, Iowa City, IA.

    This report describes the third annual National Adult Student Priorities Study (ASPS), an attempt to determine the areas of highest importance to students aged 25 and older. The 2002 ASPS represents data from 78 colleges and universities representing four-year public, four-year private, and two-year community, junior, and technical institutions.…

  9. 7 CFR 623.9 - Easement priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Easement priority. 623.9 Section 623.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... selection will consider the following: (a) Protection and enhancement of habitat for migratory birds...

  10. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PURPOSES AND AVAILABILITY OF GRANTS FOR INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.20...

  11. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PURPOSES AND AVAILABILITY OF GRANTS FOR INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.20...

  12. 7 CFR 623.9 - Easement priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement priority. 623.9 Section 623.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... selection will consider the following: (a) Protection and enhancement of habitat for migratory birds...

  13. 7 CFR 623.9 - Easement priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Easement priority. 623.9 Section 623.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... selection will consider the following: (a) Protection and enhancement of habitat for migratory birds...

  14. 7 CFR 623.9 - Easement priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Easement priority. 623.9 Section 623.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... selection will consider the following: (a) Protection and enhancement of habitat for migratory birds...

  15. U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Claiborne

    1983-01-01

    The three highest priorities for American foreign policy are avoiding nuclear war by working with the Soviet leadership to alter our present collision course, demonstrating our commitment to human rights throughout the world, and ensuring American economic prosperity by strengthening exports and ensuring the stability of the international monetary…

  16. 7 CFR 3431.14 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Priority. 3431.14 Section 3431.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program §...

  17. Education and Work: A NIE Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Corinne H.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a rationale and objectives for NIE's education and work priority area, to discuss the status of current R&D activities within this area, and to describe possible future efforts that are now under discussion. (Author)

  18. 42 CFR 57.1506 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies.... (a) Priority in approving applications for loan guarantee and/or interest subsidies shall be... relative need for increased enrollment and the availability of students; (2) the relative effectiveness...

  19. 7 CFR 636.5 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.5 National priorities. (a) The... or important native fish and wildlife habitats; (2) Protect, restore, develop, or enhance fish and wildlife habitat to benefit at-risk species; (3) Reduce the impacts of invasive species on fish...

  20. 7 CFR 636.5 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.5 National priorities. (a) The... or important native fish and wildlife habitats; (2) Protect, restore, develop, or enhance fish and wildlife habitat to benefit at-risk species; (3) Reduce the impacts of invasive species on fish...

  1. 7 CFR 636.5 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.5 National priorities. (a) The... or important native fish and wildlife habitats; (2) Protect, restore, develop, or enhance fish and wildlife habitat to benefit at-risk species; (3) Reduce the impacts of invasive species on fish...

  2. 7 CFR 636.5 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.5 National priorities. (a) The... or important native fish and wildlife habitats; (2) Protect, restore, develop, or enhance fish and wildlife habitat to benefit at-risk species; (3) Reduce the impacts of invasive species on fish...

  3. 7 CFR 636.5 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.5 National priorities. (a) The... or important native fish and wildlife habitats; (2) Protect, restore, develop, or enhance fish and wildlife habitat to benefit at-risk species; (3) Reduce the impacts of invasive species on fish...

  4. Teaching Objectives in Biology: Priorities and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.; Jungwirth, E.

    1972-01-01

    There are differences between experienced BSCS biology teachers and those beginning to use BSCS, with respect to the ranking of objectives in order of importance and in the estimation of the ease of achieving the objectives. There is a disparity between the teachers' priorities and their expectations of achieving the objectives. (AL)

  5. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  6. National priorities list sites: Georgia, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  7. National priorities list sites: Indiana, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  8. National priorities list sites: Minnesota, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  9. National priorities list sites: Louisiana, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  10. National priorities list sites: Rhode Island, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  11. National priorities list sites: Arkansas, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  12. National priorities list sites: Oregon, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  13. National priorities list sites: Wyoming, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  14. National priorities list sites: Illinois, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  15. National priorities list sites: Missouri, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  16. National priorities list sites: North Carolina, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  17. National priorities list sites: New Hampshire, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  18. National priorities list sites: Texas, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  19. National priorities list sites: Maryland, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  20. National priorities list sites: Florida, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  1. National priorities list sites: Maine, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  2. National priorities list sites: Kansas, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  3. National priorities list sites: Tennessee, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  4. National priorities list sites: Ohio, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  5. National priorities list sites: Vermont, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  6. National priorities list sites: Pennsylvania, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  7. National priorities list sites: Iowa, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  8. National priorities list sites: Montana, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  9. National priorities list sites: Oklahoma, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  10. National priorities list sites: Delaware, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  11. National priorities list sites: South Carolina, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  12. National priorities list sites: Michigan, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  13. National priorities list sites: Mississippi, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  14. National priorities list sites: Kentucky, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  15. National priorities list sites: Nebraska, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  16. National priorities list sites: Massachusetts, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  17. National priorities list sites: Connecticut, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  18. National priorities list sites: Wisconsin, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  19. National priorities list sites: West Virginia, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  20. National priorities list sites: Virginia, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  1. National priorities list sites: Alaska, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  2. National priorities list sites: Colorado, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  3. National priorities list sites: Idaho, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  4. National priorities list sites: Alabama, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  5. National priorities list sites: New Mexico, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  6. National priorities list sites: Utah, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  7. National priorities list sites: New York, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  8. National priorities list sites: New Jersey, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  9. National priorities list sites: Washington, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  10. 7 CFR 623.9 - Easement priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.9 Easement priority. The State... species, (b) Floodway expansion, (c) Proximity to other protected wetlands, (d) Level of hydrology restored, (e) Wetland function or values, (f) Likelihood of successful restoration of wetland values,...

  11. 7 CFR 1465.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National priorities. 1465.4 Section 1465.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE...

  12. Public Opinion Poll on Community Priorities: Sacramento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to measure public perceptions, opinions and priorities as they pertain to youth issues in Sacramento for the purposes of further developing public and private youth programming and public policy in the Sacramento region. By presenting a "statistically reliable" profile of public opinion on youth issues, the…

  13. Pres. Clinton's Education Priorities: Early 1993 Indications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Educators anticipate bold new education reform initiatives from President Bill Clinton and his Education Secretary, Richard Riley. A priority project is college tuition loans, repayable through voluntary public service jobs. The President also supports increased funding for the Head Start Program and money for a national apprenticeship program for…

  14. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  15. Annual Report on LSCA Priorities. FY 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Center for Libraries and Education Improvement.

    This collection of six reports was compiled by the State and Public Library Services Branch of the United States Department of Education to disseminate pertinent information submitted by the State Library Administrative Agencies on the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) priority areas. Based on data from the fiscal year 1982 LSCA Annual…

  16. 47 CFR 211.5 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priorities. 211.5 Section 211.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION... and diplomacy, for law and order, and for national health and safety in a national emergency...

  17. Protecting Our Priorities: 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    What does "protecting our priorities" mean in an era when economic realities require that institutions of higher education trim their budgets while also providing critical education and training to more and more students--those "human resources" whose skills will be the key to any economic turnaround? This is a question WICHE addresses every day.…

  18. 12 CFR 360.3 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.3 Priorities. (a) Unsecured claims against an association or the receiver that are... expenses of the association, provided that such expenses were incurred within thirty (30) days prior to the... include wages or salaries of employees of the association; (3) Claims for wages and salaries,...

  19. Leadership Education Priorities for a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the priorities for leadership education in a democratic society is a complex, challenging responsibility, not a task to be taken lightly. It is complex on one level in that to be a leader in schools "today is to understand a profoundly human as well as a professional responsibility." It is challenging on another level in that preparing…

  20. Marine Science Affairs--Selecting Priority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes accomplishments in 1969, describing Federal programs and policies, and new programs implemented to meet those policies. The report describes the priorities that have been selected in the Federal Marine Science program during 1969. The first chapter reviews the steps taken by the Federal Government during 1969 to advance and…

  1. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PURPOSES AND AVAILABILITY OF GRANTS FOR INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.20...

  2. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PURPOSES AND AVAILABILITY OF GRANTS FOR INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.20...

  3. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PURPOSES AND AVAILABILITY OF GRANTS FOR INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.20...

  4. 7 CFR 1942.107 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Priorities. 1942.107 Section 1942.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  5. 7 CFR 1942.107 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Priorities. 1942.107 Section 1942.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  6. 7 CFR 1942.107 - Priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Priorities. 1942.107 Section 1942.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  7. Organic crop production's top research priority: Pestiphytology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pestiphytology is the study of pest plants, commonly referred to as weeds. In a recent national survey, weed research was designated as the top research priority by organic producers. Manual weed control is a costly practice that can quickly decrease return on investment, while the absence of weed...

  8. 38 CFR 39.3 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS... years of the date of the preapplication. Such projects would include expansion projects as well as... veterans cemeteries. (3) Priority Group 3—Expansion projects at existing veterans cemeteries when...

