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Sample records for account gender differences

  1. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  2. Causes of Gender Differences in Accounting Performance: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wally-Dima, Lillian; Mbekomize, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the survey method to investigate the factors that cause academic differences between female and male students at the largest university in Botswana. The population of this research was the students of the last three years of the 4 year Bachelor of Accountancy degree programme at the University of Botswana. Anchored on the prior…

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  4. Expectancies for the Effectiveness of Different Tobacco Interventions Account for Racial and Gender Differences in Motivation to Quit and Abstinence Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Stevens, Erin N.; Trent, Lindsay R.; Clark, C. Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. Results: African Americans’ stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women’s stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Conclusions: Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. PMID:24719492

  5. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology.

    PubMed

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP-article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue. PMID:24748688

  6. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP-article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue. PMID:24748688

  7. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  8. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  9. [Laughter: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. PMID:21489520

  10. Gender differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andia, A M; Zisook, S; Heaton, R K; Hesselink, J; Jernigan, T; Kuck, J; Morganville, J; Braff, D L

    1995-08-01

    In an assessment of gender differences in schizophrenia, 85 outpatients (53 men and 32 women) with schizophrenia were evaluated for illness history, symptom severity, IQ, neurocognitive status, cerebral volume loss, and cortical asymmetry. Social functioning was assessed using marital status, independent living skills, and employment status. Significant gender differences were found, as women were on lower doses of neuroleptic medications and more frequently met criteria for paranoid and disorganized subtypes of schizophrenia than men. Women also were better educated and more often married, living independently, and employed. No gender differences were found in present age, symptom severity, neurocognitive functioning, or clinical magnetic resonance imaging scan readings. Our findings suggest that women may experience less of the adverse interpersonal psychosocial consequences of schizophrenia than men, even when symptom and neurocognitive status is equivalent between groups. However, more extensive investigations are warranted to better understand the role of pathophysiological or social mechanisms in gender differences. PMID:7643064

  11. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  12. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  13. Gender differences in mental health.

    PubMed

    Afifi, M

    2007-05-01

    Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors' reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specific. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender and health-seeking behaviour as a powerful determinant of gender differences, to examine the gender differences in common mental health disorders, namely, depressive and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and domestic violence, and finally, to raise some recommendations stemming from this review. PMID:17453094

  14. Gender-Related Differences in the Occupational Aspirations and Career-Style Preferences of Accounting Students: A Cross-Sectional Comparison between Academic School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Nira; Eden, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether gendered differences in occupational aspirations still appear when considering students with similar abilities who study competitively in the same achievement-oriented educational setting. Design/methodology/approach: The hypotheses stipulated an interaction between gender and year of study…

  15. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  16. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01). PMID:18173101

  17. Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Erin; Guo, Guang

    2001-01-01

    Large national data sets and curvilinear growth models were used to examine gender differences in mathematics achievement trajectories from elementary through high school. Despite relatively equal starting points and relatively equal slopes, boys had a faster rate of acceleration, resulting in a slight gender difference by 12th grade. (Contains 39…

  18. Beyond Gender Performance in Accounting: Does Personality Distinction Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2014-01-01

    This study questions whether the contradictory results from previous studies of gender and performance in accounting is because gender has no mutually homogeneous groups. A combination of gender and personality types will provide a more balanced picture of academic performance in accounting. There are three main findings in this study: the…

  19. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  20. Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rhonda C.

    Since the 1960s, gender differences in mathematics performance have been a major topic in educational and mathematical research. This study entails a gender comparative analysis of students' mathematics performance as determined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and by the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency. In a public school system in rural…

  1. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  2. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  3. Strengthening accountability to citizens on gender and health.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R K

    2008-01-01

    Accountability refers to the processes by which those with power in the health sector engage with, and are answerable to, those who make demands on it, and enforce disciplinary action on those in the health sector who do not perform effectively. This paper reviews the practice of accountability to citizens on gender and health, assesses gaps, and recommends strategies. Four kinds of accountability mechanisms have been used by citizens to press for accountability on gender and health. These include international human rights instruments, legislation, governance structures, and other tools, some of which are relevant to all public sector services, some to the health sector alone, some to gender issues alone, and some to gender-specific health concerns of women. However, there are few instances wherein private health sector and donors have been held accountable. Rarely have accountability processes reduced gender inequalities in health, or addressed 'low priority' gender-specific health needs of women. Accountability with respect to implementation and to marginalized groups has remained weak. This paper recommends that: (1) the four kinds of accountability mechanisms be extended to the private health sector and donors; (2) health accountability mechanisms be engendered, and gender accountability mechanisms be made health-specific; (3) resources be earmarked to enable government to respond to gender-specific health demands; (4) mechanisms for enforcement of such policies be improved; and (5) democratic spaces and participation of marginalized groups be strengthened. PMID:19288346

  4. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  5. Social work and gender: An argument for practical accounts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on gender and social work by examining dominant approaches within the field. Anti-discriminatory, woman-centered and intersectional accounts are critiqued for reliance upon both reification and isolation of gender. Via examination of poststructural, queer and trans theories within social work, the author then presents accounts based upon structural/materialist, ethnomethodological and discursive theories, in order to open up debates about conceptualization of gender. These are used to suggest that social work should adopt a focus on gender as a practical accomplishment that occurs within various settings or contexts. PMID:26273228

  6. Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Zhixia

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

  7. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  8. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. PMID:26774437

  9. Games Strategies: Gender Differences vs. Motivational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Linda A.; And Others

    Rapoport and Chammah's (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game research and Vinacke's (1959) parchisi board game research revealed that players used various strategies to reach their desired outcomes. The researchers ascribed the strategy variations to gender differences. A study was conducted which replicated Vinacke's parchisi board game and…

  10. Gender Inequality in Education: Accounting for Women's Subordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1990-01-01

    This article is an attempt to apply a systematic use of theory to gender inequalities in education. It expands on the tenets of liberal, radical, and socialist feminist perspectives to account for differential gender outcomes in terms of educational access, attainment, and field of study choices. The State emerges as a key actor regulating and…

  11. [Gender difference in cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Fusao; Kato, Yoko; Kobayashi, Shoutai

    2015-04-01

    We discuss about the gender difference of cerebrovascular disease according to the data of Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study. The male proportion was dominant in cerebrovascular disease except for subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH). According to the data of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, age-adjusted death rate in cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher in male than in female, however, in SAH the rate was no different between male and female. The incidence of SAH is higher in women than in men, but this gender difference emerges not earlier than age 59. Most cases of SAH were occurring in the ages ranging from 50's in male and 70's in female. The total male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:2. The female proportion was dominant in older patients. PMID:25936150

  12. [Gender differences in dissociative disorders].

    PubMed

    Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness, on the one hand, and sex and gender, on the other hand, has received interest since the beginning of medicine in antique times. A prototypical example of a seemingly woman-specific disease is hysteria. The term itself, which is derived from the Greek word for womb, denotes a psychosexual dimension comprising the current attitude towards sexuality and the dominating gender relationship. In addition, the colourful history of hysteria indicates that illness is not exclusively determined by biological factors, but also significantly by socio-cultural influences, for example in the treatment of hysterical women. Even nowadays, there is a wide-spread belief that dissociative symptoms and disorders, which have succeeded hysteria in current classification systems, are predominantly seen in women. However, empirical studies in the general population and in different clinical samples using sound instruments have indicated that dissociative symptoms do not differ between the genders. The seemingly dominance of dissociative disorders in women may also depend on the socio-cultural context, because men with dissociative disorders usually do not enter the general health system, but rather the legal system, i.e. they can be found in jail or forensic institutions. PMID:18185968

  13. Gender Imbalance in Accounting Academia: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Charles E.; Pate, Gwen R.; Clark, Stanley J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s reflected a gender imbalance in the accounting academy as the proportion of female professors fell far below the percentage of women accountants in practice. For a sample of doctoral-granting and nondoctoral-granting Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) institutions, the…

  14. Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

  15. Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

  16. Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

    2012-01-01

    Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

  17. How Large Are Cognitive Gender Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    1981-01-01

    This study applied meta-analysis techniques to the gender studies cited by Maccoby and Jacklin and assessed the magnitude of cognitive gender differences. Results indicated that gender differences in verbal, quantitative, and visual-spatial ability were very small. (Author/APM)

  18. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  19. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498

  20. Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses. PMID:24934011

  1. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  2. Item-Specific Gender Differences in Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Chandra J.

    Very little research has been performed which examines gender differences in confidence in highly specified situations. More generalized studies consistently suggest that women are less confident than men (i.e. Sadker and Sadker, 1994). The few studies of gender differences in item-specific conditions indicate that men tend to be more confident in…

  3. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

    2000-01-01

    Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender…

  4. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  5. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone substitution therapy

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Nisticò, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related differences in the pharmacological effects of drug are an emerging topic. This review examines gender differences in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist that is prescribed as a treatment for opioid dependence and the management of chronic pain. Method: We performed a search in the Medline database from 1990 to 2014 in order to find published literature related to gender differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone. Results: None of the studies were carried out with the primary or secondary aim to identify any gender differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of methadone. Importantly; high inter-subjects variability in PK parameters was found also intra female population. The reported differences in volume of distribution could be ascribed to the physiological differences between men and women in body weight and composition, taking into account that the dose of methadone was established irrespective of body weight of patients (Peles and Adelson, 2006). On the other hand, the few studies present in literature found no gender difference in some direct pharmacodynamic parameters. Some reports have suggested that female gender is associated with an increased risk for long-QT-related cardiac arrhythmias in methadone maintenance subjects. Conclusion: Even though it may be too simplistic to expect variability only in one parameter to explain inter-individual variation in methadone response, we believe that a better knowledge of gender-related differences might have significant implications for better outcomes in opioid dependence substitution therapy in women. PMID:26106330

  6. Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

    1999-06-01

    Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men. PMID:10396890

  7. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  8. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  9. Gender Wage Gap Accounting: The Role of Selection Bias.

    PubMed

    Bar, Michael; Kim, Seik; Leukhina, Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Mulligan and Rubinstein (2008) (MR) argued that changing selection of working females on unobservable characteristics, from negative in the 1970s to positive in the 1990s, accounted for nearly the entire closing of the gender wage gap. We argue that their female wage equation estimates are inconsistent. Correcting this error substantially weakens the role of the rising selection bias (39 % versus 78 %) and strengthens the contribution of declining discrimination (42 % versus 7 %). Our findings resonate better with related literature. We also explain why our finding of positive selection in the 1970s provides additional support for MR's main hypothesis that an exogenous rise in the market value of unobservable characteristics contributed to the closing of the gender gap. PMID:26358698

  10. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  11. Assimilation, Choice, or Constraint? Testing Theories of Gender Differences in the Careers of Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Kathleen E.; Nelson, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Gender is strongly related to career outcomes among Chicago lawyers. Men and women begin their careers in difference practice contexts, and the differences grow over time. Individual preferences do not fully account for the gender gap. Law school prestige and class rank influence career paths but do not explain the gender gap. (Contains 85…

  12. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  13. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

  14. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability. PMID:23462757

  15. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  16. Gender Differences in Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Research exploring language use has identified several language features that differentiate men and women. Research also concludes that men's and women's writing are rated differently as well, with women's writing rated higher on socio-emotional and aesthetic quality and men's writing rated higher on dynamism. Despite these differences, casual…

  17. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  18. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  19. Gender Differences Among Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Methods Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Results Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Discussion Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health. PMID:19418342

  20. Hemisphere and gender differences in mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Uecker, A; Obrzut, J E

    1993-05-01

    Hemisphere and gender differences in mental rotation for tachistoscopically presented stimuli were assessed in 40 right-handed university students. Twenty male and 20 female subjects each were individually administered (via computer) a mental rotation task which included 10 stimulus presentations at each of eight angular disorientations (0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, 180 degrees, 225 degrees, 270 degrees, and 315 degrees) in each visual half-field (VHF) for a total of 160 trials. Analyses of variance performed on reaction time and accuracy data revealed only a main effect for orientation. A typical mental rotation function for both the left VHF and the right VHF for both genders resulted; however, no gender x visual field interaction was found. Lack of hemisphere and gender differences provide further evidence questioning the interpretation of right-hemisphere male superiority for spatial tasks. Investigation into factors such as task complexity, stimulus familiarity, and task demands may lend further insight into hemisphere and gender differences in mental rotation. PMID:8499111

  1. Gender Differences in Rape Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Nathan W.; Meier, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Compares male and female rape reporting behavior using data from the National Crime and Victimization Survey for 897 rape victims. Data indicate that the situational characteristics of rape and factors that influence reporting a rape differ by sex. Women reported victimization more frequently than did men. (SLD)

  2. Gender Differences in Geographical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, William W.; Troster, Alexander I.

    1987-01-01

    Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)

  3. Gender differences in crowd perception.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y; Puri, Amrita M; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces-crowd perception-is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  4. Gender differences in crowd perception

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  5. Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aboriginal Australian children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry R; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Thomas, Katherine T; Campbell, Amity C; Elliott, Bruce C

    2010-12-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES > 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and kinematics were recorded in 30 female and male Aboriginal Australian children 6-10 years old. Results indicated the Aboriginal girls and boys were more similar in horizontal ball velocities than U.S. girls and boys. Throwing kinematics between girls and boys were also more similar in Australian Aborigines than U.S. children. Aboriginal girls threw with greater velocities than U.S., German, Japanese, and Thai girls, while the boys were similar across cultures. PMID:21268467

  6. Gender and age differences in food cognition.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, L; Peters, G R; Downey, R; McCann, T; Huff-Corzine, L

    1993-02-01

    Results from three studies relevant to a model of food cognition based on the evaluative dimensions pleasure, health, and convenience are reported. In the first study, discriminant analyses of the evaluative ratings (n = 248) of 35 meals and snacks yielded significant gender and age differences on the pleasure and health dimensions. Separate factor analyses of the pleasure and health ratings revealed that males and females grouped foods differently on these criteria. The factor analysis of convenience ratings suggested that males and females perceive the meaning of convenience differently. In the second study, 336 college students rated 27 meals on the three evaluative dimensions and also indicated their preferences for each meal. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences could be significantly predicted, and other results showed that as compared to males, females give higher health, pleasure and convenience ratings to healthy meals. The third study employed a modified free association technique to investigate gender and age differences in the meanings of nine familiar foods. Data from 96 males and females aged 18 to 86 revealed a substantial variety of significant age and gender differences for specific foods. It is suggested that taken together, these results indicate important cognitive and affective sources for gender and age-related food attitudes. PMID:8452376

  7. A Facial Attractiveness Account of Gender Asymmetries in Interracial Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups. Method and Findings This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facial attractiveness. This found that Black males are perceived as more attractive than White or East Asian males whereas among females, it is the East Asians that are perceived as most attractive on average. Conclusions Incorporating these attractiveness patterns into the model of marriage decisions produces asymmetries in interracial marriage similar to those in the observed data in terms of direction and relative size. This model does not require differences in status between races nor different strategies based on gender. Predictions are also generated regarding the relative attractiveness of those engaging in interracial marriage. PMID:22347504

  8. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  9. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  10. Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From 1994 to 1995, data from a large sample (N = 4,371)…

  11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  12. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  13. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  14. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  15. Gender and racial differences in mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Hall, C W; Davis, N B; Bolen, L M; Chia, R

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined gender and racial differences in mathematics performance among 5th- and 8th-grade students in the United States. Math performance was assessed by scores on the math-concepts and math-computation sections of the California Achievement Test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1986) given at the end of the previous year. There were no significant gender differences, but in both grades, the White students scored significantly higher than the Black students. The racial differences were more pronounced in the scores for concepts than in the scores for computation. Responses to a parent questionnaire showed significant relationships between parents' self-reported math anxiety, parents' most advanced math course, and parents' education level in relation to the child's math performance. Differences in these relationships suggest that, although parents' beliefs and attitudes about math influence their child's math performance, the relationship is complex and may vary with race. PMID:10646303

  16. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  17. Understanding Gender Differences in Anxiety: The Mediating Effects of Instrumentality and Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a better understanding of modifiable psychological factors that account for gender differences in anxiety may provide insight into interventions that can be used to target these risk processes. The authors developed a mediational model to examine the degree to which gender differences in anxiety are explained by instrumentality and…

  18. Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Tveitnes, Dag; Øymar, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age) with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86%) than in boys (62%) (p < 0.001), but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30%) than in girls (10%) (p = 0.003). The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation. PMID:26576072

  19. Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

  20. Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support. PMID:19176486

  1. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  2. Gender differences in coerced patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. Methods 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. Results When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Conclusions Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be

  3. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  4. Gender Differences in Outcomes of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Harness-Brumley, Cayce L.; Elliott, Alan C.; Rosenbluth, Daniel B.; Raghavan, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common life-shortening genetic disease in which women have been described to have worse outcomes than males, particularly in response to respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, as advancements in therapies have improved life expectancy, this gender disparity has been challenged. The objective of this study is to examine whether a gender-based survival difference still exists in this population and determine the impact of common CF respiratory infections on outcomes in males versus females with CF. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 32,766 patients from the United States Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry over a 13-year period. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall mortality and pathogen based survival rates in males and females. Results: Females demonstrated a decreased median life expectancy (36.0 years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 35.0–37.3) compared with men (38.7 years; 95% CI 37.8–39.6; p<0.001). Female gender proved to be a significant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.79–2.77), despite accounting for variables known to influence CF mortality. Women were also found to become colonized earlier with several bacteria and to have worse outcomes with common CF pathogens. Conclusions: CF women continue to have a shortened life expectancy relative to men despite accounting for key CF-related comorbidities. Women also become colonized with certain common CF pathogens earlier than men and show a decreased life expectancy in the setting of respiratory infections. Explanations for this gender disparity are only beginning to be unraveled and further investigation into mechanisms is needed to help develop therapies that may narrow this gender gap. PMID:25495366

  5. Gender differences in attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Jennifer J; Gluck, John P

    1996-01-01

    Although gender differences in attitudes toward animal research have been reported in the literature for some time, exploration into the nature of these differences has received less attention. This article examines gender differences in responses to a survey of attitudes toward the use of animals in research. The survey was completed by college students and consisted of items intended to tap different issues related to the animal research debate. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to support tenets of the animal protection movement. Likewise, women were more likely than men to favor increased restrictions on animal use and were more concerned than men about the suffering of research animals. Analysis of item contents suggested that women endorsed items reflecting a general caring for animals, were more willing than men to make personal sacrifices such as giving up meat and medical benefits in an effort to protect animals, and were more likely than men to question the use of animals in research on scientific grounds. Men, on the other hand, tended to emphasize the potential benefits arising from the use of animals in research. PMID:11654977