  9. 38 CFR 39.3 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES... date of the preapplication. Such projects would include expansion projects as well as improvement... cemeteries. (3) Priority Group 3—Expansion projects at existing veterans cemeteries when a disruption...

  10. 38 CFR 39.3 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES... date of the preapplication. Such projects would include expansion projects as well as improvement... cemeteries. (3) Priority Group 3—Expansion projects at existing veterans cemeteries when a disruption...

  11. 38 CFR 39.3 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES... date of the preapplication. Such projects would include expansion projects as well as improvement... cemeteries. (3) Priority Group 3—Expansion projects at existing veterans cemeteries when a disruption...

  12. 38 CFR 39.7 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT OF VETERANS' CEMETERIES (Eff. until 7-16-10) Grant... years of the date of the preapplication. Such projects would include expansion projects as well as... veterans' cemeteries. (3) Priority Group 3—Expansion projects at existing veterans' cemeteries when...

  13. Infant Mortality: Priority for Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Orme, Terri

    1987-01-01

    Bemoans the failure of the social work profession to claim infant mortality as a professional priority in spite of evidence of the appropriateness of social work interventions. Stresses social work's role in the reduction of preventable infant deaths. (Author/KS)

  14. Value Priorities of Human Resource Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Chen, Hsin-Chih

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive exploratory study sought to assess the values priorities of individuals and groups across various HRD occupational specialties. Findings showed that, in general, respondents felt the most important guides to the practice of HRD should be those emphasizing performance-related outcomes. However, results also showed meaningful…

  15. Leadership Education Priorities in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Is there still an effort to include democratic ideals in public education? Some claim that it is no longer a priority, the result of a lack of common definition or perceived benefits. In today's policy driven climate, school leaders must transition to new and more effective approaches to enhancing learning and teaching. Aspiring principals/leaders…

  16. The Top Training Priorities for 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Brandon

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 222 training professionals identified current training priorities: soft skills training; technical training; enhancing the quality of training; business skills; business alignment, business impact, and return on investment; online learning; sales training; safety and compliance training; performance management; and human…

  17. Incorporating national priorities into the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Deborah Y

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects of care that need an overhaul to function safely, efficiently, and effectively. There needs to be a new culture in health care that focuses on safety and quality, and it will take many shareholders working together to make this possible. The National Priorities Partnership is a group of 28 national organizations from across the health care spectrum collaborating to change the health care delivery system. The Partners acknowledged four challenges individuals face in the current U.S. system: harm, disparity, disease burden, and waste. To meet these challenges and improve performance, the Partners identified six priorities: patient and family engagement, population health, safety, care coordination, palliative and end-of-life care, and overuse (National Priorities Partnership). It is hopeful that when put into practice, these essentials will have a significant impact on improving health care. It comes down to creating a culture of safety and quality. This culture should start during entry-level education for health care providers, such as nursing schools. The priorities and goals provide a framework that can be incorporated into the curriculum so future nurses are aware of the issues and challenges in health care today. Each challenge needs evidence-based strategies for achieving the desired results. It is time to create a culture of safety and quality in health care.

  18. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Erin M; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Katz, Rebecca L; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response - including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  19. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Erin M.; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J.; Katz, Rebecca L.; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response – including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  20. Identifying spatial priorities for protecting ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Priorities for protecting ecosystem services must be identified to ensure future human well-being. Approaches to broad-scale spatial prioritization of ecosystem services are becoming increasingly popular and are a vital precursor to identifying locations where further detailed analyses of the management of ecosystem services is required (e.g., examining trade-offs among management actions). Prioritization approaches often examine the spatial congruence between priorities for protecting ecosystem services and priorities for protecting biodiversity; therefore, the spatial prioritization method used is crucial because it will influence the alignment of service protection and conservation goals. While spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and prioritization for conservation share similarities, such as the need to document threats and costs, the former differs substantially from the latter owing to the requirement to measure the following components: supply of services; availability of human-derived alternatives to service provision; capacity to meet beneficiary demand; and site dependency in and scale of service delivery. We review studies that identify broad-scale spatial priorities for managing ecosystem services and demonstrate that researchers have used different approaches and included various measures for identifying priorities, and most studies do not consider all of the components listed above. We describe a conceptual framework for integrating each of these components into spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and illustrate our approach using a worked example for water provision. A fuller characterization of the biophysical and social context for ecosystem services that we call for should improve future prioritization and the identification of locations where ecosystem-service management is especially important or cost effective. PMID:24555017

  1. Identifying spatial priorities for protecting ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Luck, Gary W; Chan, Kai Ma; Klien, Carissa J

    2012-01-01

    Priorities for protecting ecosystem services must be identified to ensure future human well-being. Approaches to broad-scale spatial prioritization of ecosystem services are becoming increasingly popular and are a vital precursor to identifying locations where further detailed analyses of the management of ecosystem services is required (e.g., examining trade-offs among management actions). Prioritization approaches often examine the spatial congruence between priorities for protecting ecosystem services and priorities for protecting biodiversity; therefore, the spatial prioritization method used is crucial because it will influence the alignment of service protection and conservation goals. While spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and prioritization for conservation share similarities, such as the need to document threats and costs, the former differs substantially from the latter owing to the requirement to measure the following components: supply of services; availability of human-derived alternatives to service provision; capacity to meet beneficiary demand; and site dependency in and scale of service delivery. We review studies that identify broad-scale spatial priorities for managing ecosystem services and demonstrate that researchers have used different approaches and included various measures for identifying priorities, and most studies do not consider all of the components listed above. We describe a conceptual framework for integrating each of these components into spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and illustrate our approach using a worked example for water provision. A fuller characterization of the biophysical and social context for ecosystem services that we call for should improve future prioritization and the identification of locations where ecosystem-service management is especially important or cost effective. PMID:24555017

  2. Are survival processing memory advantages based on ancestral priorities?

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; McCabe, David P

    2011-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that our memory systems are especially tuned to process information according to its survival relevance, and that inducing problems of "ancestral priorities" faced by our ancestors should lead to optimal recall performance (Nairne & Pandeirada, Cognitive Psychology, 2010). The present study investigated the specificity of this idea by comparing an ancestor-consistent scenario and a modern survival scenario that involved threats that were encountered by human ancestors (e.g., predators) or threats from fictitious creatures (i.e., zombies). Participants read one of four survival scenarios in which the environment and the explicit threat were either consistent or inconsistent with ancestrally based problems (i.e., grasslands-predators, grasslands-zombies, city-attackers, city-zombies), or they rated words for pleasantness. After rating words based on their survival relevance (or pleasantness), the participants performed a free recall task. All survival scenarios led to better recall than did pleasantness ratings, but recall was greater when zombies were the threat, as compared to predators or attackers. Recall did not differ for the modern (i.e., city) and ancestral (i.e., grasslands) scenarios. These recall differences persisted when valence and arousal ratings for the scenarios were statistically controlled as well. These data challenge the specificity of ancestral priorities in survival-processing advantages in memory.

  3. Driving Forces and Priorities in the Hungarian Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Takats, F.; Ormai, P.

    2002-02-26

    Hungary, being a candidate state to the European Union, pays particular attention to the measures that are typically considered as good practice within the EU when developing and implementing its national program for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. The Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (PURAM) has been designated to carry out the multilevel tasks in the field of radioactive waste management. In accordance with changes in infrastructure, Hungary is about to make significant strategic and technical decisions. There are several technical priorities for the coming years, such as improving the existing L/ILW repository, construction of a new repository for L/ILW, extension of the interim storage facility for spent fuel and setting up a revised back-end policy. Preparations for decommissioning of the nuclear facilities have to be developed as well. The paper outlines the main problem areas as well as the approach to managing radioactive wastes. It will be concluded that priorities can be set, but key dates and deadlines will always contain an element of uncertainty due to public and political acceptance problems.

  4. Are survival processing memory advantages based on ancestral priorities?

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; McCabe, David P

    2011-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that our memory systems are especially tuned to process information according to its survival relevance, and that inducing problems of "ancestral priorities" faced by our ancestors should lead to optimal recall performance (Nairne & Pandeirada, Cognitive Psychology, 2010). The present study investigated the specificity of this idea by comparing an ancestor-consistent scenario and a modern survival scenario that involved threats that were encountered by human ancestors (e.g., predators) or threats from fictitious creatures (i.e., zombies). Participants read one of four survival scenarios in which the environment and the explicit threat were either consistent or inconsistent with ancestrally based problems (i.e., grasslands-predators, grasslands-zombies, city-attackers, city-zombies), or they rated words for pleasantness. After rating words based on their survival relevance (or pleasantness), the participants performed a free recall task. All survival scenarios led to better recall than did pleasantness ratings, but recall was greater when zombies were the threat, as compared to predators or attackers. Recall did not differ for the modern (i.e., city) and ancestral (i.e., grasslands) scenarios. These recall differences persisted when valence and arousal ratings for the scenarios were statistically controlled as well. These data challenge the specificity of ancestral priorities in survival-processing advantages in memory. PMID:21327372

  5. Priority setting in health care: a complementary approach.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rui; Rego, Guilhermina

    2014-09-01

    Explicit forms of rationing have already been implemented in some countries, and many of these prioritization systems resort to Norman Daniels' "accountability for reasonableness" methodology. However, a question still remains: is "accountability for reasonableness" not only legitimate but also fair? The objective of this paper is to try to adjust "accountability for reasonableness" to the World Health Organization's holistic view of health and propose an evolutionary perspective in relation to the "normal" functioning standard proposed by Norman Daniels. To accomplish this purpose the authors depart from the "normal" functioning standard to a model that promotes effective opportunity for everyone in health care access, because even within the "normal" functioning criteria some treatments and medical interventions should have priority upon others. Equal opportunity function is a mathematical function that helps to hierarchize moral relevant necessities in health care according to this point of view. It is concluded, first, that accountability for reasonableness is an extremely valuable tool to address the issue of setting limits in health care; second, that what is called in this paper "equal opportunity function" might reflect how accountability for reasonableness results in fair limit-setting decisions; and third, that this methodology must be further specified to best achieve fair limit-setting decisions. Indeed, when resources are especially scarce the methodology suggested in this paper might allow not only prioritizing in an "all or nothing" basis but can contribute to a hierarchy system of priorities in health care.

  6. Comprehensive screening and priority ranking of volatile organic compounds in Daliao River, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Longxing; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Jiping

    2014-05-01

    An analytical strategy for comprehensive screening of target and non-target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water was developed, and it was applied to the analysis of VOCs in water samples from Daliao River. The target VOCs were quantified using purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS). Among 20 water samples, 34 VOCs were detected at least once. For the screening of non-target VOCs, the double distillation apparatus was used for the pre-concentration of VOCs prior to P&T-GC/MS analysis. Subsequently, deconvolution software and NIST mass spectral library were applied for the identification of the non-target compounds. A total of 17 non-target VOCs were identified. The most frequently detected VOCs (detection frequencies >80 %) included toluene, benzene, naphthalene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and methyl tert-butyl ether. The distribution of VOCs obviously varied according to the sampling sites. The total concentrations of VOCs in water samples collected from the heavily industrialized cities (Anshan and Liaoyang) and the busy port city (Yingkou) were relatively high. The top ten priority VOCs, including naphthalene, 1,2-dichloroethane, o-xylene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and p-xylene, were obtained by the ranking of the detected VOCs according to their occurrence and ecological effects. These compounds should be given more attention in monitoring and drainage control strategies.

  7. [Problems and priorities in child survival].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, J L

    1988-01-01

    This work synthesizes the conclusions and recommendations of the 1985 International Workshop on Child Survival held in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Data are presented which document the extent of the problem of child survival in Latin America and the deficiencies of available data. Malnutrition, diseases preventable through vaccination, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and shortcomings in quality of care are separately discussed following an assessment of their socioeconomic and cultural determining factors. Recent advances in the preventive component of primary health care programs are discussed. In Latin America, 900 of each 1000 live born babies survive to the 5th year of life compared to 980 in developed countries. Although the mortality rate of children under 5 in Latin America declined from 128 in 1950-55 to 63 in 1980-85, there are wide disparities between countries. Most countries of Latin America were classified as having high or very high infant and child mortality. There are serious differences in child survival between geographic regions and social groups of each country. The mortality decline in Costa Rica, Cuba, and Chile demonstrates that other countries could avoid a large proportion of deaths by ensuring that benefits of current programs have broader coverage. The severe economic crisis in Mexico and other countries threatens the progress already achieved in child survival. The recommendations of the conference are based on the premise that recent efforts to improve survival have been insufficient and a more rational use of the available resources and knowledge is required. In the area of health policy, priority should continue to be given to providing care for mothers and small children. Investments should be reoriented toward extending coverage of primary health care. The proportion of mothers attended during delivery by trained paramedical personnel or physicians should be increased, and family planning programs in

  8. [Problems and priorities in child survival].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, J L

    1988-01-01

    This work synthesizes the conclusions and recommendations of the 1985 International Workshop on Child Survival held in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Data are presented which document the extent of the problem of child survival in Latin America and the deficiencies of available data. Malnutrition, diseases preventable through vaccination, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and shortcomings in quality of care are separately discussed following an assessment of their socioeconomic and cultural determining factors. Recent advances in the preventive component of primary health care programs are discussed. In Latin America, 900 of each 1000 live born babies survive to the 5th year of life compared to 980 in developed countries. Although the mortality rate of children under 5 in Latin America declined from 128 in 1950-55 to 63 in 1980-85, there are wide disparities between countries. Most countries of Latin America were classified as having high or very high infant and child mortality. There are serious differences in child survival between geographic regions and social groups of each country. The mortality decline in Costa Rica, Cuba, and Chile demonstrates that other countries could avoid a large proportion of deaths by ensuring that benefits of current programs have broader coverage. The severe economic crisis in Mexico and other countries threatens the progress already achieved in child survival. The recommendations of the conference are based on the premise that recent efforts to improve survival have been insufficient and a more rational use of the available resources and knowledge is required. In the area of health policy, priority should continue to be given to providing care for mothers and small children. Investments should be reoriented toward extending coverage of primary health care. The proportion of mothers attended during delivery by trained paramedical personnel or physicians should be increased, and family planning programs in

  9. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Improving the Accessibility, Usability, and Performance of Technology for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on an area of national need. We intend the priority to contribute to improving the accessibility, usability, and performance of technology for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:25016623

  10. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Technologies to Enhance Independence in Daily Living for Adults with Cognitive Impairments. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on an area of national need. We intend the priority to contribute to improved outcomes related to independence in daily activities in the home, community, or workplace setting for adults with cognitive impairments. PMID:24908686

  11. Parental Perception of the Importance of Friendship and Other Outcome Priorities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Neysa; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parental perceptions of the importance of friendship development in comparison to other outcome priorities are examined in this research. Parents of children with high functioning autism between the age of 5-10?years (N?=?74) were asked to rate and rank the importance of the following six outcome priorities: friendship, social skills, physical and…

  12. Differentiating innovation priorities among stakeholder in hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions to adopt a particular innovation may vary between stakeholders because individual stakeholders may disagree on the costs and benefits involved. This may translate to disagreement between stakeholders on priorities in the implementation process, possibly explaining the slow diffusion of innovations in health care. In this study, we explore the differences in stakeholder preferences for innovations, and quantify the difference in stakeholder priorities regarding costs and benefits. Methods The decision support technique called the analytic hierarchy process was used to quantify the preferences of stakeholders for nine information technology (IT) innovations in hospital care. The selection of the innovations was based on a literature review and expert judgments. Decision criteria related to the costs and benefits of the innovations were defined. These criteria were improvement in efficiency, health gains, satisfaction with care process, and investments required. Stakeholders judged the importance of the decision criteria and subsequently prioritized the selected IT innovations according to their expectations of how well the innovations would perform for these decision criteria. Results The stakeholder groups (patients, nurses, physicians, managers, health care insurers, and policy makers) had different preference structures for the innovations selected. For instance, self-tests were one of the innovations most preferred by health care insurers and managers, owing to their expected positive impacts on efficiency and health gains. However, physicians, nurses and patients strongly doubted the health gains of self-tests, and accordingly ranked self-tests as the least-preferred innovation. Conclusions The various stakeholder groups had different expectations of the value of the nine IT innovations. The differences are likely due to perceived stakeholder benefits of each innovation, and less to the costs to individual stakeholder groups. This study

  13. Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vromman, V; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Vleminckx, C; Saegerman, C; Pussemier, L; Huyghebaert, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risks of environmental carcinogenic and/or genotoxic contaminants in food. It describes, for each contaminant studied, the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, the toxicological reference values, the exposure and the risk characterisation. The compounds studied were classified into 3 categories based on a risk assessment. Effects others than carcinogenicity and/or genotoxicity (e.g. endocrine disruption activity) were also taken into account for the classification. Given the low margin of exposure values for arsenic and lead, these two compounds are classified as priority 1 (high concern) for food safety and as a first priority to take actions to reduce exposure. Cadmium, methylmercury, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), non-dioxin-like PCB and toxaphene are classified as priority 2 (medium concern). Polybrominated biphenyls, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane included), polychlorophenols and their salts are classified as priority 3 (low concern). PMID:24471940

  14. Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vromman, V; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Vleminckx, C; Saegerman, C; Pussemier, L; Huyghebaert, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risks of environmental carcinogenic and/or genotoxic contaminants in food. It describes, for each contaminant studied, the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, the toxicological reference values, the exposure and the risk characterisation. The compounds studied were classified into 3 categories based on a risk assessment. Effects others than carcinogenicity and/or genotoxicity (e.g. endocrine disruption activity) were also taken into account for the classification. Given the low margin of exposure values for arsenic and lead, these two compounds are classified as priority 1 (high concern) for food safety and as a first priority to take actions to reduce exposure. Cadmium, methylmercury, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), non-dioxin-like PCB and toxaphene are classified as priority 2 (medium concern). Polybrominated biphenyls, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane included), polychlorophenols and their salts are classified as priority 3 (low concern).