  6. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  8. Gender Differences in Ocular Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

  9. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  10. Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

  11. Gender Inequality in Interaction--An Evolutionary Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I argue that evolutionary theorizing can help sociologists and feminists better understand gender inequality. Evolutionary theory explains why control of the sexuality of young women is a priority across most human societies both past and present. Evolutionary psychology has extended our understanding of male violence against…

  12. Gender differences in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Alberti, Andrea; Lanari, Alessia; Micheli, Sara; Bertolani, Luca; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Billeci, Antonia M R; Comi, Giancarlo; Previdi, Paolo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on women than men owing to the fact that women have more stroke events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men; however, because of women's longer life expectancy and the much higher incidence of stroke at older ages, women have more stroke events than men overall. The aims of this prospective study in consecutive patients were to assess whether there are gender differences in stroke risk factors, treatment or outcome. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were included in this prospective study at four study centers. Disability was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale score (>or=3 indicating disabling stroke) in both genders at 90 days. Outcomes and risk factors in both genders were compared using the chi(2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify any independent predictors of outcome. A total of 1136 patients were included in this study; of these, 494 (46%) were female. Women were statistically older compared with men: 76.02 (+/- 12.93) and 72.68 (+/- 13.27) median years of age, respectively. At admission, females had higher NIH Stroke Scale scores compared with males (9.4 [+/- 6.94] vs 7.6 [+/- 6.28] for men; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, females tended to have more cardioembolic strokes (153 [30%] vs 147 [23%] for men; p = 0.004). Males had lacunar and atherosclerotic strokes more often (146 [29%] vs 249 [39%] for men; p = 0.002, and 68 [13%] vs 123 [19%] for men; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was also significantly different between genders, at 2.5 (+/- 2.05) for women and 2.1 (+/- 2.02) for men (p = 0.003). However, at multivariate analysis, female gender was not an indicator for negative outcome. It was concluded that female gender was not an independent factor for negative outcome. In addition, both genders demonstrated different stroke pathophysiologies. These findings should be taken into account when diagnostic workup and

  13. Gender Power in Elite Schools: Methodological Insights from Researcher Reflexive Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby

    2014-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to understand the methodological insights from researchers' reflexive accounts about the production of gender in the specific practices of three Scottish elite schools. Accordingly, the paper poses three questions: How is gender re/constructed through the specific practices of these elite schools? What insights…

  14. Risk Factors for Inpatient Psychiatric Readmission: Are There Gender Differences?

    PubMed

    Rieke, Katherine; McGeary, Corey; Schmid, Kendra K; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare characteristics of women and men discharged from an inpatient psychiatric facility and to identify gender-specific risk factors associated with 30-day and 1-year readmission using administrative data. The sample included adults discharged from an inpatient psychiatric facility in a Midwestern city (N = 1853). The analysis showed that the 30-day readmission rate was significantly lower among women, but there was no difference in the 1-year readmission rate. Risk factors for readmission differed by gender. For example, for 30-day readmission, being on Medicare versus commercial insurance increased the odds for women (OR 3.08; 95 % CI 1.35-7.04) and taking first-generation antipsychotics versus no antipsychotics increased the odds for men (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.26-3.48). These findings suggest there are important differences between women and men readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. Future strategies need to take into account gender-specific risk factors in order to improve long-term patient outcomes. PMID:26303903

  15. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  16. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  17. Gender differences in tobacco use in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carriker, L; Waldron, I

    1990-01-01

    This study has assessed gender differences in smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco for younger adults and their parents in samples from five ethnic groups in Kenya. These samples were from two groups of pastoralists (the Maasai and the Samburu), a group engaged in fishing and farming (the Luo), and two groups of relatively Westernized Kenyans primarily involved in commercial occupations (from the Kisii and the Gikuyu ethnic groups). In four of the five study groups, there was little or no difference in the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in either the younger or older generation. Similarly, in four of the study groups there was little or no gender difference in the prevalence of smoking for the older generation. In contrast, for the younger generation in every study group except the Luo, men were much more likely than women to smoke cigarettes. The attitudes toward tobacco use reported by the younger generation showed similar patterns. In every study group except the Luo, the younger adults reported that smokeless tobacco use was socially acceptable for both men and women, but smoking was acceptable only for men. Many of the younger women reported that they did not smoke because it would not be socially acceptable. The interview data suggest that the social prohibition against women's smoking was one component of more general restrictions on women's behavior, and the absence of restrictions on men's smoking was related to men's greater social power. The Luo were the only study group in which respondents reported that women should have as much influence as men in decision making. Correspondingly, the Luo were the only study group in which most respondents considered it acceptable for women to smoke and women were as likely as men to smoke cigarettes. PMID:2309128

  18. Gender differences in nightmare frequency: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Reinhard, Iris

    2011-04-01

    Many studies have reported gender differences in nightmare frequency. In order to study this difference systematically, data from 111 independent studies have been included in the meta-analysis reported here. Overall, estimated effect sizes regarding the gender difference in nightmare frequency differed significantly from zero in three age groups of healthy persons (adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults), whereas for children and older persons no substantial gender difference in nightmare frequency could be demonstrated. There are several candidate variables like dream recall frequency, depression, childhood trauma, and insomnia which might explain this gender difference because these variables are related to nightmare frequency and show stable gender differences themselves. Systematic research studying the effect of these variables on the gender difference in nightmare frequency, though, is still lacking. In the present study it was found that women tend to report nightmares more often than men but this gender difference was not found in children and older persons. Starting with adolescence, the gender difference narrowed with increasing age. In addition, studies with binary coded items showed a markedly smaller effect size for the gender difference in nightmare frequency compared to the studies using multiple categories in a rating scale. How nightmares were defined did not affect the gender difference. In the analyses of all studies and also in the analysis for the children alone the data source (children vs. parents) turned out to be the most influential variable on the gender difference (reporting, age). Other results are also presented. Investigating factors explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency might be helpful in deepening the understanding regarding nightmare etiology and possibly gender differences in other mental disorders like depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:20817509

  19. Racial Differences in Men's Attitudes about Women's Gender Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blee, Kathleen M.; Tickamyer, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    African American and white men's attitudes toward gender roles, changes in gender role attitude, and maternal and life course influences on gender role attitude are examined. Findings indicate that there are racial differences in attitude, that attitudes change over time, and that individual status and life course processes influence attitudes.…

  20. Gender differences in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S H; Taylor, S; Baker, J M

    1997-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of anxiety-related sensations arising from beliefs that these sensations have harmful physical, psychological, or social consequences. AS is measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), a 16-item self-report questionnaire. Little is known about the origins of AS, although social learning experiences (including sex-role socialization experiences) may be important. The present study examined whether there were gender differences in: (a) the lower- or higher-order factor structure of the ASI; and/or (b) pattern of ASI factor scores. The ASI was completed by 818 university students (290 males; 528 females). Separate principal components analyses on the ASI items of the total sample, males, and females revealed nearly identical lower-order three-factor structures for all groups, with factors pertaining to fears about the anticipated (a) physical, (b) psychological, and (c) social consequences of anxiety. Separate principal components analyses on the lower-order factor scores of the three samples revealed similar unidimensional higher-order solutions for all groups. Gender x AS dimension analyses on ASI lower-order factor scores showed that: females scored higher than males only on the physical concerns factor; females scored higher on the physical concerns factor relative to their scores on the social and psychological concerns factors; and males scored higher on the social and psychological concerns factors relative to their scores on the physical concerns factor. Finally, females scored higher than males on the higher-order factor representing the global AS construct. The present study provides further support for the empirical distinction of the three lower-order dimensions of AS, and additional evidence for the theoretical hierarchical structure of the ASI. Results also suggest that males and females differ on these various AS dimensions in ways consistent with sex role socialization practices. PMID:9168341

  1. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing.

    PubMed

    Gotshall, R W; Tsai, P F; Frey, M A

    1991-09-01

    Reduced tolerance to orthostatic stress is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Both men and women serve as astronauts and are staying longer in space. While there are recognized cardiovascular differences in baseline function based on gender, little is known about any gender-based differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test. The subjects were 10 men and 10 women, 20-30 years of age. Heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were monitored during 5 min supine and 5 min standing. Men responded similarly in heart rate (39 vs. 35%); but had significantly greater decreases in stroke volume (-53 vs. -40%), cardiac output (-36 vs. -21%), and pulse pressure (-19 vs. -12%); and greater increases in blood pressure (11 vs. 6%) and total peripheral resistance (77 vs. 34%) than did the women. Men and women demonstrated fundamental differences in cardiovascular responses during standing. Differences in the height of the subjects did not account for these differing cardiovascular responses. The mechanisms for these differences are not yet clear. Men and women should be studied as separate groups until these differences are understood. PMID:1930074

  2. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p<0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p<0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p<0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p<0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p<0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p<0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p<0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p<0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p<0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p<0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears

  3. Gender differences in health related behaviour: some unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Kandrack, M A; Grant, K R; Segall, A

    1991-01-01

    To date, no single explanation has accounted for discrepancies between male and female morbidity rates and health care utilization patterns. The sociomedical approach to sex/gender differences in health related behaviour has generated a variety of hypotheses. However, despite extensive study, many unanswered questions remain. The findings of this study fall short of offering conclusive evidence as to the causes of variations in morbidity and health services use between women and men. However, an effort is made to identify the salience of social role and related social status characteristics (e.g. labour force participation) in accounting for variation in health, illness and sick role behaviour. This paper utilizes data from the 1983 Winnipeg Area Study. Findings of this study raise questions about the adequacy of current concepts and measures for studying sex/gender differences in health related behaviour. The study concludes with a critical discussion of conceptual, methodological and theoretical issues which must be considered in our efforts to advance our understanding of why women experience greater longevity, but experience greater morbidity and make more extensive use of health services. PMID:2017726

  4. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  5. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss. PMID:27354843

  6. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss. PMID:27354843

  7. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Self- and Other-Estimates of Multiple Intelligences

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowicz, Agata

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  8. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  9. Gender differences in ondansetron pharmacokinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si H; Yang, Kyung H; Lee, Myung G

    2008-10-01

    It has been reported that ondansetron is primarily metabolized via hepatic CYP2D and 3A1/2 in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and CYP2D1 and 3A2 are male dominant and male specific isozymes, respectively, in rats. Thus, it could be expected that the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron would be changed in male rats compared with those in female rats. Thus, gender-different ondansetron pharmacokinetics were evaluated after its intravenous or oral administration at a dose of 8 mg/kg to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. After intravenous administration of ondansetron to male rats, the AUC and time-averaged non-renal clearance (Clnr) of the drug were significantly smaller (22.6% decrease) and faster (27.3% increase), respectively, than those in female rats. This probably could be due to faster hepatic blood flow rate in male rats. After oral administration of ondansetron to male rats, the AUC of the drug was also significantly smaller (58.8% decrease) than that in female rats, and this could have been due mainly to increased intestinal metabolism of ondansetron in addition to increased hepatic metabolism of the drug in male rats. PMID:18696412

  10. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  11. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  12. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  13. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  14. Gender differences in leadership in the health professions.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C

    2000-03-01

    The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace. PMID:10915337

  15. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  16. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  17. Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…

  18. Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in expressions of pathology.

    PubMed

    Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

    1994-11-01

    This study tested the extent to which gender role attributes and gender role ideology account for sex differences in internally directed psychological distress and in externally directed deviant behavior in a random sample of 2,013 adolescents. Results indicate that gender roles substantially mediate sex differences in both types of pathology: Masculine instrumental attributes reduce internalized distress, whereas feminine expressive attributes reduce externalized behavior problems. In addition, conventional gender role attitudes were positively related to externalizing problems among male adolescents, but were unrelated to pathology among female adolescents. These associations were largely equivalent across Black and White racial groups and across age groups (13 to 19 years). Two alternative theoretical models linking gender roles and pathology are discussed. PMID:7822560

  19. Gender and racial differences in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Fallon, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver injury ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Individuals with NAFLD, especially those with metabolic syndrome, have higher overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. According to the population-based studies, NAFLD and NASH are more prevalent in males and in Hispanics. Both the gender and racial ethnic differences in NAFLD and NASH are likely attributed to interaction between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. Using genome-wide association studies, several genetic variants have been identified to be associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, these variants account for only a small amount of variation in hepatic steatosis among ethnic groups and may serve as modifiers of the natural history of NAFLD. Alternatively, these variants may not be the causative variants but simply markers representing a larger body of genetic variations. In this article, we provide a concise review of the gender and racial differences in the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in adults. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for these disparities. PMID:24868321

  20. Contraceptive methods use -- the gender difference.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Male involvement in family planning programs has been recognized as an important strategy towards shared responsibility between men and women in reproductive decisions as well as in the prevention of STDs and AIDS. Bolstering male involvement is among the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action. One of the achievements of Cairo was the recognition of the need to increase men's responsibility for their sexuality and child rearing roles. The contraceptive prevalence rate and the difference in use of male and female contraceptive methods in selected Asian and Pacific countries are presented. Data on Pacific Islands was not available by contraceptive methods used except for Fiji (1974). There is above 70% contraceptive use in Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Australia, Taiwan, Singapore, and China, with low use in Pakistan and Nepal. The data show that the type of contraceptive used is very much gender biased, indicating that the burden of contraceptive use is on women. The male methods of vasectomy, condom, and withdrawal are used by fewer couples than the female methods of female sterilization, pills, injectables, IUDs, and vaginal barriers for most countries except Japan. In Japan 44% of couples rely on male methods, mainly condoms; however, the use of pills constitutes less than 1%. Hong Kong and Singapore also have higher use of condoms than other countries (about 1/4 of married couples). Male sterilization is relatively lower than female sterilization for all countries. The highest use is in Korea, with 11% of the couples having undergone male sterilization, however, female sterilization is also the highest for Korea with 37% of the couples using this method. No matter what the level of the socioeconomic development of the country, the responsibility of regulating reproduction seems to lie with the women. PMID:12346435

  1. Unequal Returns: Gender Differences in Initial Employment among University Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Karen D.; Lowe, Graham S.

    1993-01-01

    A study of 529 college graduates in Edmonton, Toronto, and Sudbury (Canada) 1 year after graduation found that, regardless of major, gender differences in initial employment conditions were found. Differences are attributed to gender-segregated labor market structures, union/professional association membership, and specific job conditions. Seeking…

  2. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  3. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  4. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  5. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  6. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  7. Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

  8. Gender Differences in Science-Lesson Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the interactions of high school girls and boys during coeducational science lessons. Analyses of the audiovideo recordings of 144 lessons taught by 12 male teachers indicate that girls were more likely to initiate classroom discourse. Findings did not support the hypothesis that gender disparity in science achievement in favor of boys…

  9. Measuring Gender Differences in Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Kevin; Chan, Sui-Wah; Downing, Woo-Kyung; Kwong, Theresa; Lam, Tsz-Fung

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between gender, A-level scores and scores on the learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) of undergraduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The participants for this study were selected at random from the overall LASSI sampling exercise and males and females were…

  10. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  11. Marital Conflict Management: Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Richard A.; O'Brien, Bernard A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores how couples cope with marital conflict from the early years of their relationships to the present time. Focuses on conflict management styles from face-to-face confrontation to avoidance, as well as gender and ethnicity influences on styles of coping with conflict. Implications for social work practice are discussed. (Author/MKA)

  12. Gender Differences in Predicting Productivity of Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupagne, Michel

    1993-01-01

    Investigates significant predictors of article publication for female and male mass communication faculty, and examines predictors of book publication by gender. Finds that traditional reasons for explaining females' alleged lower level of productivity fail to gain support for mass communication faculty in the late 1980s. (SR)

  13. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  14. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction. PMID:9638088

  15. Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

  16. Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

  17. Type of items and the magnitude of gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Hou, Junjie

    2006-06-01

    The present study considered the structure of the drawings used in the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) to examine whether distractors that are either a mirror image or structurally different from the target as well as response alternatives with occluded and nonoccluded parts affect the magnitude of gender differences on this test. One hundred and three women and 100 men undergraduate students were given unlimited time to complete the MRT. A gender by occlusion interaction on correct responses showed that gender differences were larger for occluded than for nonoccluded items. Examination of performance as a function of item placement in the test suggested that it is unlikely that the results could be accounted for by differential practice effects in women and men. Implications of these results for explanations of gender differences on the MRT and for the training of spatial abilities are discussed. PMID:17133885

  18. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  19. Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

  20. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  1. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  2. Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

  3. Moral Cognition: Explaining the Gender Difference in Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…

  4. Be Yourself: Class, Race, Gender and Sexuality in South African Schoolchildren's Accounts of Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert; Moletsane, Relebohile

    2004-01-01

    The article examines understandings of class, race, gender and sexuality in the writings of secondary school students in two working-class schools in Durban. The analysis of students' questions and responses to a problem page "agony aunt", indicate how class and race come to be expressed through accounts of sexuality. In the letters many children…

  5. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  6. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  7. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    PubMed Central

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  8. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women’s cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

  9. Creatine kinase: race-gender differences in patients hospitalized for suspected myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. C.; Wong, E.; Haywood, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Race-gender differences in creatine kinase values were studied in 647 consecutive patients admitted for suspected myocardial infarction. The lowest value in a serial set for each patient was used for group comparisons. Significant differences were found between Hispanic females and black males, using standard values. Using log creatine kinase values, significant differences were found among blacks, Caucasians, and Hispanics. Males had higher log creatine kinase values than females, but no differences were found between sexes within racial groups. Body surface area differences (significant between males and females) did not explain all of the racial-gender differences found. Reexamination of ranges of normality, taking into account race-gender differences, is strongly supported by these data. PMID:2185368