  15. Top 40 priorities for science to inform conservation and management policy in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford D.; Fiske, Shirley J.; Gosnell, Hannah; Haney, J. Chris; Hutchins, Michael; Klein, Mary L.; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Noon, Barry R.; Nordgren, John R.; Orbuch, Paul M.; Powell, Jimmie; Quarles, Steven P.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Stein, Bruce A.; Webster, Michael S.; Vedder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To maximize the utility of research to decisionmaking, especially given limited financial resources, scientists must set priorities for their efforts. We present a list of the top 40 high-priority, multidisciplinary research questions directed toward informing some of the most important current and future decisions about management of species, communities, and ecological processes in the United States. The questions were generated by an open, inclusive process that included personal interviews with decisionmakers, broad solicitation of research needs from scientists and policymakers, and an intensive workshop that included scientifically oriented individuals responsible for managing and developing policy related to natural resources. The process differed from previous efforts to set priorities for conservation research in its focus on the engagement of decisionmakers in addition to researchers. The research priorities emphasized the importance of addressing societal context and exploration of trade-offs among alternative policies and actions, as well as more traditional questions related to ecological processes and functions.

  16. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Sexton, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation’s unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment. PMID:25847995

  17. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  18. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Clinton N; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pimm, Stuart L; Sexton, Joseph O

    2015-04-21

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation's unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment.

  19. Viewpoint: childhood undernutrition: a failing global priority.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristine

    2009-12-01

    Undernutrition remains a significant underlying cause of death among children worldwide. Although alleviating hunger is part of the first United Nation's Millennium Development Goal and a declared global priority, undernutrition continues to be prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries throughout the world. The authors review the problem and policies and recommend how, particularly in this time of global economic difficulties, to improve policies to prevent undernutrition. They advocate even greater urgency.

  20. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities. PMID:10827305

  1. Healthy youth development: getting our priorities right.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Michael D

    2005-10-17

    Promotion of healthy youth development is a worldwide priority that cannot be achieved by parents and families alone. Health professionals must use and advocate for evidence-based strategies that enhance key protective factors in the lives of young people. The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals create an unprecedented opportunity to partner with professional and youth-led organisations to ensure young people in the most vulnerable settings benefit from this initiative to reduce extreme poverty and threats to health and wellbeing.

  2. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  3. Priorities among effective clinical preventive services: methods.

    PubMed

    Maciosek, Michael V; Edwards, Nichol M; Coffield, Ashley B; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Nelson, Winnie W; Goodman, Michael J; Solberg, Leif I

    2006-07-01

    Decision makers want to know which healthcare services matter the most, but there are no well-established, practical methods for providing evidence-based answers to such questions. Led by the National Commission on Prevention Priorities, the authors update the methods for determining the relative health impact and economic value of clinical preventive services. Using new studies, new preventive service recommendations, and improved methods, the authors present a new ranking of clinical preventive services in the companion article. The original ranking and methods were published in this journal in 2001. The current methods report focuses on evidence collection for a priority setting exercise, guidance for which is effectively lacking in the literature. The authors describe their own standards for searching, tracking, and abstracting literature for priority setting. The authors also summarize their methods for making valid comparisons across different services. This report should be useful to those who want to understand additional detail about how the ranking was developed or who want to adapt the methods for their own purposes.

  4. Priority setting for health in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Giedion, Ursula; McQueston, Kate

    2013-05-01

    The use of health technology assessment research in emerging economies is becoming an increasingly important tool to determine the uses of health spending. As low- and middle-income countries' gross domestic product grows, the funding available for health has increased in tandem. There is growing evidence that comparative effectiveness research and cost-effectiveness can be used to improve health outcomes within a predefined financial space. The use of these evaluation tools, combined with a systematized process of priority setting, can help inform national and global health payers. This review of country institutions for health technology assessment illustrates two points: the efforts underway to use research to inform priorities are widespread and not confined to wealthier countries; and many countries' efforts to create evidence-based policy are incomplete and more country-specific research will be needed. Further evidence shows that there is scope to reduce these gaps and opportunity to support better incorporation of data through better-defined priority-setting processes.

  5. 76 FR 32980 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ..., National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number: 1670-0005... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National...

  6. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  7. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  8. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  9. 15 CFR 700.20 - Use of priority ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities for Energy Programs § 700.20 Use of... maintenance of energy facilities....

  10. 40 CFR 300.317 - National response priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... human life must be given the top priority during every response action. This includes any search and... from additional discharges. (e) The priorities set forth in this section are broad in nature,...

  11. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  12. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  13. Characteristics of Randomized Trials Published in Latin America and the Caribbean According to Funding Source

    PubMed Central

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Sangalang, Stephanie; Glujovsky, Demian; Pinzon, Carlos E.; Asenjo Lobos, Claudia; Cortes, Marcela; Cañón, Martin; Bardach, Ariel; Bonfill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods and Findings The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment) of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants). English was the dominant publication language (93%) and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%). Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%). Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7%) or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%). Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358) was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%); private (e.g. pharmaceutical company) (15.3%); other (e.g. mixed, NGO) (15.1%); no funding (35.8%). Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. Conclusion Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health outcomes

  14. International initiative to engage Iraq's science and technology community : report on the priorities of the Iraqi science and technology community.

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M.; Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.

  15. 10 CFR 217.2 - Priorities and allocations authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Priorities and allocations authority. 217.2 Section 217.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM General § 217.2 Priorities and... Security with respect to essential civilian needs supporting national defense, including civil defense...

  16. 10 CFR 216.7 - Conflict in priority orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict in priority orders. 216.7 Section 216.7 Energy... DOMESTIC ENERGY SUPPLIES § 216.7 Conflict in priority orders. If it appears that the use of assistance pursuant to DPA section 101(c) creates or threatens to create a conflict with priorities and...

  17. Setting Priorities: Personal Values, Organizational Results. Ideas into Action Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Talula

    2007-01-01

    Successful leaders get results. To get results, you need to set priorities. This book can help you do a better job of setting priorities, recognizing the personal values that motivate your decision making, the probable trade-offs and consequences of your decisions, and the importance of aligning your priorities with your organization's…

  18. 15 CFR 700.21 - Application for priority rating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities for Energy Programs... energy supplies, a person may request priority rating authority for scarce, critical, and essential... installation, repair, or maintenance of equipment) by submitting a request to the Department of Energy....

  19. 12 CFR 627.2745 - Priority of claims-associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority of claims-associations. 627.2745..., RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2745 Priority of claims—associations. The following priority of claims shall apply to the distribution of the assets of an association...

  20. 12 CFR 627.2745 - Priority of claims-associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Priority of claims-associations. 627.2745..., RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2745 Priority of claims—associations. The following priority of claims shall apply to the distribution of the assets of an association...

  1. Research priorities and history of advanced composite compression testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for standard compression testing research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented along with a state of the art survey (completed in 1979) including history and commentary on industrial test methods. Historically apparent research priorities and consequent (lack of) progress are supporting evidence for newly derived priorities.

  2. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion.

  3. Health Canada's use of priority review status for drugs for unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2015-10-01

    The processes for granting priority review status to new drug submissions in Canada and the United States are not exactly the same, but reasonable concordance should be expected since the selection criteria are similar in the two countries. This study compared new therapeutic drugs approved by both Health Canada and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 2000 and 2014 to evaluate concordance on priority review status. New therapeutic drugs approved in both countries totalled 301; 86 (28.6%) and 136 (45.2%) were given priority review status in Canada and the United States, respectively, with 73 (24.3%) in both. Sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 92.1%. Overall concordance on review type was 74.8%. κ was 0.47 indicating moderate agreement. Agreement on review type was >70% for all drugs, except oncology therapies. Broad agreement exists between Health Canada and the FDA on drugs that should not have priority review status. Concordance on drugs that should have this status was generally satisfactory and, for critical drugs, was high. Agreement would improve if more oncology drugs received priority review status in Canada. Despite a higher number of drugs receiving priority review status in the United States, there is reasonable concordance between the two countries.

  4. Priority setting partnership to identify the top 10 research priorities for the management of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Katherine H O; Flaherty, Helen; Daley, David J; Pascoe, Roland; Penhale, Bridget; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Catherine; Storey, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This priority setting partnership was commissioned by Parkinson's UK to encourage people with direct and personal experience of the condition to work together to identify and prioritise the top 10 evidential uncertainties that impact on everyday clinical practice for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Setting The UK. Participants Anyone with experience of PD including: people with Parkinson's (PwP), carers, family and friends, healthcare and social care professionals. Non-clinical researchers and employees of pharmaceutical or medical devices companies were excluded. 1000 participants (60% PwP) provided ideas on research uncertainties, 475 (72% PwP) initially prioritised them and 27 (37% PwP) stakeholders agreed a final top 10. Methods Using a modified nominal group technique, participants were surveyed to identify what issues for the management of PD needed research. Unique research questions unanswered by current evidence were identified and participants were asked to identify their top 10 research priorities from this list. The top 26 uncertainties were presented to a consensus meeting with key stakeholders to agree the top 10 research priorities. Results 1000 participants provided 4100 responses, which contained 94 unique unanswered research questions that were initially prioritised by 475 participants. A consensus meeting with 27 stakeholders agreed the top 10 research priorities. The overarching research aspiration was an effective cure for PD. The top 10 research priorities for PD management included the need to address motor symptoms (balance and falls, and fine motor control), non-motor symptoms (sleep and urinary dysfunction), mental health issues (stress and anxiety, dementia and mild cognitive impairments), side effects of medications (dyskinesia) and the need to develop interventions specific to the phenotypes of PD and better monitoring methods. Conclusions These research priorities identify crucial gaps in the existing evidence to

  5. Forecaster priorities for improving probabilistic flood forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterhall, Fredrik; Pappenberger, Florian; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Cloke, Hannah; Thielen, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have in recent years been increasingly used for the operational forecasting of floods by European hydrometeorological agencies. The most obvious advantage of HEPS is that more of the uncertainty in the modelling system can be assessed. In addition, ensemble prediction systems generally have better skill than deterministic systems both in the terms of the mean forecast performance and the potential forecasting of extreme events. Research efforts have so far mostly been devoted to the improvement of the physical and technical aspects of the model systems, such as increased resolution in time and space and better description of physical processes. Developments like these are certainly needed; however, in this paper we argue that there are other areas of HEPS that need urgent attention. This was also the result from a group exercise and a survey conducted to operational forecasters within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) to identify the top priorities of improvement regarding their own system. They turned out to span a range of areas, the most popular being to include verification of an assessment of past forecast performance, a multi-model approach for hydrological modelling, to increase the forecast skill on the medium range (>3 days) and more focus on education and training on the interpretation of forecasts. In light of limited resources, we suggest a simple model to classify the identified priorities in terms of their cost and complexity to decide in which order to tackle them. This model is then used to create an action plan of short-, medium- and long-term research priorities with the ultimate goal of an optimal improvement of EFAS in particular and to spur the development of operational HEPS in general.

  6. A confirmatory method for the simultaneous extraction, separation, identification and quantification of Tetracycline, Sulphonamide, Trimethoprim and Dapsone residues in muscle by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Mark; Mannion, Celine; Rafter, Paul

    2009-11-13

    A rapid confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone by UPLC-MS/MS is described. The method is able to quantify and confirm the following 19 compounds, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, dapsone, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine. Samples are extracted with 0.1M EDTA and acetonitrile, which is then evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and reconstituted in water. Following centrifugation and filtering, an aliquot is analysed by UPLC-MS/MS using positive electrospray ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring. The method is deemed rapid as all analytes are extracted by a single extraction technique, with no solid-phase extraction clean up required. Validation is according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and was carried out for bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry species. Specificity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, CCalpha and CCbeta data is presented. PMID:19586630

  7. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences:categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    NABEIEI, PARISA; AMINI, MITRA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; MARHAMATI, SAADAT

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10). Results In the first phase (NGT), 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26) and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52). In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities. PMID:26793723

  8. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  9. [Environment and health: priorities for preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Mikhaylova, R I

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary environmental factors influencing the formation of the environment and public health have been analyzed The increasing chemical pollution of the environment (air water, soil, living environment), and the intensification of the impact of physical factors in the first place, "electromagnetic smog" associated with the widespread use of appliances and computer equipment, cellular threaten public health have been shown. In this connection, there were determined priorities and main directions of research in the platform "Preventive Environment", approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, which is based on the concept of the factor prevention of noninfectious diseases. PMID:25831920

  10. Leadership and priority setting: the perspective of hospital CEOs.

    PubMed

    Reeleder, David; Goel, Vivek; Singer, Peter A; Martin, Douglas K

    2006-11-01

    The role of leadership in health care priority setting remains largely unexplored. While the management leadership literature has grown rapidly, the growing literature on priority setting in health care has looked in other directions to improve priority setting practices--to health economics and ethical approaches. Consequently, potential for improvement in hospital priority setting practices may be overlooked. A qualitative study involving interviews with 46 Ontario hospital CEOs was done to describe the role of leadership in priority setting through the perspective of hospital leaders. For the first time, we report a framework of leadership domains including vision, alignment, relationships, values and process to facilitate priority setting practices in health services' organizations. We believe this fledgling framework forms the basis for the sharing of good leadership practices for health reform. It also provides a leadership guide for decision makers to improve the quality of their leadership, and in so doing, we believe, the fairness of their priority setting. PMID:16377023

  11. Conservative parallel simulation of priority class queueing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A conservative synchronization protocol is described for the parallel simulation of queueing networks having C job priority classes, where a job's class is fixed. This problem has long vexed designers of conservative synchronization protocols because of its seemingly poor ability to compute lookahead: the time of the next departure. For, a job in service having low priority can be preempted at any time by an arrival having higher priority and an arbitrarily small service time. The solution is to skew the event generation activity so that the events for higher priority jobs are generated farther ahead in simulated time than lower priority jobs. Thus, when a lower priority job enters service for the first time, all the higher priority jobs that may preempt it are already known and the job's departure time can be exactly predicted. Finally, the protocol was analyzed and it was demonstrated that good performance can be expected on the simulation of large queueing networks.

  12. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    of data for mapping; * seek innovative solutions to the primary obstacles identified; * identify the steps needed to move mapping of Florida's oceans and coasts forward, in preparation for a better coordinated, more cost-effective mapping program to allow State and Federal agencies to make better decisions on coastal-resource issues. Over 90 invited participants representing more than 30 State and Federal agencies, universities, NGOs, and private industries played a large role in the success of this two-day workshop. State of Florida agency participants created a ranked priority order for mapping 13 different regions around Florida. The data needed for each of the 13 priority regions were outlined. A matrix considering State and Federal priorities was created, utilizing input from all agencies. The matrix showed overlapping interests of the entities and will allow for partnering and leveraging of resources. The five most basic mapping needs were determined to be bathymetry, high-vertical resolution coastline for sea-level rise scenarios, shoreline change, subsurface geology, and benthic habitats at sufficient scale. There was a clear convergence on the need to coordinate mapping activities around the state. Suggestions for coordination included: * creating a glossary of terms: a standard for specifying agency data-mapping needs; * creating a geographic information officer (GIO) position or permanent organizing group to maintain communications established at this workshop and to maintain progress on the issues identified during the workshop. The person or group could develop a website, maintain a project-status matrix, develop a list of contacts, create links to legislative updates and links to funding sources; * developing a web portal and one-stop/clearinghouse of data. There was general consensus on the need to adopt a single habitat classification system and a strategy to accommodate existing systems smoothly. Unresolve

  13. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases.

  14. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases. PMID:27140982

  15. An environmental priorities assessment of the Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    For several decades, the southern Ural Mountains have been home to a burgeoning Russian mining and processing industry. Since 1949, this region has also been a center for production of nuclear materials. Today, it is one of the most contaminated places in Russia; lakes and rivers contain high amounts of both radioactive and chemical waste. In an attempt to deal with this problem, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Russian Institute of Technical Physics are developing a plan to assess the region's environmental priorities. Under this plan, Russian scientists would survey the sources of pollution in a limited area of the southern Urals and enact measures to prevent further pollution. Their focus would be on immediate problems from current operations, not on large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. LLNL scientists would advise the Russians on how to make the survey and how to use the results to set their priorities. The goal of this collaborative effort is to minimize industrial waste and to improve food and water supplies.

  16. Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke T B; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Verburg, Peter H; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Petracca, Lisanne; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores have suffered the biggest range contraction among all biodiversity and are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Therefore, we identified priority areas for the conservation of mammalian carnivores, while accounting for species-specific requirements for connectivity and expected agricultural and urban expansion. While prioritizing for carnivores only, we were also able to test their effectiveness as surrogates for 23,110 species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and 867 terrestrial ecoregions. We then assessed the risks to carnivore conservation within each country that makes a contribution to global carnivore conservation. We found that land use change will potentially lead to important range losses, particularly amongst already threatened carnivore species. In addition, the 17% of land targeted for protection under the Aichi Target 11 was found to be inadequate to conserve carnivores under expected land use change. Our results also highlight that land use change will decrease the effectiveness of carnivores to protect other threatened species, especially threatened amphibians. In addition, the risk of human-carnivore conflict is potentially high in countries where we identified spatial priorities for their conservation. As meeting the global biodiversity target will be inadequate for carnivore protection, innovative interventions are needed to conserve carnivores outside protected areas to compliment any proposed expansion of the protected area network. PMID:27034197