  10. Gender difference in gastro-esophageal reflux diseases

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen sharply in western countries over the past 4 decades. This type of cancer is considered to follow a transitional process that goes from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) to Barrett’s esophagus (BE, a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus), a precursor lesion and ultimately adenocarcinoma. This spectrum of GERD is strongly predominant in males due to an unidentified mechanism. Several epidemiologic studies have described that the prevalence of GERD, BE and EAC in women is closely related to reproductive status, which suggests a possible association with the estrogen level. Recently, we revealed in an in vivo study that the inactivation of mast cells by the anti-inflammatory function of estrogen may account for the gender difference in the GERD spectrum. Other studies have described the contribution of female steroid hormones to the gender difference in these diseases. Estrogen is reported to modulate the metabolism of fat, and obesity is a main risk factor of GERDs. Moreover, estrogen could confer esophageal epithelial resistance to causative refluxate. These functions of estrogen might explain the approximately 20-year delay in the incidence of BE and the subsequent development of EAC in women compared to men, and this effect may be responsible for the male predominance. However, some observational studies demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy exerts controversial effects in GERD patients. Nevertheless, the estrogen-related endocrine milieu may prevent disease progression toward carcinogenesis in GERD patients. The development of innovative alternatives to conventional acid suppressors may become possible by clarifying the mechanisms of estrogen. PMID:26855539

  11. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  12. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  13. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  14. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  15. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  16. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  17. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  18. Gender differences in justice evaluations: Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, James H; Davison, Robert B; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Conlon, Donald E; McNamara, Gerry; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros C

    2016-02-01

    Justice research examining gender differences has yielded contrasting findings. This study enlists advanced techniques in cognitive neuroscience (fMRI) to examine gender differences in brain activation patterns in response to procedural and distributive justice manipulations. We integrate social role, information processing, justice, and neuroscience literature to posit and test for gender differences in 2 neural subsystems known to be involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events. Results indicate that the relationship between justice information processing and neural activity in areas representing these subsystems is significantly influenced by gender, with greater activation for females than males during consideration of both procedural and distributive justice information. In addition, we find evidence that gender and distributive injustice interact to influence bargaining behavior, with females rejecting ultimatum game offers more frequently than males. Results also demonstrate activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum brain regions during procedural justice evaluation is associated with offer rejection in females, but not in males. Managerial implications based on the study's support for gender differences in justice perceptions are discussed. PMID:26348480

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Teen Relationship Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341

  20. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

  1. Gender differences in bladder control: from babies to elderly.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ricarda M; Huebner, Wilhelm

    2013-10-01

    In both sexes, there are anatomical and behavioral differences in dealing with bladder control, as well as voiding and incontinence. Despite intensive research within the last decades, the differences in physiology and pathophysiology as well as gender differences of bladder control and continence are still poorly understood and further research is highly needed. In babies, gender difference seems to be most likely caused by a difference in maturity rate of the bladder. After gaining bladder control, behavior starts to be influenced by socialization. During preschool and school, children experience a negative perception of school toilets. Especially girls crouch over the toilet seat and train to empty the bladder without relaxation of the pelvic floor. This posture may lead to bladder dysfunction. Often adult women continue this bad habit and bladder dysfunction may consolidate. From the fourth decade in both sexes lower urinary tract symptoms start to develop. However, men and women handle the problem variedly showing gender differences in coping strategies with better coping mechanisms in women. In general, gender difference in help seeking and receiving treatment increases with younger age. In elderly, urinary incontinence is only associated with a higher mortality in men, and elderly men seek more often professional help. Aim of the review is to provide an insight into gender differences of bladder control and bladder dysfunction. PMID:23881351

  2. Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y.; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a risky decision making task. Healthy men (n = 24, 12 stressed) and women (n = 23, 11 stressed) completed the decision task after either cold pressor stress or a control task during the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls, such that stress led to greater reward collection and faster decision speed in males but less reward collection and slower decision speed in females. A gender-by-stress interaction was observed for the dorsal striatum and anterior insula. With cold stress, activation in these regions was increased in males but decreased in females. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of stress on reward-related decision processing differs depending on gender. PMID:21609968

  3. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  4. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made. PMID:4049023

  5. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating-courtship methods that are regularly enacted. We explored gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 680), we find that some traditional gender differences persist, but that these are also cross-cut by racial contrasts. Men, overall, place more emphasis on gifting, as well as sexual activity. Gender differences, however, are significantly greater among African Americans1 as compared to Whites in our sample. African American respondents are also significantly more likely than White respondents to associate meeting the family with a more serious dating relationship. Our findings highlight the need for greater efforts to uncover and account for racial differences in dating, relationships, and courtship. PMID:23049154

  6. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  7. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  8. Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thevenin, Tine

    Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines gender differences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…

  9. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Preschoolers' Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Robert A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines gender differences in 4-year olds, observing, in 3 replications, 18 to 21 girls and 20 to 22 boys at home and school. Relations between individual characteristics and behavior, or between different aspects of behavior, differ in a number of ways between girls and boys. (SLD)

  10. Differences in students' perceived classroom experiences by instructor gender, student gender, and persistence in STEM courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlkes, Carol

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are growing and have lucrative job opportunities for college graduates. However, the number of students in STEM majors and the number of those who persist in those majors is declining; there is also a growing gender gap in STEM graduates. This study investigated three perceived classroom experiences in STEM courses and the nature of differences in these experiences by student gender, instructor gender, and by those who persisted or did not persist in STEM majors. A factorial MANOVA was the statistical method by which the differences were explored. The statistical analysis revealed non-significant mean differences in three-way interaction, all two-way interactions, and all main effects. There were not gendered differences in students' perceptions of the opportunities for hands-on learning, the instructor cares about students' success, and the instructor encourages students' contributions. Further research is proposed to continue examination of this topic with a larger data set that is consistent with the literature regarding the population of STEM students and the number of STEM persisters, and the male-gendered nature of STEM fields.

  11. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  12. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  13. Gender differences during processing of the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Mekarski, J E; Cutmore, T R; Suboski, W

    1996-10-01

    An assertion was made that "There are no sex differences in Stroop interference" (MacLeod, 1991, p. 203) in spite of some evidence to the contrary (e.g., Sarmany, 1977). To resolve the discrepancy, this study examined the nature of gender differences in the context of other variables. 6 men and 8 women were tested, using response speed and errors made as dependent measures. Independent variables were gender, perceptual input (Stroop) task, congruency of stimuli, manual response output, and trial block. Contrary to MacLeod, men were consistently slower than women over trial blocks by some 46 msec., although their error rates did not differ significantly. Response output interacted with gender, with Stroop task, and with trial block. Congruent stimuli were processed faster than incongruent ones. Differences may be ascribed to greater verbal and fine motor abilities of women and greater spatial ability of men. PMID:8902031

  14. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  15. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  16. Gender and national differences in attitudes toward same-gender touch.

    PubMed

    Willis, F N; Rawdon, V A

    1994-06-01

    Women have been reported to be more positive about same-gender touch, but cross-cultural information about this touch is limited. Male and female students from Chile (n = 26), Spain (n = 61), Malaysia (n = 32), and the US (n = 77) completed a same-gender touch scale. As in past studies, US women had more positive scores than US men. Malaysians had more negative scores than the other three groups. Spanish and US students had more positive scores than Chilean students. National differences in attitudes toward particular types of touch were also noted. The need for new methods for examining cross-cultural differences in touch was discussed. PMID:8084675

  17. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    PubMed

    Molina, J Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J Ignacio; Cuesta, José A; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

  18. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p < .001) in all speech materials. For different dialects, the average nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender. PMID:26853731

  19. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed. PMID:20191095

  20. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  1. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  2. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

  3. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  4. Performance on the Coordinate Reference System: Are Gender Differences Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuche, Nancy M.

    1984-01-01

    Explored gender differences in performance on Piagetian tasks of horizontality and verticality, in a stratified random sample of 192 Igbo primary school, secondary school, and university students. Some results supported previous findings on sex differences in reference task performance, but other findings did not fit the predicted pattern. (GC)

  5. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  6. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  7. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  8. Gender Differences in Expectations of Self and Future Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Investigated expectations that 131 single female and 103 male college students had for themselves and their future marital partners. Genders did not differ on expectations for personal success but did differ on expectations for success of future marital partner. Women expected more success for future husbands than men expected for wives.…

  9. An Exploration of Gender Differences in Tertiary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    1989-01-01

    Data from 404 university students (28% females; 72% males) enrolled in a discrete mathematics course were analyzed to explore gender differences. Concludes that differences associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability, detrimental to women were overcome by increased assignment work and tutorial attendance to…

  10. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  11. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  12. Comorbidities in Heart Failure: Are There Gender Differences?

    PubMed

    Hopper, Ingrid; Kotecha, Dipak; Chin, Ken Lee; Mentz, Robert J; von Lueder, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Compared to men, women with heart failure (HF) are often older, smoke less, and have more preserved ejection fraction (EF) and hypertensive HF rather than HF of ischemic etiology. Gender-stratified outcomes on comorbidities data in HF are scarce. Women have traditionally been underrepresented in HF trials. Although data suggest that overall prognosis may be better in women, they experience lower quality of life with greater functional impairment from HF compared to men. Gender differences have been reported for comorbid diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction, anemia, and depression and may explain gender disparity in outcomes. However, possible confounding of comorbidities with known prognostic determinants in HF (such as EF) as well as gender differences in the utilization of medical therapies obscures interpretation. In this review, we will explore the evidence for gender differences in non-cardiovascular comorbidities in HF. Our findings may guide clinicians to individualize HF care, according to best practice, in the hope of improving prognosis for this chronic and debilitating condition. PMID:26829930

  13. Gender Differences in Hypertension and Hypertension Awareness Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY; ZAJACOVA, ANNA

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that men have higher levels of hypertension and lower levels of hypertension awareness than women, but it remains unclear if these differences emerge among young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among U.S. young adults, with special focus on factors that may contribute to observed disparities (N = 14,497). Our results show that the gender disparities in hypertension status were already evident among men and women in their twenties: women were far less likely to be hypertensive compared to men (12% vs. 27%). The results also reveal very low levels of hypertension awareness among young women (32% of hypertensive women were aware of their status) and even lower levels among men (25%). Finally, this study identifies key factors that contribute to these observed gender disparities. In particular, health care use, while not related to the actual hypertension status, fully explains the gender differences in hypertension awareness. The findings thus suggest that regular medical visits are critical for improving hypertension awareness among young adults and reducing gender disparities in cardiovascular health. PMID:25879259

  14. Gender differences in drug abuse in the forensic toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Buccelli, C; Della Casa, E; Paternoster, M; Niola, M; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in substance use/abuse have been the focus of research in the last 15 years. Initiation, use patterns, acceleration of disease course, and help-seeking patterns are known to be influenced by gender differences with regard to biological, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This paper presents a systematic review of published data on gender differences in the use/abuse of psychoactive and psychotic drugs, focusing on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The basis for this paper was obtained by Medline searches using the search terms "human" and "gender", combined with individual drug names or "drugs of abuse". The reference lists of these papers were further checked for other relevant studies. The gender difference in drug abuse is more evident in adults than in adolescents (13-19 years): adult men are 2-3 times more likely than women to develop drug abuse/dependence disorders and approximately 4 times as likely to have an alcohol use disorder. Such prevalence rates have not been observed in adolescents. Differences between men and women involve: (i) the biological response to the drug, (ii) the progression to drug dependence, and (iii) the comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, which may be due to both sociocultural factors and innate biological differences. A crucial role played by ovarian hormones (oestrogens and progesterone) has been documented in both human and animal model studies. Epidemiological data on how particular psychobiological and physiological characteristics in females influence vulnerability to both drug addiction and toxicological consequences of drugs are still in their infancy. Significant gaps remain in our knowledge, which are primarily attributable to the lack of empirical data that only a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to the topic can generate. The introduction of gender into forensic toxicological evaluations may help elucidate the relationship between the body's absorption of abused drugs

  15. The Big Picture. Spotlight: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of prenatal sex hormones on later behavior and social learning that results from differential treatment of boys and girls by parents and peers. Also explores differences in academic achievement between boys and girls. Concludes that, contrary to the views of some parents and teachers in the 1970s and 1980s, inborn gender…

  16. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  17. Gender Differences in the Supervisory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    This study sought to determine whether a male physical education supervisor's interactions differ between male and female student teachers. The instrument used, Blumberg's System for Analyzing Supervisor-Teacher Interaction, included an interaction matrix permitting many analyses, comparisons, and descriptive observations within categorized…

  18. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  19. Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

  20. Gender Differences in Using Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

  1. Gender Differences in Resilience of Academic Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference in the levels of resilience characteristics between male and female deans within a state university system. Resilience is the ability to operate in a changing environment while consistently maintaining one's effectiveness. This quantitative study utilized the survey, Personal…

  2. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  3. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Tang, Hong; Jiang, Shan; Zeng, Li; Chen, En-Qiang; Zhou, Tao-You; Wang, You-Juan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease in the general population of Chengdu, China. METHODS: This study was conducted at the West China Hospital. Subjects who received a physical examination at this hospital between January and December 2007 were included. Body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipid and lipoproteins concentrations were analyzed. Gallstone disease was diagnosed by ultrasound or on the basis of a history of cholecystectomy because of gallstone disease. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease, and the Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the incidence of metabolic disorders between subjects with and without gallstone disease. RESULTS: A total of 3573 people were included, 10.7% (384/3573) of whom had gallstone diseases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the incidence of gallstone disease in subjects aged 40-64 or ≥ 65 years was significantly different from that in those aged 18-39 years (P < 0.05); the incidence was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). In men, a high level of fasting plasma glucose was obvious in gallstone disease (P < 0.05), and in women, hypertriglyceridemia or obesity were significant in gallstone disease (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We assume that age and sex are profoundly associated with the incidence of gallstone disease; the metabolic risk factors for gallstone disease were different between men and women. PMID:19370788

  4. Examining Students' Feelings and Perceptions of Accounting Profession in a Developing Country: The Role of Gender and Student Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the preconceived notions accounting students in Ghana have about the accounting profession and whether these perceptions are influenced by gender and student category (graduates and undergraduates). This study was a cross-sectional survey of 516 undergraduate and 78 graduate accounting students from a public university in…

  5. Discourses of Difference? Examining Gender Differences in Linguistic Characteristics of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan; Myhill, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Set in the context of international concerns about boys' achievements in writing, this article presents research that explores gender differences or similarities in linguistic competence in writing. Drawing on the results of a large-scale analysis of the linguistic characteristics of secondary-aged writers, we outline gender difference in the…

  6. Reducing gender differences in performance in introductory college physics through values affirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This ``values affirmation'' activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.

  7. Gender differences in memory for a sexual story.

    PubMed

    Kirsch-Rosenkrantz, J; Geer, J H

    1991-06-01

    The present research extended previous work that identified gender differences in memory for a sexual text. That work identified a memory bias for the sexes in recognition memory, whereas we found gender differences in errors in recall memory. Recall memory is particularly important because it provides the opportunity for the individual to construct memory. This provides the opportunity for distortion to occur and allows the individual to make errors. The prediction that men would incorrectly recall more material of an erotic nature was supported. The prediction that women would incorrectly recall material that was romantic in nature was not confirmed. In a recognition task both genders endorsed more false positives of a sexual nature than a romantic nature. Using findings from research on memory for written text, predictions concerning the effects of importance, perspective, and typicality were made. Those predictions were not confirmed. A discussion of possible explanations for the various findings is presented. PMID:2059148

  8. Gender differences in preschoolers' help-eliciting communication.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R B

    1999-09-01

    Gender differences in help-eliciting communication and the relationship of such utterances with ability were explored. A sample of 71 preschoolers (38 boys, 33 girls; mean age 4 years 3 months) were videotaped as they solved a difficult puzzle. Spontaneous talk was analyzed for orientation (to whom or to what an utterance referred) and for the frequency of utterances coded as help eliciting. Significant main effects for gender were observed, with more frequent help-eliciting utterances (HEUs) made by the girls than by the boys, particularly HEUs about themselves (self-disclosing). Although the girls' HEUs were not predictive of ability on the puzzle, the boys' were. No gender differences in puzzle-solving ability were observed. Findings are discussed with regard to problem solving and social/linguistic development. PMID:10515069

  9. Sleep in old age: focus on gender differences.

    PubMed

    Rediehs, M H; Reis, J S; Creason, N S

    1990-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on 27 studies addressing gender differences on 31 indices of sleeping behavior of persons 58 years of age and older. All pertinent, original research articles published in the United States in the last decade were included. New findings were compared with summaries from earlier studies to complete a picture of current knowledge. Effect sizes were calculated for 23 variables related to sleep continuity, architecture, and pathology; and effect sizes were averaged across studies. Gender difference effect sizes were small to moderate, with men tending to show more objective changes from the patterns of healthy youthful sleep. Results underscore the importance of health providers having an understanding of gender and age in relation to sleep. Findings suggest the need to protect the lighter, more fragile sleep of the elderly; to encourage regularity in sleep patterns; and to use sleep-inducing medications with caution. PMID:2287853

  10. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  11. Gender differences in personality and heart-rate variability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chang, Li-Ren; Kuo, Terry B J; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Ying-Zai; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-10-30

    Both personality traits and autonomic functioning show as gender differences, but their relationship is not well understood. Medically unexplained symptoms are related to personality features and can be assessed by autonomic measurement. The patterns are hypothesised to identify gender differences. We recruited 30 male and 30 female healthy volunteers. All participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement. Correlation analysis was performed to identify the relationships between TPQ scores and HRV parameters. For the subjects as a whole, the subdimension harm avoidance 4 (HA4, fatigability and asthenia) was found to be negatively correlated with low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power and total power (TP) of HRV. Novelty seeking 1 (NS1, exploratory excitability) was found to be positively correlated with LF power and TP. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the interactions exploratory excitability x gender and fatigability x gender are predictors of LF and HF power, respectively. Our result supports the hypothesis that personality features such as exploratory excitability and fatigability are associated with autonomic functioning and that gender is a moderator in these relationships. PMID:23499230

  12. Gender-based performance differences in an introductory physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Mark Lee

    Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.

  13. Putting It on the Table: A Mini-Course on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croker, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on gender differences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…

  14. Speaker Credibility in Persuasive Business Communication: A Model which Explains Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Sherron B.