  17. Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Verburg, Peter H.; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Petracca, Lisanne; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores have suffered the biggest range contraction among all biodiversity and are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Therefore, we identified priority areas for the conservation of mammalian carnivores, while accounting for species-specific requirements for connectivity and expected agricultural and urban expansion. While prioritizing for carnivores only, we were also able to test their effectiveness as surrogates for 23,110 species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and 867 terrestrial ecoregions. We then assessed the risks to carnivore conservation within each country that makes a contribution to global carnivore conservation. We found that land use change will potentially lead to important range losses, particularly amongst already threatened carnivore species. In addition, the 17% of land targeted for protection under the Aichi Target 11 was found to be inadequate to conserve carnivores under expected land use change. Our results also highlight that land use change will decrease the effectiveness of carnivores to protect other threatened species, especially threatened amphibians. In addition, the risk of human-carnivore conflict is potentially high in countries where we identified spatial priorities for their conservation. As meeting the global biodiversity target will be inadequate for carnivore protection, innovative interventions are needed to conserve carnivores outside protected areas to compliment any proposed expansion of the protected area network. PMID:27034197

  18. Priority-Based Job Scheduling in Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Sunita; Hota, Chittaranjan

    Global computing systems like SETI@home tie together the unused CPU cycles, buffer space and secondary storage resources over the Internet for solving large scale computing problems like weather forecasting, and image processing that require high volume of computing power. In this paper we address issues that are critical to distributed scheduling environments such as job priorities, length of jobs, and resource heterogeneity. However, researchers have used metrics like resource availability at the new location, and response time of jobs in deciding upon the job transfer. Our load sharing algorithms use dynamic sender initiated approach to transfer a job. We implemented distributed algorithms using a centralized approach that improves average response time of jobs while considering their priorities. The job arrival process and the CPU service times are modeled using M/M/1 queuing model. We compared the performance of our algorithms with similar algorithms in the literature. We evaluated our algorithms using simulation and presented the results that show the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... project. (d) Public participation. (1) In addition to any requirements in 40 CFR part 25, the State shall... priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works §...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... project. (d) Public participation. (1) In addition to any requirements in 40 CFR part 25, the State shall... priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works §...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... project. (d) Public participation. (1) In addition to any requirements in 40 CFR part 25, the State shall... priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works §...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project. (d) Public participation. (1) In addition to any requirements in 40 CFR part 25, the State shall... priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works §...

  3. Temporal priority effects on competition are not consistent among intermountain grassland species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Li, Hongli; Ma, Yongqing; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2016-08-01

    Previous work indicates that priority effects exist, but mechanisms are not well understood. So we explored shifts in competitive outcomes and intensities as a potential general mechanism. In a standard greenhouse experiment the temporal priority effects of the target species Pseudoroegneria spicata and its competitive responses to five receptor species, i.e., Bromus ciliatus, Bromus marginatus, Coreopsis tinctoria, Senecio atratus, and Solidago canadensis were evaluated. P. spicata adults with a high root: shoot ratio had a significant inhibitory priority effect on B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria. Compared with the target species, under later and simultaneous sowing, B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, C. tinctoria, and S. atratus exhibited an increasing trend in terms of competition. However, S. canadensis did not display priority effects. In addition, the gram per gram competitive effect of P. spicata depended on the receptor species in the following order: B. marginatus > B. ciliatus > C. tinctoria > S. atratus. There were positive relationships between the relative interaction indices and the root: shoot ratios in B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria, thereby suggesting that the early germination or emergence of P. spicata may reduce the root: shoot ratios of these receptors. The results of this study indicate that priority effects occurred in early colonizers with high root: shoot ratios and greater competitive capacities.

  4. Consensus and contention in the priority setting process: examining the health sector in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Birungi, Charles; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2015-06-01

    Health priority setting is a critical and contentious issue in low-income countries because of the high burden of disease relative to the limited resource envelope. Many sophisticated quantitative tools and policy frameworks have been developed to promote transparent priority setting processes and allocative efficiency. However, low-income countries frequently lack effective governance systems or implementation capacity, so high-level priorities are not determined through evidence-based decision-making processes. This study uses qualitative research methods to explore how key actors' priorities differ in low-income countries, using Uganda as a case study. Human resources for health, disease prevention and family planning emerge as the common priorities among actors in the health sector (although the last of these is particularly emphasized by international agencies) because of their contribution to the long-term sustainability of health-care provision. Financing health-care services is the most disputed issue. Participants from the Ugandan Ministry of Health preferentially sought to increase net health expenditure and government ownership of the health sector, while non-state actors prioritized improving the efficiency of resource use. Ultimately it is apparent that the power to influence national health outcomes lies with only a handful of decision-makers within key institutions in the health sector, such as the Ministries of Health, the largest bilateral donors and the multilateral development agencies. These power relations reinforce the need for ongoing research into the paradigms and strategic interests of these actors. PMID:24846947

  5. Consensus and contention in the priority setting process: examining the health sector in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Birungi, Charles; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2015-06-01

    Health priority setting is a critical and contentious issue in low-income countries because of the high burden of disease relative to the limited resource envelope. Many sophisticated quantitative tools and policy frameworks have been developed to promote transparent priority setting processes and allocative efficiency. However, low-income countries frequently lack effective governance systems or implementation capacity, so high-level priorities are not determined through evidence-based decision-making processes. This study uses qualitative research methods to explore how key actors' priorities differ in low-income countries, using Uganda as a case study. Human resources for health, disease prevention and family planning emerge as the common priorities among actors in the health sector (although the last of these is particularly emphasized by international agencies) because of their contribution to the long-term sustainability of health-care provision. Financing health-care services is the most disputed issue. Participants from the Ugandan Ministry of Health preferentially sought to increase net health expenditure and government ownership of the health sector, while non-state actors prioritized improving the efficiency of resource use. Ultimately it is apparent that the power to influence national health outcomes lies with only a handful of decision-makers within key institutions in the health sector, such as the Ministries of Health, the largest bilateral donors and the multilateral development agencies. These power relations reinforce the need for ongoing research into the paradigms and strategic interests of these actors.

  6. The Priority Heuristic: Making Choices Without Trade-Offs

    PubMed Central

    Brandstätter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Bernoulli's framework of expected utility serves as a model for various psychological processes, including motivation, moral sense, attitudes, and decision making. To account for evidence at variance with expected utility, we generalize the framework of fast and frugal heuristics from inferences to preferences. The priority heuristic predicts (i) Allais' paradox, (ii) risk aversion for gains if probabilities are high, (iii) risk seeking for gains if probabilities are low (lottery tickets), (iv) risk aversion for losses if probabilities are low (buying insurance), (v) risk seeking for losses if probabilities are high, (vi) certainty effect, (vii) possibility effect, and (viii) intransitivities. We test how accurately the heuristic predicts people's choices, compared to previously proposed heuristics and three modifications of expected utility theory: security-potential/aspiration theory, transfer-of-attention-exchange model, and cumulative prospect theory. PMID:16637767

  7. Motion control of nonlinear gantry crane system via priority-based fitness scheme in firefly algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan; Latif, Norfaneysa Abd; Kassim, Anuar Mohamed; Abidin, Amar Faiz Zainal; Hussien, Sharifah Yuslinda Syed; Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Advanced manufacturing technology made Gantry Crane System (GCS) is one of the suitable heavy machinery transporters and frequently employed in handling with huge materials. The interconnection of trolley movement and payload oscillation has a technical impact which needs to be considered. Once the trolley moves to the desired position with high speed, this will induce undesirable's payload oscillation. This frequent unavoidable load swing causes an efficiency drop, load damages and even accidents. In this paper, a new control strategy of Firefly Algorithm (FA) will be developed to obtain five optimal controller parameters (PID and PD) via Priority-based Fitness Scheme (PFS). Combinations of these five parameters are utilized for controlling trolley movement and minimizing the angle of payload oscillation. This PFS is prioritized based on steady-state error (SSE), overshoot (OS) and settling time (Ts) according to the needs and circumstances. Lagrange equation will be chosen for modeling and simulation will be conducted by using related software. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is efficient to control the trolley movement to the desired position and minimize the angle of payload oscillation.

  8. Maine Environmental Priorities Project: Summary of the Reports from the Technical Working Groups to the Steering Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Environmental Education, Miami, FL.

    The Maine Environmental Priorities Project (MEPP) is a comparative risk project designed to identify, compare, and rank the most serious environmental problems facing Maine. Once the problems are analyzed and ranked according to their threat or risk to Maine's ecological health, human health, and quality of life, the project will propose…

  9. Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority Setting

    PubMed Central

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors’ intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. Seis Errores Comunes en la Definición de Prioridades de Conservación Resumen Se ha desarrollado un vasto número de esquemas de priorización para ayudar a que la conservación navegue entre decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la asignación de recursos finitos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de métodos cuantitativos para la definición de prioridades en la conservación frecuentemente incluye errores que pueden socavar la intención de sus autores de ser más rigurosos y científicos en la manera en que se establecen las prioridades y se asignan los recursos. Con base en los bien establecidos principios de la ciencia de la decisión, resaltamos seis errores comúnmente asociados con la definición de prioridades para la conservación: no reconocer que los planes de conservación son priorizaciones; tratar de resolver un problema mal definido; no priorizar acciones; arbitrariedad; juicios de valor ocultos y no reconocer el riesgo de fracasar. Explicamos estos errores y ofrecemos un camino para que planificadores de la conservación no cometan los mismos errores en priorizaciones

  10. Evaluation of groundwater and vadose zone cleanup and protection priorities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, J.D.

    2001-09-21

    accorded to the groundwater/vadose zone integration project because its products are not well defined in terms of requirements-derived specifications, and are not demonstrably needed far in advance of the issuance of a Hanford site-wide cleanup Record of Decision. No near-term requirements exist for the groundwater/vadose zone integration project's highest-priority product, the so-called system assessment capability. Consequently, that work can be deferred until such time as a comprehensive risk analysis in support of the final record of decision is actually needed.

  11. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume I. Executive summary. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T S; Roessner, D

    1980-01-01

    This report identifies, describes, and recommends priorities for basic research important to the future development of solar energy. In response to a request from the US Department of Energy, SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. SERI scientists relied heavily on the opinions of scientists polled, but weighted their own recommendations and opinions equally. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The Scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas and, wintin each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: Crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the descripton of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  12. Future Space Transportation Technology: Prospects and Priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billie, Matt; Reed, Lisa; Harris, David

    2003-01-01

    The Transportation Working Group (TWG) was chartered by the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) to conceptualize, define, and advocate within NASA the space transportation architectures and technologies required to enable the human and robotic exploration and development of space envisioned by the NEXT. In 2002, the NEXT tasked the TWG to assess exploration space transportation requirements versus current and prospective Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) and in-space transportation systems, technologies, and research, in order to identify investment gaps and recommend priorities. The result was a study now being incorporated into future planning by the NASA Space Architect and supporting organizations. This paper documents the process used to identify exploration space transportation investment gaps, as well as the group's recommendations for closing these gaps and prioritizing areas of future investment for NASA work on advanced propulsion systems.

  13. Counterproliferation: A National Security Priority. Speech text

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, P.G.

    1995-10-27

    Stemming the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their missile delivery systems - counterproliferation - is universally recognized as a significant national priority by all elements of the U.S. national security community. President Clinton, for example, emphasized in the National Security Strategy released in February of this year, that a key part of our strategy is to seek to stem the proliferation of such weapons and to develop an effective capability to deal with these threats. In May 1995, the National Military Strategy was issued by our nation`s senior military leader, General Shalikashvili, who described the threat of weapons of mass destruction as one of the ...four principal dangers which our military, in combination with other elements of national power must address.

  14. Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

  15. [Qualitative research: which priority for scientific journals?].

    PubMed

    Rodella, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes. PMID:27093324

  16. Priorities of the Russian health care reform.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, S

    1998-09-01

    The introduction of health insurance system has been the core of the Russian health care reform. It has coincided with the decentralization of the state administration. The reform has thus been decentralized, and the transition has been fragmentary and incomplete. As a result, the existing health financing system is eclectic and contradictory. Meanwhile, the reform has had a positive stabilizing influence on financing of health care under conditions of continued economic crisis. The new priorities of the reform should be to balance the financial flows and the state's obligations, and to increase the efficiency of the use of resources through encouragement of competition, assurance of transparency of public funding, development of health care planning, and shift from inpatient to outpatient care. PMID:9740643

  17. The economics of priority review vouchers.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Priority review vouchers (PRVs) were introduced in 2007 by the US Congress as an incentive mechanism to spur pharmaceutical firms' R&D efforts for neglected diseases (NDs). A voucher, which a firm can obtain upon approval of a new treatment for NDs, entitles the holder to prioritize the FDA review for any drug. The proposal generated much controversy regarding its ability to effectively stimulate R&D for NDs. Here, after reviewing the main issues of the debate, i use a stylized economic model to discuss the strength of PRVs as an economic incentive to invest in research. My findings suggest that R&D investments might be higher when the developer could prioritize a valuable compound.

  18. Priorities and standards in pharmacogenetic research.

    PubMed

    Need, Anna C; Motulsky, Arno G; Goldstein, David B

    2005-07-01

    The current enthusiasm for pharmacogenetics draws much of its inspiration from the relatively few examples of polymorphisms that have marked and seemingly clinically relevant effects on drug response. In this regard, pharmacogenetic research has paralleled the study of human disease, which has enjoyed success in identifying mutations underlying mendelian conditions. Progress in deciphering the genetics of complex diseases, involving the interaction of multiple genes with each other and with the environment has been considerably less successful. In most instances, drug responses will probably also prove to be complex, influenced by both the environment and multiple genetic factors. For pharmacogenetics to deliver on its potential, this complexity will need to be recognized and accommodated, both in basic research and in clinical application of pharmacogenetics. As the attention of researchers begins to shift toward more systematic pharmacogenetic investigations, we suggest some priorities and standards for pharmacogenetic research.

  19. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  20. Crop Expansion and Conservation Priorities in Tropical Countries

    PubMed Central

    Phalan, Ben; Bertzky, Monika; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Donald, Paul F.; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Stattersfield, Alison J.; Balmford, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of cropland in tropical countries is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss, and threatens to undermine progress towards meeting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. To understand this threat better, we analysed data on crop distribution and expansion in 128 tropical countries, assessed changes in area of the main crops and mapped overlaps between conservation priorities and cultivation potential. Rice was the single crop grown over the largest area, especially in tropical forest biomes. Cropland in tropical countries expanded by c. 48,000 km2 per year from 1999–2008. The countries which added the greatest area of new cropland were Nigeria, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Brazil. Soybeans and maize are the crops which expanded most in absolute area. Other crops with large increases included rice, sorghum, oil palm, beans, sugar cane, cow peas, wheat and cassava. Areas of high cultivation potential—while bearing in mind that political and socio-economic conditions can be as influential as biophysical ones—may be vulnerable to conversion in the future. These include some priority areas for biodiversity conservation in tropical countries (e.g., Frontier Forests and High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas), which have previously been identified as having ‘low vulnerability’, in particular in central Africa and northern Australia. There are also many other smaller areas which are important for biodiversity and which have high cultivation potential (e.g., in the fringes of the Amazon basin, in the Paraguayan Chaco, and in the savanna woodlands of the Sahel and East Africa). We highlight the urgent need for more effective sustainability standards and policies addressing both production and consumption of tropical commodities, including robust land-use planning in agricultural frontiers, establishment of new protected areas or REDD+ projects in places agriculture has not yet reached, and reduction or elimination of incentives for land-demanding bioenergy

  1. Crop expansion and conservation priorities in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Phalan, Ben; Bertzky, Monika; Butchart, Stuart H M; Donald, Paul F; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Stattersfield, Alison J; Balmford, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of cropland in tropical countries is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss, and threatens to undermine progress towards meeting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. To understand this threat better, we analysed data on crop distribution and expansion in 128 tropical countries, assessed changes in area of the main crops and mapped overlaps between conservation priorities and cultivation potential. Rice was the single crop grown over the largest area, especially in tropical forest biomes. Cropland in tropical countries expanded by c. 48,000 km(2) per year from 1999-2008. The countries which added the greatest area of new cropland were Nigeria, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Brazil. Soybeans and maize are the crops which expanded most in absolute area. Other crops with large increases included rice, sorghum, oil palm, beans, sugar cane, cow peas, wheat and cassava. Areas of high cultivation potential-while bearing in mind that political and socio-economic conditions can be as influential as biophysical ones-may be vulnerable to conversion in the future. These include some priority areas for biodiversity conservation in tropical countries (e.g., Frontier Forests and High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas), which have previously been identified as having 'low vulnerability', in particular in central Africa and northern Australia. There are also many other smaller areas which are important for biodiversity and which have high cultivation potential (e.g., in the fringes of the Amazon basin, in the Paraguayan Chaco, and in the savanna woodlands of the Sahel and East Africa). We highlight the urgent need for more effective sustainability standards and policies addressing both production and consumption of tropical commodities, including robust land-use planning in agricultural frontiers, establishment of new protected areas or REDD+ projects in places agriculture has not yet reached, and reduction or elimination of incentives for land-demanding bioenergy

  2. Crop expansion and conservation priorities in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Phalan, Ben; Bertzky, Monika; Butchart, Stuart H M; Donald, Paul F; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Stattersfield, Alison J; Balmford, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of cropland in tropical countries is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss, and threatens to undermine progress towards meeting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. To understand this threat better, we analysed data on crop distribution and expansion in 128 tropical countries, assessed changes in area of the main crops and mapped overlaps between conservation priorities and cultivation potential. Rice was the single crop grown over the largest area, especially in tropical forest biomes. Cropland in tropical countries expanded by c. 48,000 km(2) per year from 1999-2008. The countries which added the greatest area of new cropland were Nigeria, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Brazil. Soybeans and maize are the crops which expanded most in absolute area. Other crops with large increases included rice, sorghum, oil palm, beans, sugar cane, cow peas, wheat and cassava. Areas of high cultivation potential-while bearing in mind that political and socio-economic conditions can be as influential as biophysical ones-may be vulnerable to conversion in the future. These include some priority areas for biodiversity conservation in tropical countries (e.g., Frontier Forests and High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas), which have previously been identified as having 'low vulnerability', in particular in central Africa and northern Australia. There are also many other smaller areas which are important for biodiversity and which have high cultivation potential (e.g., in the fringes of the Amazon basin, in the Paraguayan Chaco, and in the savanna woodlands of the Sahel and East Africa). We highlight the urgent need for more effective sustainability standards and policies addressing both production and consumption of tropical commodities, including robust land-use planning in agricultural frontiers, establishment of new protected areas or REDD+ projects in places agriculture has not yet reached, and reduction or elimination of incentives for land-demanding bioenergy