    1989-01-01

    Expands Carl Hovland's Yale Communication Model to include dimensions which explain gender differences in speaker credibility in persuasive business communication, with support from the gender literature. (MS)

  15. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  16. Gender differences in response to competition with same-gender coworkers: A relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Young; Kesebir, Selin; Pillutla, Madan M

    2016-06-01

    We take a relational perspective to explain how women and men may differently experience competition with their same-gender coworkers. According to gender socialization research, the female peer culture values harmony and the appearance of equality, whereas hierarchical ranking is integral to the male peer culture. As competition dispenses with equality and creates a ranking hierarchy, we propose that competition is at odds with the norms of female (but not male) peer relationships. On this basis, we predicted and found in 1 correlational study and 3 experiments that women regard competition with their same-gender coworkers as less desirable than men do, and that their relationships with each other suffer in the presence of competition. We discuss the implications of these findings for women's career progression. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078505

  17. Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika

    2007-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

  18. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hagit; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence. In this review, we present and discuss sex-differences in behavioral, neurochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological findings that we have collected from several different animal studies related to both basal conditions and stress responses. These models have used different paradigms and have elicited a range of behavioral and physiological manifestations associated with gender. The overall data presented demonstrate that male animals are significantly more vulnerable to acute and chronic stress, whereas females are far more resilient. The stark contradiction between these findings and contemporary epidemiological data regarding human subjects is worthy of further study. The examination of these gender-related differences can deepen our understanding of the risk or the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:21508518

  19. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing. PMID:26135387

  20. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  1. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  3. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  4. Siblings and Gender Differences in African-American College Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loury, Linda Datcher

    2004-01-01

    Differences in college enrollment growth rates for African-American men and women have resulted in a large gender gap in college attendance. This paper shows that, controlling for spurious correlation with unobserved variables, having more college-educated older siblings raises rather than lowers the likelihood of college attendance for…

  5. Gender Differences in Children's Nurturant Interactions with Their Infant Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    The research focused on the exploration of gender differences in interaction with infant siblings in the home and the maternal socialization of baby care in girls as opposed to boys. Observations were made of 20 families, each with 2 parents, an infant under the age of 12 months, and an older child between the ages of 46 and 102 months. Five…

  6. Gender Differences in High-School Students' Views about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students' attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females' low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four…

  7. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  8. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  9. Participation in Class and in Online Discussions: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Chajut, Eran; Saporta, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences between participation in face-to-face and web-based classroom discussions were examined, by comparing the men-women actual participation ratio to the men-women attendance (or login) ratio. It was found that men over-proportionally spoke at the face-to-face classroom whereas women over-proportionally posted messages in the…

  10. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  11. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  12. Gender Differences in Correlates of Substance Use: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortu, Stephanie; And Others

    This study was conducted to determine whether gender differences exist on a number of psychosocial variables that are correlated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Subjects were 1,465 students from 22 schools in three regions of New York State who were in the seventh grade during the 1985-1986 school year. Students completed…

  13. Gender Differences in Oral Health Research: Beyond the Dichotomous Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the need for better research on women's health looks at significant gender differences that are factors in health and health education (longevity, poverty, use of medical services, doctor-patient interaction, and women in dentistry) as well aspects of research methodology that need improvement. (MSE)

  14. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  15. Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software. PMID:18689104

  16. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  17. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  18. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  19. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  20. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  1. Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Students towards Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Roli

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve…

  2. Examination of Preschool Teachers' Biased Perception on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Tyler, Mike

    Using the theoretical framework of hermeneutics and guided by the conceptual framework of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice, two studies examined how preschool teachers perceive young children's gender differences in relation to the pedagogical considerations. Participants in Study 1 were 121 early childhood educators attending…

  3. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  4. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  5. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  6. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  7. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clisbee, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

  8. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  9. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  10. Beliefs about Men: Gender Differences among Colleges Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about men. Women were significantly more likely…

  11. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  12. Sexually Explicit Media, Gender Differences, and Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that media scholars often resist the use of the evolutionary paradigm. Discusses two problems: an overly simplistic view of evolutionary models; and a distrust of ideological implications. Develops an evolutionary model proposing that gender differences in the consumption of sexually explicit media is, in part, the result of inherited…

  13. Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

  14. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  15. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  16. Parental Contributions to Adolescents' Possessions and Educational Expenses: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Explored adolescent gender differences in possessions and parental financial assistance. Eight common adolescent possessions were analyzed, as well as expected parental contributions to their children's postsecondary education. Findings from 448 high school students revealed that males were significantly more likely to own stereos and athletic…

  17. Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maume, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

  18. Gender Differences in College Student Satisfaction. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John P.; Vesper, Nick

    This study assessed gender differences in student satisfaction with college to further understand what contributes to student persistence and student outcomes. The study gathered data from 494 first and second year honors students (1,000 were originally surveyed) at a large midwestern research university. Of these, 175 were male and 319 were…

  19. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  20. Reader Stance and a Focus on Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, drawing data from a large research base, was to investigate how and why Taiwanese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) male and female university students responded to feminist texts differently. These participants were taking an elective course titled Gender and Reading while this research was conducted. Weekly reading…

  1. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  2. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' Understanding of the Concept of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Meadow; Graham, Susan A.; McKeough, Anne; Stock, Hayli; Palmer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…

  3. Gender Differences in Children's Experience of Musical Performance Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential gender differences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…

  4. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  5. Gender Differences in an On-Line Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, E.; Lally, V.

    1999-01-01

    Explores gender differences in the use of computer-mediated communication in a specific learning context by a small group of postgraduate distance learners and their tutors at the University of Sheffield. Uses content analysis of online dialog to investigate learning and socioemotional behavior. (Author/LRW)

  6. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  7. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  8. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  9. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  10. Gender and Modality Differences in Experiencing and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, David J.; Martin, Randal B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates gender and modality differences in experiencing and emotional expression. All 47 participants watched and responded to questions about an emotionally provocative video. Analyses revealed a higher level of experiencing, and more use of emotional words by women than men. Additionally, experiencing judgments of private responses were…

  11. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed microenterprises in…

  12. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  13. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:20391009

  14. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Mallampalli, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  15. Online sexual activity experience of heterosexual students: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Walsh, Lindsay

    2011-04-01

    This study compared male and female university students' experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than women reported engaging in solitary-arousal and partnered-arousal OSA and doing so more often. However, the men and women who reported having engaged in partnered-arousal activities reported equal frequencies of experience. There were no significant gender differences for engaging in non-arousal OSA experience. These results support the importance of grouping OSAs in terms of the proposed non-arousal, solitary-arousal, and partnered-arousal categories. Attitude toward OSA but not general attitudes toward or experiences with sexuality partially mediated the relationship between gender and frequency of engaging in arousal-oriented OSA (solitary and partnered OSA). This suggests that attitude toward OSA specifically and not gender socialization more generally account for gender differences in OSA experience. PMID:20467798

  16. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  17. Gender and Role Differences in Couples Communication during Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. Objective The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. Methods The dominant-less dominant methods of sequential mixed design was utilized. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Results Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared to their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: 1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, 2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and 3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. Conclusions This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Implications for Practice Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes. PMID:25122132

  18. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  19. Gender Differences in Scholarly Productivity Within Academic Gynecologic Oncology Departments

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Emily K.; Blake, Rachel A.; Emerson, Jenna B.; Svider, Peter; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Raker, Christina; Robison, Katina; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether there is a gender difference in scholarly productivity among academic gynecologic oncologists. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, the academic rank and gender of gynecologic oncology faculty in the United States were determined from online residency and fellowship directories and departmental web sites. Each individual’s h-index and years of publication were determined from Scopus (a citation database of peer-reviewed literature). The h-index is a quantification of an author’s scholarly productivity that combines the number of publications with the number of times the publications have been cited. We generated descriptive statistics and compared rank, gender, and productivity scores. RESULTS Five hundred seven academic faculty within 137 U.S. teaching programs were identified. Of these, 215 (42%) were female and 292 (58%) were male. Men had significantly higher median h-indices than women, 16 compared with 8, respectively (P<.001). Women were more likely to be of junior academic rank with 63% of assistant professors being female compared with 20% of full professors. When stratifying h-indices by gender and academic rank, men had significantly higher h-indices at the assistant professor level (7 compared with 5, P<.001); however, this difference disappeared at the higher ranks. Stratifying by the years of active publication, there was no significant difference between genders. CONCLUSION Female gynecologic oncologists at the assistant professor level had lower scholarly productivity than men; however, at higher academic ranks, they equaled their male counterparts. Women were more junior in rank, had published for fewer years, and were underrepresented in leadership positions. PMID:26551177

  20. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  1. Bedroom design and decoration: gender differences in preference and activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons. PMID:18047237

  2. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors. PMID:23997382

  3. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors. PMID:23997382

  4. "Gender specific medicine": a focus on gender-differences in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bălan, H; Popescu, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, worldwide considered the most frequent disease, is one of the major contributors to the leading cause of death in women: cardiovascular diseases. Until recently, women have been underestimated in clinical trials. Menopause represents the moment when the so-called "female advantage" is reversed. This review is presenting some gender-specific differences that explain why women are more exposed, especially if obesity is present in post-menopausal women, to hypertension complications. The smaller percentage of optimal controlled blood pressure values in hypertensive women is explained by a lesser adherence to lifestyle modifications and to drug therapy. All these gender-associated differences must be considered in hypertension management of women. PMID:25509556

  5. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. PMID:26225436

  6. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (P<0.001). We identified that deprived nocturnal sleep, an irregular sleep-wake schedule and depression were the risk factors of EDS for both genders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women). PMID:12560020

  7. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  8. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  9. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition. PMID:25630246

  10. Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Eating Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833

  11. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  12. Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions.

    PubMed

    Labad, Javier; Menchon, Jose Manuel; Alonso, Pino; Segalas, Cinto; Jimenez, Susana; Jaurrieta, Nuria; Leckman, James F; Vallejo, Julio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the role of gender in OCD symptom dimensions with a multivariate analysis while controlling for history of tic disorders and age at onset of OCD. One hundred and eighty-six consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were interviewed. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOC-S), YBOC-S Symptom Checklist, and Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales were administered to all patients. Lifetime history of tic disorders was assessed with the tic inventory section of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Age at onset of OCD was assessed by direct interview. Statistical analysis was carried out through logistic regression to calculate adjusted female:male odds ratios (OR) for each dimension. A relationship was found between gender and two main OCD dimensions: contamination/cleaning (higher in females; female:male OR=2.02, P=0.03) and sexual/religious (lower in females; female:male OR=0.41, P=0.03). We did not find gender differences in the aggressive/checking, symmetry/ordering, or hoarding dimensions. We also found a greater history of tic disorders in those patients with symptoms from the symmetry/ordering, dimension (P<0.01). Both symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious dimensions were associated with an earlier age at onset of OCD (P<0.05). Gender is a variable that plays a role in the expression of OCD, particularly the contamination/cleaning and sexual/religious dimensions. Our results underscore the need to examine the relationship between OCD dimensions and clinical variables such as gender, tics, age at onset and severity of the disorder to improve the identification of OCD subtypes. PMID:17436312

  13. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted. PMID:20864467

  14. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  15. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  16. Brain responses mediating idiom comprehension: gender and hemispheric differences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Murdaugh, Donna L; Wolfe, Kelly R; Kumar, Sandhya L

    2012-07-27

    Processing figurative language, such as idioms, is unique in that it requires one to make associations between words and non-literal meanings that are contextually appropriate. At the neural level, processing idiomatic phrases has been linked to recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), the left temporal cortex, superior medial prefrontal gyrus (MPFC), and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). This functional MRI study examined the brain responses associated with processing idiomatic compared to literal sentences. In addition, gender differences in neural responses associated with language comprehension were also explored. In an fMRI scanner, thirty-six healthy adult volunteers viewed sentences that were either literal or idiomatic in nature, and answered subsequent comprehension questions. This sentence comprehension tasks activated mainly prefrontal language areas (LIFG, LSFG, and RMFG). Consistent with previous findings, idiomatic sentences showed increased response in LIFG. These results are discussed in the backdrop of the graded salience hypothesis. Furthermore, we found gender differences in brain activation and functional connectivity during this task. Women showed greater overall activation than men when comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences; whereas men had significantly greater functional connectivity between LIFG and LMTG than women across tasks. Overall, the findings of this study highlight the gender differences in neural responses associated with figurative language comprehension. PMID:22634066

  17. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  18. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  19. Gender difference in hippocampal volume reduction among abstinent methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N.; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Yet little is known about the possible gender difference. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent male and female MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. Methods 27 abstinent MA users (19 males and 8 females) with average 5.75 months of duration and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18 to 45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p=0.002). Female patients showed significantly less volume compared with female healthy controls; there was no significant difference in volume between male patients and male healthy controls. Within female patients, there were significant negative relationships between right hippocampal volume and average dose of MA use (p=0.001), as well as the total error scores on the Continuous Paired Association Learning Task (CPAL) in CSB-C (p=0.013). Conclusions There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume and cognitive function in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  20. Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20 mm round and 50 mm × 45 mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2 mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P < 0.05). Larger electrodes delivered somewhat larger amounts of current than the smaller ones (P < 0.01). Electrodes in the frontal regions delivered less current than those in the parietal region (P < 0.05). There were large individual differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P < 0.01). These differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

  1. An Examination of Gender Differences in Today's Mathematics Classrooms: Exploring Single-Gender Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Celeste Elizabeth

    Much research identifies a gender gap in mathematics and some research points to single-gender mathematics classrooms as a solution to the mathematics gender divide. A 7-week study was conducted in which 5th grade students (N=50) were organized into two mathematics classes. The goal was to examine whether single-gender mathematics classes had an…

  2. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming. PMID:15805824

  3. Examining Gender Differences for Gambling Engagement and Gambling Problems Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18–25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7–11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369–1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503–508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  4. Examining gender differences for gambling engagement and gambling problems among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2013-06-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18-25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7-11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369-1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503-508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  5. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  6. Gender difference in the pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Shandiz

    2015-02-01

    Glaucoma is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in the world, the second leading cause of blindness in the United States, and it results in optic nerve head axonal degeneration and corresponding visual field deficits. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known modifiable risk factor in glaucoma. Non-modifiable risk factors for glaucoma include age, ethnicity, central corneal thickness, and family history. While our understanding of the role of gender as a risk factor in glaucoma development and progression remains nascent, multiple observations have shown gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of glaucoma. Depending on the type of glaucoma, hormone therapy, oral contraceptive use and menopausal status have also been associated with glaucoma. In addition, pregnancy leads to changes in IOP, while the treatment of glaucoma must be tailored based on the systemic effects of topical therapeutics on the mother and fetus. This review will focus on the epidemiologic, anatomic and endocrinologic differences in male and female glaucoma patients. In addition, this review will discuss treatment modalities that may be more appropriate for one gender than the other, especially with respect to a woman's pregnancy status. PMID:25285808

  7. Age and gender differences in various topographical orientation strategies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Irene; Levy, Richard M; Barton, Jason J S; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Orientation in the environment can draw on a variety of cognitive strategies. We asked 634 healthy volunteers to perform a comprehensive battery administered through an internet website (www.gettinglost.ca), testing different orientation strategies in virtual environments to determine the effect of age and gender upon these skills. Older participants (46-67years of age) performed worse than younger participants (18-30 or 31-45years of age) in all orientation skills assessed, including landmark recognition, integration of body-centered information, forming association between landmarks and body turns, and the formation and use of a cognitive map. Among all tests, however, the ability to form cognitive maps resulted to be the significant factor best at predicting the individuals' age group. Gender effects were stable across age and dissociated for task, with males better than females for cognitive map formation and use as well as for path reversal, an orientation task that does not require the processing of visual landmarks during navigation. We conclude that age-related declines in navigation are common across all orientation strategies and confirm gender-specific effects in different spatial domains. PMID:21803342

  8. Gender differences in psychopathy links to drug use.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between 2 criminally relevant constructs, (a) psychopathy and its factors and (b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and the antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation of drug use among women. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571339

  9. Free Alcohol Use and Consequences: Gender Differences Among Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Blocker, Jill; McCoy, Thomas P.; Sutfin, Erin; Champion, Heather; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine gender differences in obtaining free alcohol, high-risk drinking, and consequences. Methods Web-based surveys were administered annually (2003–2005) to random samples of undergraduates (N=10,729). Results Gender, race, age under 21, sorority/fraternity membership, lower disposable income, and relationship status were significant predictors of obtaining free alcohol. Frequent obtainers had greater odds of heavy episodic drinking and consequences compared to infrequent obtainers. Females were less likely to report heavy episodic drinking; however, frequently obtaining females were more likely to report heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions Approximately 25% of undergraduates frequently obtained free alcohol. Females obtained more often, had higher odds of high-risk drinking, and experienced fewer consequences compared to males. PMID:22488395

  10. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  11. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Disorders at Juvenile Probation Intake

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gail A.; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Ko, Susan J.; Katz, Laura M.; Carpenter, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. We identified gender differences in psychiatric disorders among youths at probation intake. Methods. We measured disorders with the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children among 991 randomly selected youths (200 girls) at probation intake in 8 Texas counties. Logistic regression analyses predicted diagnostic clusters by gender, adjusting for demographics and offense characteristics. Results. Demographic and offense characteristics explained small but interpretable and specific variance in diagnostic profile. Girls’ rates of anxiety and affective disorders were higher than boys’ (odds ratios = 0.59 and 0.32, respectively). Girls with violent offenses, compared with other groups, were 3 to 5 times as likely to report anxiety disorders. Conclusions. Among youths with conduct problems, girls demonstrated an elevated risk for co-occurring anxiety or affective disorder. PMID:15623873

  12. Gender differences in prison-based drug treatment participation.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A

    2012-08-01

    Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed. PMID:21764764

  13. Cross-cultural and gender differences in childhood amnesia.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, S; Uesiliana, K; Hayne, H

    2000-11-01

    In two experiments, we examined cross-cultural and gender differences in adults' earliest memories. To do this, we asked male and female adults from three cultural backgrounds (New Zealand European, New Zealand Maori, and Asian) to describe and date their earliest personal memory. Consistent with past research, Asian adults reported significantly later memories than European adults, however this effect was due exclusively to the extremely late memories reported by Asian females. Maori adults, whose traditional culture includes a strong emphasis on the past, reported significantly earlier memories than adults from the other two cultural groups. Across all three cultures, the memories reported by women contained more information than the memories reported by men. These findings support the view that the age and content of our earliest memories are influenced by a wide range of factors including our culture and our gender. These factors must be incorporated into any comprehensive theory of autobiographical memory. PMID:11145068

  14. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954

  15. Learning your way in a city: experience and gender differences in configurational knowledge of one's environment.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Maartje; Postma, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Males tend to outperform females in their knowledge of relative and absolute distances in spatial layouts and environments. It is unclear yet in how far these differences are innate or develop through life. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether gender differences in configurational knowledge for a natural environment might be modulated by experience. In order to examine this possibility, distance as well as directional knowledge of the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands was assessed in male and female inhabitants who had different levels of familiarity with this city. Experience affected the ability to solve difficult distance knowledge problems, but only for females. While the quality of the spatial representation of metric distances improved with more experience, this effect was not different for males and females. In contrast directional configurational measures did show a main gender effect but no experience modulation. In general, it seems that we obtain different configurational aspects according to different experiential time schemes. Moreover, the results suggest that experience may be a modulating factor in the occurrence of gender differences in configurational knowledge, though this seems dependent on the type of measurement. It is discussed in how far proficiency in mental rotation ability and spatial working memory accounts for these differences. PMID:25914663

  16. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions. PMID:25847429

  17. An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions. PMID:23097131

  18. An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane M.

    1989-02-01

    Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance, resulted in comparable final course performance for women and men. These findings are discussed in light of participation rates of women in mathematics.

  19. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlett, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  20. Beyond gender: proximity to interpersonal trauma in examining differences in believing child abuse disclosures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) often delay disclosing or do not disclose the abuse for fear of not being believed. Studies document that women believe CSA disclosures more often than do men. Little research has examined theoretical underpinnings for gender differences in believing. However, 1 theory suggests that women may be more empathetic to disclosures because interpersonal trauma (IPT) is proximal to their lives. The present study aimed to extend understanding of how proximity to IPT may shape views of others' experiences of IPT. This study examined whether proximity to IPT (i.e., knowing a close other who had experienced IPT) rather than personal experience would better account for the robust gender differences typically found in believing disclosures. College students (N = 279) completed self-report measures about their personal trauma history and responded to questions regarding knowledge of close others' trauma histories. Participants read a vignette of an adult female disclosing CSA and rated the disclosure for believability. Results indicate that exposure to IPT increased believing, whereas gender did not. These results suggest that one's proximity to IPT may be an alternative explanation for influence on believing CSA rather than gender alone. PMID:25517856

  1. How Do Families Matter? Age and Gender Differences in Family Influences on Delinquency and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537

  2. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ivy N.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-01-01

    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease. PMID:20925068

  3. An overview of ethnic and gender differences in pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Kvachadze, I; Tsagareli, M G; Dumbadze, Z

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of clinical and experimental evidence show differences in pain responses between different ethnic groups. At the same time, the experience of pain is characterized by immense inter-individual and group variability with one likely contributing factor being ethnicity. Synergistically, pain and ethnicity are multidimensional, malleable and shaped by culture. Although there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanisms, ethnic group differences inevitably reflect a holistic influence of biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors. Numerous studies, investigating a wide variety of painful conditions, have also suggested gender differences in pain perception. Particularly, epidemiologic and clinical findings clearly demonstrate that women are at increased risk for chronic pain and some data suggest that women may experience more severe clinical pain. Studies of experimentally induced pain have produced a very consistent pattern of results, with women exhibiting greater pain sensitivity, enhanced pain facilitation and reduced pain inhibition compared with men, though the magnitude of these sex differences varies across studies. PMID:25693225

  4. Gender Differences in Smoking Behaviors in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. Methods In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. Results The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Conclusions Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates. PMID:18681817

  5. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Derntl, Birgit; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Eickhoff, Simon; Kellermann, Thilo; Falkenberg, Dania I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct and comprises the ability to perceive, understand and feel the emotional states of others. Gender differences have been reported for various aspects of emotional and cognitive behaviors including theory of mind. However, although empathy is not a single ability but a complex behavioral competency including different components, most studies relied on single aspects of empathy, such as perspective taking or emotion perception. To extend those findings we developed three paradigms to assess all three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking and affective responsiveness) and clarify to which extent gender affects the neural correlates of empathic abilities. A functional MRI study was performed with 12 females (6 during their follicular phase, 6 during their luteal phase) and 12 males, measuring these tasks as well as self-report empathy questionnaires. Data analyses revealed no significant gender differences in behavioral performance, but females rated themselves as more empathic than males in the self-report questionnaires. Analyses of functional data revealed distinct neural networks in females and males, and females showed stronger neural activation across all three empathy tasks in emotion-related areas, including the amygdala. Exploratory analysis of possible hormonal effects indicated stronger amygdala activation in females during their follicular phase supporting previous data suggesting higher social sensitivity and thus facilitated socio-emotional behavior. Hence, our data support the assumption that females and males rely on divergent processing strategies when solving emotional tasks: while females seem to recruit more emotion and self-related regions, males activate more cortical, rather cognitive-related areas. PMID:19914001

  6. He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother-Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Boone, Tanya L.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2002-01-01

    Examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Gender differences (more mother-daughter than mother-son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. (Author)

  7. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  8. An Analysis of Gender Differences on Performance Assessment in Mathematics--A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Wilson, Linda; Manon, Jon

    To add to previous research on gender differences in mathematics ability and achievement, this study was designed to investigate gender differences in problem-solving strategies for two extended constructed-response mathematics questions in grade 3. It is a followup to a study of gender differences on constructed-response and multiple-choice items…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences in Young Children's Mathematical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Thomas P.; Jacobs, Victoria R.; Franke, Megan L.; Levi, Linda W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in problem-solving and computational strategies used by 44 boys and 38 girls as they progressed from grades 1 to 3. Found no gender differences in solving number fact, addition/subtraction, or nonroutine problems but strong gender differences in strategies used to solve problems. Discusses the use of invented…

  10. Perceived Career Barriers and Coping among Youth in Israel: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…

  11. Social support: gender differences in multiple sclerosis spousal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Good, D M; Bower, D A; Einsporn, R L

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in social support of spousal caregivers of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample consisted of 37 male and 28 female caregivers of individuals with MS. It was found that female caregivers scored significantly higher than males on the total number of resources available, perceived social support and the perceived availability of friends and self-help groups. There was a positive relationship between caregiver-perceived social support and the ability of the mate to perform intimate functions. Caregiver-perceived social support was also found to be positively correlated with the caregiver's level of commitment to the spousal relationship. PMID:8568348

  12. Depression and gender differences: focus on Taiwanese American older adults.

    PubMed

    Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn

    2006-04-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710

  13. Social Incentives for Gender Differences in the Propensity to Initiate Negotiations: Sometimes It Does Hurt to Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Babcock, Linda; Lai, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments show that gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations may be explained by differential treatment of men and women when they attempt to negotiate. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants evaluated written accounts of candidates who did or did not initiate negotiations for higher compensation. Evaluators penalized…

  14. The Unique Contribution of Learning Approaches to Academic Performance, after Controlling for IQ and Personality: Are There Gender Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, also taking gender differences into account. The participant sample consisted of 476 school pupils (53% girls and 47% boys) from two upper secondary schools in Sweden who completed two self-reported measures related to personality and learning…

  15. Conceptual physics differences by pedagogy and gender: Questioning the deficit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majors, Twanelle Deann Walker

    The differences in physics performance between males and females have been studied extensively (Blue & Heller, 2003; Coletta, 2015; Madsen, McKagan, & Sayre 2013; McCullough, 2002, 2004, 2011; Pollock, Finkelstein, & Kost, 2007; Zohar & Sela, 2003). The purpose of this study was to look at the ways teaching methods and assessment choices have fabricated a gender gap. Deficit ways of thinking have further marginalized women by renegotiating prior acts of power that initiated and perpetuated marginalization. Outside of the deficit model, the blame for the underperformance of females has been attributed to discourses of power as well as less-than-critical ways of evaluating learning and schooling. Students in introductory algebra-based physics courses from 2008-2014 at Tennessee Technological University were self-enrolled in PHYS2010 sections that were taught using either a traditional or constructivist, interactive-engagement Learner-centered Environment for Algebra-based Physics (LEAP) pedagogy. Propensity scoring on all feasible and relevant independent variables was used to adjust for the probability of students choosing either LEAP or traditional sections. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Gender Force Concept Inventory (GFCI) were used as the measures to gauge students' performance on physics concepts. The results showed that there were no differences in the FCI or GFCI performance of males and females. Results also showed that when accounting for pretest performance and the likelihood of choosing a LEAP section, LEAP pedagogy accounted for roughly 30% of performance differences. Not only was this true on the average, it was true for both genders. This meant that the main effect of LEAP pedagogy was even stronger and more generalizable. Gender did not moderate pedagogy, indicating that a pedagogy gap focus was more appropriate for evaluating physics learners.

  16. Negotiating gender roles: gender differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women's fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, Emily T; Morris, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    The authors propose that gender differences in negotiations reflect women's contextually contingent impression management strategies. They argue that the same behavior, bargaining assertively, is construed as congruent with female gender roles in some contexts yet incongruent in other contexts. Further, women take this contextual variation into account, adjusting their bargaining behavior to manage social impressions. A particularly important contextual variable is advocacy-whether bargaining on one's own behalf versus on another's behalf. In self-advocacy contexts, women anticipate that assertiveness will evoke incongruity evaluations, negative attributions, and subsequent "backlash"; hence, women hedge their assertiveness, using fewer competing tactics and obtaining lower outcomes. However, in other-advocacy contexts, women achieve better outcomes as they do not expect incongruity evaluations or engage in hedging. In a controlled laboratory experiment, the authors found that gender interacts with advocacy context in this way to determine negotiation style and outcomes. Additionally, process measures of anticipated attributions and backlash statistically mediated this interaction effect. PMID:20085399

  17. Gender and ethics committees: where's the 'different voice'?

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Donna

    2006-06-01

    Prominent international and national ethics commissions such as the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee rarely achieve anything remotely resembling gender equality, although local research and ethics committees are somewhat more egalitarian. Under-representation of women is particularly troubling when the subject matter of modern bioethics so disproportionately concerns women's bodies, and when such committees claim to derive 'universal' standards. Are women missing from many ethics committees because of relatively straightforward, if discriminatory, demographic factors? Or are the methods of analysis and styles of ethics to which these bodies are committed somehow 'anti-female'? It has been argued, for example, that there is a 'different voice' in ethical reasoning, not confined to women but more representative of female experience. Similarly, some feminist writers, such as Evelyn Fox Keller and Donna Haraway, have asked difficult epistemological questions about the dominant 'masculine paradigm' in science. Perhaps the dominant paradigm in ethics committee deliberation is similarly gendered? This article provides a preliminary survey of women's representation on ethics committees in eastern and western Europe, a critical analysis of the supposed 'masculinism' of the principlist approach, and a case example in which a 'different voice' did indeed make a difference. PMID:17039630

  18. Gender differences in neural mechanisms underlying moral sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that females and males differ in the structure of their moral attitudes, such that females tend to adopt care-based moral evaluations and males tend to adopt justice-based moral evaluations. The existence of these gender differences remains a controversial issue, as behavioral studies have reported mixed findings. The current study investigated the neural correlates of moral sensitivity in females and males, to test the hypothesis that females would show increased activity in brain regions associated with care-based processing (posterior and anterior cingulate, anterior insula) relative to males when evaluating moral stimuli, and males would show increased activity in regions associated with justice-based processing (superior temporal sulcus) relative to females. Twenty-eight participants (14 females) were scanned using fMRI while viewing unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations, and rated each picture on the degree of moral violation that they judged to be present. As predicted, females showed a stronger modulatory relationship between posterior cingulate and insula activity during picture viewing and subsequent moral ratings relative to males. Males showed a stronger modulatory relationship between inferior parietal activity and moral ratings relative to females. These results are suggestive of gender differences in strategies utilized in moral appraisals. PMID:19015084

  19. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  20. Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation. PMID:23805826

  1. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  2. Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

    2006-01-01

    Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

  3. Looking through Different Lenses: Teachers' and Administrators' Views of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Egley, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and principals don't always agree about the effects on education of accountability systems based on high-stakes testing. Mr. Jones and Mr. Egley look at the implications of these differing perceptions and suggest some strategies for creating a climate in which teachers and administrators can move forward on improving student learning.…

  4. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  5. Gender Differences in Child and Adolescent Social Withdrawal: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barstead, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    In a manuscript entitled, “Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness” Doey et al. (2013) suggest that shyness and its related constructs pose a greater developmental risk for boys compared to girls. They support this claim by citing empirical evidence suggesting that shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively by important others (i.e., parents, peers, and teachers) and that the relationship between internalizing problems and anxious withdrawal is stronger for boys compared to girls. The principal aim of our commentary is to provide a critical examination of Doey et al.’s conclusions vis-à-vis gender differences in child and adolescent shyness. In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs. Next, we critically examine the two main arguments the authors use in support of their conclusion through a review of existing empirical and theoretical work as well as the presentation of data from The Friendship Project. These data were analyzed with the specific purpose of providing an empirical test of the hypotheses implicit in Doey et al.’s primary arguments: 1) shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively than girls and 2) the association between anxious withdrawal and internalizing problems is stronger for boys compared to girls. Our results indicate mixed support for these two claims. Finally, we conclude by suggesting new directions for future researchers interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and both the correlates and outcomes of childhood shyness. PMID:25709144

  6. Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

  7. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  8. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0

  9. Gender Differences in Recidivism Rates for Juvenile Justice Youth: The Impact of Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Selby M.; Placella, Nicole; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Young female offenders represent a growing number of young offenders. Studies have shown that youth in the juvenile justice system, particularly young females, report higher rates of lifetime sexual abuse than their nonoffending peers. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in risk factors for recidivism, including a history of sexual abuse, among a juvenile court clinic sample. Findings suggest that, even after accounting for previously identified risk factors for recidivism such as prior legal involvement and conduct problems, a history of sexual abuse is the most salient predictor of recidivism for young female offenders, but not for males. The development of gender-responsive interventions to reduce juvenile recidivism and continued legal involvement into adulthood may be warranted. PMID:24127890

  10. Gender differences in recidivism rates for juvenile justice youth: the impact of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Selby M; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Rizzo, Christie J; Placella, Nicole; Brown, Larry K

    2014-08-01

    Young female offenders represent a growing number of young offenders. Studies have shown that youth in the juvenile justice system, particularly young females, report higher rates of lifetime sexual abuse than their nonoffending peers. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in risk factors for recidivism, including a history of sexual abuse, among a juvenile court clinic sample. Findings suggest that, even after accounting for previously identified risk factors for recidivism such as prior legal involvement and conduct problems, a history of sexual abuse is the most salient predictor of recidivism for young female offenders, but not for males. The development of gender-responsive interventions to reduce juvenile recidivism and continued legal involvement into adulthood may be warranted. PMID:24127890

  11. Goals as a mediator of gender differences in high-affiliation dyadic conversations.

    PubMed

    Strough, J; Berg, C A

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined whether gender differences in affiliative aspects (collaboration and cooperation) of dyadic conversations occur because girls are more oriented than boys toward goals focused on others. Preadolescents (11-13 years old; 51 boys, 53 girls) worked with a same- or an other-gender peer on a 4-week-long creative-writing task at school. Dyadic conversations and goals were assessed twice. High-affiliation conversations and mutual-participation goals were more prevalent in female than in male and mixed-gender dyads. Mutual-participation goals mediated gender differences in high-affiliation conversations. Control and task-performance goals did not differ by dyad gender. In mixed-gender dyads, conversation strategies and goals did not differ by gender. Implications of goals for understanding gender differences and similarities in conversations are discussed. PMID:10645749

  12. Gender differences in gait kinematics in runners with iliotibial band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phinyomark, A; Osis, S; Hettinga, B A; Leigh, R; Ferber, R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical running gait biomechanics are considered a primary factor in the etiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). However, a general consensus on the underpinning kinematic differences between runners with and without ITBS is yet to be reached. This lack of consensus may be due in part to three issues: gender differences in gait mechanics, the preselection of discrete biomechanical variables, and/or relatively small sample sizes. Therefore, this study was designed to address two purposes: (a) examining differences in gait kinematics for male and female runners experiencing ITBS at the time of testing and (b) assessing differences in gait kinematics between healthy gender- and age-matched runners as compared with their ITBS counterparts using waveform analysis. Ninety-six runners participated in this study: 48 ITBS and 48 healthy runners. The results show that female ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater hip external rotation compared with male ITBS and female healthy runners. On the contrary, male ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater ankle internal rotation compared with healthy males. These results suggest that care should be taken to account for gender when investigating the biomechanical etiology of ITBS. PMID:25622800

  13. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. PMID:26460700

  14. Gender difference in calcification diseases: is it the result of gender-specific ways of nano-bacterial expansion?

    PubMed

    Schwartsburd, P M; Agababov, R; Vainshtein, M

    2013-11-01

    Gender difference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males. We suggest that the male increasing is due to nanobacterial infections and ways of their dissemination. There are specific gender-dependent ways for these infections which bring infection to the different target organs, namely: urinary tract, kidney, prostate in men and placenta in women. Identification of the suggested microbial pathogens and investigation of sex-determined pathways for the dissemination are the following steps to get ascertaining events of gender reasons for different calcification diseases. PMID:24018282

  15. Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

  16. Gender differences in delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female adolescents were much less involved in antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic delinquent behavior compared to male adolescents. Moreover, compared to female delinquent adolescents, male delinquent adolescents were found to have greater tendencies towards antisocial personality, sociability, being sexually abused, and alcohol and drug use. In contrast, female delinquent adolescents had a greater tendency toward depression than male delinquent adolescents. No gender differences were found in the association between family dynamics and delinquent behaviors. Age and antisocial personality had the most significant total effects on male delinquent behavior. In contrast, alcohol and drug abuse was the strongest contributing factors in female delinquent behavior, although the level of alcohol and drug abuse was much higher among male adolescents than among female adolescents. PMID:15886868

  17. Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  18. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Honorato, J; Rebelo, M S; Dias, F L; Camisasca, D R; Faria, P A; Azevedo e Silva, G; Lourenço, S Q C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in prognostic factors among patients treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The medical records of 477 eligible patients (345 males, 132 females) obtained from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were reviewed. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for males and females. Multivariate analysis showed that past tobacco use (aHR 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.7) and regional metastasis (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) in males, and regional metastasis (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), distant metastasis (aHR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-32.7), and hard palate tumours (aHR 11.8, 95% CI 3.3-47.7) in females, were associated with a higher risk of death. There were no differences in survival between males and females. Regional metastasis was found to be a negative prognostic factor in OSCC for both genders. Past tobacco use was an independent prognostic factor for worse survival among males, while distant metastasis and hard palate tumours were independent prognostic factors for worse survival among females. Further studies are necessary to corroborate the relationships found in this study. PMID:26183881

  19. Adolescents' attachment style and early experiences: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Uji, M; Hiramura, H; Chen, Z; Shikai, N; Kishida, Y; Kitamura, T

    2006-01-01

    We examined gender differences in perceived rearing and adult attachment style in adolescents. A total of 3,912 senior college students (1,149 men and 2,763 women) ages 18-23 (men's M = 20.1 years, women's M = 20.0 years) were administered a set of questionnaires including Relationship Questionnaire (to measure adult attachment), the Parental Bonding Instrument (perceived rearing), and a list of early life events. In the men, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal care and low scores on maternal overprotection in a hierarchical regression analysis. On the other hand, in the women, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal and maternal care, and low score on maternal overprotection. Adult attachment was also predicted by fewer Peer Victimization experience as a child in both men and women. However, while men's adult attachment was predicted by Self Disease experiences, women's adult attachment was predicted by Top Star experiences and fewer Relocation experiences. The adult attachment style was predictable from early experiences but there existed some gender differences. PMID:16222424

  20. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  1. Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  2. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  3. Gender Differences Related to Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Ramu, Rajalakshmi; Selvi, Sugavana; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-02-01

    This descriptive study examined gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide among randomly selected urban residents. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Our findings revealed that men hold more pro preventive attitudes to help persons with suicidal thoughts (80.3 %, p = 0.05) and agreed that suicidal attempts are impulsive (78.6 %, p = 0.01). However, they hold permissive attitude to help persons with incurable diseases and expressing death wishes to die (66 %, p = 0.05). A majority of men (78.6 %) than women agreed that "suicidal attempt is essentially a cry for help" (χ (2) = 11.798, p = 0.05). These gender differences need to be taken into consideration when developing appropriate programs to prevent suicide. Further, decriminalizing the law, high-quality research and raising awareness about suicide prevention among the general population is crucial in developing countries like India. PMID:26293749

  4. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  5. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  6. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE TRAUMA ON HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–ADRENAL AXIS FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia M.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Back, Sudie E.; Spratt, Eve; Ciolino, Jody D.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Dipankar, Bandyopadhyay; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the modifying effect of gender on the association between early life trauma and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to a pharmacologic challenge and a social stress task in men and women. Participants (16 men, 23 women) were the control sample of a larger study examining HPA axis function. Individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, or psychotic or eating disorders were excluded. Methods In two test sessions, subjects received 1 μg/kg of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously and participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Primary outcomes included plasma cortisol and corticotropin levels measured at baseline and more than five time points following the challenges. Predictors included gender and early life trauma, as measured by the Early Trauma Index. Using factor analysis, the domains general trauma, severe trauma, and the effects of trauma were established. Using regression, these constructs were used to predict differential HPA reactivity in men and women following the challenges. Results The three factors accounted for the majority of the variance in the ETI. Following the CRH challenge, women had higher overall corticotropin response as dictated by the area under the curve analysis. There were no significant associations between trauma and neuroendocrine response to the TSST. Conclusions CRH challenge results indicate that gender differences in the impact of early trauma may help explain the differential gender susceptibility to psychopathology following adverse childhood events. This may help explain gender differences in some stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders. PMID:21328636

  7. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. PMID:19931962

  8. Gender differences in presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Shor, Eileen M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Iacono, Donna Dello; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prompt recognition of stroke symptoms is critical to timely treatment and women have increased delay to treatment. Women may be more likely to present with atypical symptoms, but this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated. Methods We examined gender differences in the prevalence of presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms among 1,107 consecutive patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed acute ischemic stroke. Patient demographics, clinical variables, and stroke symptoms were abstracted from medical records by trained abstractors using standardized forms. Estimates were age standardized to the age distribution of men and women combined. Presenting symptoms occurred within 24 hrs of incident stroke admission, prodromal symptoms occurred ≥ 24 hours of admission Results Women were significantly older (p<.001), more likely to have cardioembolic stroke (p<.001) and less likely to receive aspirin (p=.014) or statins (p<0.001). 35% of the sample (n=389) reported prodomal symptoms. Women were more likely to have ≥ 1 somatic prodromal and presenting symptom (p=.03; p=0.008), but did not differ from men on specific somatic symptoms. Women did not differ from men in classic presenting stroke symptoms (p=.89) Conclusion Women did not differ significantly in the prevalence of traditional stroke symptoms, but were more likely to have somatic presenting and prodromal symptoms. We found no differences in specific prodromal symptoms, making it difficult to craft a public health message about gender differences in early warning signs of stroke. These results suggest that the focus of stroke prevention education for women should continue to emphasize traditional stroke risk factors. PMID:19211480

  9. A field study on thermal comfort in an Italian hospital considering differences in gender and age.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V

    2015-09-01

    The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values. PMID:25959333

  10. Gender-related clinical differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bogetto, F; Venturello, S; Albert, U; Maina, G; Ravizza, L

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the gender-related differences of clinical features in a sample of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) patients. One hundred and sixty outpatients with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV, Y-BOCS = 16) were admitted. Patients were evaluated with a semi-structured interview covering the following areas: socio-demographic data, Axis I diagnoses (DSM-IV), OCD clinical features (age at onset of OC symptoms and disorder, type of onset, life events and type of course). For statistical analysis the sample was subdivided in two groups according to gender. We found an earlier age at onset of OC symptoms and disorder in males; an insidious onset and a chronic course of illness were also observed in that group of patients. Females more frequently showed an acute onset of OCD and an episodic course of illness; they also reported more frequently a stressful event in the year preceding OCD onset. A history of anxiety disorders with onset preceding OCD and hypomanic episodes occurring after OCD onset was significantly more common among males, while females showed more frequently a history of eating disorders. We found three gender-related features of OCD: males show an earlier age at onset with a lower impact of precipitant events in triggering the disorder; OCD seems to occur in a relative high proportion of males who already have phobias and/or tic disorders; and a surfeit of chronic course of the illness in males in comparison with females. PMID:10683629

  11. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  12. Gender Differences in Verbal Communication between Popular and Unpopular Children during an Interactive Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Suzanne M.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in communication effectiveness between popular and unpopular 5- to 7-year-old children. Because previous research suggests that there may be gender differences in how popular and unpopular children communicate with each other, 24 same-gender pairs (each containing a popular and an unpopular child) were…

  13. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  14. Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

  15. Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type…

  16. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  17. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  18. Gender Difference in Schooling and Its Challenges to Teacher Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiang, Haiyan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in academic achievement and cognitive development in China, noting gender differences in school treatment that have negative effects on girls' learning and achievement. The paper reviews Chinese educational processes and outcomes and summarizes various efforts designed to enhance gender equity in education, noting…

  19. Comparative Analysis of Gender Differences in the HIV-1 Infection Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, P.; Estrada, J. L.; Barriga, G.; Molinar, F.; Hernández, M. C.; Huerta, L.; Cocho, G.; Villarreal, C.

    2006-09-01

    We have performed a retrospective study of the HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-cell counts in blood plasma of more than 3000 Mexican patients. We found that women had consistently lower viral loads than men for CD4 T-cell counts higher than 50 cells/μL and higher viral loads when CD4 T-cell counts were at most 50 cells/μL. Our results show the same pattern as the one reported in studies performed in European and North American populations. We present theoretical predictions of viral load dynamics during highly active antiretroviral therapy taking into account gender differences.

  20. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict the Physical Activity of Children: Probing Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the association between TPB variables and the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children in Shanghai, China. Gender differences were also explored. Methods. The participants were 353 children (180 boys and 173 girls) aged 9 to 13 years from three primary schools in Shanghai. Accelerometers were used to measure the MVPA duration of the children. Questionnaires that focused on attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related to MVPA engagement were completed by the participants. Results. Regression analyses revealed that intention, and not PBC, accounted for 9% of the variance in MVPA. Meanwhile, attitude and PBC explained 33% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA. In terms of gender differences, TPB performed better in the physical activity (PA) domain for boys than for girls. Furthermore, attitude and PBC were significantly associated with intention among boys, whereas only PBC was significantly related to intention among girls. Conclusion. Practitioners should consider tailoring intervention to address gender differences to increase leisure-time PA participation of children. PMID:26649307

  1. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  2. Size matters: community size, HIV stigma, & gender differences.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam; Miller, Carol T; Solomon, Sondra E; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Cassidy, Daniel G

    2009-12-01

    Conclusions regarding HIV stigma in rural areas are hampered by lack of agreement about rural classification. This investigation examined perceptions of HIV stigma among males and females with HIV/AIDS in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural areas. Two-hundred people with HIV/AIDS completed a measure of perceived HIV stigma. Their county or town of residence was used to classify community size. Results indicated that community size was related to one aspect of perceived stigma, disclosure concerns, differently for men and women. Rural women reported more disclosure concerns than did metropolitan and micropolitan women. They also reported more disclosure concerns than rural men. Men in micropolitan communities reported more disclosure concerns than men in rural areas and tended to report more disclosure concerns than men in metropolitan areas. Understanding the relationship of community size to HIV stigmatization requires acknowledging that many communities are neither urban nor rural, and it requires considering gender differences. PMID:18815878

  3. Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913

  4. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    PubMed

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

  5. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men. PMID:8457813

  6. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  7. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  8. Gender differences in HIV-related stigma in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mugoya, George C T; Ernst, Kacey

    2014-02-01

    Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly drives HIV transmission. We examined how factors associated with HIV-related stigma differed by gender, using data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted on selected HIV-related stigma indicators for men and women. Bivariate analyses showed significant gender differences in the overall HIV Stigma index with a higher proportion of women than men presented at the highest stigma level (4.9% vs 2.7%, p < 0.01). Women were more likely to express higher stigmatic attitudes for all components of stigma measured than men. Multivariate analyses showed that HIV-related knowledge had significant inverse dose-response for both men and women. For instance, compared to women in the first HIV-related knowledge quartile, a 1 unit increase in HIV-related knowledge among women at the third HIV-related knowledge quartile was expected to lead to a 63.8% decrease in HIV-related stigma (95% CI [0.21, 0.63]) for women with high stigma, 57.8% decrease for similar women with medium stigma (95% CI [0.33, 0.55]) and 28.4% decrease for those with low stigma (95% CI [0.57, 0.90]). Acceptance with the statement "a husband is justified to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him" was a significant risk factor for expression of stigmatising attitudes at all levels for women (High: OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.02, 2.17]), Medium: OR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.18, 1.82], Low: OR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.10, 1.73]) and men at medium stigma (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.38, 2.95]). Other notable gender differences were found in employment, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, wealth and media exposure. Our results showed that women in the general Kenyan population had higher stigmatic attitudes than men. This was associated with differences in risk factor profile and confirmed previous literature on complexity of social-cultural factors

  9. Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety Among Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Shaily; Jabeen, Masarat; Singh, Shalini; Verma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatological patients invariably suffer one or the other psychological problems which may escalate to the extent of a mental disorder. One of the most common dermatological disorders is atopic dermatitis (AD), but the literature has limited data on gender differences for psychiatric morbidity in such patients. Aims: To evaluate and compare gender differences in the prevalence of depression and anxiety in AD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was done in an outpatient clinic of Dermatology at a Tertiary Care Center. AD subjects giving informed consent were evaluated on a brief semi-structured performa for collecting demographic and clinical information. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to assess the presence of psychiatric symptoms in these patients. Descriptive analysis was done for the socio-demographic profile and independent sample t-test, Chi-square and Cramer's V test was carried out to find in-between group differences for males and females. Results: A total of 81 patients were included in the final analysis (males = 36, females = 45) with no significant difference in mean age between male and female subjects (36.14 ± 17.62 and 33.98 ± 14.49 years, respectively; P = 0.54). When including moderate to severe grade of depression or anxiety, the current study found prevalence rates of 15% and 12% respectively. Females had significantly more anxiety and depression scores than males (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions: There is a female preponderance of depression and anxiety disorder in AD patients. PMID:25814727

  10. The Gender Gap in Second Language Acquisition: Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Dutch among Immigrants from 88 Countries with 49 Mother Tongues.

    PubMed

    van der Slik, Frans W P; van Hout, Roeland W N M; Schepens, Job J

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage. PMID:26540465

  11. The Gender Gap in Second Language Acquisition: Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Dutch among Immigrants from 88 Countries with 49 Mother Tongues

    PubMed Central

    van der Slik, Frans W. P.; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Schepens, Job J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage. PMID:26540465

  12. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  13. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the ‘tri-component theory of humor,’ which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal–mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for ‘theory of mind’ processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different

  14. Ethical Perceptions among Hispanic Students: Differences by Major and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Raymond, Jr.; Moyes, Glen D.; Cortes, Angelica C.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined ethical perceptions of Hispanic students by analyzing differences between (a) accounting and nonaccounting business majors and (b) women and men. The authors used the following five constructs: justice, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology. Their study incorporated 12 moral characteristics into…

  15. Accounting for individual differences in human associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Nicola C.

    2013-01-01

    Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning. PMID:24027551

  16. Gender differences in macroprolactinomas: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2015-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined as failure to achieve prolactin normalisation and >50% reduction in tumour volume with cabergoline (3.5 mg/week dose for minimum 6 months duration). The baseline characteristics of 100 patients (56 females and 44 males) with macroprolactinoma were analysed. Drug responsiveness was analysed in 88 treatment naive patients, excluding 12 post-primary trans-sphenoidal surgery cases. We found that females (30.29±10.39 years) presented at younger mean age than males (35.23±9.91 years) (P<0.01). The most common presenting symptom was hypogonadism (oligo-amenorrhoea/infertility) in females (96.15%) and symptoms of mass effect (headache and visual field defects) in males (93.18%). Baseline mean prolactin levels were significantly lower in females (3094.36±6863.01 ng/ml) than males (7927.07±16 748.1 ng/ml) (P<0.001). Maximal tumour dimension in females (2.49±1.48 cm) was smaller than males (3.93±1.53 cm) (P<0.001). In 88 treatment naïve patients, 27.77% females and 35.29% males had resistant tumours (P=0.48). On subgrouping as per maximum tumour dimension (1.1–2 cm, 2.1–4 cm and >4 cm), gender difference in response rate was insignificant. In conclusion, macroprolactinomas are equally prevalent in both sexes. Macroprolactinomas in males predominantly present with symptoms of mass effects, as against females who present with symptoms of hypogonadism. Males harbor larger tumours but are equally cabergoline responsive as those in females. PMID:26682970

  17. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, L E; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10-0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80-39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. PMID:25529752

  18. Gender differences in macroprolactinomas: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined as failure to achieve prolactin normalisation and >50% reduction in tumour volume with cabergoline (3.5 mg/week dose for minimum 6 months duration). The baseline characteristics of 100 patients (56 females and 44 males) with macroprolactinoma were analysed. Drug responsiveness was analysed in 88 treatment naive patients, excluding 12 post-primary trans-sphenoidal surgery cases. We found that females (30.29±10.39 years) presented at younger mean age than males (35.23±9.91 years) (P<0.01). The most common presenting symptom was hypogonadism (oligo-amenorrhoea/infertility) in females (96.15%) and symptoms of mass effect (headache and visual field defects) in males (93.18%). Baseline mean prolactin levels were significantly lower in females (3094.36±6863.01 ng/ml) than males (7927.07±16 748.1 ng/ml) (P<0.001). Maximal tumour dimension in females (2.49±1.48 cm) was smaller than males (3.93±1.53 cm) (P<0.001). In 88 treatment naïve patients, 27.77% females and 35.29% males had resistant tumours (P=0.48). On subgrouping as per maximum tumour dimension (1.1-2 cm, 2.1-4 cm and >4 cm), gender difference in response rate was insignificant. In conclusion, macroprolactinomas are equally prevalent in both sexes. Macroprolactinomas in males predominantly present with symptoms of mass effects, as against females who present with symptoms of hypogonadism. Males harbor larger tumours but are equally cabergoline responsive as those in females. PMID:26682970

  19. Gender differences in delusional disorder: Evidence from an outpatient sample.

    PubMed

    de Portugal, Enrique; González, Nieves; Miriam, Vilaplana; Haro, Josep M; Usall, Judit; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2010-05-15

    Our objective was to study gender differences in delusional disorder (DD), by comparing potential risk factors, clinical correlates, illness course characteristics, and functionality. The sample was composed of 86 outpatients with DD (according to the SCID-I for DSM-IV criteria). The following assessment instruments were used service use and demographic questionnaires, Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The female-to-male ratio was 1.6:1. Men were more likely to be single, while women were more likely to be widows. Men had a greater frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and of premorbid substance abuse. There were no differences for other risk factors (immigration, deafness, late onset, other personality disorders, and family history). Men were younger at onset and more frequently had acute onset of the disorder. Men had more severe symptoms (higher score on the global or separate PANSS scales). There were no gender differences for the remaining symptomatological variables (types of DD, presence and severity of depression, presence of hallucinations, severity of global cognitive functioning and presence of axis I comorbidity). Global and partial (work, family, and social) functioning was significantly poorer among men. Course type and consumption of resources appeared to be similar. We conclude that men with DD had significantly more severe symptoms and worse functionality. They also had a higher frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and premorbid substance abuse. PMID:20334930

  20. The Development of Students' Mathematics Self-Concept in Relation to Gender: Different Countries, Different Trajectories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Gabriel; Watt, Helen M. G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in the development of children's and adolescents' academic self-perceptions have received increasing attention in recent years. This study extends previous research by examining the development of mathematics self-concept across grades 7-12 in three cultural settings: Australia (Sydney; N = 1,333), the United States (Michigan; N…

  1. Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

  2. Gender differences in CNV burden do not confound schizophrenia CNV associations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Walters, James T. R.; Kirov, George; Pocklington, Andrew; Escott-Price, Valentina; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Rees, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the general population, an excess of rare copy number variants (CNVs) has been identified in people with schizophrenia. Females with neurodevelopmental disorders and in the general population have been reported to carry more large, rare CNVs than males. Given that many schizophrenia datasets do not have equal gender ratios in cases and controls, sex differences in CNV burden might have impacted on estimates of case-related CNV burden and also on associations to individual loci. In a sample of 13,276 cases and 17,863 controls, we observed a small but significant excess of large (≥500 Kb), rare (<1%) CNVs in females compared with males in both cases and controls (OR = 1.17, P = 0.0012 for controls; OR = 1.11, P = 0.045 for cases). The burden of 11 schizophrenia-associated CNVs was significantly higher in female cases compared with male cases (OR = 1.38, P = 0.0055), but after accounting for the rates of CNVs in controls, we found no significant gender difference in the risk conferred by these loci. Controlling for gender had a negligible effect on the significance of association between specific CNVs and schizophrenia. The female excess of large CNVs in both cases and controls suggests a female protective mechanism exists for deleterious CNVs that may extend beyond neurodevelopmental phenotypes. PMID:27185616

  3. Gender differences in CNV burden do not confound schizophrenia CNV associations.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Walters, James T R; Kirov, George; Pocklington, Andrew; Escott-Price, Valentina; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael C; Rees, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the general population, an excess of rare copy number variants (CNVs) has been identified in people with schizophrenia. Females with neurodevelopmental disorders and in the general population have been reported to carry more large, rare CNVs than males. Given that many schizophrenia datasets do not have equal gender ratios in cases and controls, sex differences in CNV burden might have impacted on estimates of case-related CNV burden and also on associations to individual loci. In a sample of 13,276 cases and 17,863 controls, we observed a small but significant excess of large (≥500 Kb), rare (<1%) CNVs in females compared with males in both cases and controls (OR = 1.17, P = 0.0012 for controls; OR = 1.11, P = 0.045 for cases). The burden of 11 schizophrenia-associated CNVs was significantly higher in female cases compared with male cases (OR = 1.38, P = 0.0055), but after accounting for the rates of CNVs in controls, we found no significant gender difference in the risk conferred by these loci. Controlling for gender had a negligible effect on the significance of association between specific CNVs and schizophrenia. The female excess of large CNVs in both cases and controls suggests a female protective mechanism exists for deleterious CNVs that may extend beyond neurodevelopmental phenotypes. PMID:27185616

  4. Gender differences in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    BaHammam, Ahmed S; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Piper, Amanda; Bahammam, Salman A; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Olaish, Awad H; Javaheri, Shahrokh

    2016-08-01

    The role of gender and menopause in obstructive sleep apnoea is well known; however, no study has reported the impact of gender on the clinical presentation and the nocturnal respiratory events in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Therefore, this study prospectively evaluated differences in the clinical characteristics of women and men with obesity hypoventilation syndrome in a large cohort of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. During the study period, a total of 1973 patients were referred to the sleep clinic with clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnoea. All patients underwent overnight polysomnography, during which time spirometry, arterial blood samples and thyroid tests were routinely obtained. Among 1973 consecutive patients, 1693 (617 women) were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea, among whom 144 suffered from obesity hypoventilation syndrome (96 women). The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome among women and men was 15.6% and 4.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). Women with obesity hypoventilation syndrome were significantly older than men with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (61.5 ± 11.9 years versus 49.1 ± 12.5 years, P < 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between genders regarding symptoms, body mass index, spirometric data or daytime PaCO2 , women with obesity hypoventilation syndrome suffered significantly more from hypertension, diabetes and hypothyroidism. The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome was higher in post-menopausal (21%) compared with pre-menopausal (5.3%) women (P < 0001). HCO3 and duration of SpO2 <90% were the only independent predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. In conclusion, this study reported that among subjects referred to the sleep disorders clinic for evaluation of obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome is more prevalent in women than men, and that women with obesity hypoventilation syndrome suffer from significantly

  5. [Morphometric assessment of gender differences in human constitution].

    PubMed

    Baĭbakov, S E; Bakhareva, N S; Chuprunova, N S; Sheĭkh-Zade, Iu R

    2014-01-01

    In 154 girls and 58 young men aged 17-21 years, a new body mass index (BMI2 = M/H3), body form index (BFI=S/M2/3), body build index IBBI = (M/H3)1/2], and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2) were determined; in which C, H, M, S correspond to the wrist circumference, body height, body mass and body area. It was shown that all the indices mentioned demonstrated highly significant gender differences if calculation of each of them was based, not on the body mass, but on a conventional body volume obtained by division of the factual body mass by the average statistical body density corresponding to 1.064 kg/dm3 in men and 1.034 kg/dm3 in women. PMID:25282828

  6. Gender Differences in Directional Brain Responses to Infant Hunger Cries

    PubMed Central

    De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; Rigo, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of infant hunger cries on brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively non-demanding mental state of awake rest. We found that the brains of males and females, independent of parental status (parent or non parent), reacted differently to infant cries. Specifically, dorsal medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate areas, known to be involved in mind-wandering (the stream of thought typical of awake rest), remained active in men during exposure to infant cries, whereas in women activity in these regions decreased. These results reveal gender-dependent modulation of brain responses to infant requests to be fed, and specifically they indicate that women interrupt mind-wandering when exposed to the sounds of infant hunger cries, whereas men carry on without interruption. PMID:23282991

  7. Gender Differences in High-school Students' Views about Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

    2006-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even when females planned to major in science, they were more interested than males in the people-oriented aspects of their planned majors. Second, biology was the one exception to females’ low interest in science. Third, females often planned a science major mainly because they needed a science background in order to enter a health profession such as medicine or physical therapy. Fourth, females generally found science uninteresting and the scientific lifestyle (as perceived by them) unattractive. Implications for teaching science were discussed.

  8. Health Shocks in the Family: Gender Differences in Smoking Changes

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the likelihood of starting and stopping smoking when respondents and their partners report new chronic illnesses. Method Analysis of longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study tests whether starting or stopping smoking is more likely when (a) the respondent, (b) their partner, (c) or both report a new chronic condition, and whether these patterns differ by gender. Results Both men and women are more likely to quit smoking when reporting a new chronic condition, relative to when reporting none. However only women are more likely to quit smoking when their partners fall ill. Women are also more likely than men to start smoking at this time. Discussion Among older couples, women's smoking changes are more sensitive to health shocks in the partnership. Interventions aimed at preventing unhealthy behaviors should pay attention to how each partner deals with the stress of health shocks. PMID:23860178

  9. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  10. Experience, gender, and performance: Connecting high school physics experience and gender differences to introductory college physics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Robert H.

    Current science educational practice is coming under heavy criticism based on the dismaying results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1998, the latest in a series of large scale surveys; and from research showing the appallingly low representation of females in science-related fields. These critical evaluations serve to draw attention to science literacy in general and lack of persistence among females in particular, two issues that relate closely to the "preparation for future study" goal held by many high school science teachers. In other words, these teachers often seek to promote future success and to prevent future failure in their students' academic careers. This thesis studies the connection between the teaching practices recommended by reformers and researchers for high school teachers, and their students' subsequent college physics performance. The teaching practices studied were: laboratory experiences, class discussion experiences, content coverage, and reliance on textbooks. This study analyzed a survey of 1500 students from 16 different lecture-format college physics courses at 14 different universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study accounted for course-level variables (Calculus-based/Non-calculus course type, professor's gender, and university selectivity). This study controlled for the student's parents education, high school science/mathematics achievement, high school calculus background, and racial background. In addition, the interactions between gender and both pedagogical/curricular and course-level variables were analyzed. The results indicated that teaching fewer topics in greater depth in high school physics appeared to be helpful to college physics students. An interaction between college course type and content coverage showed that students in Calculus-based physics reaped even greater benefits from a depth-oriented curriculum. Also students with fewer labs per month in high school physics

  11. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  12. Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

  13. Visual Evoked Potentials: Normative Values and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruby; Singh, K.D.; Kumar, Avnish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual evoked potentials (VEP) are used to assess the visual pathways through the optic nerves and brain. A normal VEP response to a pattern-reversal stimulus is a positive mid occipital peak that occurs at a mean latency of 100 ms. VEP may be affected by variety of physiological factors including age, sex, visual acuity and pupillary size. Aims and Objectives The present study was performed on healthy medical students to determine the normative values and to investigate the effect of sex and anthropometric parameters on visual evoked potentials. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 100 healthy medical students of Government Medical College, Patiala in the age group of 17-20 years, in which there were 50 males and 50 females. The anthropometric parameters including age, height, weight, BMI, BSA and Head circumference were recorded in all the subjects. VEP was recorded with a PC based, 2 channel, RMS EMG EP mark II machine and standard silver-silver chloride disc electrodes. A VEP monitor displaying checker board was used to give the pattern reversal stimulus. The VEP parameters recorded were latencies to N70, P100 and N155 waves, and peak to peak amplitude of P100 wave. Results Our results showed that the latencies of N70, P100 and N155 waves were significantly longer in males as compared to females. The amplitude of P100 wave was higher in females in both left and right eye as compared to males. No significant correlation was found between VEP parameters and head circumference in both male and female subjects in our study. Conclusion Gender is an important variable affecting the VEP. The exact reason of gender difference is not clear, but it may be related to anatomical or endocrinal differences in the two sexes. PMID:26393122

  14. Sex and gender differences in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27389589

  15. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  16. The Pedagogy of (In)Visibility: Two Accounts of Teaching about Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrea; Lucal, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    As teachers who use both our theoretical (academic) and practical (empirical) knowledge to entice our students to peer outside of the seemingly clear-cut boxes of the two-and-only-two dichotomies of sex, gender, and sexuality, we attempt to problematize not only sexuality categories but also gender categories (specifically, the category "woman").…

  17. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  18. The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

  19. Prevalence of Dating Violence and Victimization: Regional and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart, Beverly S.; Nannini, Dawn K.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.; Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines (1) the prevalence of dating violence victimization from a national sample of rural adolescents and (2) patterns by gender and region. Analyses are based on 20,274 adolescents who reported violence victimization using the Community Drug and Alcohol Survey. The relationship of dating violence with gender and region was assessed…

  20. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  1. Toward an Understanding of Gender Differences in Inferring Sexual Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Maurice J.; Nave, Christopher S.; Lowe, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that, after brief opposite-gender interactions, men perceive women more sexually than women perceive men (e.g., Abbey, 1982). This study examined interpersonal perceptions following dyadic cross-gender interactions between unacquainted individuals. Of particular concern were perceptions of sexual traits, interaction qualities,…

  2. Heavy metals in laughing gulls: Gender, age and tissue differences

    SciTech Connect

    Gochfeld, M. |; Belant, J.L.; Shukla, T.; Benson, T.; Burger, J. |

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models explaining the greatest variation in metal levels. Age of bird contributed significantly to the models for lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium. Although there were significant gender differences in all body measurements except wing length, there were few differences in metal levels. Males had significantly higher lead levels in feathers, and females had significantly higher selenium levels in heart and muscle tissue. For lead, 3-year olds had the highest levels in the heart, liver, and kidney, and levels were lower thereafter. Mercury levels in feathers and heart decreased significantly with age. Cadmium levels increased significantly with age for feathers, heart, liver, and muscle, although there was a slight decrease in the 7-year olds. Selenium levels decreased significantly with age for all tissues. Chromium levels increased with age for liver and heart.

  3. Gender differences in social support for socially anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Ham, Lindsay; Hayes, Sarah A; Hope, Debra A

    2005-01-01

    Given that social anxiety disorder is a common, chronic, debilitating disorder and socially anxious women appear to have different experiences related to social development and social support than men, it is essential that the gender differences in social anxiety and social support be understood. The present study examined perceived social support quantity and satisfaction in 23 women and 28 men seeking treatment for social anxiety disorder. Contrary to expectations, men and women did not differ on measures of social support. However, younger, unmarried women reported having smaller social support networks and less satisfaction with their social support networks than older, married women. Analyses of socially anxious men did not reveal such a pattern. The current study provides preliminary evidence that younger, single women have social support networks that are less satisfying than the social support networks of older, married women. Inclusion of social support modules within a cognitive behavioral treatment approach for social anxiety disorder may be warranted, particularly for young, unmarried women. PMID:16319032

  4. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition - hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female. PMID:26845450

  5. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of psychotropics: focus on women.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, K; Potter, W Z

    1991-01-01

    The animal literature provides many instances of gender differences in drug metabolism and/or response. However, there are inherent dangers in trying to generalize findings of either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic gender differences to humans. The literature was searched for references to gender and pharmacokinetics of psychoactive drugs. Interest was primarily in whether sufficient data were available on humans to implicate a gender effect, given the large animal literature. There was a dearth of investigations to look for pertinent differences and many studies that examined gender differences appeared to do so incidentally. Some differences were identified that seemed hormonally influenced and age-related. The most compelling gender differences stem from data on research probes utilized to better understand psychiatric disease processes. The implications for women as psychoactive drug consumers are discussed. PMID:1813891

  6. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  7. Exercise intensity and gender difference of 3 different salsa dancing conditions.

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, G P; Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Franciosi, E; Buzzachera, C F; Baldari, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the difference in exercise intensity (METs), energy cost (EE) and gender difference between a typical salsa lesson (TSL), rueda de casino lesson (RCL), and salsa dancing at a night club (SDN). Subjects performed 1 pre-testing session and 3 testing conditions. During the pre-testing session height, weight and V˙O2max were assessed. During the testing conditions all subjects performed 3 different kinds of salsa dance. Heart rate was assessed during each dance condition. The exercise intensity of the 3 salsa dancing conditions was moderate ranging from 3.9 to 5.5 METs. A significant difference between genders for HRpeak (P=0.01), max%HRR (P=0.006) and mean EE (P=0.02) were observed. Significant gender×condition interactions for HRpeak (P=0.03), mean %HRR (P=0.02), mean METs (P=0.02) and mean EE (P=0.02) were found. In addition, a significant main effect for each condition was found in all variables (P<0.01). Our results showed that the exercise intensities of all 3 salsa dancing conditions were moderate. Findings showed some significant differences in exercise intensity between males and females and within conditions. Salsa dancing could be useful in achieving a significant training effect in people who have a low level of fitness. PMID:23041966

  8. Item type, occlusion, and gender differences in mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Randi A; Voyer, Daniel; Lesmana, Maryani

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the role of item type in mental rotation. In each experiment, participants completed two computerized mental rotation tasks, one with blocks as stimuli and one with human figures as stimuli. The tasks were formatted either as a multiple-choice psychometric test (Experiment 1) or as a same-different type task (Experiment 2). Aside from the expected replication of a decreased effect of occlusion on women's accuracy when processing human figures compared to block figures, it was hypothesized that response times would increase when processing the complex but familiar human figures, compared to the simple but unfamiliar block figures. In Experiment 1, the results relevant to occlusion were replicated. However, the presence of a speed-accuracy trade-off suggested that participants processed human figures faster but less accurately than block figures. In Experiment 2, both men and women performed faster and more accurately when processing occluded human figures than when processing nonoccluded human figures. The effect of item type, its potential link to embodied cognition, and the role of strategy selection on gender differences in mental rotation are discussed. PMID:26325234

  9. Gender differences in glutathione metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honglei; Harrell, Lindy E; Shenvi, Swapna; Hagen, Tory; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2005-03-15

    The mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease, is still an area of significant controversy. Oxidative damage of macromolecules has been suggested to play an important role in the development of AD; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we showed that the concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, was decreased in red blood cells from male AD patients compared with age- and gender-matched controls. However, there was no difference in blood GSH concentration between the female patients and female controls. The decrease in GSH content in red blood cells from male AD patients was associated with reduced activities of glutamate cysteine ligase and glutathione synthase, the two enzymes involved in de novo GSH synthesis, with no change in the amount of oxidized glutathione or the activity of glutathione reductase, suggesting that a decreased de novo GSH synthetic capacity is responsible for the decline in GSH content in AD. These results showed for the first time that GSH metabolism was regulated differently in male and female AD patients. PMID:15693022

  10. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.; Shonkoff, D.; Oates, J.A.; Gober, A.M.; Dunn, D.W.; Malko, J.A.; Churchwell, A.L.; Patterson, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the S TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

  11. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  12. Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account. PMID:23153985

  13. Theory of Planned Behavior Explains Gender Difference in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Amber S.; McCully, Scout N.; Gallagher, Kristel M.; Updegraff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI. PMID:22898607

  14. Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Brazilian subjects.

    PubMed

    Strunz, C M C; Araki, L M; Nogueira, A A R; Mansur, A P

    2011-03-01

    The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD) CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years) and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years). Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients. PMID:21271183

  15. Sympathy and Personal Distress: Development, Gender Differences, and Interrelations of Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates developmental change and gender differences in sympathy and personal distress reactions in children. Examines interrelations among indexes used to assess sympathy and personal distress. (PCB)

  16. Mad, bad or heroic? Gender, identity and accountability in lay portrayals of suicide in late twentieth-century England.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christabel; Lambert, Helen

    2012-06-01

    Suicide research has relied heavily on the psychological autopsy method, which uses interviews with the bereaved to ascertain the mental health status of the deceased prior to death. The resulting data are typically interpreted within a clinical diagnostic framework, which reinforces psychiatric assumptions concerning the ubiquity of mental illness amongst those who take their own lives. The ways in which informants reconstruct the past and the meanings they attach to events preceding the suicide are rarely examined. This paper uses qualitative methods to analyse the narratives given by bereaved people in an English psychological autopsy study, in order to understand how they made sense of a family member's suicide. Some clear differences between the portrayal of male and female suicides emerged. The paper discusses the gendering of agency and accountability in relation to the differential medicalisation of male and female distress in the UK, and suggests that a preoccupation with mental illness in suicide research may have obscured other culturally normative understandings of self-accomplished death. PMID:22434154

  17. AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE STROKE HOSPITAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro

    2016-03-01

    stroke patients. In conclusion, considerable differences were established between age and gender stroke patient groups, confirming the need of permanent national stroke registry and subsequent targeted action in secondary care, and prevention with education on risk factors, preferably personally tailored. PMID:27333721

  18. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  19. Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving.

    PubMed

    Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Gaster, Samuel; Struckman-Johnson, Dave; Johnson, Melissa; May-Shinagle, Gabby

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1-5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men's data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men's or women's texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25463963

  20. Psychosis of Alzheimer's disease: Gender differences in regional perfusion.

    PubMed

    Moran, E K; Becker, J A; Satlin, A; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Fischman, A J; Johnson, K A

    2008-08-01

    We sought to determine whether the presence of psychotic symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease is associated with abnormal regional cerebral function. Perfusion single photon emission computed tomography images from 51 AD patients with psychotic symptoms were compared to images of 52 AD patients without such symptoms. Group comparisons were made with a voxel-based method, Statistical Parametric Mapping. We found that perfusion was lower in female patients with psychotic symptoms in right infero-lateral prefrontal cortex and in inferior temporal regions compared to female patients without such symptoms. In contrast, perfusion was higher in male patients with psychotic symptoms in the right striatum compared to male patients without such symptoms. Comparison groups did not differ in age or in dementia severity, as estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). These results support the role of right hemisphere prefrontal and lateral temporal cortex in the psychosis of AD in women but not in men, and raise the possibility that these dysfunctional processes have a gender-specific regional pathophysiology in AD. PMID:17408808

  1. Bullying in Spanish secondary schools: gender-based differences.

    PubMed

    Carrera Fernández, María Victoria; Fernández, María Lameiras; Castro, Yolanda Rodríguez; Failde Garrido, José María; Otero, María Calado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in its various forms from the perspective of all of the individuals involved (victims, bullies, and witnesses) and to explore its distribution as a function of gender. The study had a correlational design and used a representative sample of 1500 Spanish students attending compulsory secondary education in the academic year 2007-2008. It applied an instrument measuring different types of bullying, taken from the studies conducted by Díaz-Aguado, Martínez, and Martín (2004) and the Defensor del Pueblo (Spanish Ombudsman's Office)-UNICEF (2007). The findings reveal that all the types of bullying considered take place at school and that there is an inverse relationship between the severity and the prevalence of bullying behaviors, with verbal abuse proving to be the most common type of abusive behavior. Boys are involved in all kinds of bullying incidents as bullies significantly more often than girls are, except in cases involving 'talking about someone behind their back'; in these situations, girls are involved significantly more often as bullies than boys are. As for victimization, boys are victims of direct physical abuse significantly more often than girls are, while girls are more often the subject of malicious gossip. PMID:23866215

  2. Muscle glycogen supercompensation: absence of a gender-related difference.

    PubMed

    James, A P; Lorraine, M; Cullen, D; Goodman, C; Dawson, B; Palmer, T N; Fournier, P A

    2001-10-01

    Recently it has been reported that women do not have the capacity to accumulate supranormal levels of muscle glycogen when subjected to a carbohydrate (CHO) loading regimen [Tarnopolsky et al. (1995) J Appl Physiol 78:1360-1368]. Since, in this study, CHO intake relative to body mass in the female subjects was much lower than that in males, our primary aim was to re-examine this issue using subjects fed comparable amounts of CHO. Endurance-trained female and male subjects ingested 12 g CHO x kg(-1) lean body mass day(-1) in conjunction with the cessation of their daily physical training. A 3-day exposure to this diet resulted in a marked rise in muscle glycogen levels from [mean (SD)] 108 (15) mmol x kg(-1) wet weight to 193 (14) mmol x kg(-1) wet weight and 111 (16) m mol x kg(-1) wet weight to 202 (20) mmol x kg(-1) wet weight in the female participants during the post-menstrual and pre-menstrual phases of their menstrual cycle, respectively, and from 109 (27) mmol x kg(-1) wet weight to 183 (25) mmol x kg(-1) wet weight in males. We conclude that (1) female athletes have the capacity to accumulate supranormal levels of muscle glycogen, and (2) when exercise-trained males and females are fed comparable amounts of CHO relative to lean body mass, there is no gender-related difference in their ability to accumulate supranormal levels of muscle glycogen. PMID:11718281

  3. Naming oneself criminal: gender difference in offenders' identity negotiation.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Brenda; Fischer, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This qualitative research examines gender differences in offenders'ability to negotiate a positive identity once the pejorative labels of criminal, prostitute, drug dealer, and incompetent parents have been imputed onto them. In-depth semi-structured focused interviews were conducted with a purposeful information-rich sample of eight male and eight female offenders. Content analysis reveals that males were much more adept than female offenders at juggling with conventional and street norms to justify and/or resist stigmatizing labels in order to construct a favorable identity. Appeal to such personal strengths as know-how, competence, loyalty, and a code of honor allowed male offenders to challenge the boundaries between conventional and delinquent worlds. Concomitantly such an appeal gave rise to a sense of efficacy perception and an optimistic explanatory style. In contrast, even though female offenders were able to justify the labels of drug dealer, prostitute, and thief by appeal to higher loyalties and reject that of insane, all their justifications collapsed when having to negotiate the identity of incompetent mother. Female offenders' negative internal attributions and deprivation of the normative center-motherhood resulted in apathy, anomie, and lack of confidence in their ability to do something worthwhile. Rehabilitation guidelines would build female offenders' personal strengths while redirecting those exhibited by male offenders into lawful enterprises. PMID:15746270

  4. On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production.

    PubMed

    Bair, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization. PMID:20827855

  5. Gender Differences in Spatial Ability in Old Age: Longitudinal and Intervention Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    1988-01-01

    Gender differences in spatial ability in old age were examined and the effectiveness of cognitive training in reducing these differences was assessed. Age-related decline in the speed of problem solving, especially for men, was noted. Following training on mental rotation ability, there was no significant gender difference in spatial ability…

  6. Gender Differences in Human Cognition. Counterpoints: Cognition, Memory, and Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Paula J.; Crawford, Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Richardson, John T. E.

    Noting the fascination of both researchers and the general public with possible gender differences in human cognition and whether these differences originate in biology, childhood influences, or cultural stereotypes, this book summarizes research studies on gender differences in cognition. The book examines social and cultural implications of this…

  7. Gender Differences in Motivational-Cognitive Patterns of Self-Regulated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemivirta, Markku

    Many of the reasons offered for the difference between boys and girls in certain kinds of cognitive tasks have been attributed to biology. However, other factors need to be considered, and so the role that motivation and learning play in gender differences is addressed in this paper. The focus rests on gender differences, both in the individual…

  8. Gender Differences in Holland Vocational Personality Types: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Starkey, Michael; Landgraf, Rachel; Lapan, Richard T.; Siewert, Jason J.; Reich, Allison; Trotter, Michelle J.; Neumaier, Eric R.; Huang, Ju-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The study in this article examined gender and ethnic differences in the development of Holland (1997) personality types among inner-city adolescents. Results showed gender but not ethnic differences in vocational personality types and their predictors, and suggest different pathways to the development of these types for boys and girls. Suggestions…

  9. Gender differences in public and private drinking contexts: a multi-level GENACIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B

    2010-05-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID

  10. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID

  11. Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

    1992-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that internalized gender-role personality attributes and gender-role ideology mediate sex differences in alcohol use and drinking problems in a random sample of 1,077 adolescents aged 13 to 19. Results indicated that gender roles substantially, although not completely, mediated the effects of sex on drinking patterns. The relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were largely consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. However, effects of the gender-linked attributes of expressivity, emotional control, and instrumentality on drinking also may be interpreted within a framework that views them as functional coping styles. Finally, differences between Black and White teens in the relationships between alcohol use and the masculine attributes of instrumentality and emotional control suggest possible race differences in the functional value of these attributes. PMID:1464719

  12. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  13. Gender equity and HIV/AIDS prevention: comparing gender differences in sexual practice and beliefs among Zimbabwe university students.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Mhloyi, Marvelous; Masvaure, Tsitsi B; Adlis, Susan A

    We assess gender differences in HIV prevention knowledge, attitudes and practices with a focus on cultural, sociological, and economic variables. A randomized cross-sectional study was used in order to achieve high participation and broad comparative assessment. An eight-page questionnaire was administered to 933 randomly selected students at the University of Zimbabwe. Survey items addressed sexual decision-making, condom use, limiting sexual partners, cultural power dynamics and access to HIV testing. We found marked gender differences with men reporting beliefs of entitlement to dominate women, an assumed leadership in decision-making concerning condom use and an attitude that when a woman says "no" to sex, really, "it depends." Women acknowledged gender-based cultural attitudes but are much more likely to support women's rights to sexual expression. A multi-faceted approach to gender equity training is needed to challenge men and women to change attitudes and increase social awareness that respects cultural traditions while still inspiring both men and women to champion justice and equality between genders. PMID:17690049

  14. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis epidemiology and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Magyari, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women in Denmark and Danish women's risk of developing MS has more than doubled in 25 years, while it has remained virtually unchanged for men. The explanation for these epidemiological changes should be sought in the environment, as genetics only explain a small part of the MS risk as the changes are too rapid to be explained by gene alterations. The rapid increase of MS incidence likely reflects unidentified changes in the environment and probably gene-environmental interactions. My PhD thesis work was conceived and designed to investigate the relevant exposures in different periods of life that may have contributed to the increasing female to male ratio of cases of multiple sclerosis in Denmark. To study this, we investigated the effect of numerous biological, social, physical and chemical environmental factors available from population-based registries in a case-control approach. Pregnancy may have a biological protective effect against developing MS in women, lasting for about five years. The protective effect is probably due to the modulation of the immune system by pregnancy. Our data on social behaviour changes regarding educational level, income, and relationship stability did not indicate reversed causality as a significant contributor to the lower number of childbirths in the five years before onset. Fewer pregnancies are one possible explanation we found for the increasing incidence of MS in women in our study. The trend towards fewer childbirths in the female population over decades may contribute to the increasing sex ratio and female incidence of MS. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed in educational level and the sanitary conditions in youth are not associated with the risk of MS, and cannot contribute to the increasing epidemiological disparity between the genders over the last decades. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the MS

  15. Differing methods of accounting ocean carbon sequestration efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Jain, Atul

    2004-12-01

    Presently, much of CO2 fossil-fuel emissions are removed from the atmosphere through natural ocean uptake of CO2. Many schemes have now been proposed by which the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere could be slowed with intentional further storage of CO2 in the ocean. Our review of the literature indicates inconsistency in whether ambient ocean carbon uptake is included when accounting for the effectiveness of such schemes. This inconsistency is a consequence of differing choices of atmospheric boundary condition. In the case of one particular form of ocean sequestration, namely direct injection of liquefied CO2 emissions into the ocean interior, this choice is the determination of whether the atmospheric CO2 concentration responsively increases due to leakage of injected carbon from the ocean or retains a specified value. We first show how results of simulations using these two different boundary conditions can be related with the convolution of an atmosphere pulse release. We then use a numerical model to present a more complete analysis of the role of these boundary conditions. Finally, we suggest that a responsive atmospheric CO2 boundary condition is appropriate for predicting future carbon concentrations, but a specified atmospheric CO2 boundary condition is appropriate for evaluating how much CO2 storage should be attributed to an ocean storage project.

  16. Savvy Sellers: Dealing Drugs, Doing Gender, and Doing Difference.

    PubMed

    Ludwick, Micheline D; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma

    2015-05-01

    We present findings from two exploratory studies of San Francisco Bay Area women involved in illicit drug sales who saw both advantages and disadvantages to being women in traditionally male-dominated drug economies. We interviewed 160 sellers of street drugs and 50 sellers of prescription drugs during 2006-2009. Women perceived gender as a cover and managed their vulnerabilities by performing gendered actions and at times going against traditional gender expectations to protect themselves in harsh drug markets. The intersecting factors of race and type of drug sold played a crucial role, revealing the complex nature of women's social location in their drug-selling worlds. Study limitations are noted. PMID:26086305

  17. The Submergence and Re-Emergence of Gender in Undergraduate Accounts of University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Burke, Penny; Read, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Gender distinction has been shown to characterise both undergraduate experiences and outcomes. Yet research recounted in this article supports work that shows that young people are often unaware of such trends, subscribing instead to individualist perspectives that foreground equality of opportunity and agency. This article examines the gender…

  18. Gender Differences in Calling and Work Spirituality among Israeli Academic Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Aryeh; Davidovitch, Nitza; Coren, Gal

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine possible gender differences in work calling and work spirituality, 68 university academic faculty members responded to self-report multidimensional measures of these constructs. No gender differences were found for the attribution of the source of a transcendent summons, with a majority of respondents indicating internal…

  19. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  20. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  1. Gender Differences in Learning Styles of Cree, Dene and Metis Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    Gender differences in various aspects of cognitive ability may be related to cultural sex roles. This paper examines gender differences in learning styles among three groups of Canada Natives. Canfield's Learning Styles Inventory, Form E, was administered to 280 Cree, Dene, and Metis (mixed-blood) students in Grades 7-9 in northern Saskatchewan…

  2. Gender Differences in Faculty Productivity, Satisfaction, and Salary: What Really Separates Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    Gender differences in faculty productivity, satisfaction, and salary were studied using 2 large datasets, the 1999 Higher Education Research Institute Faculty Survey (n=55,081) and the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (n=25,780). Findings show very little evidence of gender differences in productivity, especially at the lower…

  3. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  4. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  5. Gender Differences in Gifted Students' Advice on Solving the World's Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Jenessa; Makel, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in interests and preferences are among the currently accepted potential explanations for the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In an attempt to analyze the development of such preferences, gender differences expressed in essays written by gifted elementary students…

  6. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  7. Social Setting Effects on Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: Kibbutz and Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Emda; Dinur, Batia

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that gender differences in adult social status are greater in the kibbutz than in the Israeli urban setting and that this gap is associated with gender differences in global self-esteem among kibbutz youth was supported in studies with 569 kibbutz and urban high school students. (SLD)

  8. Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities 1977-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginther, Donna K.; Hayes, Karen J.

    2003-01-01

    From the humanities sample of the Survey of Doctoral Recipients 1977-95, a cross-sectional sample of tenured/tenure-track faculty and a longitudinal sample of doctoral recipients 1975-89 were studied. Gender salary differences were largely explained by rank. Substantial gender differences in tenure were found, with a slight decline in the gap for…

  9. Gender Differences in Memory Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials to Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Mograss, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on memory processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data and ERPs were recorded in 16 males and 10 females during a recognition memory task for faces. The behavioral data results showed that females performed better than males. Gender differences on ERPs were evidenced over anterior…

  10. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  11. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  13. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  14. The Difference It Makes: A Resource Book on Gender for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    The recent flood of new information on structuring human experience along gender lines and on the female component of human experience has profound implications for education. The new scholarship shows that much of what people once assumed to be innate gender difference is in fact produced by adults' different behavior toward boys and girls, of…

  15. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

  16. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  17. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  18. Highly Confident but Wrong: Gender Differences and Similarities in Confidence Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Gender differences in item-specific confidence judgments were studied for 70 male and 181 female college students. Gender differences in confidence were dependent on context and the domain being tested. Both men and women were overconfident, but men were especially overconfident when incorrect. (SLD)

  19. Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

  20. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonaros, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

  1. Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

  2. Spanning the Gender Gap: Gender Differences in Delinquency among Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jean E.; Fischer, Karla

    1993-01-01

    Studied relationship between gender and delinquency among inner-city adolescents (n=64) in court diversion program. Males were more likely to be referred for violations of law, to have been arrested, and to have engaged in aggressive offenses/selling drugs. Females were more likely to be referred because of status offenses. Gang membership had…

  3. Gender Differences in Learning Styles: Nurturing a Gender and Style Sensitive Computer Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

    2010-01-01

    The gender digital divide has been widely discussed and researched over the years. Previous studies have focused on a number of factors such as computer attitude, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy, and computer experience. This study empirically tested the sensitivity of a learning style instrument, the "Gregorc Style Delineator" (GSD), to…

  4. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  5. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Tolerance to Short Arm Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, gender differences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose

  6. An investigation of gender differences in the components influencing the difficulty of spatial ability items.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G A; Smith, R M

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the role that gender differences play in the determination of the components influencing the difficulty of spatial ability items. Considerable research has examined the role of gender differences in spatial abilities, with sometimes contradictory findings. In general, the findings show that males tend to outperform females on spatial ability items. Other research has focused on determining the components of items that contribute to their difficulty. This research has usually been based on mixed-gender populations, however. The present study attempts to determine if gender influences the extent to which different components contribute to the difficulty of items. The results indicate that component difficulties show very little variation across gender. This finding supports the notion that any differences in raw scores observed for males and females are not due to differences in the manner in which males and females process spatial information or solve spatial ability items. PMID:12000857

  7. Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Yanna J.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level. PMID:21866227

  8. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; McCrae, R R

    2001-08-01

    Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures. PMID:11519935

  9. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = −.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = −.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = −.20) and adolescence (g = −.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = −.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

  10. Gender Difference Added? Institutional Variations in the Gender Gap in First Class Degree Awards in Mathematical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonite, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how multilevel modelling can be used to study institutional variations in the gender differences in achievement. The results presented are from analyses of the degree classifications of 22,433 individuals who graduated in mathematical sciences, from universities in the UK, between 1994/95 and 1999/2000. The analyses were…

  11. Gender Inequalities in Higher Education: Extent, Development and Mechanisms of Gender Differences in Enrolment and Field of Study Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorz, Markus; Schindler, Steffen; Walter, Jessica G.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of educational expansion, gender differences in access to higher education have decreased substantially in many European countries. In Germany women are currently over-represented in upper secondary education and more frequently attain a general qualification for university entrance. Despite those advantages, women still enrol in…

  12. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  13. Schooling and Industrialization in China: Gender Differences in School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…

  14. Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

  15. Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

  16. Adolescent Drinking and Delinquent Activities: Associations and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Angela L.; Mak, Anita S.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of adolescent drinking and delinquent behaviour is required in order to implement early prevention and intervention programs in schools. Broadly based on the common cause model of adolescent deviance, this study investigated and compared, across genders, the prevalence and inter-relationships of various indicators of…

  17. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  18. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  19. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Stephen E.; Poulin, John; Silver, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender-related beliefs about the causes of substance abuse, the power of various substances, the prevalence of substance use, and the effectiveness of various interventions. Results show that women were more likely to attribute causality to biological or environmental factors and to believe prevention and treatment were more effective.…

  20. Ice cream preference: gender differences in taste and quality.

    PubMed

    Kunz, J

    1993-12-01

    69 college women showed a preference for expensive ice cream while 53 college men preferred the less expensive ice cream. Analysis indicates the taste for more expensive ice cream is linked to gender, but it is not clear whether this is learned or not. PMID:8170753