  3. Defining Priorities for Future Research: Results of the UK Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Leanne; O’Donoghue, Katriona; Ball, Simon T.; Beale, Angela; Beale, William; Hilton, Rachel; Hodkinson, Keith; Lipkin, Graham W.; Loud, Fiona; Marson, Lorna P.; Morris, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the research priorities of those funding and performing research in transplantation may differ from those of end service users such as patients, carers and healthcare professionals involved in day-to-day care. The Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was established with the aim of involving all stakeholders in prioritising future research in the field. Methods The PSP methodology is as outlined by the James Lind Alliance. An initial survey collected unanswered research questions from patients, carers and clinicians. Duplicate and out-of-scope topics were excluded and the existing literature searched to identify topics answered by current evidence. An interim prioritisation survey asked patients and professionals to score the importance of the remaining questions to create a ranked long-list. These were considered at a final consensus workshop using a modified nominal group technique to agree a final top ten. Results The initial survey identified 497 questions from 183 respondents, covering all aspects of transplantation from assessment through to long-term follow-up. These were grouped into 90 unanswered “indicative” questions. The interim prioritisation survey received 256 responses (34.8% patients/carers, 10.9% donors and 54.3% professionals), resulting in a ranked list of 25 questions that were considered during the final workshop. Participants agreed a top ten priorities for future research that included optimisation of immunosuppression (improved monitoring, choice of regimen, personalisation), prevention of sensitisation and transplanting the sensitised patient, management of antibody-mediated rejection, long-term risks to live donors, methods of organ preservation, induction of tolerance and bioengineering of organs. There was evidence that patient and carer involvement had a significant impact on shaping the final priorities. Conclusions The final list of priorities relates to all stages of the

  4. Too Fit To Fracture: a consensus on future research priorities in osteoporosis and exercise

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, N. J.; Heinonen, A.; Cheung, A. M.; Wark, J. D.; Shipp, K.; McGill, S.; Ashe, M. C.; Laprade, J.; Jain, R.; Keller, H.; Papaioannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary An international consensus process identified the following research priorities in osteoporosis and exercise: study of exercise in high-risk cohorts, evaluation of multimodal interventions, research examining translation into practice and a goal to examine fracture outcomes. Introduction To identify future research priorities related to exercise for people with osteoporosis with and without osteoporotic spine fracture via international consensus. Methods An international expert panel and representatives from Osteoporosis Canada led the process and identified opinion leaders or stakeholders to contribute. A focus group of four patient advocates identified quality of life, mobility, activities of daily living, falls, bone mineral density, and harms as outcomes important for decision-making. Seventy-five individuals were invited to participate in an online survey asking respondents to define future research priorities in the area of osteoporosis and exercise; the response rate was 57 %. Fifty-five individuals from seven countries were invited to a half-day consensus meeting; 60 % of invitees attended. The results of the online survey, knowledge synthesis activities, and results of the focus group were presented. Nominal group technique was used to come to consensus on research priorities. Results Research priorities included the study of exercise in high-risk cohorts (e.g., ≥ 65 years, low BMD, moderate/high risk of fracture, history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, hyperkyphotic posture, functional impairments, or sedentary), the evaluation of multimodal interventions, research examining translation into practice, and a goal to examine fracture outcomes. The standardization of outcomes or protocols that could be evolved into large multicentre trials was discussed. Conclusions The research priorities identified as part of the Too Fit To Fracture initiative can be used to inform the development of multicentre collaborations to evaluate and implement

  5. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand. PMID:25288740

  6. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K.; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public’s informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand. PMID:25288740

  7. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand.

  8. Research priorities in bronchiectasis: a consensus statement from the EMBARC Clinical Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Stefano; Masefield, Sarah; Polverino, Eva; De Soyza, Anthony; Loebinger, Michael R; Menendez, Rosario; Ringshausen, Felix C; Vendrell, Montserrat; Powell, Pippa; Chalmers, James D

    2016-09-01

    Bronchiectasis is a disease of renewed interest in light of an increase in prevalence and increasing burden on international healthcare systems. There are no licensed therapies, and large gaps in knowledge in terms of epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapy. The European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) is a European Respiratory Society (ERS) Clinical Research Collaboration, funded by ERS to promote high-quality research in bronchiectasis. The objective of this consensus statement was to define research priorities in bronchiectasis. From 2014 to 2015, EMBARC used a modified Delphi process among European bronchiectasis experts to reach a consensus on 55 key research priorities in this field. During the same period, the European Lung Foundation collected 711 questionnaires from adult patients with bronchiectasis and their carers from 22 European countries reporting important research priorities from their perspective. This consensus statement reports recommendations for bronchiectasis research after integrating both physicians and patients priorities, as well as those uniquely identified by the two groups. Priorities identified in this consensus statement provide the clearest possible roadmap towards improving our understanding of the disease and the quality of care for patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:27288031

  9. Average waiting time in FDDI networks with local priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gercek, Gokhan

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to compute the average queuing delay experienced by different priority group messages in an FDDI node. It is assumed that no FDDI MAC layer priorities are used. Instead, a priority structure is introduced to the messages at a higher protocol layer (e.g. network layer) locally. Such a method was planned to be used in Space Station Freedom FDDI network. Conservation of the average waiting time is used as the key concept in computing average queuing delays. It is shown that local priority assignments are feasable specially when the traffic distribution is asymmetric in the FDDI network.

  10. Priorities and strategies, Los Alamos computer science institute.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldehoeft, R. R.

    2004-01-01

    On March 18-19, 2002 the Los Alamos Computer Science Institute (LACSI) Executive Committee and Principal Investigators met to discuss methods of addressing issues raised in the 2001 LACSI Contract Review. The body was tasked to develop priorities and strategies to meet future programmatic and LANL computer science needs. A framework was developed to address long-term strategic thrust areas. Specific objectives were called out as near-term priorities. The objectives were folded into the framework to form a coherent planning view. On both April 8-9, 2003 and February 19-20, 2004, the LACSI Executive Committee and Principal Investigators met with senior LANL personnel to revise the framework, priorities, and strategies established at the planning meeting in 2002. The current framework outlines five strategic thrust areas: Components, Systems, Computational Science, Application and System Performance, and Computer Science Community Interaction. This document presents the research vision and implementation strategy in each of these areas. The goal of the component architectures effort is to make application development easier through the use of modular codes that integrate powerful components at a high level of abstraction. Through modularization and the existence of well-defined component boundaries (specified by programming interfaces), components allow scientists and software developers to focus on a their own areas of expertise. For example, components and modern scripting languages enable physicists to program at a high level of abstraction (by composing off-the-shelf components into an application), leaving the development of components to expert programmers. In addition, because components foster a higher level of code reuse, components provide an increased economy of scale, making it possible for resources to be shifted to areas such as performance, testing, and platform dependencies, thus improving software quality, portability, and application performance. A

  11. Priority-rotating DBA with adaptive load balance for reconfigurable WDM/TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Weidong; Gan, Chaoqin; Xie, Weilun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-12-01

    To the wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM PON) architecture that implements wavelength sharing and traffic redirection, a priority-rotating dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The priority of each ONU is set and rotated to meet the bandwidth demand and guarantee the fairness among optical network units (ONUs). The bandwidth allocation for priority queues is employed to avoid bandwidth monopolization and over-allocation. The bandwidth allocation for high-loaded situation and redirected traffic are discussed to achieve adaptive load balance over wavelengths and among ONUs. The simulation results show a good performance of the proposed algorithm in throughput rate and average packet delay.

  12. Close-range imaging and research priorities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patias, P.

    2014-06-01

    Since 1984, the European Union's Framework Program for Research and Innovation has been the main instrument for funding research. Specific priorities, objectives and types of funded activities vary between funding periods. Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly € 80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014-2020). H2020 is based on three pillars: (i) Excellent science, (ii) Industrial leadership, (iii) Societal challenges. The current economic crisis in Europe and elsewhere leads to extended shortage of research budgets in national levels, which in turn leads researchers to search funds in the highly competitive transnational research instruments, as H2020. This paper : - draws the overall picture of Horizon 2020 - investigates the position of close-range imaging technologies, applications and research areas - presents the research challenges in H2020 that offer funding opportunities in close-range imaging

  13. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion's effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy. PMID:27511746

  14. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion’s effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy. PMID:27511746

  15. Setting Priorities for Regional Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1–58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information

  16. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop.

  17. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  18. Ex Situ Conservation Priorities for the Wild Relatives of Potato (Solanum L. Section Petota)

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  19. Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

  20. The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustick, David

    2010-01-01

    Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity…